CN1748073B - Downhole tool - Google Patents

Downhole tool Download PDF


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CN1748073B CN 200480003978 CN200480003978A CN1748073B CN 1748073 B CN1748073 B CN 1748073B CN 200480003978 CN200480003978 CN 200480003978 CN 200480003978 A CN200480003978 A CN 200480003978A CN 1748073 B CN1748073 B CN 1748073B
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CN 200480003978
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CN1748073A (en
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Priority to GB0303019A priority Critical patent/GB2398308B/en
Priority to GB0303019.4 priority
Application filed by 普拉德研究及开发股份有限公司 filed Critical 普拉德研究及开发股份有限公司
Priority to PCT/EP2004/001167 priority patent/WO2004072437A1/en
Publication of CN1748073A publication Critical patent/CN1748073A/en
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Publication of CN1748073B publication Critical patent/CN1748073B/en



    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B23/14Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells for displacing a cable or cable-operated tool, e.g. for logging or perforating operations in deviated wells
    • E21B4/00Drives used in the borehole
    • E21B4/18Anchoring or feeding in the borehole
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • E21B7/06Deflecting the direction of boreholes
    • E21B7/061Deflecting the direction of boreholes the tool shaft advancing relative to a guide, e.g. a curved tube or a whipstock


A downhole tool comprising: an axial drive unit ( 10 ) having a connection for an electric power cable extending up the borehole, and including an anchoring mechanism ( 12, 16 ) operable in the borehole between a first configuration in which the anchoring mechanism resists rotational and axial movement of the unit, and a second configuration in which the anchoring mechanism is moveable axially inthe borehole, an axial drive mechanism that moves the anchoring mechanism axially down the borehole when in the second configuration; a motor ( 28 ) mounted on the drive unit at the downhole end thereof; an hydraulic pump ( 30 ) connected to the motor, the pump providing a source of hydraulic power; and a functional unit connected below the hydraulic pump and powered thereby, operation of the axial drive mechanism acting to move the functional unit axially down the borehole.


井下工具 Downhole tools

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及井下工具(downhole tool),特别是涉及用于诸如油井、水井和天然气井之类的钻井工具。 [0001] The present invention relates to downhole tools (downhole tool), particularly relates to a well tool, such as oil wells, water wells and natural gas wells and the like.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在地下钻井的结构和处理方面,有许多用于运输和钻井工具操作的基本技术。 [0002] In the drilling of underground structures and process aspects, there are a number of basic transport technology and tools for drilling operations. 例如,在钻探时,钻头固定在由一系列首尾相接的空钻管形成的钻杆柱的下端。 For example, while drilling, the drill bit fixed at the lower end of the drill string by a series of end to end contact with air formed by the drill pipe. 通过在地面旋转钻杆柱,或者通过使用打孔电机,使钻头旋转,并且这种旋转和施加到钻头上的重压让钻探得以进行。 By rotating the drill string at the ground, or by using a punch motor, the drill bit rotation, and this rotation and weight on the bit is applied to allow drilling to proceed. 为了清除钻出的物质并帮助在钻探过程中将钻探泥浆(一般已知为“泥浆”) 向下泵送到钻杆柱内部,以退出钻头并将围绕钻杆柱外面的环面(armulus)钻出的物质(“钻屑”)运送回地面。 To remove the drilled material and assist in the drilling process drilling muds (commonly known as "mud") pumped down the inner string, to exit the drill bit around the outside of the drill string and the annulus (armulus) drilled material ( "cuttings") transported back to the ground. 钻探泥浆也提供对钻井的支撑,并平衡地岩层的液压,由于液柱产生的流体静压力。 The drilling mud also provides support for the drilling, formation and hydraulic balance, since the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column. 在这种技术的发展中,电机,一般以Moyno (容积式)装置的形式安装在钻头上面的钻杆柱中。 In the development of this technology, the motor, typically in the form of Moyno (positive displacement) device is installed in the drill string above the drill bit. 电机被泥浆流驱动并能够用于独立于钻杆柱的旋转来转动钻头。 Mud flow driven by the motor and can be used independently of the rotation of the drill string to rotate the drill bit. 这种技术,结合弯曲打孔组件(“弯曲潜进器”)和方向传感器使钻探的方向被控制。 This technique, combined bending punch assembly ( "bend latent feeder"), a direction sensor and the drilling direction is controlled. 对于直线钻探,使用旋转钻杆柱(“旋转钻探”)与用电机旋转钻头的技术。 For straight drilling using a rotary drill string ( "rotary drilling") and the motor rotary drill bit technology. 为了改变方向,停止旋转钻探,通过从地面旋转钻杆柱并使用打孔电机旋转钻头重新开始钻探,和通过钻杆柱(“滑动模式钻探”)从地面施加重压给钻头,弯曲潜进器定向成钻头正面点朝向打算的方向。 To change direction, rotary drilling is stopped, by rotating the drill string from the ground and the punch motor using the rotary drill bit drilling resumed, and through the drill column ( "sliding drilling mode"), the weight applied to the drill bit from the ground, the latent curved feeder oriented to point toward the front of the drill bit intended. 当打孔获得期望的方向,重新开始旋转钻探。 When punctured to obtain the desired direction, rotary drilling is resumed.

[0003] 测量装置也可以设置在钻杆柱的下部(“底孔部件”或“BHA”)。 [0003] measuring means may be provided at a lower portion of the drill string ( "bottomed member" or "BHA"). 当BHA从孔中撤回时,这些装置,例如,钻探测量(“MWD”)装置用于有关钻探工艺的测量:钻头的重量,R0P、 方向和倾斜、或钻探测井(“LWD”)装置用于涉及地岩层的测量:抵抗力、核测量、声学测量, 经过移动存储装置,经过在钻杆柱中布置的电缆,可以将数据提供给地面,或通过泥浆脉冲遥感勘测,其是在地面通过位于BHA中的警报器检测在钻探泥浆时产生的压力脉冲。 When the BHA is withdrawn from the hole, these means, for example, measuring drilling ( "MWD") means for measuring the drilling process is related to: the weight of the drill bit, R0P, direction and inclination device, logging or drilling ( "LWD") relates to the measurement of a formation: resistivity, nuclear measurements, acoustic measurements, after the mobile storage device, disposed in the cable through the drill string, can provide data to the ground, or by mud-pulse telemetry which is ground by located in the BHA alarm detects pressure pulses generated when drilling mud.

[0004] 涉及使用钻杆柱的任何活动需要在地面存在钻探平台。 [0004] any activity involving the use of the drill string requires the presence of a drilling platform on the ground. 而且,将钻杆柱放入井核将钻杆柱拉出井花费的时间相当长,尤其是非常深的井。 Furthermore, the drill string into the well drill string is pulled out of the nuclear well spent quite a long time, especially in very deep wells.

