RU2457416C1 - Heat exchanger - Google Patents

Heat exchanger Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2457416C1
RU2457416C1 RU2011100832/06A RU2011100832A RU2457416C1 RU 2457416 C1 RU2457416 C1 RU 2457416C1 RU 2011100832/06 A RU2011100832/06 A RU 2011100832/06A RU 2011100832 A RU2011100832 A RU 2011100832A RU 2457416 C1 RU2457416 C1 RU 2457416C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
distribution
plate
heat exchanger
refrigerant
passage
Prior art date
Application number
RU2011100832/06A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Альваро ЦОРЦИН (IT)
Альваро ЦОРЦИН
Лейф ХАЛЬГРЕН (SE)
Лейф ХАЛЬГРЕН
Анджело МУЦЦОЛОН (IT)
Анджело МУЦЦОЛОН
Марчелло ПАВАН (IT)
Марчелло ПАВАН
Эмануэле БЬЯНКОН (IT)
Эмануэле БЬЯНКОН
Original Assignee
Альфа Лаваль Корпорейт Аб
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Publication date
Priority to SE0801394A priority Critical patent/SE532524C2/en
Priority to SE0801394-8 priority
Application filed by Альфа Лаваль Корпорейт Аб filed Critical Альфа Лаваль Корпорейт Аб
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU2457416C1 publication Critical patent/RU2457416C1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D9/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary plate-like or laminated conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
    • F28D9/0093Multi-circuit heat-exchangers, e.g. integrating different heat exchange sections in the same unit or heat-exchangers for more than two fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D9/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary plate-like or laminated conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
    • F28D9/0031Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary plate-like or laminated conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall the conduits for one heat-exchange medium being formed by paired plates touching each other
    • F28D9/0043Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary plate-like or laminated conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall the conduits for one heat-exchange medium being formed by paired plates touching each other the plates having openings therein for circulation of at least one heat-exchange medium from one conduit to another
    • F28D9/005Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary plate-like or laminated conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall the conduits for one heat-exchange medium being formed by paired plates touching each other the plates having openings therein for circulation of at least one heat-exchange medium from one conduit to another the plates having openings therein for both heat-exchange media
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F3/00Plate-like or laminated elements; Assemblies of plate-like or laminated elements
    • F28F3/02Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations
    • F28F3/04Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations the means being integral with the element
    • F28F3/042Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations the means being integral with the element in the form of local deformations of the element
    • F28F3/046Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations the means being integral with the element in the form of local deformations of the element the deformations being linear, e.g. corrugations
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F2250/00Arrangements for modifying the flow of the heat exchange media, e.g. flow guiding means; Particular flow patterns
    • F28F2250/06Derivation channels, e.g. bypass

Abstract

FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: plate of heat exchanger to be used in three-circuit assembly of heat exchanger, where plate contains the first distributing area, heat exchange area and the second distributing area, where plate has curved structure having projections and cavities, and where central hole of port in the first distributing area is located at some distance in vertical plane from short ends of the plate so that it is possible to get the passage for fluid media between central hole of the port and short edge of the plate when two plates are packed so that channel for fluid media is formed between plates. Besides, the present invention refers to the assembly made of such plates of heat exchangers and to heat exchanger containing a lot of such assemblies.
EFFECT: improvement of heat exchanger, its thermal characteristics and improvement of flow distribution in heat exchanger.
22 cl, 5 dwg

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a plate heat exchanger having three separate fluid circuits. Such a plate heat exchanger will have two independent circuits for the refrigerant and one circuit for the liquid.
State of the art
Plate heat exchangers having three separate fluid circuits, one liquid circuit and two refrigerant circuits show some advantages over heat exchangers having two fluid circuits. Such a heat exchanger enables a well-balanced cooling effect with a lower risk of freezing when used as an evaporator. It will also work under partial load conditions in an efficient manner that will reduce energy consumption. Installation will be simpler and faster, which will reduce the cost of installation. In addition, it provides a simpler and thus less expensive control system.
One of the common applications of three-circuit heat exchangers is evaporators for the evaporation of refrigerants flowing in cooling systems. Such a cooling system typically comprises a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve and an evaporator. The plate heat exchanger used as an evaporator in a system of this kind often has heat transfer plates that are welded or welded together, but sealing cuffs can also be used to seal between the heat transfer plates.
EP 0765461 B shows a plate heat exchanger with passages for three different fluids between the plates. The delivery of three fluids to the core of the plates is such that the number one fluid passages are present on both sides of each pass for each of the two remaining fluids. Passages are created using two different types of plates. A good seal between adjacent plates on the openings creating the inlet and outlet channels for three fluids is created by constructing sections around the inlet and outlet nodes, thereby defining a system with annular planar plateaus.
EP 1062472 B shows another example of a three-circuit fluid heat exchanger. This application relates mainly to the connection of the openings of the entry and exit nodes in an airtight manner.
EP 0965025 B describes a plate heat exchanger for three heat exchange fluids. The inlet and outlet openings of the heat exchanger are designed in pairs for the corresponding heat-exchange fluids to flow through them, and the inlet and outlet openings are located symmetrically on both sides of the heat transfer part so that a straight line drawn between the centers of the inlet and outlet openings divides the part for heat transfer into two similar parts.
These heat exchangers will function perfectly in some applications. However, existing heat exchangers still have room for improvement.
Disclosure of invention
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved heat exchanger having improved flow distribution in each flow path. Another object of the present invention is to provide a heat exchanger having an improved heat transfer coefficient.
The solution to the problem in accordance with the present invention is described in the characterizing part of paragraph 1 of the claims. Claims 2-11 of the claims contain advantageous embodiments of a heat exchanger plate. Claims 12-21 of the claims contain advantageous embodiments of a heat exchanger assembly. Claim 22 contains an advantageous heat exchanger.
By using a heat exchanger plate for use in a three-circuit heat exchanger assembly, where the plate contains a first distribution region having three port openings, a heat exchange region and a second distribution region having three port openings, where the plate has a wavy structure having protrusions and depressions, an object of the present invention is achieved the fact that the hole of the Central port of the first distribution area is located at some vertical distance from the short edge of the plate, such that it can A fluid passage has been obtained between the opening of the central port and the short edge of the plate when the two plates are stacked to form a fluid channel between the plates.
Using this first embodiment of the plate for the heat exchanger assembly, a heat exchanger plate is obtained which enables an improved flow distribution in the first distribution passage for the refrigerant circuits. The advantage of this is that most of the heat exchanger plate, that is, the area around the passive inlet port, can also be used as an effective surface for heat transfer. Another advantage is that the distribution of the fluid flow in the first or lower distribution passage is improved, which in turn improves the distribution of the flow in the heat transfer passage. Another advantage is that the flow in the fluid circuit and in the fluid outlet port is also improved. Thus, the efficiency of the heat exchanger will improve.
In an advantageous embodiment of the plate of the present invention, the opening of the central port of the second distribution area is located at a vertical distance from the short edge of the plate, so that a fluid passage can be obtained between the opening of the central port and the short edge of the plate when two plates are stacked to form a channel for fluid between the plates. The advantage of this is that most of the heat exchanger plate, that is, the area around the passive output port, can also be used as an effective heat transfer surface. Another advantage is that the distribution of the fluid flow from the inlet port is improved, which in turn improves the distribution of the fluid flow in the heat transfer passage. Thus, the efficiency of the heat exchanger will be further improved.
In an advantageous embodiment of the plate of the present invention, at least one corner of the plate is provided with a flat ring-shaped bypass section adapted to form a bypass passage for the refrigerant around the port when the two plates are stacked to form a channel for the refrigerant fluid between the plates. This will improve the distribution of the fluid in the channels of the heat exchanger for the refrigerant.
