RU2331753C2 - Downhole tool - Google Patents

Downhole tool Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2331753C2
RU2331753C2 RU2005128283/03A RU2005128283A RU2331753C2 RU 2331753 C2 RU2331753 C2 RU 2331753C2 RU 2005128283/03 A RU2005128283/03 A RU 2005128283/03A RU 2005128283 A RU2005128283 A RU 2005128283A RU 2331753 C2 RU2331753 C2 RU 2331753C2
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
well
tool according
drilling
tool
unit
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Application number
RU2005128283/03A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2005128283A (en
Inventor
Жак ОРБАН (RU)
Жак ОРБАН
Original Assignee
Шлюмбергер Текнолоджи Б.В.
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Priority to GB0303019A priority Critical patent/GB2398308B/en
Priority to GB0303019.4 priority
Application filed by Шлюмбергер Текнолоджи Б.В. filed Critical Шлюмбергер Текнолоджи Б.В.
Publication of RU2005128283A publication Critical patent/RU2005128283A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU2331753C2 publication Critical patent/RU2331753C2/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B23/14Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells for displacing a cable or cable-operated tool, e.g. for logging or perforating operations in deviated wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B4/00Drives used in the borehole
    • E21B4/18Anchoring or feeding in the borehole
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • E21B7/06Deflecting the direction of boreholes
    • E21B7/061Deflecting the direction of boreholes the tool shaft advancing relative to a guide, e.g. a curved tube or a whipstock

Abstract

FIELD: petroleum industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to downhole tools, i.e. tools used in wells. The tool includes axle drive provided with connection of electric power cable installed upwards the wellbore and fastening mechanism engaged downhole between the first configuration to prevent rotational and axial movement of the unit and the second configuration to move the fastening mechanism in axial direction, axle drive which moves the fastening mechanism in axial direction downwards the wellbore, when in the second configuration, motor installed in well end of the drive, hydraulic pump connected to the motor and provided with hydraulic power source and functional part connected below the hydraulic pump and powered by such pump, operation of axle drive ensuring axial movement of the functional part downwards the wellbore. Invention ensures run RIH with slickline and is capable of ensuring sufficient weight on bit and torque required to achieve efficient drilling.
EFFECT: capability to ensure sufficient weight on bit and torque required to achieve efficient drilling.
22 cl, 10 dwg

Description

The present invention relates to downhole tools, in particular to tools that are used in wells, such as oil, water or gas wells, etc.

There are several basic technologies used in the construction and processing of underground wells for transportation and operation of tools in the well. For example, during drilling, a drill bit is fixed at the lower end of a drill string formed by a group of hollow drill pipes connected one after another. By rotating the drill string on the surface or by using a downhole motor, the bit is rotated, and this, together with the load applied to the bit, allows for the penetration of the well. To remove drill material and facilitate the drilling process, flushing fluid, commonly known as “drilling fluid”, is injected down the inside of the drill string so that it exits the drill bit and carries the drill material (“cuttings”) back to the surface through the annular the space around the outer surface of the drill string. In addition, the flushing fluid provides support to the well and compensates for the fluid pressure in the formation by the hydrostatic pressure generated by the fluid column. In development of this technology, an engine is usually installed in the drill string just above the bit, usually in the form of a Moyno device (direct displacement). The motor is driven by the flow of the drilling fluid and can be used to rotate the drill bit regardless of the rotation of the drill string. This technology, in combination with a deviated well assembly (“deviated assembly”) and an orientation sensor, enables controlled directional drilling. In the case of straight-line drilling, the technology of rotation of the drill string (“rotary drilling”) is used together with the rotation of the drill bit by the motor. To change the direction, rotary drilling is stopped, by turning the drill string from the surface, the deflected assembly is oriented so that the surface of the bit is directed in the specified direction, and drilling is resumed using the downhole motor to rotate the bit and applying a load to the bit from the surface by the drill string ("drilling in slip mode ”). When the desired direction of the well is reached, rotary drilling is resumed.