[0005] 一旦孔已经钻探,测量装置可以用在井下工具和地面之间提供动力和数据通信的缆线(“导线”、“电线”、“光滑线”)降到孔中。 [0005] once the hole has been drilled, the measuring device may be used between the downhole tool and the surface to provide a wire ( "wire", "wire", "smooth line") down hole power and data communication. 这种操作不需要使用钻井平台并可以相当快地进行。 This operation does not require drilling platform and can be relatively quickly. 但是,到目前为止,考虑到提供动力、转矩和重压到打孔钻头有困难,它只能在小范围使用导线进行钻探操作。 However, to date, taking into account to provide power, torque and weight to the drill hole is difficult, it can only use wires drilling operation in a small area. 取岩芯是通过导线系统来进行的钻探活动的一个实例。 It is one example of coring drilling activity performed by wire system. 取岩芯是使用柱形钻头从孔周围的岩石提取实芯材料,其返回到地面用于分析。 Coring drill bit is used to extract a solid cylindrical core material around the hole from the rock, returning to the surface for analysis. 导线取岩芯单元的一个实例如US4,354,558所示。 Wire coring unit as one example shown in US4,354,558. 已经提出用于从主孔的侧面钻探相当小的孔的另一种导线装置。 Another wire has been proposed for drilling relatively small holes device from the side of the main bore. 所有这些装置仅提供相当短的排水孔并且所有装置都存在提供转矩和重压给钻头的问题,特别是在钻探到岩石之前需要钻通钻井的金属套管。 All of these devices provide only relatively short drain holes and all devices are present to provide torque to the drill bit and the weight problems, especially in drilled into the rock before drilling requires drilling through metal sleeve. 如US6,167,968所示的一种方法涉及将使用短硬铣刀部件钻或铣通套管的动作与使用弹性钻具部件钻进岩石的动作分开。 As shown in US6,167,968 relates to a method using a short stiff drilling or milling cutter member through the sleeve and the elastic operation of the rock drill drilling operation member separately. 在另一种技术中,弹性钻轴用一系列圆盘包围,这样既提供支撑又让压力施加给钻头。 In another technique, the elastic quill surrounded by a series of disks, so as to provide support letting the pressure applied to the drill bit. 这种技术如US6,276,453所示。 This technique as shown in US6,276,453. 另一种分别提供牵引力和转矩的方法如US5,687,806所示。 Another traction and torque are provided a method as shown in US5,687,806.

[0006] 在钻探水平井孔时的另一个问题是重力。 [0006] Another problem when drilling a horizontal borehole gravity. 在垂直或不是非常偏的半垂直井孔中, 导入井孔的导线、缆线、盘绕管、管状绳索和工具由于重力下降到井孔。 Not very biased in a vertical or semi-vertical wellbore, the wellbore introduction wire, cable, coiled tubing, rope and the tubular tool lowered into the wellbore by gravity. 当缆线到达偏离垂直70°时,重力不再提供所需的力和由此引起的张力将工具移到井孔。 When the cable reaches from the vertical 70 °, gravity no longer provides the necessary force and resulting tension to move the tool in the wellbore. 例如,在美国专利4,463,814中,有些现有技术的方法公开了用锚定装置的牵引器。 For example, in U.S. Patent No. 4,463,814, some of the prior art methods discloses the use of the anchoring device of the tractor.

[0007] EP1M7936描述了一种导线工具,其可以到钻管内部并用于经由在底孔组件中的侧出口芯轴而在钻杆柱的外部钻探来获得岩芯。 [0007] EP1M7936 wire describes a tool which can be used to drill pipe inside and outside the drill string and drilling through the outlet side of the mandrel assembly of bottom core obtained. 在这种装置中,封隔器(packer)膨胀在钻管内,电子活塞潜进器(sub)位于封隔器上面,钻探电机和芯钻头位于封隔器下面。 In this device, a packer (Packer) is expanded in the drill pipe, submersible electronic piston feeder (Sub) located above the packer, drilling motor and core bit is located below the packer. 活塞通过在封隔器中的滑动密封提供重压给钻头驱动,转矩的提供是通过浆泥浆流从钻杆柱内部转移到封隔器下面的钻探电机。 The piston sliding seal provided by the weight of the packer in the drive to the drill bit, torque is transferred from the provided inside the drill string below the packer slurry mud flow through the drilling motor. 钻探泥浆和钻屑以正常方式经由中心孔侧面的环面和主孔的环面返回到地面。 Drill cuttings and drilling mud return in the normal manner via the annulus and annulus sides of the main bore of the central bore to the surface. 这个装置中的封隔器起到反作用点的作用,用于在钻探过程中施加转矩和给钻头的重压。 The packer apparatus counterproductive effect point, and for applying torque to the weight of the drill bit during drilling. 它还使钻探泥浆流过电机。 It also allows drilling mud to flow through the motor. 但是,因为它需要通过封隔器提供滑动密封,该设计限制了它提供延伸钻探深度的能力。 However, since it is necessary to provide a sliding seal through the packer, the design limits on its capacity to extend the drilling depth. 而且,它必须从地面供应钻探泥浆和返回钻探泥浆和钻屑的环面。 Moreover, it must be supplied drilling mud and drilling mud return annulus and drill cuttings from the ground.

[0008] 这种钻探工具的一种具体使用是钻探的再进入,其中为了提高生产、纠正等,进一步的钻探操作在退出井使进行。 [0008] One particular use of such drilling tools is reentry drilling, wherein in order to improve production, correction, etc., so that further drilling operations in the exit well. 这种技术的评论可以在Hill DNerne E,Ehlig-Economides C,和Mollinedo M的“重新进入钻探给予衰变区域新的生命(Reentry Drilling Gives New Life to Aging Fields) ”,油田周刊(Oilfield Review) (1996 年8 月)4-14 中找到。 This review technology can "re-enter the drilling area to give new life to decay (Reentry Drilling Gives New Life to Aging Fields)", oilfield Weekly (Oilfield Review) in Hill DNerne E, Ehlig-Economides C, and Mollinedo M's (1996 August) 4-14 found. 描述的一种特殊工具是VIPER盘绕管钻探系统(Coiled Tubing Drilling System),其包括具有用于电缆线的连接器的钻头模块,包括许多传感器和有关电子器件的锚定工具,包括电机和动力设备的定向工具,和具有可操纵电机的钻探单元。 A special tool is described VIPER coiled tubing drilling system (Coiled Tubing Drilling System), which comprises a drill bit having a module connector for a cable, comprising anchoring means related to many sensors and electronic devices, including motors and power equipment the orientation tool, and the drilling unit with a steerable motor. 尽管系统经由缆线提供动力和数据,它还需要提供盘绕管来沿着井推动工具。 Although the system provides power and data via a cable, it also needs to provide a coiled tube to push the tool along the well.


[0009] 本发明的目的是提供一种井下工具,其能够用导线运行和能够提供足够的转矩和给钻头的重压,以实现有效的钻探。 [0009] The object of the present invention is to provide a downhole tool which can be used to run wires and to provide sufficient torque and weight to the drill bit, to achieve effective drilling.

[0010] 根据本发明,提供井下工具包括:一轴向驱动单元,其具有用于电力缆线延伸到钻井的连接,并包括一锚定机构,其在所述钻井中可操作在第一布置(first configuration) 和第二布置(second configuration)之间,在该第一布置中所述锚定机构抵抗所述驱动单元的旋转和轴向的移动,在该第二布置中所述锚定机构在所述钻井中可轴向移动;一轴向驱动机构,其当处于所述第二布置时轴向地将所述锚定机构沿所述钻井移动;一安装在所述驱动单元上的电机,其在所述驱动单元的井下端;一液压泵,其连接所述电机,该泵提供一液压动力源;和一功能单元,其连接在所述液压泵下面并由此被供给动力,所述轴向驱动机构的操作用于将该功能单元轴向地移到所述钻井下。 [0010] According to the present invention, there is provided a downhole tool comprising: an axial drive unit having a power cable connection extends to the drilling, and including an anchoring mechanism operable in the borehole is arranged in a first between the (first configuration) and a second arrangement (second configuration), the anchoring arrangement in the first setting means against the axial movement and rotation of the drive unit, the anchor setting means in the second arrangement in the drilling axially movable; an axial drive mechanism, which when in the second arranged axially along the anchoring mechanism moving said drilling; mounted on the motor drive unit , in which the downhole end of the drive unit; a hydraulic pump connected to the motor, the pump providing a hydraulic power source; and a functional unit connected below the hydraulic pump and powered thereby, that operating said axial drive mechanism for the functional unit to move axially under the drilling.

