RU2247025C1 - Device for rubber waste processing - Google Patents

Device for rubber waste processing Download PDF

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RU2247025C1
RU2247025C1 RU2003117097A RU2003117097A RU2247025C1 RU 2247025 C1 RU2247025 C1 RU 2247025C1 RU 2003117097 A RU2003117097 A RU 2003117097A RU 2003117097 A RU2003117097 A RU 2003117097A RU 2247025 C1 RU2247025 C1 RU 2247025C1
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furnace
retort
temperature
heat
industry
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RU2003117097A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2003117097A (en
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Олег Григорьевич Мартыненко (BY)
Олег Григорьевич Мартыненко
Геннадий Иванович Журавский (BY)
Геннадий Иванович Журавский
Николай Владимирович Павлюкевич (BY)
Николай Владимирович Павлюкевич
Эдуард Петрович Полесский (BY)
Эдуард Петрович Полесский
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Государственное научное учреждение "Институт тепло-и массообмена им. А.В. Лыкова" Национальной Академии Наук Беларуси
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/62Plastics recycling; Rubber recycling

Abstract

FIELD: petrochemical industry; power and heat industry; oil-organo-synthesis industry; rubber industry; housing and communal services; methods of industrial and household wastes processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device and a method of industrial and household wastes processing, in particular, of the waste rubber processing, and may be used in a rubber industry, power and heat industry, petrochemical industry, oil-organo-synthesis industry and in housing and communal services for production of fuel and raw materials. The device for processing a waste rubber contains: a chamber of loading; a furnace supplied with a furnace roof and a funnel; a retort placed above a furnace; a dispersible filling made out of a refractory material forming a gas duct from the furnace into the flue; a steam pipeline; a cooling chamber and a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is made in the form of two in series connected sections. An outlet of the last section is connected to the furnace. The dispersible filling is placed between the roof of the furnace and the retort. In the upper part of the retort there is a fan. The furnace and the dispersible filling are in addition equipped with the steam superheater. The device increases efficiency of the process of a waste rubber processing and allows to reduce the amount of the harmful outbursts in the surrounding medium.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the waste rubber processing process and reduction of amount of the harmful outbursts into environment.
3 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The invention relates to a technology for processing industrial and household waste and can be applied in the rubber industry, fuel and energy complex, petrochemicals, petroleum chemistry industry, as well as in housing and communal services for obtaining fuel and raw materials.

A known device for the pyrolysis of worn tires, containing a rotary furnace with external heating, a refrigerator for cooling and condensing gaseous products of tire pyrolysis, a separator for separating condensate, a scrubber for alkaline washing of non-condensable pyrolysis gases, a resin collector, a gas holder for accumulating pyrolysis gases (1).

The disadvantages of this device are the high energy consumption for waste processing, the need for alkaline washing of gases before they are fed for combustion, and high material consumption of the equipment.

A device for tire pyrolysis is known, containing a loading chamber in the form of a bath with oil, a cylindrical retort with a refractory lining and a grate for introducing flue gases, gas burners connected to the retort jacket, a scraper conveyor for unloading the carbon residue (2).

The disadvantages of this device are the high oil consumption when loading tires into the retort, high energy consumption, the complexity of the process of separating the gaseous products of tire pyrolysis from the products of gas combustion and solid residue, the formation of toxic compounds due to the ingress of oil from the loading chamber into the retort.

A device (3) is known which implements a method for processing rubber waste, including a reactor with a lock chamber and a grate, a steam generator with a superheater connected to the reactor, a refrigerator connected to the reactor, a crusher connected to the outlet of solid products from the reactor, a solid product cooler, a separator connected to the crusher to separate the metal from the carbon residue, a press for briquetting the carbon residue.

The disadvantages of this device include the high consumption of water vapor and the resulting high energy consumption, high material consumption associated with the presence of special equipment for overheating steam to a temperature of 1600 ° C.

Closest to the claimed invention relates to a device for processing rubber waste according to the patent (4), which is selected as a prototype.

