RU2225470C2 - Rigid frog for switches and crossings - Google Patents

Rigid frog for switches and crossings Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2225470C2
RU2225470C2 RU98102389/11A RU98102389A RU2225470C2 RU 2225470 C2 RU2225470 C2 RU 2225470C2 RU 98102389/11 A RU98102389/11 A RU 98102389/11A RU 98102389 A RU98102389 A RU 98102389A RU 2225470 C2 RU2225470 C2 RU 2225470C2
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Russia
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crosspiece
guardrails
rails
tip
ribs
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RU98102389/11A
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Russian (ru)
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RU98102389A (en
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Ханс-Петер ХУБМАНН (DE)
Ханс-Петер ХУБМАНН
Освальд ЛОХШМИДТ (DE)
Освальд ЛОХШМИДТ
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Ханс-Петер ХУБМАНН
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Abstract

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way. SUBSTANCE: proposed rigid frog is made with two wing rails and frog tongue in between. Tongue and wing rails form grooves arranged at acute angle relative to each other for free passing of wheel tire flange. Two wing rails and frog tongue rest on ribbed plate provided with vertical ribs. Feet of wing rails and foot of frog tongue are arranged between ribs. Wing rails and frog tongue are held on ribbed plate flexibly in vertical direction by means of vertically flexible clamps. Wing rails and frog tongue are disconnected from each other relative to their mass. Relative horizontal position of wing rails and frog tongue and, consequently, width of groove are provided by ribs between which feet of wing rails and frog tongue are held. EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of frog. 12 cl, 25 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to a crosspiece for arrows and deaf intersections. The closest technical solution for the combination of essential features and the achieved result is a cross for arrows and blind intersections, known from EP 0282796.

 The well-known spider contains two guardrails and a spider point located between them, which together with the guardrails forms grooves passing at an acute angle to each other for free passage of the wheel band crest. In this case, the two guardrails and the point of the cross are supported by a finned plate with vertically spaced ribs, between which the soles of the guardrails and the sole of the point of the cross are located. In the known solution, as usual with all known crosses, the guardrails are held at a distance from the point of the cross with the help of gaskets in order to provide the width of the longitudinal groove for the passage of the wheel flange. To ensure some elasticity of individual elements in this crosspiece, it is penetrated by a sleeve with a gap, while this sleeve from both ends is supported on spacers through distance elements, which, in turn, are located in the axils of the guardrails. The guardrails are pulled together by a bolt, gaskets, distance elements and the sleeve are pulled together and thereby form together a rigid unit. Only the tip of the cross can move horizontally and vertically relative to both guardrails within a given gap. Both the guardrails and the point of the cross are lying on a ribbed plate, which has vertically standing ribs that serve as stops for the soles of the guardrails or the point of the cross for horizontal movement and, due to the horizontal clearance, allow the desired horizontal mobility.

 A cross is known from WO 94/02683, which is composed of two un welded rail sections and, using gaskets and a bolt passing through the neck of the guardrails and crosses, are connected to each other by a threaded connection. To keep both un welded segments of the crosspiece core rails in a certain position relative to each other, the sections of the crosspiece point rails are pierced without a gap with a sleeve, or the surfaces of the crosspiece sections facing each other are connected to each other by profiling or gearing running in the longitudinal direction, the side surfaces of the teeth which adjoin each other without a gap.

 The spider, similar to the spider according to EP 0282796, is also known from EP 0281880 B1 and DE 3708233 A1.

 Typically, simple fixed crosses are located on the arrows at the places where the inner crest of the wheel brace intersects both riding surfaces in the intersection area for trouble-free travel. The bandages of the wheels are so wide that they overlap the width of the longitudinal groove and just the width of the spider point sufficient to support it. With this free passage of the crest of the brace, the wheel brace, which transfers the load of the wheel, must ensure unhindered passage of intersecting riding surfaces without destroying the narrow tip of the cross.

Rigid rigid simple crosses made up of rails, consisting of three main parts (i.e., both guardrails and a simple point of the crosspiece), are connected to each other through bolts of the crosspiece, which should also prevent longitudinal displacement due to temperature fluctuations and braking. These bolted joints, which are currently being performed as highly tightened threaded joints of rigid simple crosses, have, along with a very high cost of manufacture and maintenance, other significant technical disadvantages that have a very negative effect on, in particular, the service life. A very high manufacturing cost is primarily due to the fact that instead of the usual for rails and arrows control rails, full rails with the corresponding rail profile are used for the tip. In order to be able to weld the cross section of both points made up of full rails, it is necessary to process both the main point and the side point with chip removal, and in the critical area in most cases milling to half. Before welding these two cross sections in the simple tip of the crosspiece, it is necessary to preheat the zone to be welded to a temperature of about 400-500 o C, so that cracks do not occur during welding of high-carbon rail steel. This temperature must be maintained throughout the entire welding process. However, in most cases it is not kept at this level, so that martensite forms in the welding zone, and the seams break after a short time or the sharp rails break, which, unfortunately, is still very common at present.

 In addition, the transfer region of the bandage from the guardrail to the tip or vice versa is often subjected to thermal improvement or annealing to perlite to reduce wear. However, with thermal improvement or annealing for perlite, decarburization occurs in the initial and final zones, which leads to a decrease in the hardness of these zones, which in practice, after a short period of operation, leads to high maintenance costs due to the so-called soft holes.

 It is also known from DE 3339442 C1 that the tip of the cross in the area of greatest wear, mainly in the initial area, is provided with a recess in which an insert of high manganese hard steel is firmly mounted. High manganese hard steel is held by a press fit, which is created by a low temperature shrink method. Although this method lengthens the life of the tip of the spider, it is very complicated and costly and creates an almost inelastic tip of the spider.