[0011] 优选地定向单元位于驱动单元下面,这样允许至少在驱动单元下面的部分工具绕轴旋转,从而允许功能单元在特定方向定位的不对称。 [0011] positioned below the drive unit, which allows pivoting of at least the portion of the tool below the drive unit, thereby allowing the functional unit is positioned in a specific direction is preferably oriented asymmetric unit. 转向部件(diverting member)(诸如反冲板(kick plate))可以位于功能单元下面,以沿预定方向根据驱动单元的操作推动该单元,将功能单元向下推进到钻井中。 A steering member (diverting member) (such as a recoil plate (kick plate)) may be positioned below the functional unit to urge the unit in a predetermined direction according to the operation of the drive unit, the functional units to advance down the well.

[0012] 钻井一般用流体填充,液压泵优选使用其作为提供液压动力的液压流体供应。 [0012] filled with a fluid drilling ships, which serves as a pump is preferably used to provide hydraulic power the hydraulic fluid. [0013] 功能单元具有许多可能的功能:钻探、井填充、测量、激励(stimulation)、纠正(remediation)等功能,和这些功能的任意组合。 [0013] functional unit has a number of possible functions: drilling, well completion, measurement, excitation (stimulation), correcting (Remediation) etc., and any combination of these functions. 其中功能单元具有钻探功能,它优选地包括钻探电机,其通过来自泵的液压流体提供动力。 Wherein the functional unit has a drilling function, it preferably comprises a drilling motor, which is powered by hydraulic fluid from the pump. 钻探电机一般通过流体流过的中空钻轴连接泵(其被电机驱动),并通过驱动单元向前推动钻探单元。 Hollow drilling motor typically by drilling fluid flow through the shaft connecting the pump (which is driven by a motor), and the drilling unit driven forward by the driving unit. 钻头可以连接钻探电机。 Drilling motor can be connected to the drill bit.

[0014] 通过适当地使用钻探工具中的反冲板和/或弯曲潜进器(bend sub)(例如,弯曲潜进器沿基本上垂至于反冲板的平面定位,钻头面向离开板的方向),可以使钻头远离钻井钻探。 [0014] As substantially perpendicular to the plane of positioning of the recoil plate, facing the direction away from the drill plate by suitably used in the drilling tool recoil plate and / or bending latent feeder (bend sub) (e.g., along a curved dive ), you can make drilling away from the drilling bit. 远离钻井钻探的延伸取决于钻轴的长度。 Extending away from the drilling drilling depends on the length of the drill shaft. 优选地,至少在钻轴上设置一个支撑件,以避免钻探过程中的弯曲。 Preferably, the drill spindle is provided at least one support member, in order to avoid bending of the drilling process.

[0015] 为了防止钻出的物质阻塞井或使工具被卡住,钻屑收集器可以位于钻探单元下面并安装到工具上,收集器(一般是袋或存储管)可以随着电缆线用工具从井中抽出。 [0015] In order to prevent drilled material blocking the well or the tool is stuck, cuttings collector may be positioned below the drilling unit and is mounted to the tool, the collector (typically a bag or storage tube) may be as Cable tool drawn from the well. 多个转向器(diverter)(例如,橡胶帽)可以位于钻探单元上面和下面,以强迫钻屑进入收集器。 A plurality of diverters (Diverter) (e.g., rubber cap) may be located above and below the drilling unit to force the cuttings into the collector. 在这种情况下,优选提供循环管,让流体循环回到已经清除钻屑的钻井中。 In this case, it is preferable to provide circulating pipe, circulating fluid back has cleared drilling cuttings. 可替换地,设置一个或多个折流板(baffle),将含有钻屑的流体导向工具下面的钻井下,以避免卡住。 Alternatively, one or more baffles (baffle), the guide means comprising the following fluid drilling cuttings, in order to avoid jamming.

[0016] 可选地,钻探单元还可以包括测量单元和膨胀封隔器,用于提供部分钻井的压力隔离。 [0016] Alternatively, the drilling unit may further include a measurement unit and an inflatable packer, a pressure portion of the well to provide isolation. 后面的特征在使用工具进行地岩层压力测量时很有用。 Useful when the latter features a formation pressure measurements using the tool.

[0017] 功能单元的可替换形式可以包括填充单元(completion unit)。 [0017] functional units alternate form may include a padding unit (completion unit). 它一般包括管状填充部件,例如,套管或屏障(screen),一般借助正确定位的反冲板或造斜器(whipstock) 可以前进到钻井中,并且当工具从钻井中抽出时,被脱离以保持在合适的位置。 It generally comprises a tubular member filled with, e.g., a cannula or a barrier (Screen), typically by means of a recoil plate or whipstock (whipstock) can be correctly positioned to the drilling proceeds, and when the tool is withdrawn from the well, to be disengaged held in place. 填充部件可以用填充流体,例如,粘合剂浆或砂烁包装(gravel pack),它们借助于液压泵从填充部件泵送出来,进入填充部件周围的钻井中。 Filling member may be filled with a fluid, e.g., adhesive paste or sand bright packaging (gravel pack), which by means of a hydraulic pump from the filling member, the filling member of drilling into the surrounding medium.

[0018] 工具还包括位于钻井中的存储单元,其中当不使用时至少可以存储一个功能单元。 [0018] The drilling tool further includes a storage unit can store at least one functional unit which when not in use. 在这种情况下,优选设置闩锁系统,用于使存储在存储单元中的功能单元脱离其余工具。 In this case, it is preferable to provide a latch system for the functional unit is stored in the storage unit from the rest of the tool.

[0019] 工具的另一个实施例包括成像装置(imaging device),用于定位工具将操作的钻井部分。 Another [0019] embodiment of the tool comprises an imaging device (imaging device), tools for the drilling operation portion is positioned.


[0020] 下面通过附图所示的实施例描述本发明,其中: [0020] The present invention is described below by way of examples shown in the drawings, wherein:

[0021] 图1表示本发明第一实施例的共同特征; [0021] FIG. 1 shows a first embodiment of the common features of the present invention;

[0022] 图2表示图1的实施例用于钻探的结构; [0022] FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of a structure for drilling embodiment;

[0023] 图3a和北表示图2的实施例在钻探操作的不同阶段; [0023] FIG. 3a and FIG. 2 represents the North at different stages of the drilling operation in Example embodiment;

[0024] 图4表示本发明第二实施例用于钻探的结构; [0024] FIG. 4 shows a second embodiment of a structure for drilling embodiment of the present invention;

[0025] 图5表示本发明第三实施例用于钻探和测量的结构; [0025] FIG. 5 shows the configuration of a third embodiment of the drilling measurements and the present invention;

[0026] 图6表示本发明第四实施例用于钻探和压力测量的结构; [0026] FIG. 6 illustrates an example configuration for drilling and pressure measurement to a fourth embodiment of the present invention;

[0027] 图7a和7b表示本发明第五实施例用于完成不同阶段操作的结构和 [0027] Figures 7a and 7b show a fifth embodiment of the present invention, the structure for performing the different stages of operation and

[0028] 图8表示本发明第六实施例用于多项操作的结构。 [0028] FIG. 8 shows a sixth embodiment of the present invention is a structure for more operations.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0029] 现在参照附图,表示本发明的多个实施例。 [0029] Referring now to the drawings, showing a plurality of embodiments of the present invention. 尽管在文中描述的所有这些实施例是开口孔,应该理解,这也可以是已下套管井,或者包括钻杆柱或生产油管(production tubing)。 While all of these embodiments described herein is an opening hole, it should be understood that it may have a cased well, comprising a drill string or tubing or production (production tubing). 所有这些理解包括在术语“钻井”的使用中。 All of these are included in appreciated that the term "drilling" of. 而且,在钻井和工具的布置的上下文中,所用的术语“上“表示朝地面方向,和“下”表示远离地面方向,即使讨论的钻井不是垂直的。 "Upper" and the term, and in the context of the drilling tool arranged in the direction towards the ground is represented by, and "lower" indicates a direction away from the ground, the drilling is not even discuss the vertical. 本发明的第一实施例在图1中示出,包括驱动单元10,其包括用于电缆线(未示出) 的连接。 A first embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 1, including 10, comprising a cable (not shown) is connected to the drive unit. 驱动单元10基本上是一牵引器单元(tractor unit),诸如在US5,954,131所描述的。 The drive unit 10 is essentially a tractor unit (tractor unit), such as described in US5,954,131. 但是,在此描述的结构中,它位于工具串(tool string)的顶部并用于沿钻井推动工具,而不是在其后面拉它们。 However, in the configuration described here, it is located at the top of the tool string (tool string) and for pushing along a drilling tool, rather than pull them behind it. 而且,导线用于提供在单元10以下的动力和数据。 Further, wires for providing power and data in units of 10 or less.