The device comprises a loading chamber, a furnace with a vault and a chimney, placed above the furnace retort, structurally connected with the cooling chamber, and a condenser. Between the furnace chamber, the retort and the cooling chamber there is a disperse filling of refractory material with a particle diameter of 50-250 mm and forming a flue from the furnace into the chimney. An evaporator is mounted in the backfill, which is connected to the retort via a steam line; a separator for separating water from waste decomposition products is connected by a water supply to the cooling chamber and the evaporator; a heat exchanger, which is connected to the retort by its input, and its output is connected to the condenser input.

A significant drawback of the known technical solution is the formation of condensate contaminated with decomposition rubber products, for the cleaning of which special apparatuses are required, in particular a separator and a filter.

A disadvantage of the device is the need to use a condenser, which requires a large flow of cooling water and the use of a special cooling system (cooling tower, heat exchangers).

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to create a device that increases the efficiency of the rubber waste recycling process.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the energy intensity of the device and reduce the amount of harmful emissions into the environment.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the device for processing rubber waste containing a loading chamber, a furnace equipped with a vault and a chimney, placed above the retort furnace, a disperse filling of refractory material, forming a gas duct from the furnace into the chimney, a steam pipe, a cooling chamber and a heat exchanger, according to the invention, the heat exchanger is made in the form of two sections connected in series and the output of the last section is connected to the furnace, and the dispersed backfill is placed between the furnace vault and the retort, and in the upper asti last a fan, the furnace and the dispersed filling additionally equipped with superheaters.

The superheater located in the furnace is made in the form of a coil of pipes made of heat-resistant steel and is connected to the steam line with its input, and its output is connected to the retort.

The superheater installed in the disperse filling is made in the form of a flat coil made of heat-resistant steel pipes and is connected to the steam line with its input, and its outlet is connected to the retort.

The drawing shows a General view of the device. The device comprises a hopper 1, a trolley 2, a lock gate 3, a pusher 4, a loading chamber 5, a lock gate 6, a pusher 7, a retort 8, a trolley 9, a furnace 10, a smoke exhauster 11, a disperse filling 12, a chimney 13, a steam pipe 46, cranes 14 and 15, 17, superheaters 16 and 18, temperature sensor 19, gas analyzer 20, barothermometer 21, fan 22, flow meter 23, first section 24 of the heat exchanger, temperature sensor 25, capacity for liquid products 26, second section 27 of the heat exchanger, temperature sensor 28 , crane 29, container for liquid products 30, airlock 31, pusher 32, camera cooling 33, trolley 34, water tank 35, pump 36, nozzles 37, temperature sensor 38, lock gate 39, pusher 40, hopper 41, separator 42, metal container 43, carbon residue tank 44, crane 45.

The device operates as follows. From the hopper 1, rubber waste is loaded into the trolley 2, the lock gate 3 is opened, and using the pusher 4, the trolley 2 is pushed into the loading chamber 5, after which the shutter 3 is closed and the shutter 6 is opened. Then, with the pusher 7, the trolley 2 is pushed into the retort 8 and the shutter 6 is closed 6 and to the hopper 1 serves the cart 9, which is loaded with waste, open the shutter 3 and the pusher 4 into the loading chamber 5 push the cart 9, after which the shutter 3 is closed. At the same time, fuel, for example firewood, is supplied to the furnace 10. Firewood in the furnace 10 is ignited, and with the help of a smoke exhauster 11, the combustion products from the furnace 10 are discharged through the dispersed filling 12 into the chimney 13. As a result of the filtration of the combustion products, the dispersed filling is heated and accumulates heat.

Using cranes 14 and 15, saturated steam is supplied to the superheater 16 to the superheater 16, where it overheats to a temperature equal to the temperature of the dispersed charge 12. The superheater 16 is made of heat-resistant steel pipes in the form of a flat coil, which ensures the durability and reliability of the latter.

The heat in the retort 8 is supplied with a stream of superheated water vapor and through the walls in contact with the disperse backfill 12 and the combustion products of the fuel. Therefore, in the retort 8, it is necessary to supply steam with a temperature not lower than the temperature of the dispersed filling 12. Otherwise, the temperature of the medium in the retort 8 decreases and the intensity of the process of thermal decomposition of rubber waste decreases.

Using a valve 17 through the steam line 46 into the superheater 18, placed in the furnace 10, serves saturated water vapor, which overheats to a predetermined temperature.