Measuring devices may also be provided at the bottom of the drill string (in the “bottom hole layout”). Through these devices, for example, measuring devices during drilling, designed to perform measurements related to drilling processes: the load on the bit, the mechanical penetration speed, direction and angle of inclination; or devices for logging while drilling, designed to perform measurements related to the reservoir: resistivity, nuclear measurements, acoustic measurements; data can be obtained on the surface with the help of memory devices, taken when the layout of the bottom of the drill string is removed, through an electric cable passing inside the drill string, or by telemetry via a water-pulse communication channel, in which pressure pulses are generated in the drilling fluid by a siren located in the bottom layout drill string, and are found on the surface.

For any work involving the use of a drill string, a surface drill rig is required. In addition, the time taken to lower the column into the well and rise from the well is relatively large, especially in the case of deep wells.

After the well has been drilled, measuring instruments can be lowered into the well on the cables (on the “cable”, “electric cable”, “thin cable-cable”), through which electric energy is supplied and data is transmitted between the downhole tool and the surface. To perform such operations, you do not need to use a drilling rig, and they can be performed relatively quickly. However, at present, using cable means, it is possible to carry out drilling work only on a limited scale, given the difficulties associated with the supply of energy, torque and load on the bit. Core drilling is one example of drilling work that is performed using a cable-lowered system. When core drilling, a cylindrical drill bit is used to extract solid core material from the rock surrounding the well, which is returned to the surface for material analysis. An example of a cable-lowered core drilling device is shown in US Pat. No. 4,354,558. Other cable-lowered devices for drilling relatively small wells extending laterally from the main well have been proposed. All of these devices allow only relatively short horizontal bends of the wellbore to be obtained, and all of them have the disadvantage associated with providing torque and load on the bit, especially when drilling through a metal casing in the well is necessary before drilling in the rock. One method shown in US Pat. No. 6,167,968 involves separating the action relating to drilling or milling through the casing by using a short, robust milling section from the action relating to drilling in rock by using a flexible drilling section. In another method, a flexible drill shaft is surrounded by a group of discs that provide support and allow pressure to be applied to the drill bit. This method is shown in US patent No. 6276453. Another method in which the creation of axial pressure is separated from the creation of torque, shown in US patent No. 5687806.

Another problem when drilling horizontal wells is gravity. In vertical or almost vertical wells that are slightly curved, the cable, cable, small diameter flexible pipe, tubular columns and tools introduced into the wellbore are moved downward into the wellbore by gravity. When the cable reaches a curvature of about 70 ° from the vertical, gravity no longer provides the force and the resulting tension necessary to move the tool down the well. For example, US Pat. No. 4,463,814 discloses a solution relating to a pulling device with securing means.

European Patent No. 1247936 describes a cable-lowered tool that can be lowered into a drill pipe and used to produce cores by drilling from the outside of the drill string through a side punch in the bottom of the drill string. In this device, the packer is inflated inside the drill pipe, the electronics and the piston assembly are located above the packer, and the drill motor and core drill are located below the packer. The piston creates a load on the bit when moving through a sliding seal in the packer, and torque is created when the mud flow is diverted from the inside of the drill string to the drill motor below the packer. Drilling fluid and cuttings are returned to the surface in the usual way through the annular space in the side hole drilled for coring, and the annular space in the main well. The packer in this design serves as a reaction point for the load on the bit and the torque applied during the drilling process. It also forces drilling fluid to flow through the engine. However, since it is necessary to create a sliding seal through the packer, the design capabilities to provide increased drilling depth are limited. In addition, it is essential that the drilling fluid is supplied from the surface, and there is an annular space for returning the drilling fluid and cuttings.

One specific application of such drilling tools is re-drilling, in which additional drilling operations are carried out in an existing well in order to increase production, recovery, etc. An overview of such methods can be found in Hill D., Nerne E., Ehlig-Economides C. and Mollinedo M., "Reentry drilling gives new life to aging fields", Oilfield Review (Autumn 1996), 4-14. One specific tool described is a VIPER® (Schlumberger) drill pipe system using flexible pipes, which contains a drill head module with connectors for a cable cable, a logging tool that includes several sensors and associated electronics, an orienting device that includes an engine and power electronics, and a drilling unit with an adjustable motor. Although the system is powered and cabled, it is also necessary to have a flexible pipe to move the tool through the well.

The purpose of the present invention is to provide a downhole tool that can be lowered on a cable and which has the ability to provide sufficient load on the bit and the torque necessary to achieve effective drilling.