[0030] 驱动单元通过延伸对着钻井壁14定位于单元10 —端的锁定部件12来操作。 [0030] By extending the borehole wall 14 is positioned against the unit driving unit 10 - end of the locking member 12 to operate. 对应的锁定部件16设置在驱动单元10的另一端,但是,在这第一布置中,它们相对钻井14不锁定。 Corresponding locking member 16 is provided at the other end of the driving unit 10, however, in this first arrangement, they are relatively drilling 14 is not locked. 在锁定部件12、16之间的部分驱动单元包括延伸和收缩机构18。 In the part of the drive unit between the locking member 12, 16 includes an extension and retraction mechanism 18. 操作该机构18,以向钻井下推动驱动单元的下部。 The operating mechanism 18 to push the lower portion of the drive unit to the drilling. 一旦机构18完全延伸,该单元通过相对钻井14锁定下部部件16、上部部件12不与钻井14锁定、并收缩该机构18而前进,从而将单元的上部拽下井。 Once the mechanism 18 is fully extended, the locking means 14 by drilling a lower opposing member 16, the upper member 12 is not locked with the drilling 14, and shrinkage of the mechanism 18 is advanced so that the upper unit is pulled downhole. 每当需要时可以重复这种循环。 Whenever necessary, the cycle is repeated. 当期望将工具运送到井的垂直部分或从井里抽出工具时,部件12、16组不锁定,工具由于重力向下移动或以通常的方式通过缆线拉回地面。 When the desired vertical portion of the well tool is conveyed into the well or withdrawn from the tool, the locking member 12, 16 is not set, the tool moves down by gravity or is pulled back in the usual manner ground via a cable.

[0031] 紧接着定向潜进器20位于驱动单元10下面。 [0031] Then a latent directional feeder 20 is located below the drive unit 10. 它与上述VIPER盘绕管钻探系统中使用的潜进器基本相同。 It uses substantially the same as the VIPER coiled tubing drilling system described above latent feeder. 定向潜进器包括电机,并允许上面的工具部分和下面的潜进器之间相对绕轴旋转。 Directional latent feeder comprises a motor, and to permit relative rotation about an axis between the upper and the lower tool part latent feeder.

[0032] 控制潜进器22位于定向潜进器20下面。 [0032] The feeder 22 is controlled submersible directional latent feeder 20 below. 控制潜进器22包括许多功能,用于控制工具(包括电源),和用于控制遥感勘测系统、系统控制逻辑等。 Control feeder 22 comprises a number of latent functionality, control means (including power supply), and for controlling telemetry system, system control logic used.

[0033] 在控制潜进器22 (或可能控制潜进器22的形成部分)下面是导航潜进器M。 [0033] In the control unit 22 into a latent (or may be formed into a latent control section 22) Next navigation latent feeder M. 它包括用于确定工具在钻井14中的位置和方向的加速计、磁力计和陀螺仪。 It comprises means for determining the position and direction of the drilling tool 14 in the accelerometers, magnetometers and gyroscopes. 合适的传感器包括义! Suitable sensors include justice! ^咖! ^ Coffee! ^印吐的GPIT倾角计,或上述VIPER工具的导航传感器。 ^ Printed spit GPIT inclinometer, or navigation sensors VIPER tool described above. 导航潜进器可以位于定向潜进器上面。 Navigator dive may be located above the feeder latent oriented. 在这种情况下,要求记录在定向潜进器下面的工具部分相对导航潜进器的相对位置的指针功能。 In this case, the relative positions required to record a latent feeder directional navigation latent feeder part below pointer tool functions.

[0034] 包括驱动Moyno (容积式)泵30的电机28的泵送单元沈位于导航潜进器M下面。 [0034] comprising a drive of Moyno (positive displacement) pump 30, the motor 28 of the pumping unit of the navigation latent counterbore feeder M below. 电机观和泵30的尺寸和功率根据操作限制来选择。 View of the motor size and power and the pump 30 is selected according to operational limitations. 例如,电机观的功率取决于在电缆线上可得到的功率量和工具串能够通过钻井、生产油管等之类的最大尺寸限度。 For example, power of the motor depends on the maximum size limit concept through the drilling string, production tubing and the like on the cable and the amount of power available tools. 泵30的输出受电机20的输出功率、电机观的速度、还有操作尺寸限制的影响。 The output of the pump 30 by the speed of the output power of the motor 20, the motor concept, as well as size limitations affect operation. 泵在其上端具有入口32,以让钻井流体流入泵,和在其下端具有出口34,流体从出口泵送,以提供液压动力供应。 A pump having an inlet 32 ​​at its upper end to allow drilling fluid into the pump, and an outlet 34 at its lower end, a fluid outlet from the pump to provide hydraulic power supply.

[0035] 本发明的功能单元安装在泵30的出口端34。 Functional unit [0035] The present invention is mounted at the outlet end 34 of the pump 30. 图2-7表示钻探工具形式的功能单元。 2-7 showing the drilling tool in the form of a functional unit. 如图2所示,小直径钻管(例如,1.5”)形式的钻轴36连接该泵30的输出。该轴的长度取决于从主钻井14钻探的任何侧孔的最大长度。钻探电机38位于该轴36下端。该钻探电机38 —般是Moyno装置(除了在该结构中不同之外,与泵30相似,它被从泵30经由钻探管36到达、进入电机的流体流驱动)。钻探电机38 —般相对小01/8”或23/8”),一般包括象已知的方向性钻探操作一样的在壳体中的弯曲。实际上优选使用具有弯曲壳体的弯曲电机,以在短距离构成足够的角度,从主钻孔14形成有效的侧孔。 The maximum length of 2, a small diameter drill pipe (e.g., 1.5 ") in the form of a drill shaft 36 connected to the output of the pump 30. The length of any side of the shaft depends from the main drill hole 14 is drilled. Drilling motor 38 located at the lower end of the shaft 36 of the drilling motor 38 - it is generally Moyno apparatus (except for the structure, and similar to the pump 30, which is reached from the pump 30 via the drill pipe 36, the fluid flow into the motor drive) drilling. motor 38 - as a relatively small 01/8 "or 23/8"), generally known as comprising a directional drilling operation is bent in the same housing is actually preferably having curved bending machine housing, in order. constituting a short distance sufficient angle, effectively forming side from the main bore hole 14.

[0036] 钻头40 (例如,2. 4”)以正常方式安装到钻探电机38上。 [0036] bit 40 (e.g., 2.4 ") mounted on the drilling motor 38 in the normal manner.