The superheat temperature of the steam is monitored by the temperature sensor 19. Since the temperature in the furnace 10 reaches 1000 ° C during fuel combustion, the steam in the superheater 18 can be heated to a temperature of about 1000 ° C. Placing the superheater 18 directly in the furnace 10 allows the steam to be heated to high temperature and effectively transfer heat from the furnace 10 to the retort 8 with a steam stream.

Placing the superheater 16 in the disperse filling allows one to obtain superheated steam with a temperature below the temperature in the furnace 10 and to efficiently transfer heat from the heated disperse filling 12 and combustion products to the retort 8. Moreover, the separation of steam into two streams provides the possibility of manipulating the valves 15 and 17 (mixing both flows with different temperatures), adjust the temperature in retort 8 to ensure optimal conditions for the thermal decomposition of rubber waste. At the same time, disperse backfill 12 plays the role of a thermostat and ensures that the temperature is maintained at the minimum level necessary to start the process of thermal decomposition. Rubber waste is heated to a temperature of 400-500 ° C, as a result of which the process of thermal decomposition proceeds with the formation of a solid residue and gaseous products. The amount of gaseous products formed in the retort 8 is monitored by the readings of the gas analyzer 20, and the temperature of the waste heating is monitored using a barothermometer 21.

When the temperature in retort 8 drops below 400 ° С, the supply of firewood to the furnace 10 is increased, and when the temperature rises above 500 ° С, the supply of firewood to the furnace 10 is reduced, and with the help of a smoke exhauster 13, the amount of combustion products discharged into the chimney 13 is increased, the steam supply is increased through the superheater 16 and reduce the steam supply to the retort 8 through the superheater 18.

To ensure an efficient process of heat transfer from the walls of the retort 8 to the rubber waste using a fan 22, the steam-gas mixture is circulated along the contour: heated wall - waste - fan - heated wall. By adjusting the number of revolutions of the fan 22, a heat exchange mode is established in which the waste decomposes in a predetermined time determined by the capacity of the device, for example 1000 kg / h.

The gaseous products of the decomposition of rubber waste in a mixture with water vapor through a flow meter 23 are discharged into the heat exchanger sections 24 and 27, where as a result of heat exchange with running water they are cooled and partially condensed. At the same time, depending on the given conditions (for example, if it is necessary to isolate a fraction with a boiling point of at least 200 ° C), a flow of cooling water is provided through the first section 24 of the heat exchanger, at which the outgoing steam-gas mixture will have a temperature of 200 ° C, which is controlled by the sensor temperature 25.

Condensed products from the first section 24 and the second section 27 of the heat exchanger are poured into the container 26. From the first section 24 of the heat exchanger, the non-condensed vapor-gas mixture is discharged into the second section 27 of the heat exchanger, where the temperature of the mixture is set to 100 ° C and above as a result of heat exchange with running water. A temperature of 100 ° C and above is set (the flow rate of cooling water is controlled) and the temperature is monitored according to the temperature sensor 28 in order to prevent condensation of water vapor.

In the event of undesired condensation of water vapor, condensate forms, contaminated by the decomposition products of rubber waste, and a large amount of heat (up to 2300 kJ per 1 kg of condensed steam) is generated, which requires an additional flow of cooling water and the creation of a special cooling system.

From the second section 27 of the heat exchanger, the gas-vapor mixture at a temperature of 100 ° C and above through the valve 29 is withdrawn into the furnace 10 and burned. Thus, the discharge of contaminated condensate into the environment is prevented, and the calorific value of low-boiling waste decomposition products is used to power the process. This reduces fuel consumption (in our case, firewood).

Condensed products from the sections 24 and 27 of the heat exchanger are poured into a container 30. After the completion of the decomposition of the waste (after the gaseous products have stopped coming out, which is observed according to the readings of the gas analyzer 20), the shutter 31 is opened and the trolley with solid residue is moved to the cooling chamber 33 using the pusher 32 after which the shutter 31 is closed. Next, the shutter 6 is opened and, using the pusher 4, the trolley 9 is moved to the retort 8, the shutter 6 is closed, and the bunker 1 is supplied with a trolley 34, which is loaded with waste, the shutter 3 is opened and the trolley 34 is fed into the chamber 5, after which the shutter 3 is closed.

