RU2355944C1 - Steam boiler with mechanical stoker for solid fuel combustion - Google Patents

Steam boiler with mechanical stoker for solid fuel combustion Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2355944C1
RU2355944C1 RU2008116636/06A RU2008116636A RU2355944C1 RU 2355944 C1 RU2355944 C1 RU 2355944C1 RU 2008116636/06 A RU2008116636/06 A RU 2008116636/06A RU 2008116636 A RU2008116636 A RU 2008116636A RU 2355944 C1 RU2355944 C1 RU 2355944C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
furnace
boiler
mechanical
convective
pipes
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RU2008116636/06A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Михаил Александрович Валюжинич (RU)
Михаил Александрович Валюжинич
Михаил Анатольевич Зыков (RU)
Михаил Анатольевич Зыков
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ООО "Инженерная энергетическая компания "ИНЭКО"
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Priority to RU2008116636/06A priority Critical patent/RU2355944C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to heat-power engineering, in particular to boilers for low-grade solid fuel combustion such as wood fuel, milled peat, brown and black coals, and can be used on hot-water and steam boilers. The technical result is achieved by means of the following: according to the invention at inlet of convection tube bank there is opening for passing and horizontal turn of combustion gases, and at outlet there is opening in the back wall of convection bank located symmetrically to opening for combustion gases injection into convection bank where cast iron partition is installed; and the boiler itself contains ash reinjection and overfire air system. The combustor is made mechanical with air blow supply through fire bars of reciprocating grate. In this combustor back furnace waterwall is turned towards front furnace waterwall forming aerodynamic projection located in lower half of combustor overlapping up to 30% of combustor horizontal section area, and below aerodynamic projection is tilted at an angle of 0÷30° to mechanical stoker plane.
EFFECT: boiler efficiency increase, improvement of operation reliability of steam boiler with mechanical stoker.
7 cl, 3 dwg