[0037] 反冲板42位于钻头下面,但通过支撑件43直接连接到驱动单元10的上部。 [0037] recoil plate 42 is located beneath the drill bit, but is connected to an upper portion of the drive unit 10 via a support member 43 directly. 反冲板42包括板或相对钻井轴成角度的其它平面,并用于沿特定方向相对钻井推动钻头。 Recoil plate 42 includes a plate or other planar drill axis relative to an angle, relative to the drilling and pushing the drill bit in a particular direction. 在操作中,反冲板以与造斜器相似的方式起作用,如下面所述。 In operation, the recoil plate whipstock function in a similar manner, as described below. 支撑件43通过可锁定滑动连接44连接驱动单元。 The support member 43 slidably connected to the drive unit 44 via a locking connection. 旋转节(swiver) 46设置在沿支撑件43的中路(part way),以让反冲板42通过操作定向潜进器20在钻井中定向。 Swivel (swiver) 46 is provided in the middle (part way) along the support member 43, plate 42 is oriented to allow the recoil latent feeder 20 by operating the directional drilling. 反冲板42的功能在下面详细描述。 Backlash function plate 42 is described in detail below.

[0038] 在使用时,工具利用电缆线下降到井中,直到到达期望的深度。 [0038] In use, the tool lowered into the well using the cable, until reaching the desired depth. 在该位置驱动单元10通过操作上锁定部件12锁定并驱动电泵送单元沈。 Locking the position of the drive unit 10 by operating the locking member 12 and feed pump drive unit sink. 流体(“泥浆”)从主井14泵送到小钻管36中。 Fluid ( "mud") from the pump 14 to the main shaft 36 in a small drill pipe. 泥浆流进钻管36中并到达使钻头40旋转的电机38。 Mud flow into the drill pipe 36 and reaches the motor 40 rotates the drill bit 38.

[0039] 在开始钻探之前,定向潜进器20确保钻探电机38的弯曲,反冲板42面向正确方向(经常称为“工具面”)。 [0039] Before starting drilling, the orientation of a latent feeder 20 to ensure the bending of the drilling motor 38, the recoil plate 42 facing the right direction (often referred to as a "tool face"). 轴向位移和钻头重压(“W0B”)通过驱动单元10来传输。 Axial displacement of the drill bit and weight ( "W0B") transmitted by the drive unit 10.

[0040] 这种组合技术让钻头40推进到地岩层,并且由于弯曲钻探电机38而钻探弯曲孔。 [0040] This combination technique allows the drill bit 40 to advance into the formation, the drilling motor 38 and the bending and drilling curved holes. 选择弯曲角度,使得侧孔50在其长度(一般大约为100英尺)上转90度,如图3a和北所示。 Selected bend angle, such that the side hole 50 (typically about 100 feet) on a 90 degree rotation in its length, as shown in Figures 3a and north. 在侧孔50中泥浆循环经由小钻杆柱和钻头由主孔14中的泵送单元沈来提供。 The side hole 50 in the mud circulating through the drill string and drill bit smaller by a pumping unit provided in the main bore 14 of Shen. 在侧孔50中的钻屑通过泥浆运送和送进主孔14中并存放在钻屑收集装置中,如下面参照图4 的描述。 Drill cuttings in the mud side of the hole 50 by the main conveyance and feed holes 14 exist in cuttings collection device, as described below with reference to FIG. 4.

[0041] 当一个侧孔50的钻探完成时,如果钻屑收集袋不满,导线电钻探系统可以移到另一个深度并开始钻探另一个侧孔。 [0041] When drilling a lateral hole 50 is completed, if dissatisfaction cuttings collection bag, electrical wires drilling system can be moved to another depth and another lateral hole drilling starts.

[0042] 反冲板42是与主孔14的轴设成角度的导向板。 [0042] recoil plate and the shaft 42 is a main bore 14 of the angled guide plate is provided. 该板42起造斜器的作用,以在钻头40上产生侧力并将钻头推进地岩层。 The role of plate 42 from the whipstock to generate side force on the drill bit 40 and advancing to the formation. 这种反冲板42 —般通过滑动连接44连接到驱动单元10。 This recoil plate 42 - as connector 44 is connected to the driving unit 10 by the slide. 反冲板42可以保持在钻井14的固定位置,或当启动反冲板钻探时,固定在距驱动单元10的静止部分一定距离。 Recoil plate 42 may be held in a fixed position of the drill 14, or when starting the drilling recoil plate, the stationary part of the drive unit 10 is fixed to a certain distance from the. 在驱动单元10的第一推动位移过程中,在驱动单元10的上部被锁定在钻井中之后,钻头40被推进与反冲板42接触。 In the process of the first push displacement of the drive unit 10, after the upper portion of the drive unit 10 is locked in the drilling, the drill bit 40 is urged into contact with the recoil plate 42. 一旦钻头40开始穿透钻井壁以形成侧孔50时,当驱动单元10重新位于钻井14中时反冲板42可以远离进入点。 Once the drill bit 50 begins to penetrate the borehole wall 40 to form a side hole, the drive unit 10 when re-positioned drilling 14 in the recoil plate 42 may be remote from the entry point.

[0043] 在一替换中,反冲板用两个平行于钻杆柱的支撑管保持。 [0043] In an alternative, the recoil plate in the drill string holding two parallel support tube. 这些管滑进驱动单元10 的连接44并使用旋转节,如上所述。 These tubes slide into the connection 44 of the drive unit 10 and use the swivel, as described above. 用于支撑管的连接被安装到驱动单元的中部或上部。 A middle or upper connecting the support tube is mounted to the drive unit. 支撑管在连接中的滑动可以通过连接中的锁定系统来控制,如下: A sliding support tube in the connection can be controlled by a locking connection system as follows:

[0044] a)在新侧孔的钻探开始时,驱动单元缩短,以使上部和下部在一起,然后在孔中锁定其上部,同时释放其下部。 [0044] a) while drilling a new hole is started side, shortening the drive unit, so that the upper and lower parts together, and then locks its upper part in the hole, while releasing its lower part.

[0045] b)用于反冲板支撑管的锁定系统锁定。 [0045] b) a locking tube plate supporting recoil locking system. 这样相对驱动单元的上部固定该管。 Such a drive unit relative to the upper portion of the tube is fixed.

[0046] c)然后,驱动单元开始延伸。 [0046] c) Then, the drive unit extends. 这样将底部件(包括钻杆柱)朝底部推。 Thus the base member (including a drill string) pushed towards the bottom. 钻头撞击反冲板并且产生轴向位移,强迫钻头进入地岩层。 Impact drill recoil plate and axial displacement, forcing the bit into the earth formation.

[0047] d)当钻头充分地进入侧地岩层时,可以释放用于支撑管的锁定系统。 [0047] d) when the drill bit into the side of a formation sufficiently, the locking system can be used to release the support tube. 在有些情况下,它需要一些选择,以在完成侧孔的钻探操作的过程中将反冲板保持在相对于钻井的初始位置,而不是相对于驱动单元。 In some cases, it takes some options to complete the recoil in the side of the hole during a drilling operation plate held in an initial position relative to the wellbore, rather than relative to the drive unit.

[0048] 本发明的另一实施例如图4所示,其保证围绕反冲板42的井部被液压隔离。 [0048] Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 4, which ensures the well around the recoil plate 42 is hydraulically isolated. 这种隔离通过两个橡胶帽52、54 (用两个封隔器替换)来实现,其密封钻井14的上和下钻探部分。 This isolation is achieved by two rubber caps 52, 54 (replaced by two packers) that seal the upper and lower drilling drilling portion 14. 这种隔离强迫在钻探过程中流出侧孔50的泥浆强制进入安装在下帽M上的钻屑收集袋56中。 This isolation forced outflow side mud hole 50 during drilling cuttings forced into the mounting M on the lower cap collection bag 56. 当在井孔中移动工具时,橡胶帽或封隔器收缩或缩小。 When moving the tool in the wellbore, the rubber cap or packer or reduced shrinkage.