After moving the trolley 2 into the cooling chamber 33 from the water tank 35 by means of a pump 36, water is supplied to the nozzles 37 and sprayed in the cooling chamber. The temperature of the residue is monitored by the readings of the thermometer 38 and when the temperature is set to T = 150-170 ° C (this temperature level allows the cart 2 with the remainder to be removed from the cooling chamber without fire), the residue is irrigated, the shutter 39 is opened and the cart 2 is pushed out using the pusher 40 from the cooling chamber and serves for unloading. To unload the trolley 2, open the hatches in its bottom and the remainder under the influence of its own weight wakes up in the discharge hopper 41 and then to the separator 42, where the metal is separated from the carbon component and discharged into the tank 43, and the carbon component is unloaded into the tank 44. After unloading the trolley 2 using a crane 45 move to the hopper 1 and the cycle is repeated.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1

From the hopper 1, 350 kg of rubber waste (worn tires) are loaded into the trolley 2, the lock gate 3 is opened, and the trolley 2 is pushed into the loading chamber 5 using the pusher 4, then the shutter 3 is closed and the shutter 6 is opened. Then, the pusher 7 is pushed into the retort 8 the cart 2 and close the shutter 6, and to the hopper 1 serves the cart 9, which is loaded with waste, open the shutter 3 and the pusher 4 into the loading chamber 5 roll the cart 9, after which the shutter 3 is closed. 280 kg of solid fuel are loaded into the furnace 10, for example, firewood with a moisture content of not more than 20%, an ash content of 2%, and a heat of combustion of 14 MJ / kg. Firewood is ignited by means of a torch and by means of a smoke exhauster 11 the gaseous products of combustion from the furnace 10 through the dispersed filling 12 are led out into the chimney 13. For complete combustion of the firewood, air is supplied to the furnace 10 in an amount of 4.5 m 3 per 1 kg of wood, i.e. 1575 m 3 . The air supply is regulated by means of the exhaust fan valves calibrated by the flow rate of combustion products and the set flow rate of 787.5 m / h is set, because the total time of the heating process and thermal decomposition of the waste is 2 hours, then the wood (280 kg) must be burned in the furnace 10 in 2 hours. During the combustion of firewood, 5.3 m 3 / kg of combustion products is formed, which will total 1484 m 3 . Therefore, using a smoke exhauster 11 from the furnace 10, it is necessary to remove combustion products with a flow rate of 742 m 3 / h, because the process of burning wood is 2 hours. The heat generated by burning wood in the furnace 10 is spent on heating the retort, disperse backfill, overheating of water vapor, heating and thermal decomposition of rubber waste, as well as heat loss. 157 kg of firewood is spent on heating the elements of the device. Overheating 350 kg of steam (T = 500 ° C) 25 kg. To ensure heating to 500 ° C and thermal decomposition of 350 kg of rubber waste, 42 kg of firewood needs to be burned in the furnace. Thus, the total consumption of firewood for energy supply of the process (taking into account 25% of heat losses) will be:

(157 kg + 42 kg + 25 kg) × 1.25 = 280 kg

Using taps 14 and 15, saturated water vapor is supplied to the superheater 16, where it overheats to a temperature equal to the temperature of the dispersed backfill. The superheater 16 is made of heat-resistant steel in the form of a flat coil from pipes of the corresponding section.

The heat in the retort 8 is supplied with a stream of superheated water vapor and through the walls in contact with dispersed backfill and fuel combustion products. Therefore, in the retort 8, it is necessary to supply steam with a temperature not lower than the temperature of the dispersed filling 12. Otherwise, a decrease in the intensity of the process of thermal decomposition of rubber waste will be observed.

Using the valve 17 of the steam line 46, saturated steam is supplied to the superheater 18 located in the furnace 10, which overheats to a temperature of 700 ° C. The temperature of the superheat is monitored by the temperature sensor 19 and the valve 17 controls the steam flow so that the steam temperature was 700 ° C.