In an advantageous embodiment of the plate of the present invention, at least one water bypass section is created in the corner of the plate, so that a water passage can be obtained between two adjacent bypass sections when the two plates are stacked to form a water channel between the plates. This will improve the distribution of the fluid in the water channel of the heat exchanger.
In other preferred embodiments of the plate of the present invention, there is provided a lower distribution groove between the first distribution region and the heat exchange region, where the lower distribution groove contains at least one restriction region and the upper distribution groove is created between the heat exchange region and the upper distribution region. All of these options will make it possible to improve the distribution of the fluid in the heat exchanger.
In an advantageous embodiment of the plate of the present invention, the first distribution region has a chevron shape having a first pattern, the second distribution region has a chevron shape having a second pattern, and the heat exchange region has a chevron shape having a third pattern, while the chevron shape of the first pattern directed in the first angular direction and the chevron shape of the second pattern is directed in the opposite angular direction. This will provide improved heat transfer to the heat exchanger.
By using a heat exchanger assembly comprising four heat exchanger plates of the present invention, an object of the present invention is achieved in that the first plate, the second plate, the third plate and the fourth plate are different.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, where a first channel for refrigerant is created between the first plate and the second plate, a channel for water is created between the second plate and the third plate and a second channel for refrigerant is created between the third plate and the fourth plate, and each channel for fluid contains a first distribution passage provided between two adjacent first distribution areas, a heat exchange passage provided between two adjacent heat exchange areas, and a second distribution passage provided between two adjacent second distribution areas, a horizontal passage is created in the first distribution passage between the central water port and the short edge of the assembly. This is advantageous in that the horizontal passage improves flow distribution in the first distribution passage, which in turn improves flow distribution in the heat transfer passage. This will enable the greater part of the heat exchanger plate, that is, the area around the passive inlet assembly, to function as an effective heat transfer surface. Another advantage is that the fluid flow in the fluid circuit is improved since the entire fluid outlet port is open. Thus, the efficiency of the heat exchanger will improve.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, a horizontal passage is created in the second distribution passages between the central water port and the adjacent short edge of the assembly. The advantage of this is that most of the heat exchanger plate, that is, the area around the passive output port, can also be used as an effective surface for heat transfer. Another advantage is that the distribution of the fluid flow from the inlet port is improved, which in turn improves the distribution of the fluid flow in the heat transfer passage. Thus, the efficiency of the heat exchanger will be further improved.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, a bypass passage for water is created in the distribution passage for water between the refrigerant port and the corner of the assembly. This is advantageous in that a bypass for water is obtained, which will significantly improve the distribution of the water flow in the heat exchanger.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, a refrigerant bypass is provided around the refrigerant port in the refrigerant distribution passage. This is advantageous in that the distribution of the refrigerant flow is significantly improved.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, active inlet ports are provided for the refrigerant with inlet nozzles, where the angle of inclination of the inlet nozzles is between 0 and 180 degrees relative to the vertical axis and where the inlet nozzle is directed to the central vertical axis of the assembly. Thus, the inlet nozzle will be directed to the center of the heat exchanger, which will improve the distribution of the fluid in the heat exchanger.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, a lower distribution path is created between the lower distribution passage and the heat exchange passage. This is advantageous in that the flow distribution in the lower distribution passage can be controlled in a more precise manner, so that the flow in the heat transfer passage can become as uniform as possible.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, the lower distribution path comprises at least one restriction means, so that a flow restriction in the lower distribution path is obtained. This is advantageous in that the flow distribution in the lower distribution passage can be controlled in a more precise manner, so that the flow in the heat exchange passage can be as uniform as possible.
In an advantageous embodiment of the assembly of the present invention, an upper distribution path is created between the heat exchange passage and the upper distribution passage. This is advantageous in that the flow distribution in the upper distribution passage can be made even more uniform.
In a three-circuit heat exchanger containing a plurality of heat exchanger assemblies of the present invention and further comprising at least a front plate and a rear plate, an improved heat exchanger is obtained.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Further, the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings, in which
Figure 1 shows a plate heat exchanger assembly in accordance with the present invention,
FIG. 2 shows a first heat exchanger plate to be used in an assembly of heat exchanger plates in accordance with the present invention,
Figure 3 shows a second heat exchanger plate to be used in an assembly of heat exchanger plates in accordance with the present invention,
Figure 4 shows a third heat exchanger plate to be used in an assembly of heat exchanger plates in accordance with the present invention, and
5 shows a fourth heat exchanger plate to be used in a heat exchanger plate assembly in accordance with the present invention.
Embodiments of the present invention
Embodiments of the present invention with additional options described hereinafter should be considered only as examples and should not in any way limit the scope of protection provided by the claims.
In the examples below, water is used as an example of a fluid to be cooled or heated. The fluid to be cooled or heated is adapted for use in a single-phase, exclusively liquid state. The layout of the heat exchanger is thus adapted for a single-phase liquid for the water circuit. Of course, it is also possible to use other fluids, such as various mixtures of water and other fluids, for example, for the purpose of protection against freezing or corrosion. Refrigerant is used as an example of a fluid that needs to evaporate or condense. This fluid will preferably be used in two phases, in a liquid state and in a vapor state, but it is possible to use a fluid in only one state, either in a liquid state or in a vapor state, or as a mixture. The layout of the heat exchanger is thus adapted for a two-phase fluid for circuits for other fluids.
The present invention relates to a plate heat exchanger having three separate types of channels making three different circuits possible for fluid flows. One of the channels is adapted to transfer a single-phase liquid, which must be heated or cooled. In this application, water will be used as an example of such a liquid. The other two channels are adapted to transfer two-phase refrigerant, which is adapted for evaporation or condensation in the heat exchanger. These channels can either be connected, so that one refrigerant is common to both circuits, or the channels can be divided so that a separate refrigerant can be used in each circuit. In this application, as an example of a refrigerant, a two-phase saturated fluid is used which is in a state under some pressure when it enters the heat exchanger and which will evaporate in the heat exchanger.
In addition, the plate heat exchanger in the described example refers to the type with a permanent connection, that is, the plates are welded, glued, bonded, fused or welded to each other with the formation of the heat exchanger as a whole. The plate heat exchanger contains many nodes of heat exchangers, where each node contains four different plates of heat exchangers. However, it is also possible to use various types of seals, for example cuffs between plates, welded plates or a half-welded assembly of plates with cuffs between every second pair of plates.
The heat exchanger plates are formed using two different stamping tools, thereby obtaining two different types of plates, a first type of plates having a chevron pattern in one direction and a second type of plates having a chevron pattern in the opposite direction. The pattern has a wavy structure consisting of protrusions and depressions that extend across the plates in the form of a chevron pattern with points of change in angular direction along longitudinal lines dividing the width of the plate into equal parts. The wavy structure along with the chevron pattern is laid out so as to create many intersection points of the structure when the plates are stacked together, thereby creating a strong and rigid heat exchanger having efficient heat transfer. The wavy structure and patterns of this species are well known in the art. It is also possible to use a wavy structure having the same angle over the entire surface, that is, one that has no points of change of direction.
Each type of plate passes through one or more additional stamping / cutting operations during further finishing, and four different plates are created. In additional operations, stamped and cut out in the finished form the area of the holes of the exchange of plates and form a nozzle cutout.
The resulting plates, including the first plate 101, the second plate 201, the third plate 301 and the fourth plate 40, are packaged so that they form a plate heat exchanger assembly. The plates are packaged so that each subsequent plate belongs to the same type of plates, if you do not consider the size and pattern of the port area of the port and nozzle. The port opening areas will vary for different plates, as will be described below. You can also give the first and second types of plates different angles of the chevron pattern. Thus, the pattern of the first type of plates can have a slightly smaller angle and the pattern of the second type of plates is slightly larger, so that the average value of the angles corresponds to the desired angle for the pattern.