According to the present invention, there is provided a downhole tool comprising an axial drive unit having a connection for an electric power cable extending upstream of the well and including a fastening mechanism operating in the well between a first configuration in which the fastening mechanism prevents rotational and axial movement of the assembly, and the second configuration, in which the fixing mechanism is axially movable in the well, an axial drive mechanism moving the fixing mechanism m axially down the borehole when it is in the second configuration; an electric motor mounted on the drive unit, at the borehole end thereof, a hydraulic pump connected to the engine and provided with a source of hydraulic energy, and a functional unit attached below the hydraulic pump and supplied with energy through this, while the action of the axial drive mechanism moves the functional unit in the axial downhole.

Preferably, the orientation unit is located below the drive unit to allow axial rotation of at least part of the tool below the drive unit, therefore, any asymmetry in the functional unit to be oriented in a given direction is allowed. A diverting element, such as a diverting plate, may be located below the functional unit for advancing the unit in a predetermined direction by the action of the drive unit for moving the functional unit down the well.

The well is usually filled with fluid and it is preferable that it be used in the hydraulic pump as a source of hydraulic fluid that generates hydraulic energy.

A functional unit usually has several possible functions: drilling, completion, measurement, stimulation, restoration, etc. and any combination of these features. When a drilling function is assigned to a functional unit, it is preferable that it comprises a drilling motor that is supplied with hydraulic fluid energy from the pump. A drilling motor is typically connected to a pump (which is driven by an electric motor) through a hollow drill shaft through which fluid flows and through which a drive unit propels the drilling assembly forward. The drill bit may be coupled to the drill motor.

By appropriately using the deflecting plate and / or the deflectable assembly in the drill tool (for example, the deflectable assembly is oriented in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the deflecting plate, with the bit facing away from the plate), the drill bit can drill at a distance from the well. The distance from the well at which drilling is carried out is determined by the length of the drill shaft. Preferably, at least one support is provided on the drill shaft to prevent bending during drilling.

To prevent blockage of the borehole with the drilled material or trapping of the tool, the trap of cuttings can be located below the drilling device and attached to the tool so that the trap, usually a soft reservoir or storage pipe, can be removed from the borehole with a cable tool. Tap-off devices, such as rubber cuffs, can be placed above and below the drill device to advance cuttings into the trap. In this case, it is preferable to have a circulation pipe to allow fluid to circulate back into the well after removal of cuttings. Alternatively, to prevent tacking, one or more reflectors may be provided to direct a stream containing cuttings of the cuttings down the well below the tool.

The drilling unit may also include measuring units and optionally expanding packers to provide pressure isolation at the intervals of the well. This last feature may be useful in making measurements of reservoir pressure by using a tool.

A functional node of an alternative form may comprise a node for completion. It usually comprises a tubular completion element, for example, a casing or strainer, which can be advanced into the well using a properly installed drop plate or diverter and disconnected so that it remains in place when the tool is removed from the well. The completion element may be filled with a completion fluid, for example, cement mortar or gravel pack, pumped from the completion element into the well around the completion element by means of a hydraulic pump.

The tool may further comprise a storage device located in the well in which at least one functional unit may be stored when not in use. In such a case, it is preferable that a locking system be provided for disconnecting the functional unit stored in the storage device from the rest of the tool.

The tool according to one embodiment comprises an imaging device for detecting the interval of the well on which the tool is located to perform work.

Further, the present invention is described only by means of the examples shown in the accompanying drawings, which depict the following:

figure 1 depicts a view of the General elements of the first variant implementation of the present invention;

figure 2 - view of the embodiment of figure 1, intended for drilling;

3a and 3b are views of the embodiment of FIG. 2 at various stages of a drilling operation;

4 is a view of a second embodiment of the invention intended for drilling;

5 is a view of a third embodiment of the invention for drilling and measuring;

6 is a view of a fourth embodiment of the invention for drilling and measuring pressure;

7a and 7b are views of a fifth embodiment of the invention for completing a well at various stages of an operation;

Fig is a view of a sixth embodiment of the invention, designed to perform several works.