 It is necessary to drill holes both through the blocks of the spider and through the guardrails, which, on the one hand, is associated with high cost and, on the other hand, leads to a break in the rails if the edges of the holes are not thoroughly cleaned. Perhaps a tight connection of the contact surfaces of the gaskets with the sinuses between the heads and soles of the guardrails requires high manufacturing costs. The main reason for heavy wear and, therefore, a relatively short service life is the too high rigidity of the transmission region of the wheel band from the guardrail to the core and vice versa due to the too compact cross-section, therefore, the total moment of inertia about the X axis of the combination of the guardrail, spider point and spacers. In EP 0 287 796 it is already recognized that this problem can be solved by more elasticity than before, i.e. due to the possibility of relative vertical movement between the tip of the cross and the guardrail, in order to perceive only small forces in the weakened areas of the tip of the cross and significant forces in areas with a large cross section of the rail. Due to the fact that both guardrails are still rigidly connected to each other through the tip of the crosspiece, their moment of inertia is still relatively large. In addition, there the tip of the crosspiece is installed as a console to achieve the effect of a bending rod, i.e., the free end can deviate in the vertical direction, while the back region is fixed rigidly. Thus, during travel, the front zone of the crosspiece tip bends down and the skating surface in the fixation area experiences a tensile load, which after a short time of operation led to a break in the rails.

 If we compare the inertia, i.e. Since the moment of inertia of the transition zone of two guardrails, two gaskets and, if necessary, also the point of the full rail, it is easy to verify that such a transition zone acts as a rigid block, which due to its rigidity causes crushing in the collision zone. If you also take into account that the railway wheels are never perfectly round, which is caused, among other things, by high stiffness at the point of impact when traveling at an acute angle or at an obtuse angle of simple crosses, it becomes clear that this is another reason for high wear. In order to be able to eliminate this vertical wear of the point of the spider and guardrails, in practice, both the core rails and the guardrail rails are surfaced on the tracks. Often such deposition is not carried out carefully, in particular, insufficiently high preheating is carried out, so that the crosspiece breaks after a short time due to the formation of martensite and therefore it is often necessary to replace it.

 Horizontal stiffness, which due to the very high moment of inertia of the entire core relative to the Y axis is several times greater than the moment of inertia of a simple rail, also leads to an excessive load on the counter rails. Actually, to reduce the wear of the counter-rail, the guardrail, in particular, when hitting the wheel brace, must be made horizontally elastic.

 From the point of view of movement along a rail track, modern crosses have the disadvantage that the guardrails are not made with elevation in accordance with the taper shape of the running bandages. Due to this, when traveling at an acute angle, the axis of the wheelset at equally high guardrails drops significantly in the vertical direction and at the same time receives strong vertical acceleration. In this case, the setting point of the wheel brace is shifted from the running edge to the smaller diameters of the brace, which leads to a significantly lower peripheral speed of the wheel from the side of the cross, while the wheel pair turning inwardly rotates due to the attraction of the wheel pair to the counter-track rotates over the larger diameter of the setting point wheels. This phenomenon can also be called a paradox, since the outer wheel that goes with the turn rotates at a much smaller diameter than the wheel that goes inside the turn caused by the counter-rail.

 Since the modern point of the cross in the opposite direction, when traveling at an acute angle, falls into a sharply falling skating plane, the pair of wheels when switching from the guardrail to the rigid core of the cross along with a sudden transition from a small diameter to the point of setting the wheel to a larger diameter, i.e. at a significantly greater peripheral speed, while still in the opposite direction to the previous acceleration direction, it “catapults” not downward, but in the opposite direction obliquely upward. For the wheelset, as well as for the point of impact on the hard point of the spider, this is the cause of plastic crushing of the skating surface of the tip and, probably, also the reason for the loss of the round shape of the wheel bandage.

 Regarding the elasticity of the usual design of the crosspiece, it can be argued that the crosspiece used for more than a hundred years, in most cases, cast from manganese steel, as well as a cross connected by bolts, lies in the arrow like a rigid deck, i.e. like an alien body. There is no elastic, at least approximately adequate design, which would approximately correspond to the elasticity of the control rail. In bolted crosses, the transition zone, in most cases, lies still on the railroad tie, which further increases rigidity. In addition, gaskets are located in this zone, so that the moment of inertia about the X axis, which is crucial for the elastic vertical deflection of the crosspiece tip, in the cross section of the collision is approximately five times greater than the moment of inertia of the control rail. Something like this or worse is the case with the transition from the guardrail to the point of the spider in cast crosses and even worse in block crosspieces, because their moment of inertia is not only five times, but more than ten times greater than the moment of inertia of the normal control rail.

All of the above flaws and shortcomings are known to date, simple, hard crosses are as follows:
- too much vertical and horizontal stiffness, therefore, too little vertical and horizontal elasticity;
- very large losses of material;
- unreasonable loss of resources;
- too little opportunity to use hard crosses;
- too high cost of service;
- too high manufacturing cost;
- lack of easily correctable excess;
- incorrect joint welding and direction, and many others that are eliminated by the present invention.

 The basis of the invention is the task of improving the cross of the above type so that at lower costs for production and material to achieve a longer service life and the possibility of using the cross on working tracks.

 The problem is solved in that in a rigid cross for arrows and deaf intersections with two guardrails and a spider point located between them, which together with the guardrails form grooves passing at an acute angle to each other for free passage of the wheel band crest, while two guardrails and a tip the crosses rest on a finned plate with vertically spaced ribs between which the guardrail soles and the sole of the crosspiece are located, according to the invention, the guardrails and the crosspoint are vertically vertical elastic clamping brackets are held on the fin plate elastically in the vertical direction, as well as the guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece relative to their mass are completely disconnected from each other, and the relative horizontal position of the guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece and, therefore, the width of the groove is provided exclusively by the ribs between which are held soles of guardrails and spikes.