The placement of the superheater 16 in the disperse charge 12 allows you to receive superheated steam with a temperature of 400 ° C and effectively transfer heat from the heated disperse charge 12 and the combustion products to the retort 8. In this case, the separation of the steam stream into two streams provides the possibility by means of taps 15 and 17 (mixing both flow with a temperature of 400 ° C and 700 ° C) to regulate the temperature in the retort 8 to ensure a temperature of 500 ° C.

Rubber waste is heated to a temperature of 500 ° C, as a result of which the process of thermal decomposition proceeds with the formation of a solid residue and gaseous products. The amount of gaseous products formed in the retort 8 is monitored by the readings of the gas analyzer 20, and the temperature of the waste heating is monitored using a barothermometer 21.

When the temperature in the retort decreases below 500 ° C with the help of a smoke exhauster 11, the amount of combustion products discharged into the chimney 13 is increased, the steam supply through the superheater 16 is reduced, and the steam supply through the superheater 18 is increased.

When the temperature rises above 500 ° C, with the help of a smoke exhaust fan 13 reduce the amount of combustion products discharged into the chimney 13, increase the steam supply through the superheater 16 and reduce the steam supply to the retort 8 through the superheater 18. In this case, the temperature in the retort 8 is monitored according to the readings of the barometer 21.

To ensure an efficient process of heat transfer from the walls of the retort to the rubber waste using a fan 22, the steam-gas mixture is circulated along the contour: heated wall - rubber waste - fan - heated wall. By adjusting the fan speed, a heat transfer mode is established in which the waste decomposes in 2 hours.

To do this, control the release of gaseous products according to the testimony of the gas analyzer 20, which shows the concentration of gaseous decomposition products of waste in the vapor-gas mixture. Using a flow meter 23, the flow rate of the gas-vapor mixture is determined and, according to the readings of the gas analyzer 21 and the flow meter 23, the yield rate of gaseous products is determined by calculation. The rate of release of gaseous products is calculated from the rate of release of gaseous products. The obtained time value is compared with the set value (in our case 2 hours) and the heat exchange intensity is changed, i.e. increase or decrease fan speed 22.

So, if according to the testimony of the gas analyzer 20, the concentration of gaseous decomposition products is 0.1458 kg / m 3 , and the consumption of the gas-vapor mixture according to the readings of the flow meter 23 is 600 m 3 / h, while the total yield of gaseous decomposition products of rubber waste is 175 kg, t. e. 50% of the initial amount of 350 kg, then under steady conditions 140 kg of decomposition products will be removed from retort 8 in time:

(175 kg) / (0.1458 kg / m 3 × 600 m 3 / h) = 2 h,

which ensures complete decomposition of waste in a given time of 2 hours.

In the case when it follows from the calculations that the total decomposition time is longer than the specified one, it is necessary to intensify the heat transfer process in the retort by increasing the fan speed and thus obtain the desired decomposition parameter of 2 hours.

The gaseous products of the decomposition of rubber waste in a mixture with water vapor with a flow rate of 600 m 3 / h through a flow meter 23 are discharged into a heat exchanger 24, where as a result of heat exchange with running water they are cooled to 250 ° C (the temperature is monitored according to the sensor 25), as a result of which about 79% of gaseous decomposition products or about 55.3 kg / h condenses.

Condensed products from the heat exchanger section 24 are poured into a container 26. From the first heat exchanger section 24, the non-condensed vapor-gas mixture is discharged into the second heat exchanger section 27, where as a result of heat exchange with running water, the mixture temperature is set to 193 ° C (control the flow of cooling water and control the temperature according to the sensor temperature 28). As a result, about 7.7 kg / h of gaseous decomposition products of rubber waste condenses.

From the second section 27 of the heat exchanger, the gas-vapor mixture at a temperature of 193 ° C through the valve 29 in the amount of 199.5 kg / h is discharged into the furnace 10 and burned, thereby preventing the discharge of contaminated condensate into the environment, and the calorific value of the waste decomposition products is used to power the process , which significantly reduces fuel consumption.

In this example, 7 kg / h of decomposition products with a calorific value of 40 MJ / kg and 17.5 kg / h of non-condensable gases with a calorific value of 30 MJ / kg are burned. The total amount of heat obtained from the combustion of rubber waste decomposition products will be 805 MJ / h. When burning 140 kg / h of firewood (280 kg of firewood is consumed in 2 hours), 1960 MJ / h of heat is released.