The drawings show several embodiments of the present invention. Although all of these embodiments are described with reference to an open hole, it should be understood that it may also be a cased hole or may contain a drill string or production tubing. All of these concepts are covered by the use of the term “well.” In addition, in the terminology with respect to the well and to the design of the downhole tool, “up” is used for direction to the surface, and “down” for direction from the surface, even if the well in question is not vertical. The first embodiment is shown in FIG. 1 and comprises a drive unit 10 having a connection to a cable cable (not shown). The drive unit 10 is a substantially pull unit, for example, described in US Pat. No. 5,954,131. However, in the configuration shown here, it is located at the head of the tool string and serves to push the tools through the well rather than pulling them behind it. In addition, a wire system is provided to enable the transmission of electrical energy and data below node 10.

The drive unit operates by pulling locking elements 12 located at one end of the node 10 opposite the walls of the well 14. The corresponding locking elements 16 are located on the other end of the drive unit 10, but in this first configuration they are not engaged with the well 14. Part of the drive unit between the stop elements 12, 16 contains a pulling and pulling mechanism 18. This mechanism 18 is actuated to move the lower part of the drive unit down the well. Upon reaching the full extension of the mechanism 18, the node is advanced due to the engagement of the lower elements 16 with the well 14, the upper elements 12 are detached from the well 14 and the mechanism 18 is pulled to move the upper part of the node down the well. This cycle can be repeated whenever required. When it is necessary to lower the tool into the vertical part of the well or remove the tool from the well, both sets of elements 12, 16 are unhooked and the tool is moved down by gravity or pulled back to the surface in the usual way by cable.

Directly below the drive unit 10 is an orientation unit 20. It is essentially the same as that used in the VIPER® (Schlumberger) flexible pipe drilling system described above. The orienting assembly comprises a motor and enables relative axial rotation of the tool parts above and below the assembly.

The control unit 22 is located below the orientation unit 20. The control unit 22 performs several functions for controlling the tool, including a power source and a control unit, a telemetry system, a control logic system, etc.

Below the control unit 22 (or possibly forming part of the control unit 22) is the navigation unit 24. It may contain accelerometers, magnetometers and / or a gyroscope for determining the position and orientation of the tool in the well 14. Suitable sensors include a GPIT inclinometer (inclinometer general use) from Schlumberger or the navigation sensors of the VIPER® tool described above. The navigation unit may be located above the orientation unit. In this case, an indexing action is required to register the relative position of the tool parts below the orientation unit relative to the navigation unit.

A pump unit 26 comprising an electric motor 28, driving a Moino system (direct displacement) screw pump 30, is located below the navigation unit 24. The dimensions and powers of the electric motor 28 and pump 30 are selected in accordance with operational restrictions. For example, the power of the engine 28 will be determined by the amount of energy supplied through the cable, and the restriction on the maximum size of the tool string at which it can pass through the well, through the production tubing, etc. The performance of the pump 30 is influenced by the output of the engine 28, the rotational speed of the engine 28, and restrictions on operational dimensions. The pump has an inlet 32 at the upper end to allow well fluid to enter the pump and an outlet 34 at the lower end from which fluid is pumped to create a source of hydraulic energy.

The functional assembly of the invention is attached to the outlet end 34 of the pump 30. Figure 2-7 shows the functional assembly in the form of a drilling tool. As shown in figure 2, the drill shaft 36 in the form of a drill pipe of small diameter (for example 1.5 inches) is connected to the outlet of the pump 30. The length of this shaft will determine the maximum length of any lateral well bore drilled from the main well 14. Drilling engine 38 it is usually a Moyno system device (similar to pump 30, except that in this configuration it is driven by the flow of fluid entering the engine from pump 30 through drill pipe 36). A drilling motor is usually relatively small (2.125 inches or 2.375 inches) and usually has, as is known from directional drilling practice, a deflecting body. It is particularly preferable to use a flexible engine with a deviating body to obtain a sufficient angle at a small distance to create effective lateral boreholes from the main well 14.

A drill bit 40 (e.g., 2.4 inches) is attached to the drill motor 38 in a conventional manner.