 The invention proceeds from the understanding that the three main components, namely two guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece, can be completely uncoupled from each other with respect to their mass, respectively, their moment of inertia, if the laying of the crosspiece and their bolt connection are eliminated. Due to this, not only each of the three main elements (two guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece) is completely separated from the remaining elements, but also due to the elimination of gaskets and bolted joints, additional mass is saved and thereby the moment of inertia is reduced. The relative position of these three main elements in the horizontal direction is ensured by vertically upward ribs of the ribbed plate, between which the main elements are held without a gap (with a small tolerance). The vertical elastic fixation of the three main elements is carried out using elastic clamping brackets, which clamp the three main elements vertically only in the area of the plate. The width of the longitudinal groove for the passage of the wheel flange is provided by the ribs of the ribbed plate, as well as the corresponding treatment of the soles and heads of the guardrails and the tip of the spider. The finned plates, in turn, are mounted on the sleepers, preferably with bolts.

 Due to the fact that each of the three main elements can completely elastically deform independently of the other elements, primarily vertically, the very strong blow so far encountered when changing the wheel band from the guardrail to the tip and vice versa is greatly reduced, so that there is still wear and tear by crushing the hard tip of the cross and guardrails is significantly reduced, in most cases even completely disappears.

 According to an embodiment of the invention, the guardrails and the tip of the cross are respectively mounted on gaskets that are located between the sole of the corresponding rail and the ribbed plate, while the gaskets are especially resilient due to the execution of elastomeric material. Due to this, each of the three main parts can oscillate with a corresponding natural frequency, which increases elasticity and, thereby, increases ride comfort and significantly lengthens the service life.

 According to another embodiment of the invention, the guardrails of the crosspiece in the zone of transition of the wheel from the crosspiece to the guardrail of the crosspiece and vice versa have an excess relative to the height of the rail surface of the point of the crosspiece formed by gaskets of various thicknesses in accordance with the taper of the wheel band.

 Thus, due to the additional placement of these additional gaskets of a certain thickness under the corresponding region of the sole of the guardrail or the tip of the crosspiece, it is possible to precisely establish the desired large height of the transition surface without any special problems. It is also possible to compensate for the wear that has occurred without the use of deposition, followed by the re-profiling of the rolling surface in the deposition region. Due to this, the cost of maintenance is significantly reduced and, first of all, the possibility of using the subject of the invention is increased to almost 100% of its location on the working routes.

 In accordance with the prior art, up to now, only the outer regions of the guardrails have been clamped elastically in the vertical direction with the help of clamping brackets or other clamping elements with respect to the finned plates, while the clamping forces on one side of the clamping are maximum 10-15 kN.

 According to another embodiment of the invention, the elastic clamping brackets for tension between the inwardly directed sole of the guardrail of the cross and the opposite sole of the cross are based only on said sole of the rails and are fixed to the respective ribs. Alternatively, the clamping brackets in the milled front zone of the spider point rest on the upper side of the lowered zone and on the adjacent soles of the guardrails or crosses and are fixed on the ribs.

 Owing to the above-described construction, the inner regions of the guardrails and both outer sides of the sole of the spider point are also clamped with elastic clamps or the like, while the pressing force reaches, preferably, 10-15 kN for each section of the support. Due to this, three areas: the core of the crosspiece and two guardrails each are separately clamped as tightly as the entire rigid crosspiece used to be. Based on this advantage, it is possible to be much more economical and easier to perform the necessary anti-theft, which should prevent the relative movement of the guardrails and the tip of the cross in the longitudinal direction of the rails. Such an anti-theft is described in more detail in the dependent claims and in the following description.

 With complete wear or breakage of the guardrail and / or the point of the crosspiece, each of these individual parts can be easily and quickly replaced individually, which greatly increases the possibility of using the subject of the invention in working ways.

 To date, the lying time of stationary, heavily loaded crosses is in practice, depending on the load, 3-4 years, sometimes somewhat more. The invention significantly increases the lying time, since there are no weaknesses in either the design or the welding of both the spikes of the spigot of the turnout switch, so that the cost of acquiring a new cross in comparison with the current state is completely lost.

 Another great advantage of the invention is the very simple and economical elimination of the disadvantages of the spider point or one or both of the guardrails.

 Shunting sites, which for economic reasons have rigid simple crosses, are often located near settlements. Due to the fully elastically established reference points of the guardrails and the point of the crosspiece, a strong noise reduction is achieved.

 Another particular advantage of the invention is the ability to easily change the height of the rolling surface of both guardrails, as well as the point of the spider as compensation for vertical wear, as well as anti-theft. The adaptation of clamping brackets used for rails and arrows, for example conventional SKL clamping brackets of the German type, does not present any problems. The support points of the clamping brackets according to the invention are generally at the same height, as opposed to conventional SKL clamping brackets, in which both support points are located at different heights. In order to reduce the guiding force, in particular, when cornering between both guardrails and both points of the turnout switch, as well as between the point of the cross and both guardrails, the three main components in the region of the corresponding support points are clamped elastically in the vertical direction using slightly modified clamping brackets . Since between the two guardrails, the two points of the turnout switch, and also between the two guardrails and the point of the cross, there are sole areas with basically the same height, the known clamping brackets are changed so that both supporting regions are at the same height. Due to this, expensive ones that significantly increase the rigidity of the crosspiece for laying the crosspiece disappear.

 In order to install the crosspiece according to the invention, for a short period of time at the construction site, the crosspiece is delivered to the construction site in a fully mounted condition on the finned plate. Thanks to this, in a short time, without problems, it is possible to establish a simple, motionless crosspiece optimized in all respects. Spare parts, such as both guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece, can be kept in stock, so that in a short time without large storage stocks it is possible to ensure almost one hundred percent possibility of using the subject of the invention for railways.

 Relatively elastic in the vertical direction of the clamps of individual areas of reference points, the following should be noted.

 In the crosspiece according to the invention, the fin plates in the direction of the rails are convex. Moreover, the inner ribs of the finned plates have a smaller width than the outer ribs.