Thus, the consumption of firewood is reduced to the following value:

(1960 MJ / h-805 MJ / h) / 14 MJ / kg = 82.5 kg / h.

Condensed products from the heat exchanger section 27 are poured into a container 30.

At the end of the decomposition process of the waste (after the gaseous products exit from the waste, which is observed according to the readings of the gas analyzer 20), the shutter 31 is opened and the trolley with solid residue is moved to the cooling chamber 33 using the push rod 32, after which the shutter 31 is closed. The shutter 6 is opened and, using the pusher 4, the trolley 9 is pushed into the retort 8, after which the shutter 6 is closed, and the trolley 34 is fed to the hopper 1, which is loaded with waste, the shutter 3 is opened and the trolley 34 is fed into the chamber 5, after which the shutter 3 is closed.

After moving the trolley 2 into the cooling chamber 33 from the water tank 35 by means of a pump 36, water is supplied to the nozzles 37 and sprayed in the cooling chamber.

The water consumption for irrigation of the residue is determined by the weight of the residue, its initial and final temperature. In our case, the weight of the solid residue is 175 kg, its initial temperature is 500 ° C, the final temperature is 150 ° C, the specific heat is 1.3 kJ / kg ° C. In this case, when the residue is cooled, heat equal to 79625 kJ must be removed. Heat is removed as a result of heating and evaporation of water.

Thus, to remove a given amount of heat (provided that the initial water temperature is 20 ° C), it is necessary to supply 30.2 liters of water for irrigation. When the temperature reaches T = 150 ° C (this temperature level allows the cart 2 with the remainder to be removed from the cooling chamber without ignition), the irrigation of the residue is stopped, the shutter 39 is opened, and using the pusher 40, the cart 2 is pushed out of the cooling chamber 33 and served for unloading. To unload the trolley 2, hatches are opened in the bottom and a solid residue under the influence of its own weight wakes up in the discharge hopper 41 and then to the separator 42, where the metal is separated from the carbon component and discharged into the container 43, and the carbon component is discharged into the container 44. After unloading, the trolley 2 using a crane 45 move to the hopper 1 and the cycle is repeated.

Example 2

From the hopper 1 into the trolley 2 load 1000 kg of rubber waste (crushed worn tires to sizes of 300-400 mm), open the lock gate 3 and using the pusher 4 into the loading chamber 5 push the truck 2, after which the shutter 3 is closed and the shutter 6 is opened.

Then the pusher 7 in the retort 8 pushes the cart 2 and closes the shutter 6, and to the hopper 1 serves the cart 9, which is loaded with waste, open the shutter 3 and the pusher 4 into the loading chamber 5 push the cart 9, after which the shutter 3 is closed. At the same time, 400 kg of firewood are loaded into the furnace 10 (humidity 10%, ash content 2%, calorific value 16 MJ / kg). Firewood in the furnace 10 is ignited using a torch and with the help of a smoke exhauster 11, the combustion products from the furnace 10 are discharged through the disperse charge 12 into the chimney 13. For complete combustion of the firewood, it is necessary to supply 5 m 3 of air per 1 kg of firewood, i.e. 2000 m 3 . The air supply is regulated with the help of the gate valves of the exhaust fan, setting a predetermined flow rate of 1000 m 3 / h, because the total time of the heating process and thermal decomposition of the waste is 2 hours, then the firewood (500 kg) must be burned in the furnace 10 in 2 hours. During the combustion of firewood, 5.8 m 3 / kg of combustion products is formed, which will be 2320 m 3 . Therefore, using a smoke exhauster 11 from the furnace 10, it is necessary to remove combustion products with a flow rate of 1160 m 3 / h, because the process of burning wood is 2 hours

The heat generated during the combustion of firewood in the furnace 10 is spent on heating the retort 8, disperse filling 12, overheating of water vapor, heating and thermal decomposition of rubber waste, heat loss. 157 kg of firewood is spent on heating the elements of the device. Overheating 1000 kg of steam (T = 500 ° C) 70 kg. To ensure heating to 500 ° C and thermal decomposition of 1000 kg of rubber waste, it is necessary to burn 118 kg of firewood in the furnace. Thus, the total consumption of firewood for energy supply of the process (taking into account 16% of heat losses) will be:

(157 kg + 118 kg + 70 kg) × 1.16 = 400 kg.