Description

The invention relates to a power system, in particular to boilers for burning low-calorie solid fuels, such as wood fuel, milled peat, lignite and hard coal, and can be used on hot water and steam boilers.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved technical result to the claimed invention is the boiler KE-10-14 OJSC "Biysk boiler plant", designed for burning solid fuel on the grate (see. Technical description, installation and operation manual No. 00.0303.003 TO “Steam boilers of type E (KE) with layered furnaces”, JSC “Biysk boiler plant”, 2005, p. 3-6).
A well-known steam boiler with a mechanical furnace for burning solid fuel contains a shielded furnace with side, front, rear furnace screens, lower and upper drums connected by a convective bundle of pipes, and lower collectors of furnace screens located along the longitudinal axis of the boiler, with pipe of furnace screens below connected to the lower collectors, and on top connected to the upper drum of the boiler.
A disadvantage of the known boiler is its low efficiency due to large heat losses with chemical and mechanical underburning, with the temperature of the flue gases due to unorganized air suction into the boiler, and also the operational reliability of the boiler that does not meet modern requirements due to damage to the mechanical furnace due to thermal warping of the metal structures of the mechanical furnace .
The technical result, the achievement of which the present invention is directed, is to increase the efficiency of the boiler due to more efficient burning of solid fuel and increase the operational reliability of a steam boiler with a mechanical furnace.
To achieve the specified technical result in a known steam boiler for burning solid fuel containing a shielded firebox with side, front, rear furnace screens, lower and upper drums connected by a convective bundle of pipes and located along the longitudinal axis of the boiler, lower collectors of the furnace screens, moreover the tubes of the furnace screens are connected from below to the lower manifolds, and from above are connected to the upper drum; according to the invention, a window for the passage and horizontal turn of the flue gases is made at the entrance to the convective pipe bundle, and at the exit there is a window on the rear wall of the convective beam, symmetrical to the window for introducing flue gases into the convective beam, in which a cast-iron partition and an ablation recovery system are installed and sharp blast, the furnace is made mechanical with the supply of air blast through the grate of the inclined-repulsive grill, and the rear furnace screen is bent towards the front furnace screen with the formation an aerodynamic protrusion located in the lower half of the furnace with an overlap of up to 30% of the horizontal section of the furnace; and below the aerodynamic protrusion is inclined at an angle of 0 ÷ 30 ° to the plane of the mechanical furnace.
In addition, the rear furnace screen in the upper half of the furnace is bent towards the front furnace screen with an angle of at least 15 ° to the horizontal section of the furnace with the organization of festoon wiring of pipes in the bent section.
In addition, the boiler is equipped with three air supply devices, and the primary air blast device is placed in a mechanical fire chamber with an inclined-repulsive grate directly behind the fuel drying zone, organized along the fuel in the initial section of the mechanical fire-chamber, comprising 10 ÷ 20% of the inclined-repulsive grate area and organizing the primary air blast zone with excess air α = 0.3 ÷ 0.6 in the middle section of the mechanical furnace, comprising 60 ÷ 70% of the area of the inclined-repulsive lattice; the secondary air blasting device is made in the form of at least two nozzles placed in a horizontal plane on the side furnace screens at the pinch of the furnace section with an aerodynamic protrusion and regulating the excess air in the flue gases at the outlet of the boiler furnace; the tertiary air blast device is located in the mechanical furnace directly behind the primary air blast device with the formation of the tertiary air blast zone in the final section of the mechanical furnace, comprising 10–30% of the inclined-repulsive lattice area.
In addition, the furnace screens and the outer row of convective beam tubes are gas-tight made of pipes ⌀57 × 3.0 mm or ⌀60 × 3 mm and strips welded to them with a width of 18 ÷ 40 mm.
In addition, the convective bundle of pipes consists of two sections, the first of which along the flue gas is made of pipes with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the pipes of the second section along the flue gas.
In addition, the pipes of the first section of the convective beam are made with ⌀38 × 3.0 mm with a pitch of 85 mm along the boiler drum and in the cross section of the convective beam with a pitch of 70 mm, and the pipes of the second section of the convective beam are made with ⌀51 × 2.5 mm in increments of 90 mm along the boiler drum and in the cross section of the convective beam - in increments of 110 mm.
In addition, the convection ablation return system is connected to the tertiary air blast zone in the end section of the inclined-repulsive lattice.
Figure 1 shows a boiler with a mechanical furnace for burning solid fuel; figure 2 is a section aa in figure 1; figure 3 - node B in figure 2.
The solid fuel combustion boiler contains a mechanical shielded firebox 1 with side 2, front 3, rear 4 furnace screens, lower and upper drums 5 and 6, interconnected by a convective tube bundle 7, and lower collectors 8 of the furnace screens located along the longitudinal axis of the boiler. The pipes of the furnace screens 2, 3, and 4 are connected to the lower manifolds 8 from the bottom and connected to the upper drum 6 from the top. The rear furnace screen 4 is bent toward the front furnace screen 3 with an aerodynamic protrusion 9 arranged in the lower half of the furnace 1 and in the upper half of the furnace 1 rear furnace screen 4 is bent towards the front furnace screen 3 with an angle of inclination to the horizontal section of the furnace 1 of at least 15 ° with the organization of festoon piping in the bent section. The furnace screens 2, 3 and 4 and the outer row of pipes 7 of the convective beam are gas-tight.