The diverting plate 42 is located below the drill bit, but is connected directly to the upper part of the drive unit 10 by means of the suspension 43. The diverting plate 42 is a plate or other flat surface that is inclined relative to the axis of the well and serves to push the drill bit in a predetermined direction to the well wall . As will be described below, during operation, the deflector plate acts like a deflector. Suspension 43 is connected to the drive unit by means of a lockable sliding joint 44. A swivel 46 is provided for a portion of the distance along the suspension 43 to enable the deflection plate 42 to be oriented in the well when exposed to the orientation assembly 20. The action of the deflection plate 42 is described in more detail below.

In use, the tool is lowered into the well on a cable to reach the desired depth. At this point, the drive unit 10 is engaged by actuating the upper locking members 12 and the electric pump unit 26 is driven. The fluid (“drilling fluid”) from the main well 14 is pumped into the small drill pipe 36. The drilling fluid flows into the drill pipe and reaches an engine 38 that rotates the bit 40.

Prior to drilling, it is guaranteed by the orienting assembly 20 that the deflectable portion of the drilling motor 38 (often referred to as the “tool front surface”) and the deflector plate 42 are facing in the desired direction. Axial displacement and load on the bit are created by the drive unit 10.

This combined method makes it possible to advance the drill bit 40 into the formation and drill a curved borehole due to the deviating drilling motor 38. The deviation angle is chosen so that, as shown in FIGS. 3a and 3b, the lateral wellbore 50 is rotated 90 ° throughout its length (usually about 100 feet). The circulation of the drilling fluid in the lateral wellbore 50 is provided by the pump unit 26 in the main well 14 through a small drill pipe and bit. Drilled rock fragments are advanced in the borehole 50 of the well and carried into the main well 14 by drilling fluid and deposited in the drill cutter recovery device described below in connection with the consideration of FIG. 4.

When the drilling of one side wellbore 50 is completed, and if the soft reservoir for trapping cuttings is not filled, the drilling system launched on the cable can be moved to a different depth, and another side wellbore may be started.

The deflector plate 42 is a guide plate angled to the axis of the main well 14. The plate 42 acts as a deflector by applying lateral force to the bit 40 and pushing the bit into the formation. The diverting plate 42 is usually attached to the drive unit 10 by means of a sliding joint 44. The diverting plate 42 can be held in a fixed position in the well 14 or at a fixed distance from the static part of the drive unit 10 at the beginning of drilling of the inclined shaft. During the first advance of the drive unit 10 after the upper parts of the drive unit are engaged in the well, the bit 40 is advanced until it contacts the deflector plate 42. After the penetration of the drill bit 40 into the well wall begins to form the side wellbore 50, the deflector plate 42 can be moved away from entry points when the drive unit 10 moves in the well 14 to a new location.

Alternatively, the deflection plate is supported by two support tubes parallel to the drill string. These pipes slide in junction 44 on the drive unit 10 and, as described above, a swivel is used. The support pipe connection is attached to the middle or upper section of the drive unit. The sliding movement of the support pipe in the joint can be controlled by the locking system in the joint as follows:

a) At the beginning of drilling a new lateral wellbore, the drive unit is shortened to bring the upper and lower parts closer to each other, and then the upper parts mesh in the well, while the lower parts remain uncoupled.

b) The locking system for the support pipes of the deflecting plate is blocked, and the pipe is fixed relative to the upper part of the drive unit.

c) Then the drive unit begins to expand, the lower section (including the drill string) moves down, the bit hits the deflecting plate, and a radial displacement is created, pressing the bit against the formation.

d) After the bit has sufficiently entered the side formation, the retainer system for the support pipe can be released. In some cases, during the completion of a lateral wellbore drilling operation, it may be discretionary to hold the deflection plate in the initial position relative to the well, and not relative to the drive unit.

Figure 4 shows an additional embodiment of the invention in which hydraulic isolation of the borehole section around the diverting plate 42 is guaranteed. This isolation is achieved with two rubber cuffs 52, 54 (alternatively with two packers) that seal in the well 14 above and below the drilling interval. Due to this insulation, the drilling fluid flowing out of the side wellbore 50 during the drilling process is forced to move to the soft reservoir 56 of the cuttings fragments attached to the lower cuff 54. When moving the tool in the borehole, the rubber cuffs or packers are retracted or lowered.