Using cranes 14 and 15, saturated steam is supplied to the superheater 16 through the steam line 46, which overheats to a temperature of 400 ° C. With a valve 17, saturated steam is fed to the superheater 18 located in the furnace 10, which overheats to a temperature of 700 ° C. .

The superheat temperature of the steam is monitored according to the temperature sensor 19 and the valve 17 controls the steam flow so that the steam temperature is 700 ° C. At the same time, the separation of the steam stream into two streams makes it possible by manipulating the taps 15 and 17 (mixing both streams with a temperature of 400 ° C and 700 ° C), adjust the temperature in retort 8 to ensure a temperature of 500 ° C.

Rubber waste is heated to a temperature of 500 ° C, as a result of which the process of thermal decomposition proceeds with the formation of a solid residue and gaseous products. The amount of gaseous products formed in the retort is monitored by the readings of the gas analyzer 20, and the temperature of the waste heating is controlled using a barothermometer 21.

To ensure an efficient process of heat transfer from the walls of the retort 8 to the rubber waste using a fan 22, a steam-gas mixture is circulated along the contour: heated wall - rubber waste - fan - heated wall. By adjusting the speed of the fan 22, a heat transfer mode is established in which the waste decomposes in 2 hours.

Let, according to the testimony of the gas analyzer 20, the concentration of gaseous decomposition products is 0.100 kg / m 3 and the flow rate of the vapor-gas mixture according to the readings of the flow meter 23 is 2000 m 3 / h. Moreover, the total yield of gaseous decomposition products of rubber waste is 400 kg, i.e. 40% of the initial amount of 1000 kg. Thus, under steady conditions, 400 kg of decomposition products will be removed from retort 8 in time;

(400 kg) / (0.100 kg / m 3 × 2000 m 3 / h) = 2 hours

Thus, in our case, the intensity of heat supply to the rubber waste ensures their complete decomposition in a given time of 2 hours.

The gaseous products of the decomposition of rubber waste in a mixture with water vapor with a flow rate of 2000 m 3 / h through a flow meter 23 are discharged into sections 24 and 27 of the heat exchanger, where as a result of heat exchange with running water they are cooled to a temperature of 250 ° C (the temperature is monitored according to the sensor 25) resulting in condensation of about 79% of the gaseous decomposition products or 138.25 kg / h. Condensed products are poured into a container 26.

From the first section 24 of the heat exchanger, the non-condensed vapor-gas mixture is discharged into the second section 27 of the heat exchanger, where, as a result of heat exchange with running water, the temperature of the mixture is set to 193 ° C (the flow rate of cooling water is controlled and the temperature is controlled by the temperature sensor 28). As a result, another 19.25 kg / h of gaseous decomposition products of rubber waste condenses.

From the second section 27 of the heat exchanger, the gas-vapor mixture at a temperature of 193 ° C through the valve 29 in the amount of 567.5 kg / h is discharged into the furnace 10 and burned. This prevents the discharge of contaminated condensate into the environment, and the calorific value of the waste decomposition products is used to power the process. This reduces fuel consumption. In our case, 19.25 kg / h of decomposition products with a calorific value of 40 MJ / kg and 25 kg / h of non-condensable gases with a calorific value of 30 MJ / kg are burned. The total amount of heat obtained from the combustion of rubber waste decomposition products will be 1,520 MJ / h. When burning 200 kg / h of firewood (400 kg of firewood is consumed in 2 hours), 2800 MJ / h of heat is released.

Thus, the consumption of firewood is reduced to the following value:

(2800 MJ / h-1520 MJ / h) / 14 MJ / kg = 91.4 kg / h.