 In order to withstand the width of the sole of both guardrails (inside), as well as the tip of the cross (outside) as wide as possible, the internal clamping ribs are made narrower and higher - with equal load-bearing ability - than the outer ribs to withstand the width of the soles of the rails as large as possible and to have, if necessary, the ability to replace bolts with an L-shaped head without dismantling the rails. This width corresponds to the normal width of the conventional L-head bolts used with SKL clamping brackets, which is 24 mm, which with an air gap of 1 mm on each side of the rib results in a total width of 24 mm. Since the stability of the crosspiece tip depends only on the width of the rail sole in the plate area, the finned plates are expanded, so that they do not become concave during clamping and do not “surge” under load, they are pre-convex and made of high-strength fine-grained steel.

 For heavily loaded arrows it is necessary to slightly narrow the sole only in the inner area of the plate by half the width of the rib. Since the rib along the entire length is forged from one piece and welded to the base plate, the corresponding areas of the sole undergo edge cutting only at a maximum length of 120 mm.

 For lightly loaded crosspieces (for example, for local traffic), both soles can be planed or milled in accordance with the width of the ribs along the entire length, which means a low manufacturing cost.

 The most important aspects and advantages of the invention can again be summarized as follows.

 The spider and guardrails are clamped vertically to the ribbed slabs using clamping brackets (SKL). Thus, the usual to date hard block is divided into separate rails. Each of these individual rails has a corresponding intrinsic elasticity, so that the subject matter of the invention with respect to the vibrational and shock-absorbing behavior practically corresponds to a normal track rail. The spacers used so far are eliminated in the same way as the bolted joints used so far.

Individual rails can be replaced more easily. Under the rails, you can then install additional gaskets made of plastic, with which you can smoothly control the height of the riding surfaces. The previously made repair of guardrails using surfacing becomes unnecessary. Clamping is done vertically using clamping brackets. The individual rail soles in the area of bottlenecks have an air gap of 1 mm between them. The ends of both control rails, which extend along the entire length of the point of the spider without a welded joint and form a point, are connected to each other in the shortest possible area by welding along the head and sole. For this, welding methods such as gas press welding, CO 2 shielding gas welding, pressure induction welding, electron beam welding or laser welding can be used.

 In the region of the transition of the wheel from the point to the guardrail and vice versa, the latter is installed with such an excess that the difference in heights of the conical profiles of wheel tires used today is compensated.

 The core of the cross consists of two control rails, for example, type U1C 60, which in the point area in their adjacent areas of the head and sole are coordinated with each other using chip removal in accordance with the narrowing in the point area and are welded along the head and sole formed thus the tip using a V-shaped seam or other types of seams.

 The front part of the point can also be made as a whole as a forged or cast shaped product and welded with both spikes of the crosspiece welded on the head and sole.

 Since large forces act on the guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece due to the influence of temperature and braking in the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to provide the so-called anti-theft between these three main parts, which prevents longitudinal displacement with a relative shift between the tip of the crosspiece and the guardrails.

 According to the invention, it is recommended that, after the transition zone of the wheel from the guardrail of the crosspiece to the tip of the crosspiece and back, an anti-theft device is installed on the opposite elements of the rails, which prevents the movement of the rail elements relative to each other in the longitudinal direction, but allows vertical deflection or oscillation of the rail elements. The specified anti-theft device is formed by a pair of persistent elements, which are mounted on the necks of the respective rails and interlocked with each other in the form of a comb in the longitudinal direction of the rails. In this case, the thrust elements have one vertical neck that protrudes from the free end of the corresponding thrust element, while the vertical sections of the walls of the necks are hooked to each other and thereby create a stop in the direction transverse to the longitudinal axis of the rails.

 This anti-theft device is installed as close as possible to the place of transition of the wheel with a special feature, consisting in the fact that each neck of the guardrails and the spider points are individually connected with high strength by bolts to the parts of the anti-theft device.

 The height adjustment of the various guardrails is necessary to compensate for the wear of the rail heads of the control rails, in particular in the area of the transition of the wheels. Between the bolts and the enlarged holes in the necks of the rails, eccentric bushings are provided for the anti-theft device. In this case, the anti-theft device for each side consists of one part.

 According to an embodiment of the invention, each side of the anti-theft device is made of two parts with a plurality of contact surfaces in the longitudinal and transverse directions that transmit longitudinal forces from the tip to the control rails and vice versa. These forces are in the longitudinal direction, for example, approximately 600-800 kN. To equalize the height difference during wear of the guardrail riding surfaces under the soles of the guardrails, additional or different gaskets are laid.

 Both related parts can be shifted vertically relative to each other to change the height of the rails. In the longitudinal direction of the rails, they can transmit large forces through many contact surfaces, which are many times more than the forces in switch wagons common for anti-theft devices. A slight play between the contact surfaces can reduce forces that can be transmitted in the longitudinal direction of the rails. The longitudinal movement of the rails can also be reduced by means of contact surfaces with play. The anti-theft parts of the anti-theft device engaged in the form of a comb can also be made trapezoidal.

The invention is illustrated below by examples with the help of the drawings, which depict:
figure 1 is a top view of the cross according to the invention;
figure 2 is a side view on the tip of the cross of figure 1;
FIG. 3 is a side elevational view of the transition surfaces of both guardrails according to the invention in the crosspiece of FIG. 1;
figure 4 is a section along the plate 249 of figure 1;
figure 5 is a top view of the section of figure 4 (on the plate 249);
6 is a section along the plate 251 of figure 1;
Fig.7 is a top view of the section of Fig.6;
FIG. 8 is a top view of a portion of a cross according to the invention with an anti-theft device according to a first embodiment of the invention;
Fig.9 is a section along the line BB in Fig.8;
FIG. 10 is a section along the line CC of FIG. 8 of an anti-theft device according to a first embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 11 - various views and sections according to the first embodiment of the anti-theft device;
FIG. 12 is a top view with a cut into a part of a cross according to the invention with an anti-theft device according to a second embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 13 is a top view with a cut into part of a cross according to the invention with an anti-theft device according to a third embodiment of the invention;
Fig.14 is a section along the line 1-1 of Fig.8;
figa-15C - sections along the lines FF, GG, H-H in Fig.13;
Fig is a top view of the finned plate used in the invention;
Fig.17 is a section along the line EE of Fig.16;
Fig. 18 is a side view of the inner rib of the fin plate of Figs. 16 and 17;
Fig.19 is a side view of the outer rib of the fin plate of Fig.16 and 17;
FIG. 20 is a section through two rails forming the tip of the crosspiece during the preheating process with open pressure welding;
Fig.21 is a section similar to Fig.20, however, after the end of open pressure welding;
Fig.22 is a section similar to Fig.20 of two forming the tip of the crosspiece of the rail parts during the preheating process with closed pressure welding;
FIG. 23 is a section through FIG. 23 after the end of closed pressure welding. In separate figures, identical positions indicate identical or functionally corresponding parts.