Each plate of the heat exchanger contains a first or lower distribution area containing three port openings, a central heat exchange area and a second or upper distribution area containing three port openings. Each plate has a longitudinal or vertical axis and a lateral or horizontal axis. The port openings of the first distribution area are arranged symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal axes. The port openings of the second distribution area are also arranged symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal axis. The port openings of the first and second distribution areas may be located symmetrically with respect to each other. In an advantageous embodiment, the port openings of the first and second distribution regions, however, are not arranged symmetrically with respect to each other, since the port openings adapted for the vaporized refrigerant phase have a larger diameter than the port openings adapted for the flowing vapor-liquid refrigerant mixture, and port openings are approximately the same distance from the corners of the plates. In this embodiment, the port openings in the second distribution area are adapted for the refrigerant in the vapor state, and the port openings in the first distribution area are adapted for the liquid refrigerant.
The heat exchanger in one example is intended for use in the evaporation of an ascending film on the side of the refrigerant channel and for cooling on the water side in a counterflow system. Below, to illustrate the present invention, a heat exchanger used to vaporize the ascending film will be used. Thus, the references in the description will mention the geometry for the position of such a vertical, upward heat exchanger. You can also use the heat exchanger in other positions, if necessary, for example located at different angles to the horizontal axis. The biphasic refrigerant fluid can be a mixture of liquid and steam when it enters the heat exchanger, and can be completely vaporous, and even superheated when it leaves the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger can also be used together with water and refrigerant, which flow in the same directions, i.e. in a straight-through flow. The described heat exchanger is adapted for the diagonal flow of refrigerant, that is, the refrigerant will enter the heat exchanger through the inlet port in the lower corner of the heat exchanger and will leave the heat exchanger through the outlet port at the opposite upper corner. Of course, it is also possible to adapt the heat exchanger for parallel flow, where the refrigerant enters the heat exchanger through the inlet port on the lower corner of the heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger through the outlet port on the upper corner on the same side, by appropriate adaptation of the inlet or outlet ports.
The heat exchanger can also be used to condense a descending refrigerant film while heating the water side in a system with a counter-current flow or a direct-flow system. The two-phase fluid of the refrigerant may be in an overheated state or in a state of saturated steam when it enters the heat exchanger through the upper distribution passage, and may partially or completely condense and even supercool when it leaves the heat exchanger through the lower refrigerant outlet. The heat exchanger can also be used as a desuperheater or gas cooler for single-phase heat transfer, or a vaporization heater, and in other similar applications, depending on the needs of the installation. Minor modifications to the plate pattern may be required, depending on the application.
The first heat exchanger plate 101 shown in FIG. 2 comprises a first or lower distribution region 102, a heat exchange region 103 and a second or upper distribution region 104. The plate has a longitudinal or vertical axis 105 and a lateral or horizontal axis 106. The lower distribution region 102 is provided with a first a refrigerant inlet port opening 107, a water outlet port opening 112 and a second refrigerant inlet port opening 109. The first inlet port 107 is provided with a nozzle cutout 114.
It should be understood that the entire surface of the plate of the heat exchanger, where there is a passage for the fluid on the other side of the plate, is a heat transfer region. The heat transfer region 103 is thus referred to as a heat transfer region, since the main goal is heat transfer, even if some distribution of the fluid also occurs in the heat transfer region. The lower and upper distribution areas have a dual purpose, both fluid distribution and heat transfer.
The pattern of the first distribution region 102 has one chevron shape, that is, a V-shape, where the point of change of direction is central to the plate, dividing the first distribution region into two equal parts. The angle of the pattern for the V-shaped pattern is preferably between 50 and 70 degrees with respect to the vertical axis of the heat exchanger. The internal angle of the V-shaped, thus, is in the range between 100 and 140 degrees. Other angles are possible, but it is preferable that the inner corner of the V-shape is obtuse. By giving the chevron pattern a somewhat small angle with respect to the horizontal axis, the friction coefficient in the horizontal direction of the lower distribution channel will be relatively low, which will facilitate the distribution of refrigerant across the width of the plate.
The heat exchange region 103 is provided with a wavy structure having a chevron pattern, for example a W-shaped, having three points of change of direction, dividing the heat exchange region into four equal parts. The internal angle between the chevrons is very important for the channel friction coefficient. For the same internal angle, one of the advantages of using a W-shape instead of a V-shape is that the average coefficient of friction for the heat transfer region will be higher than when using a V-shape. Thus, the heat transfer coefficient will be higher than for a conventional V-shaped. Using a W-shape gives a pattern with three changes in direction. You can also use a chevron pattern having two, four or even more direction changes. In the transition region of chevrons, that is, at points of change of direction, the horizontal as well as the vertical components of the flow velocity decrease and can be close to zero. In the first plate shown, the pattern resembles the letter W placed in an inverted position.
The angle of the wavy W-shaped is preferably in the range between 50 and 70 degrees with respect to the vertical axis of the heat exchanger. Thus, the inner angle of the chevron is between 100 and 140 degrees. The inner angle of the chevrons of the heat exchange region may be the same as that of the chevrons in the first distribution region, or it may be slightly smaller. Other angles are possible, but it is important that the inner angle of the chevrons is blunt. The coefficient of friction of the passage for heat transfer depends, for example, on the internal angle of the chevron shape, together with the number of changes in direction.
The upper distribution region 104 of the plate is provided with a first outlet 108 for the refrigerant outlet, an opening 111 of the water inlet port and a second outlet 110 of the refrigerant outlet. The wavy structure of the upper distribution area shows a chevron pattern resembling one letter V, located upside down. The inner angle of the V-shape may be the same as for the lower distribution region.
The inner angles of the chevrons in the lower distribution region, in the heat transfer region and in the upper distribution region may be the same, or they may vary. In an advantageous embodiment, the chevrons of the lower distribution region and the heat exchange region are created with the same internal angle. The chevron shape of the upper distribution region in this embodiment is created with an angle that is smaller with respect to the vertical axis. In another advantageous embodiment, the chevrons of the lower distribution region are created with a first angle, the chevrons of the heat exchange region are created with a second, smaller angle and the chevrons of the upper distribution region are created with an even smaller angle. Preferably, the angles are in the range between 50 and 70 degrees. The advantage of creating different internal angles for different areas is that when the refrigerant evaporates, the volume flow will be higher in the upper part of the heat exchanger. Thus, different internal angles will give lower flow resistance when the volume flow increases with the flow direction in the channel. The same is used when the flow is opposite, and the heat exchanger is used to condense the vapors. A smaller inner chevron angle with respect to the vertical axis will give less flow resistance in this flow direction.
The second heat exchanger plate 201 shown in FIG. 3 comprises a lower distribution region 202, a heat exchange region 203 and an upper distribution region 204. The plate has a vertical axis 205 and a horizontal axis 206. The lower distribution region 202 is provided with a first refrigerant inlet port opening 207, an opening 212 water outlet ports and a second refrigerant inlet port opening 209. The first inlet port 207 is provided with a nozzle cut-out 214.
The pattern of the lower distribution region 202 has the shape of a single chevron, that is, a V-shape, where the V-shape resembles the letter V located upside down. The directional change point is central to the plate, dividing the first distribution region into two equal parts. Except for the direction of the chevron shape, the corners of the pattern are the same as for the first plate.
The heat exchange region 203 is provided with a wavy structure having a chevron pattern, that is, a W-shaped shape having three points of change of direction, dividing the heat exchange region into four equal parts. In the second plate shown, the pattern resembles the letter W. Except for the direction of the chevron shape, the corners of the pattern are the same as for the first plate.