The cuttings trap 56 of the cuttings is a large soft reservoir mounted on or near the deflecting plate 42. The cuttings collected by the drilling fluid from the lateral well 50 during drilling are collected in this soft reservoir. In a preferred embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, the soft reservoir 56 extends below the deflection plate 42. The filling mechanism allows proper circulation of the drilling fluid (with the return of the drilling fluid) to ensure that the soft “bellows” type reservoir that is attached to the bottom is properly filled the cuff 54. The circulation pipe 58 is fixed between the cuffs 52, 54. The soft reservoir 56 is made porous so that the drilling fluid can pass through it, while the fragments of the cuttings remain while the drilling fluid flows back through the pipe 58 and enters the well 14 near the pump unit 26. Alternative designs instead of a soft reservoir contain porous pipes for trapping cuttings or assembly of reflectors that direct the drilling fluid along the well 14 below the tool, if there is no need to return for drilling to the bottom of the well.

The drill pipe 36 between the pump unit 26 and the engine 38 is in a state of compression to transmit axial force from the drive unit 10 to the drill bit 40 and provide load on the bit. The diameter of the pipe is usually small (presumably from 1 to 1.75 inches), and the length of the pipe can be about 150 feet. Some drilling operations may require a load on the bit of about 3 tons. Such a large load can create bending effects of the drill pipe. In large diameter boreholes, large deformations of the drill pipe can be observed, which can be detrimental to the design of the drill pipe and the drilling process. To prevent bending of the drill pipe 36 over a large portion of the well along the pipe 36 at various intervals, pipe guides 60 may be installed. These guides may contain cross-shaped elements with dimensions similar to the diameter of the main well. The pipe 36 slides in the guides 60. The guides 60 can be connected to each other by flexible connections 62 so that the maximum spacing is limited. At the upper end of the connection 62 are connected to the drive unit 10, and at the lower end with a deflecting plate 42.

The load on the bit is created by the drive unit 10, which is driven with constant force, which is preferable, but not with a constant speed. It is adjusted to quickly reduce the load on the bit when the drilling motor 38 is stopped (which can be detected by real-time monitoring of the pump pressure).

As shown in FIG. 5, a small logging (measuring) assembly 64 may be inserted between the drill pipe 36 and the motor 38. This assembly 64 may typically have an outer diameter of about 2,375 inches and an internal hole of about 1 inch to flow inside drilling mud. This node may contain at least a minimum of components for providing measurements and is connected to the control node 22 below the drive node 10. Communication can be based on wired or wireless telemetry. This control unit 22 controls the measuring unit 64 and transmits data to the surface via a cable.

The measuring node 64 may perform the following functions and contain the following.

Resistivity measurement. This can be electrode (side) logging, logging using an induction coil or logging using a toroidal antenna. For measurements with limited effect of the mutual influence of channels, localized electronics can be provided.

Inclinometer for determining the angle of inclination of the side wellbore.

Small gamma radiation detector.

The measurement of pore pressure behind the damage zone shown in Fig.6.

An expandable packer 66 may be provided to isolate the annular space of the wellbore 50. A pressure gauge is installed inside the drill string 36 below the pump assembly 26. During the measurement process, the packer 66 compacts the small annular space 60 when the pump 30 is operating in reverse mode to “pump out” the small borehole 50 of the well near the bit 40. This makes it possible to measure formation pressure. If the pump 30 used for drilling cannot create a sufficiently low pressure near the bit 40, a piston pump (not shown) can be used in parallel to significantly reduce the pressure (a valve is required for an isolated mud pump).

Integrated logging, drilling methods provide the ability to determine the profile of the recorded data depending on the radial distance from the wellbore. High resolution characterization can be achieved in a direction perpendicular to the main wellbore.

It may be important to be able to re-return to the small sidetrack 50 of the well after removing the tool from the well 14. Since depth and orientation measurements may not be enough, images of the well may be required (from electrical or ultrasonic imaging devices such as a full-size reservoir micro-scanner, micro-scanner, working in a hydrocarbon-based drilling mud, or Schlumberger ultrasonic downhole scanner). These images enable the operator to visualize a small radial borehole (which will be presented as an extended oval in the borehole wall). For such an application in the drilling system, “pass-through wiring” must be guaranteed so that the imaging device can be installed below the deflection plate. Initially, bottom-up logging is performed to detect a small borehole. After detection, use the drive unit 10 to lower the bit 40 to the appropriate depth (and with the appropriate orientation). For the purpose of returning to the side barrel, precise positioning of the device can be made, and the mismatch of the depths of the imaging system and the device can be measured by moving the drive unit.