 Figure 1 shows the crosspiece, according to the invention, in a top view. Both control rails 4 and 5, which together form the point 3 of the cross, are extended beyond the theoretical point of the cross and are welded along the heads and soles of the point of the cross in the front zone. On both sides of the tip 3 of the cross are located one guardrail 1 and 2 with the formation of a longitudinal groove 11 for the passage of the wheel flange. The indicated rail elements lie on the ribbed plates 246-253, respectively, 223 (these numbers are based on the nomenclature used on German railways (Deutsche Ban AG).

 In contrast to the prior art, the elements (parts) of the crosspiece, for example, the guardrails 1 and 2 and the tip 3 of the crosspiece, are not rigidly connected to each other through the spacer gaskets and bolt joints, and with the help of clamping brackets 26, 27, 28 and 29 are vertically elastically clamped onto the corresponding finned plates 246-253 and 223. In particular, the guardrails 1 and 2 are pressed from their outer side in the usual way with clamping brackets 26, while these clamping brackets can be, for example, ordinary clamping brackets of type SKL 12. In the area in which the guardrails located directly opposite into each other, i.e. on ribbed plates 246 and 247, an internal guardrail clamp is provided in the form of a clamp bracket 27, which presses against the inside of the soles of the opposite guardrails 1 and 2, directed inwardly. In areas where the guardrail is located opposite the crosspiece tip, corresponding clamps of the guard and guardrails are provided in the form clamping brackets 28, which abut, on the one hand, on the sole of the guardrail and, on the other hand, on the sole of the point of the spider. In the un-welded region of the cross, in which the points of the turnout switch are located at a greater distance from each other, an internal clip is provided in the form of a clamping bracket 29, which lies on the insoles of the both of these points.

 Thus, all rail components are elastically in the vertical direction pressed against the ribbed plates, but otherwise are not connected to each other. Thus, each of the three main elements (two guardrails and the tip of the cross) can oscillate and elastically deform vertically and horizontally completely independently of each other. Therefore, the collision during the transition of the wheel brace from the guardrail to the tip of the crosspiece and vice versa can be greatly reduced due to the existing individual elasticities, so that the crushing wear that has existed so far practically no longer occurs.

 Since the main elements are held mainly by the frictional connection between the rail sole and the ribbed plates using clamping brackets, it is necessary to ensure that the main elements cannot be displaced relative to each other, respectively, can only be displaced so that the longitudinal groove 11 is kept sufficient width. In order to prevent a relative displacement between the tip 3 of the crosspiece and the guardrails 1 and 2 in the longitudinal direction of the rails, an anti-theft device 30 is provided, which is located here between the ribbed plates 250 and 251, however, as an alternative, it can also be located between the ribbed plates 249 and 250. The anti-theft device 30 will be described in detail using FIGS. 6-11.

 In a preferred embodiment of the anti-theft device, it acts only in the longitudinal direction of the rails and, thus, eliminates the vertical connection of the main elements, so that the moment of inertia does not increase in this zone either. This anti-theft device 30 is bolted to the necks of the point of the cross and the corresponding guardrails 1 or 2. Accordingly, these guardrails and the tip in this zone have holes 31 and 32, which are shown in Figs. 7 and 8.

 Figure 2 shows a side view of the tip 3 of the cross with a milled zone 6 of the tip. Between the plates 248 and 249 there is a transmission region 34 in which the rolling surface of the cross is slightly lowered and only on a relatively short length.

 Figure 3 shows a side view of the guardrail 1, while the images in figures 1, 2 and 3 are shown in the relative position of the main elements in the longitudinal direction of the rails.

 Finally, FIG. 1 shows that all finned plates 246-253 and 223 are connected to sleepers not shown using sleeper bolts 33.

 In order to prevent individual rails from moving across the longitudinal direction of the rails, vertically standing ribs are provided on the finned plates, between which the rail elements are held, mainly without a gap (with small tolerances). In practice, this gap is a maximum of approximately 0.5-1 mm. These finned slabs are described in more detail using FIGS. 12-15.

 Finally, figure 3 shows that the guardrail 1 in the zone between two points 35 has a slight elevation relative to the height of the skating surface of the tip of the cross in accordance with the taper of the wheel braces, so that the wheel does not fall and does not rise when changing from the point of the cross to the guardrail and back . The height of the surface of the guardrail rail is shown by a thinner line 36, which between points 35 runs flat (horizontally), in contrast to the guardrail rolling surface 37.

 Figure 4 shows a section along the line aa of the plate 249 of figure 1. In this zone, the tip of the 3 crosses still has its full height and perceives another part of the wheel load.

In this case, both longitudinally extending wags 4 and 5 of the railroad switch are welded to each other on the soles and heads by welding in a CO 2 shielding gas medium.

 The fin plate 249 has two vertically mounted ribs 39a and 39b and two lateral, relatively lower ribs 40 and 41. The distance between the ribs 40 and 39a, respectively, 39b and 41 corresponds to the width at this point of the sole 16 of the guardrail 1 and 2, while in any case, there is a very small gap equal to a maximum of 0.5-1 mm, so that the soles 16 of both guardrails 1 and 2 are fixed between the corresponding ribs 40 and 39a, respectively, 41 and 39b in the transverse direction to the longitudinal axis of the rails. Both guardrails 1 and 2 are mounted on gaskets 42, which have a thickness equal to, for example, 9 mm and are preferably made of elastic material. In addition, between the gasket and the bottom surface of the sole there is an additional gasket 43, with which you can adjust the above height guardrail compared with the height of the rail surface of the tip of the cross. These gaskets 43 can be easily replaced, and when wear the treads of the guardrails are replaced by thicker gaskets, which eliminates the need for the above-described surfacing to repair the treads of the guardrails 1 and 2.