The upper distribution region 204 of the second plate is provided with a first refrigerant outlet port opening 208, a water inlet port opening 211 and a second refrigerant outlet port 210. The wavy transverse structure of the upper distribution region has a chevron pattern resembling one letter V. The internal angle of the V-shape can be the same as for the lower distribution region. Except for the direction of the chevron shape, the corners of the pattern are the same as for the first plate.
The third heat exchanger plate 301 shown in FIG. 4 comprises a lower distribution region 302, a heat exchange region 303 and an upper distribution region 304. The plate has a vertical axis 305 and a horizontal axis 306. The lower distribution region 302 is provided with a first refrigerant inlet port 307 opening, an opening 312 of the water outlet port and a second inlet of the inlet port for the refrigerant 309. The upper distribution region 304 of the plate is provided with a first outlet 308 of the refrigerant outlet port, an inlet port 311 a unit for water and a second outlet 310 of a refrigerant outlet port. With the exception of ports and nozzle cut-out, the third heat exchanger plate resembles the first heat exchanger plate.
The fourth heat exchanger plate 401 shown in FIG. 5 comprises a lower distribution region 402, a heat exchange region 403 and an upper distribution region 404. The plate has a vertical axis 405 and a horizontal axis 406. The lower distribution region 402 is provided with a first refrigerant inlet port 407 opening, an opening 412 water outlet ports and a second refrigerant inlet port 409. The upper distribution region 404 of the plate is provided with a first outlet 408 for the refrigerant outlet port, an opening 411 of the water inlet port and a second outlet 410 of the refrigerant outlet port. With the exception of port openings and nozzle cut-outs, the fourth heat exchanger plate resembles the second heat exchanger plate.
In the description, the phrase active inlet port means that the inlet port is open to allow refrigerant to flow through this inlet port into this refrigerant channel. A passive inlet port means that the inlet port is sealed so that the refrigerant cannot flow into the refrigerant channel through the passive inlet port. The same applies to the phrase active output port, which means that the output port is in contact with the refrigerant channel, so that the refrigerant flows from the active output port. The passive output port is sealed so that the refrigerant cannot flow out of the refrigerant channel through the passive output port.
1, a heat exchanger plate assembly 1 of the present invention is shown comprising a first plate 101, a second plate 201, a third plate 301 and a fourth plate 401. Various plates are shown in FIGS. 2-5. The plates are stacked on top of each other in the amount needed for a particular heat exchanger. Thus, a heat exchanger is formed containing many nodes. The number of nodes can be selected depending on the necessary requirements for the heat exchanger. A full heat exchanger will also contain a specific front plate and back plate (not shown) having a greater thickness than individual heat exchanger plates. The front plate and the rear plate will contain connections and the like. In a full heat exchanger, the fluid channel closest to the front and back plate will be a water channel. A separate heat exchanger plate forming the water channel together with the first plate may thus be contained in the front plate, and a separate heat exchanger plate forming the water channel together with the fourth plate may thus be contained in the rear plate. The front and back plates will strengthen the heat exchanger, making it more stable and rigid.
The heat exchanger is a brazed type. Between the first and second plate, a first refrigerant channel 2 is formed. Between the second and third plate, a channel 3 for water is formed. Between the third and fourth plates, a second refrigerant channel 4 is formed. Between the fourth plate and the first plate of the next node, a water channel is formed. Thus, the heat exchanger will have alternating first and second refrigerant channels, which are surrounded by water channels on each side.
Both the refrigerant channel and the water channel will comprise a lower distribution passage, a heat exchange passage, and an upper distribution passage. The vertical length of the lower distribution passage is preferably less than half the width of the heat exchanger, while the vertical length of the upper distribution passage is preferably less than two-thirds of the width of the heat exchanger.
When the first plate 101 and the second plate 201 are arranged one after another, a first refrigerant passage 2 is formed. The refrigerant will enter the first refrigerant channel through the first refrigerant inlet port 21, which is the active inlet port created by the first refrigerant inlet port openings 107, 207. The ports 107, 207 of the inlet port are provided with concentric sealing sections 113, 213, which will be located one above the other. The inlet to the first channel for the refrigerant is provided with an inlet nozzle 25 in the sealing sections. The inlet nozzle is obtained by cutouts 114, 214 of nozzles in one or both of the sealing sections, stamped during an additional stamping operation. The size of the inlet nozzle, i.e. the length and cross section, together with the angular position of the inlet nozzle, are important for the distribution of refrigerant in the lower distribution passage 10 created between the lower distribution regions 102 and 202. The size of the inlet nozzle partially depends on the inlet pressure of the refrigerant and is selected for achieving uniform flow distribution across all refrigerant channels in a complete heat exchanger. The angular position of the inlet nozzle is selected so that the refrigerant can be evenly distributed over the entire width of the heat exchanger in each refrigerant channel.
The inlet nozzle can be directed at any selected angle, depending, for example, on the pattern of the wavy structure in the lower distribution passage and in the bypass section around the inlet port. Preferably, the angle of the inlet nozzle is between 0 and 180 degrees with respect to the vertical axis and is directed toward the central vertical axis of the plate, and more preferably, is between 90 and 150 degrees.
In one embodiment, the input port is open. This may be advantageous when the heat exchanger is used so that the inlet port acts as an outlet port for vapors, for example, in a gas cooler. To prevent blocking the exit in pairs, the sealing section and nozzle are cut out at the manufacturing stage. Instead, they get an open port that resembles output port 22. Such a port will allow vapor or a mixture of steam and liquid to exit through this port.
To further improve refrigerant distribution, the active inlet port is provided with an active bypass passage 18 of the inlet port, around the inlet port, allowing the refrigerant to flow around both sides of the inlet port. Each plate comprises a bypass section 115, 215 extending around the entire first inlet port opening. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. The resulting bypass passage 18 will thus have a height twice the stamping depth, which means that the friction pressure drop in the bypass passage will be much smaller than on the wavy structure. Thus, the bypass passage 18 will distribute part of the refrigerant from the inlet nozzle to the distribution area around the active inlet port.
A portion of the refrigerant from the nozzle will also continue to move in the direction from the nozzle to the corrugated structure and further towards the second refrigerant inlet port 23, which is a passive inlet port. Since the openings 112, 212 of the water outlet port are located at some vertical distance from the lower short edge of the plate, a lower horizontal passage 13 is formed in the lower distribution channel between the water outlet port and the lower short edge of the heat exchanger. Thus, the refrigerant can flow below the water outlet port and above the area around the passive inlet port. The refrigerant flowing from the inlet nozzle in this example has approximately the same angle as the wavy structure of the first plate, so that part of the refrigerant can flow in the horizontal, mainly direction below the water outlet port with a relatively low coefficient of friction, and thus at a relatively high flow rate. When the refrigerant reaches the area around the passive input port, the bypass passage 19 of the passive input port around the passive input port will facilitate distribution of the refrigerant in the area around the passive input port. The bypass passage 19 around the passive input port 23 is created in the same manner as on the active input port, with each plate containing the bypass section 117, 217 extending around the entire second opening of the input port. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. Thus, the resulting bypass passage will have a height twice the stamping depth, which means that the friction in the bypass passage will be much less than for a wavy structure. Thus, the bypass passage will distribute part of the refrigerant to the distribution area around the passive inlet port. The holes 109, 209 of the second inlet port are provided with concentric sealing sections 116, 216, which will be located one above the other, and thus, will seal the passive inlet port.