In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 7a and 7b, the drilling function of the tool described above is replaced by a completion function. In the case shown, the liner 70, pre-loaded with cement mortar 72 and provided with plugs in the upper part 74 and lower part 76, is fixed at the end of the drill pipe 73, lowered into the well 14 and advanced into the side well 50 using the drive unit 10 and the deflecting plate 42 in the same manner as described above regarding the performance of a drilling function. After the liner 70 is located in the side wellbore 50 (Fig. 7b), the pump unit 26 is driven to push the upper plug 74 downward into the liner to extrude the lower plug 76 outward (or to break the seal at the lower end of the liner) and extruding the cement into the annular space around the liner 70 into the wellbore 50, where it can harden. The liner 70 can then be disconnected from the drill pipe 73 and the tool removed from the well 14. If the liner 70 protrudes from the lateral wellbore 50, it may be necessary to cut off a portion protruding from the wellbore. This can be done with a special tool or a suitable functional unit attached to the tool of the present invention.

In addition, the following optional completion options are available, listed below:

but. The shank may be a shank with slit-like openings.

b. Graduation equipment may include a gravel pack filter. And again, the gravel pack must be placed inside the filter to be lowered into the well and pumped out in the same manner as described above for cementing. In this case, it is necessary to provide a temporary shank inside the filter to enable pumping out of the packing from the end of the filter.

at. Intelligent completion with integrated valve and measuring systems.

In some applications, it may be imperative to perform several operations in one run into the main well. One example would be the drilling of one side wellbore and the installation of a permanent sensor in the side wellbore.

For this application, two head systems can be used. Initially, the system is oriented so that the drill bit faces in the proper direction for sidetracking. After drilling, the orienting assembly rotates the drill head 180 ° (without deflection plate). In this case, a clutch is provided to prevent (when required) the rotation of the drill head relative to the deflection plate. Then another head is placed in front of the deflecting plate prepared for insertion into the side wellbore. For example, it may be a permanent installation system for the sidetrack.

FIG. 8 shows an embodiment of the invention configured to perform several operations. The deflecting pad 42 is provided with a coupling system for pivoting (or not pivoting) together with the orienting assembly 20 and the drilling motor. In addition, the deflecting pad may be provided with two or more storage tanks 80, 81 containing the engine and other functional elements when it is disconnected.

In this application, the engine 38 is connected to the drill pipe 36 via a sleeve 82 controlled from the control unit 22. This allows the engine 36 to be disconnected so as to leave a large reservoir 80 of the deflecting pad. Then, the drill pipe sleeve 82 is guided to another small reservoir 80 in the deflecting area. This small reservoir 80 can be loaded with another functional unit 84 ending with a sleeve 82. This allows the drill pipe 36 to engage with this product. Then the tool can be used to push the functional unit 84 into the side wellbore 50 and, as described above, for permanent installation (if required).

In addition, the present invention can be adapted for use in a cased hole. With such use, an initial hoisting operation to the appropriate place with milling may be required to open the window in the casing, after which drilling and / or other operations described above can be performed.

When a tool is used through a production tubing string, changes may also be required. For example, instead of a baffle plate, a catchable baffle may be required to be lowered on a cable. In addition, a device such as a multi-finger caliper can replace the imaging device used to detect holes in the casing.

Claims (23)