 The outwardly directed sections of the rail soles 16 'are pressed elastically in the vertical direction using conventional clamping brackets 26 to the upper surface 38 of the ribbed plate. To do this, bolts 44 with a L-shaped head are installed on the outer ribs 40 and 41, namely with the help of a dovetail mount. At the place of installation of the bolt, a threaded bolt rises, onto which a nut 45 is screwed with a washer 46, by means of which the clamping bracket 26 is pressed, on the one hand, to the ribbed plate 249 and, on the other hand, to the outsole 16 'of the corresponding guardrail 1 or 2 In Fig. 4, it is clearly shown that the clamping terminal 26 rests on the ribbed plate and on the sole at different heights. Similarly, both inner soles of the guardrails 1 and 2 are pressed using the inner clamp 28 of the guardrails to the ribbed plate 249, while on the inner ribs 39a and 39b, one bolt with an L-shaped head and a nut 45 are also installed, with which the clamping terminals are pressed 28 by means of a nut 45 and washer 46. The clamping bracket 28 rests on both soles 16 and 49 of the respective guardrails and the point of the spider, namely, basically at the same height.

 Figure 4 clearly shows that both guardrails 1 and 2 in the vertical direction are not completely connected with each other and therefore can oscillate, respectively, elastically bend independently of each other. As already indicated, the outer clamping brackets 26 are the usual clamping brackets used by Deutsche Ban AG under the designation SKL 12. The clamping brackets 28 for the inner clamping are in the top view shown in FIG. 5 basically the same shape as the clamping brackets 26 However, in cross section in Fig. 5, they differ in that both sides rest on substantially the same height on the inner rail soles 16 of both guardrails and the point of the spider.

 In FIG. 5 shows a corresponding top view of the finned plate 249. Similarly to the plate 249, this finned plate has four ribs, i.e. both outer, lower ribs 40 and 41 and both inner, higher ribs 39a and 39b. Both spikes 3 of the spider of the wag of the turnout switch, i.e. the control rails 4 and 5 are welded to each other on the heads and soles and have outward soles 49, on which the internal clamps of the guardrails and wits of the turnout, which are also made in the form of clamping brackets, which however differ from the clamping brackets 28 in that that the support on the sole 49 of the tip 3 of the cross is lower than the support on the soles of 16 guardrails 1 and 2.

 It should be noted that in the area of the ribbed plate 249, both guardrails 1 and 2, with the help of a thicker pad 43, have an excess, which is shown by the line (Fig. 4), which shows the height of the tread surface 37 of the guardrails 1 and 2 with respect to the lower tread surface 36 point 3 crosses.

 In FIG. 6 shows a section along the finned plate 251, i.e. in the area in which the control rails 4 and 5 just go from the separate zone of the tip to the welded zone of the tip of the cross, which is indicated by weld 51 in Fig.7. The fin plate here has a total of five ribs, namely, both external ribs 40 and 41, both ribs 39a and 39b for the inner clamp 28 of the guardrails and wags of the switch, as well as the middle rib 52, which is located between the switch 4 of the switch and the switch 5 of the switch translation and which keeps these two wits at a distance from each other across the longitudinal direction of the rails. Since in this region the outer soles of the switches 4 and 5 of the railroad switch have basically a normal rail profile, the clamping brackets for the inner clamp 28 of the guardrails and switchboards of the railroad switch are made so that they have the same support height on both sides. Thus, in principle, the same clamping brackets can be used as for the internal clamping of the guardrails in FIGS. 4 and 5. It should also be noted that both guardrails according to the invention end after plate 251, while in accordance with the prior art they end only after plate 253. Shortening is possible due to the much greater horizontal elasticity of both, pressed only along the foot of the guardrails.

 In Fig.7 shows a top view of the section of Fig.6. Here, in particular, a transition zone is shown from the welded part of the tip 3 of the cross (weld 51} to the control rails 4 and 5, as well as narrower ribs 52.

 Fig. 8 shows a first embodiment of an anti-theft device 30 with five bolts (see Fig. 1) in a plan view with the heads of the switch points and guardrails lowered, which is installed in the region of the spider point between the ribbed plates 250 and 251, i.e. in the area in which both switch points are already welded to each other on the heads and soles. The anti-theft device 30 consists of two pairs of elements 57 and 58, of which the outer one is pressed against the guardrail 1, respectively 2, and the inner element is pressed against the corresponding side of the tip 3 of the cross. The fastening is preferably carried out with the help of highly tightened bolts 59, which pass through the opening 32 of the guardrail, and also with the help of bolts 60, which pass through the holes 31 of both witties 4 and 5 of the rail switch. Both elements 57 and 58 of the anti-theft device of the same pair have a main part 62, respectively, 63 which goes into the sinuses 18 between the head and the base of the switch points 4 and 5 parallel to the corresponding neck of the rail and which is pulled into the sinus with the corresponding bolt 59, respectively 60 and to the neck of the rail. In addition, each anti-theft device element 57 and 58 has thrust elements 64, respectively 65, which extend horizontally from the main body 62, respectively 63, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rails and which are offset relative to each other in the longitudinal direction of the rails so that the stop elements 64 and 65 of one pair 57, 58 enter each other in the form of a comb and thereby form stops in the longitudinal direction of the rail, preventing the relative longitudinal shear of adjacent rails 1, 4, respectively, 5, 2. Accordingly, The support elements are made so that when laying the rails in the rut, first the switches 4 and 5 of the turnout are mounted on the fin plates with bolts of the anti-theft device 58 bolted to them, and then the guardrails with the bolts 55 of the anti-theft device attached to them are vertically lowered, the stop elements 57 and 58 engage each other in the form of a comb and provide a relative arrangement of the rails in their longitudinal direction. The stop elements 64 or 65 of the respective anti-theft device elements 57 and 58 form, as shown in FIG. 9, a pot 73 open to the side of the opposite rail to ensure the insertion of the bolt 59 and the placement of the head of the bolt.