The furnace 1 is made with the organization of air blasting through the grate of the inclined-repulsive grill 10. In this case, the boiler is equipped with three air supply devices: the primary air blast device 11 is located in the mechanical furnace 1 with the inclined-repulsive grill 10 immediately behind the fuel drying zone 12 of 10 ÷ 20% of the area of the inclined-repulsive lattice 10 and organizing the zone 13 of the primary air blast in the middle section of the mechanical furnace 1, comprising 60 ÷ 70% of the area of the inclined-repulsive lattice 10; the device of the secondary air blasting is made in the form of nozzles 14 located on the side of the furnace screens 2 in the place of the maximum pinch section of the furnace 1 with an aerodynamic protrusion 9; the device 15 of the tertiary air blasting is located in the mechanical furnace 1 with an inclined-repulsive grill 10 directly behind the nozzles 14 of the secondary air blast and organizes the zone 16 of the tertiary air blast in the final section of the mechanical furnace 1, which is 10-30% of the area of the inclined-repellent lattice 10.
The convective bundle of pipes 7 consists of two sections, the first 17 of which are made of pipes of smaller diameter (for example, ⌀38 × 3.0 mm with a step of 85 mm along the drum, in cross section with a pitch of 70 mm), and the second section 18 is made from pipes of larger diameter (for example, ⌀51 × 2.5 mm in increments of 90 mm along the drum, in cross section with increments of 110 mm). In the convection beam, a horizontal flue gas turn is organized due to the window 19 at the entrance to the convective beam, installation of the cast-iron partition 20 in the convection beam and the organization of the flue gas output through the window 21 on the rear wall of the convective beam, symmetrical to the window 19 for introducing flue gases into the convection beam. The convective bundle is equipped with a system 22 return ablation and sharp blast 23. Moreover, the system 22 return ablation from the convective beam delivers ablation in the zone 16 of the tertiary air blast in the final section of the mechanical furnace 1.
A steam boiler for burning solid fuel is as follows.
Solid fuel is fed through a supply device 24 to a mechanical firebox 1 with an inclined-pusher grate 10. In the initial section of the grate 10 in the drying zone 12, partial evaporation of the fuel moisture occurs due to radiant heat. In the region 13 of the primary air blast, the process of incomplete combustion of solid fuel is implemented under conditions of insufficient air blast (excess air α = 0.3 ÷ 0.6), and air flow is regulated from the condition of maintaining the temperature of the grid-irons 10 at 900 ÷ 950 ° С (the condition for the exclusion of thermal warping and destruction of the grid grates). The coke fuel residue burns out in zone 16 of the tertiary air blast in the final section of the grill 10 under intense blast conditions (excess air α = 1.4 ÷ 2.0), and air flow is regulated from the condition of maintaining the temperature of the grid-irons 10 at 900 ÷ 950 ° C.
The aerodynamic protrusion 9 provides the supply of all gases generated during drying, incomplete combustion and afterburning into the furnace clamping zone, where secondary air blast nozzles 14 are installed, which regulate the excess air in the flue gases at the outlet of the furnace 1 (air excess α = 1, four).
Under the nozzles 14 of the secondary air blast, a burner 25 is installed on the side screen 2, which provides the kindling of the boiler and "backlight" when burning high moisture (humidity per working mass more than 60%), low calorific value (calorific value lower Q p n less than 1,200 kcal / kg ) solid fuel.
Above the aerodynamic protrusion 9, the furnace 1 expands, respectively, the gas velocities decrease and the residence time of the entrainment of fine coke particles in the active combustion zone increases. Festoon routing of pipes on the rear screen 4 bent in the upper half of the furnace 1 creates conditions for equalizing the rates of flue gases along the cross section and height of the furnace 1.
The scheme of air blast in the furnace 1, as well as the configuration of the rear screen 2 of the furnace 1 create more optimal conditions for organizing the combustion process of burning solid fuel in comparison with the prototype, which reduces heat loss with mechanical and chemical underburning and, accordingly, increases the efficiency of the boiler.
Organization in a convective tube bundle of two sections, the first 17 of which is made of pipes of a smaller diameter, and the second section 18 is made of pipes of a larger diameter, increases the heat removal surface in the first section 17 without affecting the circulation (lowering movement of water in the second section) in the boiler water circuit . An increase in the heat removal surface in a convective beam reduces the temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the boiler and, accordingly, increases the efficiency of the boiler in comparison with the prototype boiler.
The furnace screens 2, 3 and 4 and the outer row of pipes 7 of the convection beam are gas-tight, which reduces air suction into the boiler and, accordingly, increases the efficiency of the boiler in comparison with the prototype boiler.
The convection beam ablation system 22 feeds ablation to the tertiary air blast zone 16 in the final section of the mechanical furnace 1, i.e. in the zone of high temperatures and a greater excess of air (α = 1.4 ÷ 2.0), which contributes to intensive afterburning of fuels in the return ablation and, accordingly, reduces heat loss with mechanical underburning in the ash and increases the efficiency of the device in comparison with the prototype.