[0049] 钻屑袋56包括安装在或靠近反冲板42的大袋。 [0049] Sack cuttings bag 56 includes a mounting plate 42 at near or recoil. 该袋收集在钻探过程中由侧孔50 出来的泥浆带出的钻屑。 The bag was collected during drilling out of the side hole 50 by the mud out of the drill cuttings. 在优选装置中,袋56伸到反冲板42下面,如图4所示。 In the preferred arrangement, the bag 56 beneath the recoil plate out into the 42, as shown in FIG. 填充机构让钻屑正确地循环(用泥浆流回,以保证正确的填充),例如,安装在下帽M上的“风箱”型袋。 Filling mechanism allows proper circulation of the cuttings (with mud flow back, to ensure proper filling), for example, on the lower mounting cap M is "bellows" -type bags. 循环管58安装到帽52和M之间。 Circulation pipe 58 is mounted between the cap 52 and M. 袋56是能渗透的,使得在泥浆通过的同时保留钻屑,通过的泥浆返回到管58中并进入泵送单元沈附近的钻井14。 Permeable bag 56 is so retained while the drill cuttings through the mud through mud return to the drilling tube 58 and into the vicinity of the pumping unit sink 14. 可替换的装置包括代替袋的收集钻屑的渗透管,或挡板装置,所述挡板将钻屑导向工具下面的钻井14,如果能够重新进入钻井下部不是必要的。 Alternatively the device may include collecting cuttings permeate tube, bag, or in place of the shutter device, the shutter guide drill cuttings below the drilling tool 14, if able to re-enter the lower part of the drilling is not necessary.

[0050] 在泵送单元沈和电机38之间的钻探管36在压缩的状态下,将轴向力从驱动单元10传输到钻头40,并保证钻头的重压(WOB)。 [0050] In the drill pipe 38 between the sink and the pumping unit motor 36 in the compressed state, the axial force transmitted from the driving unit 10 to the drill bit 40, and to ensure that the weight of the drill bit (WOB). 管的直径一般很小(可能在1-1. 75”之间), 管长度大约是150英尺。在有些钻探应用中需要高达3吨的W0B。这种轴向负载在钻探管中可以产生失稳影响(bucklingeffect)。在大直径的钻井中,钻探管可能产生大变形,这会有害于钻探管的结构和钻探过程。为了避免钻探管36在大孔部分的失稳,管导向器60可以沿管36安装在不同距离。这些导向器可以包括尺寸近似主孔直径的十字形部件。管36 在导向器60中滑动。导向器60用弹性连接器62相互连接,从而限制最大间隔。连接器62 的上端连接驱动单元10,下端连接反冲板42。 Generally small diameter of the tube (possibly 1-1. 75 "between), the tube length is about 150 feet. In some drilling applications requiring up to three tons W0b. Such axial load may be generated in the loss of the drill pipe Effect stability (bucklingeffect). drilling large diameter, a large drill pipe may deform, which will be detrimental to the drill pipe structure and drilling process in order to avoid buckling the drill pipe 36 in the large hole portion, a tube guide 60 may the tube 36 is mounted at different distances. these cross-shaped guide member may include a main bore size approximately the diameter of the tube 36 to slide in the guide 60 the guide 60 is connected to each other with an elastic connector 62, so as to limit the maximum interval. connector 62 is connected to the upper end of the drive unit 10, the lower end plate 42 connected to recoil.

[0051] 通过驱动单元10产生W0B,其优选以恒力操作,而不是恒速。 [0051] W0B generated by the driving unit 10, which preferably operate at constant force rather than constant speed. 当钻探电机38停止时(可以通过实时泵压监控来检测),控制它迅速减小W0B。 When the motor 38 is stopped while drilling (may be detected by real-time pump pressure monitoring), the control that decreases rapidly W0B.

[0052] 小测井测量)潜进器64可以安装在钻探管36和电机38之间,如图5所示。 [0052] Small logging measurements) latent feeder 64 may be mounted between the motor 38 and drill pipe 36, as shown in FIG. 当具有用于内部泥浆流的大约1”的内部孔时,这个潜进器64—般具有大约2^V'的0D。这个潜进器至少包含支撑测量的最小部件,并连接在驱动单元10下面的控制潜进器22。通信可以基于导线或无线遥感勘测。该控制潜进器22控制所述测量潜进器64,并通过电缆线将数据传输到地面。 When an internal bore having an internal mud flow approximately 1 ", this dive as approximately 64- 2 0D ^ V 'in. This dive into the support member comprises at least a minimum measurement, and is connected to the driving unit 10 22. a communication controller latent feeder may be based on the following wire or wireless telemetry. the latent control 22 controls the measuring feeder latent feeder 64, and data transmission through the cable to the ground.

[0053] 测量潜进器64可以包括以下功能: [0053] The measurements of the latent feeder 64 may comprise the following features:

[0054]-抵抗力测量。 [0054] - resistance measurement. 这可以是基于电极的(侧记录)、基于感应线圈的、或基于环形天线的。 This may be based on an electrode (recording side), induction coil-based, or based on the loop antenna. 当限制串话干扰效应时,局部化电子设备可以用于测量。 When the limit crosstalk effects, the electronic device may be used for the localized measurement.

[0055]-倾斜计,以确定侧孔的倾斜。 [0055] - an inclinometer to determine the inclination of the side hole.

[0056]-微型Y射线检测仪。 [0056] - Miniature Y ray detector.

[0057]-在如图6所示的损坏区域的气孔压力测量。 [0057] - measuring the pressure in the pores of the damaged area 6 shown in FIG. 可膨胀封隔器66可以提供来隔离侧孔50的环面。 Inflatable packer 66 may be provided to isolate the annulus 50 of the side hole. 压力测量表安装在泵送单元沈下面的钻杆柱36内部。 Pressure gauges mounted inside the pumping unit 36 ​​sink below the drill string. 在测量过程中,当泵30以反相模式运行以“清空”钻头40附近的小井孔50时,封隔器66密封小环面。 In the measurement process, when the pump 30 operates in reverse mode to "empty" when the wells 50 near the drill hole 40, the packer 66 sealing the annulus small. 这样可以测量地岩层压力。 Such formation pressure can be measured. 如果用于钻探的泵30不能在钻头40附近产生足够低的压力,活塞泵(未示出)可以并行用于大压力的减小(需要阀来隔离钻探泵)。 If the pump 30 used for drilling can not produce a sufficiently low pressure in the vicinity of the drill bit 40, a piston pump (not shown) may be used in parallel for large reduced pressure (needed to isolate the valve drilling pump).

[0058] 一体的测井、钻探方法允许确定记录数据相对距离井孔的轴向距离的轮廓图。 [0058] The integrated logging, drilling methods allows to determine the axial distance from the recorded data corresponding to the profile of the wellbore. 可以实现垂直于主井孔的高清晰度特性。 High resolution properties can be achieved perpendicularly to the main wellbore.