 In order to also ensure the distance between the rails and thereby the width of the longitudinal groove, the thrust elements have, as shown in the left part of Fig. 8 and especially clearly in Fig. 9, vertically extending wall sections 67 and 68 that enter into each other and thereby form a stop in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rails in the Y direction. These vertical wall sections 67 and 68 extend only to about half of the length of the stop elements 64 and 65 measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rails and begin at the free end e thrust element. Moreover, they pass on the vertical element 67 connected to the control rails 4, respectively 5, from the bottom up, i.e. from the bottom of the rail to the rail head, while the vertical sections 68 connected to the guardrails 1, respectively 2, extend opposite from top to bottom, i.e. from the rail head to the rail sole to enable installation of guardrails with their anti-theft device elements from above.

 Although the adjacent rails 1 and 4, respectively, 5 and 2 are connected to each other through the elements of the anti-theft device, however, this does not form a rigid connection, which occurs, for example, when using conventional cross-piece gaskets, and parts of the rails can bend independently from each other move and oscillate in the vertical direction and, thus, are completely disconnected from each other relative to the moment of inertia in the vertical direction, especially since the placement with its main mass is provided near neutral si x.

 In FIG. 11, the anti-theft device is shown in even more detail. Each anti-theft device element 57 and 58 has stops 64 and 65, which have recesses 75 between them, which include opposing stops 64 and 65, so that the anti-theft device elements engage with each other in the form of a comb. The stops 64 and 65 extending from the corresponding main parts 62 and 63 have cylindrical holes 73, in the bottom of which holes 74 are provided for the passage of the fastening bolts. The two extreme stops of each anti-theft device element 57 and 58 have vertically extending necks 67 and 68, which also engage each other (see section aa), due to which the guardrail and the point of the crosspiece also hold each other in the direction transverse to the longitudinal axis of the rails, those. in the Y direction, which provides protection against tipping over the rails. However, it should be especially emphasized that there is no connection in the vertical direction, so that all the rails, i.e. the tip of the cross and both guardrails can move in the vertical direction with respect to the other rails and that in this respect only the moment of inertia of the individual rail acts, which greatly increases the vertical elasticity.

 The specialist will easily obtain further details from Figs. 9-11.

 12 shows an embodiment of an anti-theft device with three bolts. In this case, the anti-theft device also consists of two pairs of elements 57 and 58, of which the outer element 57 is pressed with three bolts to the neck of the guardrail 1 or 2, and the inner element 58 is also pressed with three bolts 60 to the necks of the spikes of the regulating rails 4 and 5. These necks have corresponding holes for the location of the bolts. In this case, both elements 57 and 58 of the anti-theft device of each pair have a main part 62, respectively 63, which enter the bosom between the sole and the head of the guardrails, respectively, switch points and run parallel to the corresponding rail neck and from which the teeth 93-98 extend which serve as thrust elements and interlock in the form of a comb with each other. At the same time, the anti-theft device element 57 mounted on the guardrail 1 or 2 has two anti-theft rails 93 and 94 located relative to each other in the longitudinal direction, while the anti-theft device element 58 mounted on the control rail 4 has two pairs of teeth 95, 96 and 97, 98, which are received between each other by the teeth 93, respectively, 94. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 12, the teeth 93 and 94 in a top view are trapezoidal with an expanded base of the teeth, so that the teeth can withstand great efforts. The gap between the teeth 95 and 96, respectively, 97 and 98 is also trapezoidal, so that the elements of the anti-theft device are engaged with a small gap (2-3 mm). Since when a force acting in the longitudinal direction of the rails arises due to the trapezoidal shape of the teeth, a force component also arises transversely to the longitudinal direction of the rails, grabs 67, 68, which intercept each other, are provided at both ends of the pair of anti-theft device 57, 58 lateral forces.

 The embodiment of FIG. 13 differs from the embodiment of FIG. 12 in that the teeth 93-98 in a plan view have a rectangular profile, therefore, there are no grips.

 As shown in the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 15a and 15b, the individual teeth of one element of the anti-theft device are connected to each other by jumpers 99, 100, respectively, while these jumpers are parallel to the rolling surface and offset relative to each other. In the depicted exemplary embodiment, the jumper 99 of the anti-theft device element 58 connected to the spider point lies above the jumper 100 of the anti-theft device element 57 connected to the guardrail. Due to this, with the guardrail already installed on the tracks, it is possible to install the lowering cross from the top by lowering.

 In FIG. 15c shows cross sections of grippers that receive transverse forces.

 On Fig in section along the line I-I of Fig.13 once again shows the comb engagement of the teeth 93-98 and connecting the teeth of the jumper 99 and 100.

 In FIG. 16 is a top view and FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of a finned plate used in the invention. The four-rib example shown here extends to finned plates 250 and 251 of FIG. 1, and it should be noted that, in FIGS. 12 and 15, the ribs run parallel to each other and perpendicular to the edge of the finned plate, while in practice ( see figure 1) they, of course, must be at an acute angle corresponding to the angle of passage of the rails. The finned plate consists of an elongated, rectangular flat plate 83, on the upper side of which ribs 40, 39a, 39b and 41 are vertically raised. The distance between the opposite surfaces of the ribs 40 and 39a, as well as 39b and 41, corresponds to the outside half the width of the sole, and from the inside to a shortened the foot of the guardrail, and the distance between the opposite sides of the ribs 39a and 39b corresponds to the agreed width of the sole of both welded rails of the point of the cross. In addition, finned slabs on both sides have openings 85 through which fastening bolts (for example, bolts 33 for wooden sleepers or also threaded bolts for concrete sleepers) can pass for fastening on sleepers.