Claims (7)

1. A steam boiler with a mechanical furnace for burning solid fuel, comprising a shielded furnace with side, front, rear furnace screens, lower and upper drums connected by a convective bundle of pipes and located along the longitudinal axis of the boiler, lower collectors of the furnace screens, and furnace pipes screens below are connected to the lower collectors, and above are connected to the upper drum of the boiler, characterized in that at the entrance to the convective bundle of pipes a window is made for the passage and horizontal turn of the smoke gases, and the output - a window on the back wall of the convective beam disposed symmetrically window for entering flue gases in the convection bank, wherein the partition is installed iron; and a return system for ablation and sharp blasting, the furnace is mechanical with air blasting through the grate of the inclined-repulsive grill, the back furnace screen being bent towards the front furnace screen with the formation of an aerodynamic protrusion located in the lower half of the furnace with overlapping up to 30% of the horizontal section furnace, and below the aerodynamic protrusion is inclined at an angle of 0 ÷ 30 ° to the plane of the mechanical furnace.
2. A steam boiler with a furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the rear furnace screen in the upper half of the furnace is bent towards the front furnace screen with an angle of at least 15 ° to the horizontal section of the furnace with the organization of festoon pipe routing in the bent section.
3. A steam boiler with a furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the boiler is equipped with three air supply devices, the primary air blasting device being placed in a mechanical furnace with an inclined-repulsive grill directly behind the fuel drying zone, organized along the fuel in the initial section of the mechanical furnace, comprising 10 ÷ 20% of the area of the inclined-repulsive lattice and organizing the primary air blast zone with excess air α = 0.3 ÷ 0.6 in the middle section of the mechanical furnace, comprising 60 ÷ 70% of the area of inclined - repulsive lattice; the secondary air blasting device is made in the form of at least two nozzles placed in a horizontal plane on the side furnace screens at the pinch of the furnace section with an aerodynamic protrusion and regulating the excess air in the flue gases at the outlet of the boiler furnace; the tertiary air blast device is located in the mechanical furnace directly behind the primary air blast device with the formation of the tertiary air blast zone in the final section of the mechanical furnace, comprising 10–30% of the inclined-repulsive lattice area.
4. A steam boiler with a furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the furnace screens and the outer row of convective beam tubes are gas-tight from pipes ⌀57 × 3.0 mm or ⌀60 × 3 mm and welded strips with a width of 18 ÷ 40 mm
5. A steam boiler with a furnace according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the convective tube bundle consists of two sections, the first of which along the flue gases is made of pipes with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the pipes of the second section along the flue gases.
6. A steam boiler with a furnace according to claim 5, characterized in that the pipes of the first section of the convective beam are made with ⌀38 × 3.0 mm with a pitch of 85 mm along the drum of the boiler and in the cross section of the convective beam with a pitch of 70 mm, and the pipes the second section of the convective beam is made with ⌀51 × 2.5 mm with a pitch of 90 mm along the drum of the boiler and in the cross section of the convective beam with a pitch of 110 mm.
7. A steam boiler with a mechanical firebox according to claim 1, characterized in that the convection ablation return system is connected to the tertiary air blast zone in the end section of the inclined-repulsive grill.
RU2008116636/06A 2008-05-04 2008-05-04 Steam boiler with mechanical stoker for solid fuel combustion RU2355944C1 (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2518772C1 (en) * 2013-03-26 2014-06-10 Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова" (САФУ) Furnace with tilt-pushing furnace grate for combustion of wood wastes
CN104791766A (en) * 2015-04-29 2015-07-22 广西梧锅锅炉制造有限公司 High-water-content biomass fuel boiler
CN104791768A (en) * 2015-04-21 2015-07-22 云南中翼鼎东能源科技开发有限公司 Device for converting low-calorific value fuel into clean thermal energy
CZ306081B6 (en) * 2015-02-27 2016-07-27 Vysoká Škola Báňská - Technická Univerzita Ostrava Solid fuel burning burner

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2518772C1 (en) * 2013-03-26 2014-06-10 Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова" (САФУ) Furnace with tilt-pushing furnace grate for combustion of wood wastes
CZ306081B6 (en) * 2015-02-27 2016-07-27 Vysoká Škola Báňská - Technická Univerzita Ostrava Solid fuel burning burner
CN104791768A (en) * 2015-04-21 2015-07-22 云南中翼鼎东能源科技开发有限公司 Device for converting low-calorific value fuel into clean thermal energy
CN104791766A (en) * 2015-04-29 2015-07-22 广西梧锅锅炉制造有限公司 High-water-content biomass fuel boiler

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Effective date: 20100505