The planar circular sections around the water inlet port openings 112, 212 are arranged one above the other so that the water inlet port is sealed with the refrigerant channel. Water outlet openings are located at some vertical distance from the lower short edge of each plate. The water outlet opening is larger in diameter than the refrigerant inlet port opening, and the center of the water outlet opening is closer to the horizontal axis of the plate than the center of the refrigerant inlet port openings. Thus, between the water outlet port and the lower short edge of the heat exchanger, a lower horizontal passage 13 is created in the refrigerant channel. Through this passage, the refrigerant may pass below the water outlet port to the area around the passive inlet port. This greatly improves the distribution of the refrigerant across the width of the channel and gives a more uniform flow across the width of the channel and, thus, through the passage for heat transfer. A passage below the water outlet port will also increase the effective heat transfer area of the heat exchanger using the area around the passive inlet port.
To further improve distribution of the refrigerant, the first refrigerant channel is provided with lower distribution paths 15, 16 located above the active and passive inlet ports, between the lower distribution passage 10 and the heat transfer passage 11. The lower distribution paths are created using flat, mainly distribution grooves 118, 119, 218, 219, stamped in the plates between the V-shaped distribution region and the W-shaped heat exchange region, extending from the long side of the plate to the hole I have a water outlet. The lower distribution paths will, on the one hand, facilitate uniform distribution of the refrigerant evenly in the heat transfer passage 11, and, on the other hand, act as a transition region for the distribution region with a V-shaped pattern and the heat exchange region with a W-shaped pattern. The height of the lower distribution paths, as well as their shape, can be selected to optimize flow distribution. The height of the stamped groove may in one example be approximately half the depth of stamping of the plate. To improve the mechanical strength of the heat exchanger, the lower distribution path may also contain one or more contact points. Since corresponding distribution paths will be created in the water channel, the height of the lower distribution path in the refrigerant channel is preferably not greater than the overall stamping depth. The lower distribution paths will have low resistance to flow in the horizontal direction of the channel, compared with resistance to flow through the current tube with the same length and width in the wavy structure of the heat transfer passage.
If desired, the lower distribution paths 15, 16 may contain one or more restrictive areas for controlling the distribution of flow along the channel width in the lower distribution passage. The size and position of the restriction areas are selected so that the flow through the distribution path 15 or 16 is as evenly distributed as possible. Limitations can be achieved by changing the stamping depth for the position of the bounding region in the plates, i.e. by changing the height of the bounding region, and / or by changing the width of the bounding region along the lower distribution path. Thus, various restrictions can be located in the lower distribution paths 15, 16 in different positions. Limitations will give a local increase in flow resistance, which will ensure the distribution of flow along the width of the lower distribution paths. In one example, restrictions cover most of the distribution paths, thereby creating one or more small openings between the distribution passage and the heat exchange passage. The size and position of the constraints may be selected by experiment or by calculation. In this way, the distribution of the refrigerant flowing into the heat exchange passage can be improved.
After entering the active inlet port 21 and distributing in the lower distribution passage 10, the refrigerant will enter and pass through the heat transfer passage 11 created between the heat exchange regions 103, 203. The heat exchange passage, with all the contact points between the wavy structures of the two plates, provides a large heat exchange area and a relatively high friction resistance to the flow, which ensures effective heat transfer between the refrigerant and water channels. The W-shape increases to some extent the drop in friction pressure in the heat transfer passage compared to a single V shape, which improves the overall heat transfer for the heat exchanger.
Between the heat exchange region and the upper distribution region of each plate, a horizontal flat distribution groove 120, 220 is stamped in each plate, creating an upper distribution path 17 in the first refrigerant channel. The upper distribution path will make it possible to distribute the refrigerant flow and at the same time equalize the differences in pressure that may occur in the heat transfer passage due to changes in refrigerant vaporization before entering the upper distribution passage created between the upper distribution regions 104, 204 of the plates. The upper distribution path will have a low flow resistance in the horizontal direction of the heat exchanger, which will facilitate the distribution of refrigerant before entering the upper distribution passage 12. Evaporation of the refrigerant will be completed, mainly in the upper distribution passage, and overheating of the refrigerant vapor may also occur. The height of each distribution groove is approximately half the stamping depth of the plate, since a corresponding horizontal distribution path will be created in the water channel. This will give a total height of the upper distribution path approximately equal to the stamping depth.
The refrigerant, being to a large extent in an evaporated state, enters the upper distribution passage created by the upper distribution regions 104, 204 of the plates. A first refrigerant outlet port 22, which is an active outlet port, is created between the plates on the openings 108, 208 of the refrigerant outlet port. Part of the refrigerant will enter the upper distribution passage on the right side of the vertical axis 105, and part of the refrigerant will enter the upper distribution passage on the left side of the vertical axis 105. Part of the refrigerant will reach the bypass passage 20 created by the bypass sections 121, 221, extending around the entire second outlet port 24. The openings 110, 210 of the second outlet port for the refrigerant are provided with concentric sealing sections 122, 222, which are located one above the other and sealed in the second output port 24, which is a passive output port. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. The resulting bypass passage 20 will thus have a height twice the stamping depth, which means that the flow resistance in the bypass passage will be much less than for the corrugated structure. The bypass passage will thus enable a significant portion of the refrigerant, which may overheat, to pass through it mainly horizontally to the active outlet port through a horizontal passage above the water inlet port.
The flat circular sections around the water inlet port openings 111, 211 are arranged one above the other so that the water inlet is sealed from the refrigerant channel. The holes of the water inlet port are located at some vertical distance below the upper short edge of each plate. The center of the water inlet opening is closer to the horizontal axis of the plate than the center of the refrigerant outlet port openings. Thus, an upper horizontal passage 14 is provided in the refrigerant channel between the water inlet port and the upper short edge of the heat exchanger. Through this horizontal passage, refrigerant can flow above the water inlet port from the bypass passage 20 in the passive outlet port 24 to the active outlet port 22 formed between the first openings 108, 208 of the refrigerant outlet port. This reduces the flow resistance for steam, which may overheat, and significantly improves the flow distribution in the upper distribution passage. In addition, this horizontal passage prevents the accumulation of steam around the passive output port, which would lead to isolation of the area with the help of steam stagnating in the area around the passive output port. The passage will also increase the total effective heat transfer area of the heat exchanger using the area around the passive output port.
When the second plate 201 and the third plate 301 are arranged one after another, a water channel 3 is created. Water will enter the water channel through the inlet port 42 for water, created using the holes 211, 311 of the inlet port for water. Water will leave the water channel through the water outlet port 43 created by the openings 212, 312 of the water outlet port. All refrigerant ports will be sealed so that water and refrigerant will not mix. When the second and third plates are stacked, the bypass sections 215, 315 will be located one above the other and will thus seal the first refrigerant inlet port. This applies to the bypass sections 217, 317, and the bypass sections 221, 321, which will also be located one above the other, so that the second inlet port for the refrigerant and the second outlet port for the refrigerant are sealed. The first refrigerant outlet port is sealed with flat sections 223, 323 around the first refrigerant outlet port openings 208, 308, which are located one above the other.
The water inlet openings 211, 311 are located at some vertical distance from the upper short edge of each plate edge for each plate. The center of the water inlet opening is closer to the horizontal axis of the plate than the center of the refrigerant outlet port openings. Thus, an upper horizontal passage 34 is created in the water channel between the water inlet port and the upper short edge of the heat exchanger. This increases the useful cross-flow area of the water inlet area, which, in turn, improves the distribution of water in the upper distribution passage and reduces the pressure drop in the water channel.
To further improve the distribution of water, as well as to reduce the differential pressure for water, the water channel is provided with upper bypass passages 40, 41 for water between the passive second and first outlet ports for the refrigerant and the upper corners of the heat exchanger. The upper water bypasses 40, 41 are created using the water bypass sections 226, 227, 326, 327 for water outside of each of the second and first openings of the refrigerant outlet port. These bypass sections are positioned one above the other when the plates are arranged to create a refrigerant channel, which means that the bypass passage for water will have a height twice the stamping depth. These water bypasses will thus have a low drop in friction pressure and will greatly facilitate the water-side distribution throughout the upper distribution passage.