[0059] 在从钻井14抽出工具之后再进入小侧孔50的能力很重要。 [0059] The ability of the tool from the well after extraction 14 and then into the small side holes 50 is important. 因为深度和方向测量也许不充分,需要钻井图像(从电子或超声图像,诸如khlumberger的FMI、OBMI或UBI工具)。 Since depth and orientation measurements may be insufficient, it requires drilling image (from an electronic or ultrasound images, such as the khlumberger FMI, OBMI or UBI tools). 这些图像让操作者目视小半径孔(其在钻井壁上呈现长椭圆)。 These images allow the operator to visually smaller pore radius (which is presented in the wall of the borehole oblong). 为了这种应用,钻探系统应该保证“整个连线(though-wiring)”,从而成像工具可以安装在反冲板下面。 For such applications, the drilling system should guarantee "the entire connection (though-wiring)", so that the imaging tool can be installed under the recoil plate. 最初进行在上面的测井,以定位小孔。 Initially logging in the above, to locate the hole. 当定位后,驱动单元10用于将钻头40下降到正确的深度(并且在正确的方向)。 After positioning, the drive unit 10 for the drill bit 40 is lowered to the proper depth (and in the right direction). 可以通过驱动单元的位移来测量为重新进入侧孔而改善的所述装置的定位以及成像系统和所述装置之间的深度偏差。 May be measured as the depth of the deviation between the positioning apparatus and an imaging system and the apparatus re-enter the side hole being improved by the displacement of the drive unit. [0060] 在图7a和7b所示的本发明的实施例中,上述工具的钻探布置由填充功能取代。 [0060] In an embodiment of the present invention is shown in Figures 7a and 7b, the drilling tool is arranged above substituted by a filling function. 在图示的示例中,预装有粘合剂浆72并在顶部74和底部76设置有活塞的衬管70连接钻探管73的端部,以与上述涉及的钻探功能相似的方式,使用驱动单元10和反冲板42钻进孔14中并前进到侧孔50中。 In the illustrated example, the pre-installed adhesive paste 72 and the top 74 and bottom 76 of the piston is provided with a liner 70 connected to drill pipe end 73, with the above-described functions of the drilling according to a similar manner using the drive drilling holes 42 and the recoil plate unit 10 proceeds to the side holes 14 and 50. 当衬管70位于侧孔50中时(图7b),操作泵送单元26,以泵送所述上活塞74下到衬管内部,强迫所述下活塞76出来(或切断衬管下端的密封),并强迫粘合剂浆进入侧孔50中围绕衬管70的环面,允许设置在此处。 When (or cut off the lower end of the liner out of the sealing piston 76 is positioned in the liner 70 (FIG. 7b) side of the hole 50, the operation of the pumping unit 26, to pump the piston 74 down to the upper inner liner, forcing the lower ), and forcing the pulp into the adhesive side bore annulus 50 surrounding the liner 70 to allow setting here. 然后,衬管70脱离钻探管73,并且工具从钻井14中抽出。 Then, the liner 70 from the drill pipe 73 and the tool 14 is withdrawn from the drilling. 如果衬管70从侧孔50延伸,它需要从钻井壁铣削部分凸起。 If the liner 70 extends from the side hole 50, which protrudes from the borehole wall requires milling portion. 这可能用特殊工具或安装到本发明工具上的合适功能单元来做。 This may be a special tool or with a suitable functional unit attached to the tool of the present invention do.

[0061] 也可以使用其它填充选择,如下: [0061] may also be used to select other filler, as follows:

[0062] a)衬管可以是槽形衬管。 [0062] a) may be a slotted liner liner.

[0063] b)所述填充可以由烁石包装的过滤器组成。 [0063] b) the filling may consist of a filter package sparkle stone. 再则,为了运送到孔内,包装的烁石包含在过滤器内部,为了粘合,以上述相同的方式泵送出来。 Furthermore, in order to transport the hole, the package comprising sparkle stone inside the filter, for adhesion in the same manner as described above is pumped out. 在这种情况下,需要在屏障内部提供暂时的衬管,以让所述包装被泵送到所述屏障端部的外面。 In this case, it is necessary to provide a temporary liner inside the barrier to allow the package to be pumped into the outer end portion of the barrier.

[0064] c)具有集成阀(integrated valve)和测量系统的智能化填充(intelligentcompletion)。 [0064] c) with an integrated valve (integrated valve) intelligent filling and measurement systems (intelligentcompletion).

[0065] 在有些应用中,在主孔的一次运行中进行多项操作是很重要的。 [0065] carried out several operations in a single run some applications in the main bore is very important. 一个示例是一次侧向钻探和侧向永久传感器的安装。 One example is a lateral drilling and installation of permanent sensor in the lateral.

[0066] 对于这种应用,可以使用两个头部系统。 [0066] For such applications, the system can use two heads. 开始,该系统定向,使得钻头面对侧向的正确方向。 Starts, the system is oriented such that the direction of the right lateral face of the drill bit. 在钻探之后,定向潜进器转动钻头180度(没有反冲垫(kick pad))。 After drilling, the orientation of a latent feeder rotary drill bit 180 (not recoil pad (kick pad)). 在这种情况下,离合器从反冲垫脱离(需要时)钻头的方向。 In this case, the clutch is disengaged from the direction of bit recoil pads (if desired). 然后,另一个钻头位于反冲垫的前面, 准备进入侧孔。 Then, another bit in front of the recoil pad, ready to enter the lateral hole. 例如,这可以是用于侧向的永久安装系统。 For example, this may be a permanent installation system for the lateral.

[0067] 图8表示本发明的实施例用于多项操作的结构。 [0067] FIG. 8 shows an embodiment of the present invention is a structure for more operations. 反冲垫42设置离合器系统(clutch system),用于与定向潜进器20和钻探电机一起旋转(或不旋转)。 Recoil pad 42, a clutch system (clutch system), for rotation with the directional feeder 20 and submersible drilling motor (or does not rotate). 而且,反冲垫可以配备两个或更多的存储桶(barrel)80、81,以在开闩时容纳电机和其它功能元件。 Moreover, recoil pad may be provided with two or more buckets (barrel) 80,81, to accommodate the motor and other functional elements when unlatched.

[0068] 对于这种应用,电机38通过由控制潜进器22所控制的闩锁系统82而连接钻探管36。 [0068] For such applications, submersible motor 38 by the control system into the latch 82 is connected to control 22 the drill pipe 36. 这允许电机38开闩使得其被留在大反冲桶80中。 This allows unlatching the motor 38 such that it is left in the large recoil barrel 80. 然后,钻探管闩锁82可以被引入反冲垫42中的另一个小桶80。 Then, the drill pipe 82 may be introduced into the latch 80 in the keg 42 another recoil pad. 这个小桶80可以装载由闩锁系统82停止的不同功能单元84。 The keg 80 can be loaded with different functional units is stopped by the latch system 8284. 这允许钻探管36闩到闩锁系统82上。 This allows the drill pipe 36 on the latch 82 to the latch system. 然后,该工具可以用于将功能单元84推入侧孔50中并将它永久地安装(如果需要),如上所述。 Then, the tool may be used to push the functional unit 84 in the side hole 50 and it is permanently installed (if required), as described above.

[0069] 本发明还可以适用于已下套管井。 [0069] The present invention also applies to a cased well. 在这种情况下,到适宜位置的第一次运行需要用铣刀在套管中开一个窗状开口(window),此后可以进行钻探和/或其它操作,如上所述。 In this case, an appropriate position to the first run of the need to open a window-shaped opening (window) in the sleeve with a cutter, and thereafter drilling / or other operations, as described above.

[0070] 当该工具准备用于通过生产油管时,也需要变化。 [0070] When the tool is ready for production tubing through, but also needs to be changed. 例如,可以用导线可钓式(wireline fishable)的造斜器来代替反冲板。 For example, wires may be used to catch whipstock formula (wireline fishable) instead of the recoil plate. 而且,诸如多指测径器工具(multi-finger caliper)的工具可以代替成像工具,用于在套管中定位孔。 Further, such multi-finger caliper tool (multi-finger caliper) of the imaging tool can replace tool for positioning hole in the casing.