1. A downhole tool comprising an axial drive unit (10) having a connection for an electric power cable extending upstream of the well (14) and including a fastening mechanism (12, 16) operating in the well (14) between the first configuration in which prevents the rotational and axial movement of the assembly (10), and the second configuration, in which the fixing mechanism (16) is axially movable in the well (14), the axial drive mechanism (18) for moving the fixing mechanism (16) in the axial direction downward well when it is in the second configuration, an engine (28) mounted on the borehole end of the drive unit (10), a hydraulic pump (30) connected to the engine (28) and provided with a hydraulic energy source, and a functional unit (38, 40) attached below hydraulic pump (30) and supplied with energy through this, while the action of the axial drive mechanism (18) is designed to move the functional unit in the axial direction down the well (14).
2. The tool according to claim 1, additionally containing an orientation unit (20), enabling axial rotation of at least part of the tool below the drive unit (10).
3. The tool according to claim 1, additionally containing a tap-off element (42) located below the functional unit (38, 40) and adapted to move the functional unit in a certain direction under the action of the drive mechanism (18).
4. The tool according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the fluid in the well (14) is used to provide a source of hydraulic energy in the hydraulic pump (30).
5. The tool according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the functional unit is a downhole device.
6. The tool according to claim 5, in which the downhole device comprises a drilling unit.
7. The tool according to claim 6, in which the drilling unit includes a drilling motor (38), provided with hydraulic energy from the pump (30).
8. The tool according to claim 7, further comprising a drill bit (40) driven by the drill motor (38).
9. The tool according to claim 7 or 8, in which the drilling motor (38) is connected to the pump (30) by means of a hollow drill shaft (36), through which hydraulic fluid flows.
10. The tool according to claim 9, further comprising at least one support element mounted on the drill shaft to provide resistance to bending during drilling.
11. The tool according to any one of claims 6 to 8, 10, further comprising at least one reflector (42), configured to direct the cuttings of the rock down the well below the tool.
12. The tool according to any one of claims 6 to 8, 10, further comprising a catcher (56) for cuttings, located below the drill assembly and attached to the tool, to catch material drilled by the drill assembly.
13. The tool according to claim 12, further comprising tap-off devices (52, 54) located above and below the drill assembly for advancing cuttings of cuttings into the trap.
14. The tool according to item 13, additionally containing a circulation pipe (58) passing between the diversion devices, to allow fluid to circulate back into the well after removing cuttings.
15. The tool according to any one of paragraphs.6-8, 10, 13, further comprising a measuring unit (64) located in the drilling unit.
16. The tool according to any one of claims 6-8, 10, 13, 14, further comprising an expandable packer (66) located above the drilling unit, which, when expanded, provides the ability to isolate by pressure at least the interval of the well, on which there is a drilling unit.
17. The tool according to claim 5, in which the downhole device includes a node for completing the well.
18. The tool according to 17, in which the downhole device comprises a tubular element (70) for completing the well, capable of moving into the well (14) when the drive unit (10) is in action and disconnected to keep it in place when removing the tool from the well (14) )
19. The tool according to claim 18, wherein the completion element is filled with a completion fluid (72), which is pumped from the completion element into the well by means of a hydraulic pump (30) around the completion element.
20. The tool according to claim 1, additionally containing a device located in the well, for storing at least one functional unit when not in use.
21. The tool according to claim 20, further comprising a locking system (80, 81) for disconnecting the functional unit stored in the storage device from the rest of the tool.
22. The tool according to claim 1, further comprising an image forming apparatus for detecting an interval of a well on which the tool for performing work is located.
Priority on points:
02/11/2003 according to claims 1-22.
RU2005128283/03A 2003-02-11 2004-02-04 Downhole tool RU2331753C2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0303019A GB2398308B (en) 2003-02-11 2003-02-11 Apparatus for moving a downhole tool for down a wellbore
GB0303019.4 2003-02-11

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RU2005128283A RU2005128283A (en) 2006-01-27
RU2331753C2 true RU2331753C2 (en) 2008-08-20

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CA (1) CA2514534C (en)
GB (1) GB2398308B (en)
MX (1) MXPA05007965A (en)
NO (1) NO20053650L (en)
RU (1) RU2331753C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2004072437A1 (en)

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CA2514534C (en) 2013-03-26
RU2005128283A (en) 2006-01-27
NO20053650L (en) 2005-11-10
WO2004072437A1 (en) 2004-08-26
CA2514534A1 (en) 2004-08-26
MXPA05007965A (en) 2005-09-20
CN1748073B (en) 2011-06-08
NO20053650D0 (en) 2005-07-27
GB2398308A (en) 2004-08-18
CN1748073A (en) 2006-03-15
GB2398308B (en) 2007-09-19
GB0303019D0 (en) 2003-03-12
GB2398308A8 (en) 2004-08-20
US20060054354A1 (en) 2006-03-16

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