When water is distributed in the upper distribution passage 32, water passes through horizontal flat distribution grooves 220, 320 stamped in each plate, creating an upper horizontal distribution path 37 in the water channel. This distribution path makes it possible to further distribute the water, so that the water pressure along the entire upper distribution path is substantially the same. The upper distribution path also acts as a transition region between the upper distribution pass of the V-shape and the heat transfer passage of the W-shape. The height of each distribution groove is approximately half the depth of stamping of the plate. This will give the full height of the upper distribution path as equal to one stamping depth.
After passing through the upper distribution path 37, water will enter and pass through the heat exchange passage 31 created between the heat exchange regions 203, 303. The heat exchange passage, with all contact points between the wavy structures of the two plates, provides a large heat exchanger area and a relatively high coefficient of friction, which ensures efficient heat transfer between the water and refrigerant channels. W-shaped pattern slightly increases the coefficient of friction in the passage for heat transfer, compared with the pattern in the form of a single letter V, which will improve heat transfer.
When water passes in the heat transfer passage 31, it enters the lower distribution passage 30 through two lower distribution paths 35, 36 located between the heat transfer passage and the lower distribution passage. These lower distribution paths are created using flat, mainly distribution grooves 218, 219, 318, 319, stamped in the plates between the V-shaped distribution region and the W-shaped heat exchange region, extending from the long side of the plate to the outlet port opening for water. Both of these distribution paths will facilitate uniform distribution of water in the lower distribution passage and act as a transition region for the heat exchange passage with a W-shaped pattern and for the lower distribution passage with a V-shaped pattern. The height of the lower distribution paths, as well as their shape, can be selected to optimize flow distribution. The height of the stamped grooves in one example may be approximately half the depth of stamping of the plate. To improve the mechanical strength of the heat exchanger, the lower distribution path may also contain one or more contact points. Distribution paths will have low flow resistance in the horizontal direction of the heat exchanger, compared with resistance to flow through the wave structure in the lower distribution passage. This will facilitate an even distribution of the water flow in the lower distribution passage.
A certain amount of water, in particular water from the center of the heat exchange passage 31, will enter the water outlet port 43 created by the openings 212 of the water outlet port 312 directly from the heat exchange passage above. Since the wavy structure around the water outlet port allows water to flow from all directions to the water outlet port, the water outlet port is fully open. This will allow part of the water distributed in the lower distribution area to enter the water outlet through the structure between the water outlet port and the refrigerant inlet ports, as well as from the structure below the water outlet port.
To further improve water distribution, the lower distribution passage 30 is provided with lower bypass water passages 38, 39 between the passive first and second refrigerant inlet ports and the lower corners of the heat exchanger. The lower water bypasses are created using the water bypass sections 224, 225, 324, 325 for water in each of the openings of the first and second refrigerant inlet ports. These bypass sections are stacked one above the other when the plates are positioned to create a refrigerant passage, which means that the lower water bypass will have a height twice the stamping depth. These lower water bypasses will thus have a low friction pressure drop and will make a significant contribution to the direction of water flow to the water outlet port.
To improve the distribution of water and to increase the effective heat transfer area of the heat exchanger, the openings of the outlet port for water are located at some vertical distance from the lower short edge of each plate. Thus, a lower horizontal passage 33 is created in the water channel between the water outlet port and the lower short edge of the heat exchanger. Through this horizontal passage, water can flow into the water outlet assembly also from below the assembly, improving the efficiency of the heat exchanger. The lower bypass passages, together with the upward vertical displacement of the water outlet port, significantly improve the distribution of the outlet water stream and reduce the outlet pressure drop across the entire periphery of the exchange by increasing the useful area of the transverse water stream.
A second refrigerant channel 4 is created between the third plate 301 and the fourth plate 401 when they are arranged one after the other and resemble the first refrigerant channel. The difference between the first refrigerant channel and the second refrigerant channel lies only in the inlet and outlet ports and in the inlet nozzle.
The refrigerant will enter the second refrigerant channel through the second refrigerant inlet port 63, which is the active inlet port created through the openings 309, 409 of the refrigerant inlet port. The inlet ports 309, 409 are provided with concentric sealing sections 316, 416, which are located one above the other. The inlet to the second refrigerant channel is provided with an inlet nozzle 65 passing through the sealing sections. An inlet nozzle is obtained by a nozzle cut-out 314, 414 in one or both of the sealing sections. The size of the inlet nozzle, i.e. the length and cross section, together with the angular position of the inlet nozzle, are important for the distribution of refrigerant in the lower distribution passage 50 created between the lower distribution regions 302 and 402. The size of the inlet nozzle is selected, in part, depending on the pressure drop refrigerant circuit and is selected to obtain a uniform distribution of flow across all channels for the refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit in a full heat exchanger. The angular position of the inlet nozzle is selected so that the refrigerant can be distributed uniformly over the entire width of the heat exchanger in each refrigerant channel.
The inlet nozzle can be directed at any selected angle, depending, for example, on the pattern of the wavy structure in the lower distribution passage and on the bypass section around the inlet port. Preferably, the angle of the inlet nozzle is between 0 and 180 degrees relative to the vertical axis and is directed toward the central vertical axis of the plate, and more preferably, between 90 and 150 degrees.
To further improve refrigerant distribution, the active inlet port is provided with an active inlet bypass 59 around the inlet port, allowing the refrigerant to flow around both sides of the inlet port. Each plate comprises a bypass section 317, 417 extending around the entire inlet port opening. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. The resulting bypass passage of the active inlet will thus have a height twice the stamping depth, which means that the friction in the bypass passage will be much less than on the wavy structure. The bypass passage will thus distribute part of the refrigerant from the inlet nozzle to the distribution area around the active inlet port.
A portion of the refrigerant from the nozzle will also propagate in the direction from the nozzle to the wavy structure, toward the first refrigerant inlet port 61, which is a passive inlet port. Since the openings 312, 412 of the water outlet port are located at some vertical distance from the lower short edge of each plate, a lower horizontal passage 53 is formed in the lower distribution channel between the water outlet port and the lower short edge of the heat exchanger. In this way, the refrigerant can flow below the water outlet port to the area around the passive inlet port. The flow of refrigerant from the inlet nozzle in the present example has approximately the same angle as the wavy structure of the third plate, so that part of the refrigerant can flow in the horizontal, mainly direction, below the water outlet port with a relatively low coefficient of friction, and thus, relatively high flow rate. When the refrigerant reaches the area around the passive inlet port 61, the bypass 58 around the passive inlet port will help distribute the refrigerant in the area around the passive inlet port. The bypass passage 58 is created in the same way as the active inlet port, using each of the plates containing the bypass section 315, 415, extending around the entire first opening of the refrigerant inlet port. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. The resulting bypass passage will thus have a height two times the stamping depth, which means that the friction in the bypass passage will be much less than on the wavy structure. The bypass will thus distribute part of the refrigerant to the distribution area around the passive inlet port. The first inlet ports 307, 407 are provided with concentric sealing sections 313, 413, which are located one above the other and thus seal the passive inlet port.
The planar circular sections around the openings 312, 412 of the water outlet port are arranged one above the other so that the water outlet port is sealed together with the refrigerant passage. The openings of the water outlet port are located at some vertical distance from the lower short edge of each plate. The water outlet opening is larger in diameter than the refrigerant inlet port opening, and the center of the water outlet opening is closer to the horizontal axis of the plate than the center of the refrigerant inlet port openings. Thus, a lower horizontal passage 53 is created in the refrigerant channel between the water outlet port and the lower short edge of the heat exchanger. Through this horizontal passage, refrigerant may pass below the water outlet port to the area around the passive inlet port. This greatly improves the distribution of refrigerant across the width of the plate, which gives a more uniform flow through the passage for heat transfer, and also increases the overall effective heat transfer area of the heat exchanger using the area around the passive inlet port.