Claims (22)

1. 一种井下工具,其包括:(i) 一轴向驱动单元(10),其具有用于电力缆线延伸到钻井(14)的连接,并包括一锚定机构(12,16),其在所述钻井(14)中可操作在一第一布置和一第二布置之间, 在该第一布置中其抵抗所述单元(10)的旋转和轴向的移动,在该第二布置中所述锚定机构(16)在所述钻井(14)中可轴向移动,一轴向驱动机构(18),其当处于所述第二布置时轴向地将所述锚定机构(16)沿所述钻井移动;其特征在于,其还包括:(ϋ) 一安装在所述驱动单元(10)上的电机(¾),其在所述驱动单元(10)的井下端;(iii) 一液压泵(30),其连接所述电机(¾),该泵提供一液压动力源;和(iv) 一功能单元(38,40),其连接在所述液压泵(30)下面并由此被供给动力,所述轴向驱动机构(18)的操作用于将该功能单元轴向地移到所述钻井(14)下。 1. A downhole tool, comprising: (i) an axial drive unit (10), having a power cable which extends to the drilling (14) is connected, and comprising an anchoring mechanism (12, 16), which is operable in the well (14) disposed between a first and a second arrangement, the moving arrangement which is resistant to the first unit (10) and axial rotation, the second disposed in the anchoring means (16) in said well (14) axially movable, an axial drive mechanism (18), which when in the said second arrangement axially anchoring means (16) along the drilling movement; characterized in that, further comprising: (ϋ) the motor (¾) (10) mounted in the drive unit a, in which the downhole end of the drive unit (10); (iii) a pump (30) which connect the electric motor (¾), the pump provides a hydraulic power source; and (iv) a functional unit (38, 40), connected between said hydraulic pump (30) the following is powered and thus, the axial drive mechanism (18) is operable to move the functional unit axially under the well (14).
2.如权利要求1所述的工具,其中还包括一定向单元(20),其允许在所述驱动单元(10)下面的至少部分工具的绕轴旋转。 2. The tool according to claim 1, further comprising an orientation unit (20), which allows the drive unit (10) at least partially around the shaft following the rotation of the tool.
3.如权利要求1所述的工具,其中还包括一转向部件(42),其位于所述功能单元(38, 40)下面,其用于在操作驱动机构(18)时沿一预定方向推动所述功能单元。 Urged in a predetermined direction 3. The tool according to claim 1, further comprising a steering member (42), located between said function unit (38, 40) below, for operating the drive mechanism (18) the functional unit.
4.如权利要求1所述的工具,其中所述液压泵(30)使用所述钻井(14)中的流体来提供液压动力源。 4. The tool according to claim 1, wherein said hydraulic pump (30) using the drilling fluid (14) to provide hydraulic power source.
5.如权利要求1所述的工具,其中所述功能单元是一井结构装置。 5. The tool according to claim 1, wherein said functional unit is a well construction device.
6.如权利要求5所述的工具,其中所述井结构装置包括一钻探组件。 6. A tool as claimed in claim 5, wherein said means comprises a well drilling assembly configuration.
7.如权利要求6所述的工具,其中所述钻探组件包括一钻探电机(38),其通过来自于所述泵(30)的液压动力供应而得到动力。 7. The tool according to claim 6, wherein said drilling assembly comprising a drilling motor (38), which is obtained by the power from the pump (30) is a hydraulic power supply.
8.如权利要求7所述的工具,其中还包括一钻头(40),其由所述钻探电机(38)驱动。 The tool as claimed in claim 7, further comprising a drill bit (40), which drilling by the motor (38) driving.
9.如权利要求7所述的工具,其中所述钻探电机(38)由一中空钻轴(36)连接所述泵(30),液压流体流过该中空钻轴。 9. The tool according to claim 7, wherein said drilling motor (38) by a hollow drill shaft (36) connecting the pump (30), the hydraulic fluid flows through the hollow drill shaft.
10.如权利要求9所示的工具,其中还包括至少一个安装在所述钻轴上的支撑部件,以在钻探时支撑而抵抗弯曲。 10. The tool shown in claim 9, further comprising at least one support member mounted on the drill shaft to support and resist bending while drilling.
11.如权利要求6-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括至少一个折流板(42),其被设置成将钻出的钻屑导向在所述工具下的井。 6-10 as claimed in claim 11. The tool according to any one of, wherein further comprising at least one baffle plate (42), which is arranged to guide the drilled cuttings in the well tool.
12.如权利要求6-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括一钻屑收集器(56),其位于所述钻探组件下面并安装到所述工具上,用于收集所述钻探组件钻出的物质。 12. A tool as claimed in any one of claims 6-10, wherein further comprises a cuttings collector (56), which is positioned below the drilling assembly and mounted on the tool for collecting the drilling substance drilled components.
13.如权利要求12所述的工具,其中还包括多个转向器(52,M),其位于所述钻探组件的上面和下面,以强制钻屑进入所述收集器。 13. The tool of claim 12, further comprising a plurality of diverters (52, M), located above and below the drilling assembly to force the cuttings into the collector.
14.如权利要求13所述的工具,其中还包括一循环管(58),其在所述多个转向器之间延伸,以让流体向上循环回到已经清除钻屑的钻井。 14. The tool according to claim 13, further comprising a circulating pipe (58), extending between said plurality of diverters to allow fluid loops back up drilling cuttings have been removed.
15.如权利要求6-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括位于所述钻探组件中的一测量单元(64)。 15. The tool of any one of claims 6-10 according to any, further comprising a measuring unit (64) is located in the drilling assembly.
16.如权利要求6-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括在所述钻探组件上面的一膨胀封隔器(66),其在膨胀时容许至少所述钻探组件位于其中的部分钻井的压力隔离。 16. A tool as claimed in any one of claims 6-10, wherein the drilling assembly further comprises an upper inflatable packer (66), which allows the drilling assembly at least partially located therein upon expansion drilling of isolation.
17.如权利要求5所述的工具,其中所述井结构装置包括一填充单元。 17. The tool of claim 5, wherein said well means comprises a filling unit structure.
18.如权利要求17所述的工具,其中所述井结构装置包括一管状填充部件(70),其可以通过所述驱动单元(10)的操作而前进到钻井(14)中,当所述工具从所述钻井(14)抽出时,被脱离保持在适当位置。 18. The tool according to claim 17, wherein said means comprises a well tubular structure filler member (70), which may be an operating unit (10) is driven by the drilling to proceed to (14), when the when the tool is withdrawn from the well (14), it is held in the disengaged position.
19.如权利要求is所述的工具,其中所述填充部件用一填充流体m填充,该填充流体借助于液压泵(30)从所述填充部件泵送出来并进入围绕所述填充部件的钻井中。 19. The tool of claim is, wherein the filler member is filled with a fill fluid m, which is filled by means of a hydraulic fluid (30) pumped from the filling member and into the filling member surrounding the drilling in.
20.如权利要求1-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括位于所述钻井中的一存储单元,至少一个功能单元在不使用时可存储于该存储单元中。 20. A tool according to any one of claims 1-10 claim, wherein the well further comprises a memory in the unit, at least one functional unit when not in use may be stored in the storage unit.
21.如权利要求20所述的工具,其中还包括一闩锁系统(80,81),其用于使存储在所述存储单元中的功能单元脱离与其余的工具的连接。 21. The tool according to claim 20, wherein the system further comprises a latch (80, 81) for the functional unit is stored in the storage unit is disconnected from the rest of the tool.
22.如权利要求1-10中任一项所述的工具,其中还包括一成像装置,其用于定位所述工具将操作的钻井部分。 Tool according to any one of claims 1 to 10 as claimed in claim 22, further comprising an imaging device for locating the portion of the drilling tool operation.
CN 200480003978 2003-02-11 2004-02-04 Downhole tool CN1748073B (en)

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GB0303019D0 (en) 2003-03-12
US20060054354A1 (en) 2006-03-16
NO20053650L (en) 2005-11-10
WO2004072437A1 (en) 2004-08-26
CN1748073A (en) 2006-03-15
RU2005128283A (en) 2006-01-27
GB2398308B (en) 2007-09-19
NO20053650D0 (en) 2005-07-27
CA2514534A1 (en) 2004-08-26
RU2331753C2 (en) 2008-08-20
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GB2398308A (en) 2004-08-18
GB2398308A8 (en) 2004-08-20

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