Condensed products from the heat exchanger 27 are poured into a container 30. At the end of the decomposition process of the waste (after the gaseous products from the waste cease to be observed, which is observed according to the readings of the gas analyzer 20), the shutter 31 is opened and, using the pusher 32, the trolley with solid residue is moved to the cooling chamber 33, after which shutter 31 is closed. The shutter 6 is opened and, using the pusher 4, the trolley 9 is pushed into the retort 8, after which the shutter 6 is closed, and the trolley 34 is fed to the hopper 1, which is loaded with waste, the shutter 3 is opened and the trolley 34 is fed into the chamber 5, after which the shutter 3 is closed. After moving the cart 2 to the cooling chamber 33 from the water tank 35 using the pump 36, water is supplied to the nozzles 37 and sprayed in the cooling chamber 33.

The water consumption for irrigation of the residue is determined by the weight of the residue, its initial and final temperature. In our case, the weight of the solid residue is 600 kg, its initial temperature is 500 ° C, the final temperature is 150 ° C, and the specific heat is 1.3 kJ / kg ° C.

In this case, to cool the residue, it is necessary to remove excess heat in the amount of 273,000 kJ. Heat is removed as a result of heating and evaporation of water. Thus, to remove this amount of heat, it is necessary (provided that the initial water temperature is 20 ° C) to supply 103.5 kg of water for irrigation.

The temperature of the residue is monitored according to the readings of thermometer 38 and when the temperature T = 150 ° C is reached (this temperature level allows the cart 2 with the remainder to be removed from the cooling chamber without fire), stop irrigation, open the shutter 39 and use the pusher 40 to push the cart 2 out of the chamber cooling and served for unloading. To unload the trolley 2, open the hatches in its bottom and the remainder under the influence of its own weight wakes up in the discharge hopper 41 and then to the separator 42, where the metal is separated from the carbon component and discharged into the tank 43, and the carbon component is unloaded into the tank 44. After unloading the trolley 2 using a crane 45 move to the hopper 1 and the cycle is repeated.

The proposed device for the processing of rubber waste tested in experimental production and differs from the well-known improved performance in specific energy costs of the waste treatment process, as well as lower emissions of harmful substances into the environment.

Sources of information:

1. Shein B.C., Ermakov V.I., Nokhrin Yu.G. "Disposal and disposal of emissions and waste from the production and processing of elastomers." - M .: Chemistry, 1987. - P.226-227.

2. French patent No. 2279836, IPC C 08 J 11/10, 1976.

3. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2076501, Cl. 6 V 29 V 17/00, C 08 J 11/14, 1997.

4. Latvian patent No. 12890, IPC C 10 B 53/02, C 08 J 11/00, C 08 J 11/14, 2002 (prototype).

Claims (3)

1. A device for processing rubber waste containing a loading chamber, a furnace equipped with a vault and a chimney, placed above the retort furnace, a disperse filling of refractory material, forming a gas duct from the furnace into the chimney, steam pipe, cooling chamber and heat exchanger, characterized in that the heat exchanger is made in the form of two sections connected in series and the output of the last section is connected to the furnace, with disperse filling placed between the furnace vault and the retort, and a fan is installed in the upper part of the latter , The furnace and the dispersed filling additionally equipped with superheaters.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the superheater located in the furnace is made in the form of a coil of pipes made of heat-resistant steel and is connected to the steam pipe with its input, and its output is connected to the retort.
3. The device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the superheater installed in the disperse filling is made in the form of a flat coil made of heat-resistant steel pipes and is connected to the steam line with its input, and its output is connected to the retort.
RU2003117097A 2002-12-27 2003-06-10 Device for rubber waste processing RU2247025C1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2008030137A1 (en) * 2007-01-10 2008-03-13 Konstanta, Obschestvo S Ogranichennoy Otvetstvennostyu Method and device for processing rubber waste

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101434710B (en) * 2008-12-18 2010-07-14 泰安市金山橡胶工业有限公司 Automatic rubber powder plasticizing process and apparatus thereof

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
ШЕЙН B.C. и др. Обезвреживание и утилизация выбросов и отходов при производстве и переработке эластомеров, Москва Химия, 1987, с.226-227. *

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2008030137A1 (en) * 2007-01-10 2008-03-13 Konstanta, Obschestvo S Ogranichennoy Otvetstvennostyu Method and device for processing rubber waste

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