To further improve the distribution of the refrigerant, the second refrigerant channel is provided with lower distribution paths 55, 56 located above the active and passive inlet ports, between the lower distribution passage 50 and the heat transfer passage 51. The lower distribution paths are created using flat, mainly distribution grooves 318 , 319, 418, 419, stamped in the plates between the V-shaped distribution region and the W-shaped heat exchange region, extending from the long side of the plate to the hole water outlet port. The lower distribution paths will, on the one hand, facilitate uniform distribution of the refrigerant in the heat transfer passage 51, and on the other hand, act as a transition region for the distribution region with a V-shaped pattern and the heat exchange region with a W-shaped pattern. The height of the lower distribution paths, as well as their shape, can be selected to optimize flow distribution. The height of the grooves in one example may be half the depth of stamping of the plate. To improve the mechanical strength of the heat exchanger, the lower distribution path may also contain one or more contact points. Since corresponding distribution paths will be created in the water channel, the height of the lower distribution path in the refrigerant channel as a whole is preferably not more than one stamping depth. The lower distribution paths will have low resistance to flow in the horizontal direction of the heat exchanger compared to resistance to flow through a current tube with the same length and width in the wavy structure of the heat transfer passage. The lower distribution paths 55, 56 may also contain one or more restrictive areas for controlling the distribution of flow along the channel width in the lower distribution passage. The restrictions can be quite small, resembling one or more contact points, or they can be relatively large, so that only one or more small passages are created between the distribution passage and the heat exchange passage.
After entering the active inlet port 63 and when dispensing in the lower distribution passage 50, the refrigerant will enter and pass through the heat transfer passage 51 in the same manner as described for the first refrigerant channel.
Between the heat exchange area and the upper distribution area of each plate, there is a horizontal flat distribution groove 320, 420, stamped in each plate, creating an upper distribution path 57 in the second refrigerant channel. The upper distribution path will make it possible to equalize the differences in pressure that may occur in the heat transfer passage due to changes in refrigerant vaporization before the refrigerant enters the upper distribution passage 52 created between the upper distribution regions 304, 404 of the plates. The refrigerant at this stage may be partially or completely vaporized and may even overheat. The upper distribution path will have a low flow resistance in the horizontal direction of the heat exchanger, which will facilitate the distribution of refrigerant before entering the upper distribution passage. The height of each distribution path is approximately half the stamping depth of the plate, since a corresponding horizontal distribution path will be created in the water channel. This will give a full distribution path height equal to the stamping depth.
The refrigerant in this cross section to a large extent in vapor form enters the upper distribution passage 52 created by the upper distribution regions 304, 404 of the plates. A second refrigerant outlet port 64, which is an active exchange, is created between the plates on the second openings 310, 410 of the refrigerant outlet port. Part of the refrigerant will enter the upper distribution passage to the left of the vertical axis 305, and part of the refrigerant will enter the upper distribution passage to the right of the vertical axis 305. Part of the refrigerant will reach the bypass passage 60 of the passive output port created by the bypass sections 323 , 423, extending around the entire first refrigerant outlet 62, which is a passive output port. The first openings 308, 408 of the refrigerant outlet port are provided with concentric sealing sections 328, 428, which are located one above the other and seal the first outlet port. The bypass section has the same stamping depth as the waviness of the plate. Thus, the resulting bypass passage will have a height two times the stamping depth, which means that the friction in the bypass passage will be much less than on the wavy structure. Thus, the bypass passage will allow a significant portion of the refrigerant, which may be superheated, to pass into the active outlet port through the transverse passage of the wave structure above the water inlet port.
Flat circular sections around the water inlet port openings 311, 411 are arranged one above the other so that the water inlet is sealed from the refrigerant channel. The holes of the water inlet port are located at some vertical distance from the upper short edge of each plate. The center of the water inlet opening is closer to the horizontal axis of the plate than the center of the refrigerant outlet port openings. Thus, the upper horizontal passage 54 is provided with a refrigerant channel between the water inlet port and the upper short edge of the heat exchanger. Through this horizontal passage, refrigerant can flow above the water inlet port from the bypass passage 60 at the passive outlet port 62 to the active outlet port 64 formed between the second openings 310, 410 of the outlet refrigerant port. This greatly improves the distribution of refrigerant flow in the upper distribution passage and prevents heat stagnation around the passive outlet port. In addition, the effective heat transfer area of the heat exchanger is increased by the area around the passive output port.
Using the present invention, an improved three-circuit plate heat exchanger can be obtained that shows a significant improvement in the overall thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger. This is due to improved flow distribution in the heat exchanger. The present invention should not be construed as limited to the embodiments described above, a number of additional options and modifications are possible within the framework of the following claims.
Reference designations
1: Plate assembly
2: The first channel for the refrigerant
3: water channel
4: Second refrigerant channel
10: Lower distribution passage
11: Passage for heat transfer
12: Upper distribution passage
13: Bottom horizontal passage
14: Upper horizontal aisle
15: Lower distribution path
16: Lower distribution path
17: Upper distribution path
18: First refrigerant inlet port bypass
19: Second refrigerant inlet port bypass
20: Second refrigerant outlet port bypass
21: Active input port
22: Active input port
23: Passive input port
24: Passive output port
25: Inlet nozzle
30: Lower distribution passage
31: Heat exchange passage
32: Upper distribution passage
33: Lower horizontal aisle
34: Upper horizontal aisle
35: Lower distribution path
36: Lower distribution path
37: Upper distribution path
38: Water bypass
39: Water bypass
40: Water bypass
41: Water bypass
42: Water inlet
43: Water outlet port
50: Lower distribution passage
51: Passage for heat transfer
52: Upper distribution passage
53: lower horizontal passage
54: Upper horizontal aisle
55: Lower distribution path
56: Lower distribution path
57: Upper distribution path
58: First refrigerant inlet port bypass
59: Second refrigerant inlet port passage
60: First refrigerant outlet port bypass
61: Passive input port
62: Passive output port
63: Active input port
64: Active output port
65: Inlet nozzle
101: First heat exchanger plate
102: Lower distribution area
103: Heat Transfer Area
104: Upper distribution area
105: vertical axis
106: horizontal axis
107: First refrigerant inlet port opening
108: The first opening of the refrigerant outlet port
109: Second refrigerant inlet port opening
110: Second outlet of refrigerant outlet port
111: Water inlet port opening
112: Water outlet port opening
113: Sealing section
114: Cutout nozzle
115: Bypass section
116: sealing section
117: Bypass section
118: Lower distribution groove
119: Lower distribution groove
120: Upper distribution groove
121: Bypass section
122: Sealing section
123: Flat section
124: Lower water bypass section
125: Lower water bypass section
126: Upper water bypass section
127: Top water bypass section
201: Second heat exchanger plate
202: Lower distribution area
203: Heat Transfer Area
204: Upper distribution area
205: vertical axis
206: horizontal axis
207: First refrigerant inlet port opening
208: First refrigerant outlet port opening
209: Second refrigerant inlet port opening
210: Second outlet of refrigerant outlet port
211: Water inlet port opening
212: Water outlet port opening
213: Sealing section
214: Cutout nozzle
215: Bypass section
216: Sealing section
217: Bypass section
218: Lower distribution groove
219: lower distribution groove
220: Upper distribution groove
221: Bypass section
222: Sealing section
223: Flat section
224: Lower water bypass section
225: Lower water bypass section
226: Upper water bypass section
227: Upper water bypass section
301: Third heat exchanger plate
302: Lower distribution area
303: Heat Transfer Area
304: Upper distribution area
305: vertical axis
306: horizontal axis
307: First refrigerant inlet port opening
308: First refrigerant outlet port opening
309: Second refrigerant inlet port opening
310: Second refrigerant outlet port opening
311: Water inlet port opening
312: Water outlet port opening
313: Sealing section
314: Cutout nozzle
315: Bypass section
316: Sealing section
317: Bypass section
318: lower distribution groove
319: lower distribution groove
320: Upper distribution groove
321: Flat section
323: Bypass section
324: Lower water bypass section
325: Lower water bypass section
326: Upper water bypass section
327: Upper water bypass section
328: Sealing section
401: Fourth heat exchanger plate
402: Lower distribution area
403: Heat Transfer Area
404: Upper distribution area
405: vertical axis
406: horizontal axis
407: First refrigerant inlet port opening
408: First refrigerant outlet port opening
409: Second refrigerant inlet port opening
410: Second refrigerant outlet port opening
411: Water inlet port opening
412: Water outlet port opening
413: Sealing section
414: Cutout nozzle
415: Bypass section
416: Sealing section
417: Bypass section
418: lower distribution groove
419: lower distribution groove
420: Upper distribution groove
421: Flat section
423: Bypass section
424: Lower water bypass section
425: Lower water bypass section
426: Top water bypass section
427: Top water bypass section
428: Sealing section

Claims (22)

1. A plate (101; 201; 301; 401) of a heat exchanger for use in the unit (1) of a three-circuit heat exchanger, where the plate contains a first distribution region (102; 202; 302; 402) having three openings (107, 109, 112; 207 , 209, 212; 307, 309, 312; 407, 409, 412) ports, a heat transfer region (103; 203; 303; 403) and a second distribution area (104; 204; 304; 404) with three openings (108, 110, 111; 208, 210, 211; 308, 310, 311; 408, 410, 411) ports, where the plate has a wavy structure having protrusions and depressions, characterized in that the hole (112; 212, 312; 412) is central port first distribution area extends at a certain vertical distance from the short edge of the plate, so that a fluid passage can be obtained between the opening of the central port and the short edge of the plate when the two plates are stacked to form a fluid channel between them.
2. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that the hole (111; 211; 311; 411) of the central port of the second distribution region is located at some vertical distance from the short edge of the plate, so that a passage for fluid between the hole of the central port and the short edge of the plate, when two plates are stacked with the formation of a channel for the fluid between them.
3. The plate according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the hole (107, 109, 110; 207, 209, 210; 307, 308, 309; 407, 408, 409) of the port at the corner of the plate is equipped with a flat, ring-shaped a by-pass section (115, 117, 121; 215, 217, 221; 315, 317, 323; 415, 417, 423) adapted to form a by-pass passage for the refrigerant around the port when two plates are stacked to form a channel for the refrigerant fluid between plates.
4. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that a bypass section is provided (124, 125, 126, 127; 224, 225, 226, 227; 324, 325, 326, 327; 424, 425, 426, 427) for water at the corner of the plate, so that a water passage can be obtained between two adjacent bypass sections when the two plates are stacked to form a water channel between the plates.
5. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that the first distribution region (102; 202; 302; 402) has a chevron shape having a first pattern, the second distribution region (104; 204; 304; 404) has a chevron shape having a second the pattern, and the heat exchange region (103; 203; 303; 403) has a chevron shape having a third pattern, where the chevron shape of the first pattern is directed in the first angular direction and the chevron shape of the second pattern is directed in the opposite angular direction.
6. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that the chevron shape of the third pattern is directed in the same angular direction as the chevron shape of the first pattern.
7. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that the chevron shape of the third pattern has more directional changes than the first and second pattern.
8. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that the first and second chevron shape resemble the letter V, and the third chevron shape resembles the letter W.
9. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that a lower distribution groove (118, 119; 218, 219; 318, 319; 418, 419) is provided between the first distribution region and the heat exchange region so that a lower distribution path between two adjacent lower distribution grooves when the two plates are stacked to form a fluid channel between the plates.
10. The plate according to claim 9, characterized in that the lower distribution groove (118, 119; 218, 219; 318, 319; 418, 419) contains at least one restriction region, so that a flow restriction in the lower distribution path is obtained.
11. The plate according to claim 1, characterized in that an upper distribution groove (120; 220; 320; 420) is provided between the heat exchange region and the second distribution region so that an upper distribution path between two adjacent upper distribution grooves can be obtained when two the plates are packaged to form a fluid channel between the plates.
12. A heat exchanger assembly comprising four plates according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the first plate (101), the second plate (201), the third plate (301) and the fourth plate (401) are different from each other.
13. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, wherein a first channel (2) for refrigerant is provided between the first plate (101) and the second plate (201), a channel (3) for water between the second plate (201) and the third plate (301) and a second channel (4) for refrigerant between the third plate (301) and the fourth plate (401), and where each channel (2, 3, 4) for the fluid contains a first distribution passage (10; 30; 50) provided between two adjacent the first distribution areas (102, 202, 302, 402), a passage is provided (11; 31; 51) for heat exchange between two adjacent areas (103, 203, 303, 403) heat transfer and a second distribution passage (12; 32; 52) provided between two adjacent second distribution areas (104, 204, 304, 404), characterized in that a horizontal passage (13; 33 ; 53) in the first distribution passage between the central port (43) for water and the adjacent short edge of the node.
14. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that horizontal passages (14; 34; 54) are provided in the second distribution passages (12; 32; 52) between the central water port (42) and the adjacent short edge of the assembly.
15. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that a bypass (38, 39, 40, 41) is provided for water in the distribution passage (30, 32) for water between the port (21, 22, 23, 24; 61, 62, 63, 64) for refrigerant and node angle.
16. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that a bypass (18, 19, 20; 58, 59, 60) is provided for the refrigerant around the port (21, 23, 24; 61, 62, 63) for the refrigerant in the distribution passage (10, 12; 50, 52) for the refrigerant.
17. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that an active inlet port (21) with an inlet nozzle (25) and an active inlet port (63) with an inlet nozzle (65) are provided, where the inclination angles of the inlet nozzles are between 0 and 180 ° with respect to the vertical axis, and where the inlet nozzle is directed toward the central vertical axis of the assembly.
18. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 17, characterized in that the inclination angles of the inlet nozzles are between 90 and 150 °.
19. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that a lower distribution path (15, 16; 35, 36; 55, 56) is provided between the lower distribution passage (10, 30, 50) and the passage (11, 31, 51) for heat transfer.
20. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that an upper distribution path (17, 37, 57) is provided between the heat exchange passage (11, 31, 51) and the upper distribution passage (12, 32, 52).
21. The heat exchanger assembly according to claim 12, characterized in that the plates (101; 201; 301; 401) of the heat exchanger are connected by gluing, alloying, brazing, bonding or welding.
22. A three-circuit heat exchanger comprising a plurality of heat exchanger assemblies according to any one of claims 12-21 and further comprising a front plate and a rear plate.
RU2011100832/06A 2008-06-13 2009-06-12 Heat exchanger RU2457416C1 (en)

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SE0801394-8 2008-06-13

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JP (1) JP5553828B2 (en)
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BRPI0913116A2 (en) 2016-01-05
EP2307842A4 (en) 2014-04-02
SE0801394L (en) 2009-12-14
KR20110005913A (en) 2011-01-19
CN102084203A (en) 2011-06-01
KR101263559B1 (en) 2013-05-14
CN102084203B (en) 2013-07-24
JP2011523025A (en) 2011-08-04
US20110083833A1 (en) 2011-04-14
EP2307842A1 (en) 2011-04-13
WO2009151399A1 (en) 2009-12-17
SE532524C2 (en) 2010-02-16
JP5553828B2 (en) 2014-07-16

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