 The ribs 40 and 41 on the one hand, and the ribs 39a and 39b on the other hand, have different heights and correspond to different heights of the pivot points of the clamping brackets. The ribs have the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped and are fixed on the plate 83, for example, by welding or by welding with an electric rivet through the hole in the plate, so that, for example, short cylindrical pins 86 that are forged on the ribs are inserted into the holes in the plate 83.

 In FIG. 18 and 19 show ribs 39a and 41 in a side view. All ribs on their upper side 87 have a rectangular opening 88 in the plan view of FIG. 16, which extends downward towards the plate 83 into a dovetail recess 89. Using these recesses 89 in the form of a dovetail, heads 44 (Fig. 4) of dovetail bolts are attached to the fin plate.

 On Fig shows a cross section of two forming the tip of the crosspiece of the regulatory rails before the "open" welding. The incision was made somewhere between the finned plates 249 and 250 of FIG. 1. The jigsaws 4 and 5 of the turnout to be welded to each other are pre-processed on the surfaces of the heads of the rails 15, the soles 16 and the necks 17 facing each other, while the rails are welded here only on surfaces 52 in the area of the heads and on surfaces 53 in the area of the soles. In the exemplary embodiments of FIG. 20 and 21, we are talking about the so-called open welding, in which the surfaces 52-52 and 53-53 to be welded to each other are located at a certain horizontal distance from each other, on which an oxygen acetylene torch or induction heater 54 or 54 'is located for heating. Using this torch or heater, the surfaces to be welded are heated to the weld temperature. Then the torch or heater 54 and 54 'is removed from this zone, for example, by turning, and both zones of the rails are pressed against each other, due to which welds 55 and 56 are formed. Such open pressure welding is characterized by a relatively small welding thickening. In addition, it is achieved that both rail necks are located relatively close to each other and the gap between them is at most about 3-4 mm, thereby significantly increasing stability, in particular, in the front region of the tip 3 of the cross.

 On Fig shows the tip of the crosspiece after welding the soles of the weld 56 and the heads of the weld 55.

 On Fig and 23 shows a similar view of Fig.20 and 21, however, for closed pressure welding. The heating units 54 and 54 'are located above the heads 15 and under the soles 49 of the points 4 and 5 of the switch and the surfaces 52 and 53 to be welded to each other are pressed against each other with a certain pressure. After heating and reducing the pressure due to softening of the material, the welding process automatically starts.

Welds can have a significant length of 1-2 m or more. Despite this length, pressure welded seams have excellent material quality, since they do not use additional welding material and critical preheating practically disappears, which is necessary when welding in a protective gas CO 2 according to the prior art.

 On Fig shown that the welding influx 56 in closed welding is slightly larger than in open pressure welding. On the outer sides of the head and sole, this weld bead is removed, for example, by peeling grinding, which has already been done in the image in Fig. 23.

Claims (12)

1. A rigid cross for arrows and deaf intersections with two guardrails and a spider point located between them, which together with the guardrails form grooves passing at an acute angle to each other for free passage of the wheel band crest, while two guardrails and the tip of the cross rest on a ribbed plate with vertically spaced ribs, between which the sole of the guardrail of the cross and the sole of the tip of the cross is located, characterized in that the guardrails and the tip of the cross are vertical elastic clamping the braces are held elastically in the vertical direction on the fin plate and that the guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece are completely disconnected relative to their mass, and the relative horizontal position of the guardrails of the crosspiece and the point of the crosspiece and, thus, the width of the groove for the passage of the wheel band crest are provided exclusively by ribs, between with which the soles of the guardrails and the point of the spider are held.
2. The crosspiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the guardrails and the tip of the crosspiece are respectively mounted on gaskets that are located between the sole of the corresponding rail (guardrail, tip) and the ribbed plate.
3. The crosspiece according to claim 2, characterized in that the gaskets are elastic due to the execution of elastomeric material.
4. The crosspiece according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the guardrails of the crosspiece in the zone of transition of the wheel from the crosspiece to the guardrail of the crosspiece and vice versa have an excess relative to the height of the rail surface of the point of the crosspiece formed by gaskets of different thicknesses in accordance with the taper of the wheel band.
5. The crosspiece according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the elastic clamping brackets for tension between the inwardly directed sole of the guardrail of the cross and the opposite sole of the point of the cross rest only on said sole of the rail and are fixed to the respective ribs.
6. The crosspiece according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the clamping brackets in the milled front zone of the spider point rest on the upper side of the lowered zone and on the connection of the sole of the guardrails of the cross and are fixed on the ribs.
7. The spider according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the clamping brackets located inside exert a clamping force of 10-15 kN on each section of the support.
8. Crosspiece according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the finned plates in the direction to the rails are convex.
9. The crosspiece according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the inner ribs of the finned plates have a smaller width than the outer ribs.
10. The spider according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that after the transition zone of the wheel from the guardrail to the tip of the spider and vice versa, an anti-theft device is installed on the opposite elements of the rails, which prevents the rail elements from shifting relative to each other in the longitudinal direction, but allows vertical deflection or vibrations of rail elements.
11. The crosspiece of claim 10, characterized in that the anti-theft device is formed by a pair of thrust elements that are mounted on the necks of the respective rails and are interlocked with each other in the form of a comb in the longitudinal direction of the rails.
12. The crosspiece according to claim 11, characterized in that the thrust elements have one vertical neck that protrude from the free end of the corresponding thrust element, while the vertical sections of the walls of the necks engage each other and thereby create a stop in the transverse direction the longitudinal axis of the rails.
RU98102389/11A 1998-02-16 1998-02-16 Rigid frog for switches and crossings RU2225470C2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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RU2225470C2 true RU2225470C2 (en) 2004-03-10

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2455412C1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-07-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Петербургский государственный университет путей сообщения" Blunt crosspiece for dead crossing
RU176808U1 (en) * 2017-06-27 2018-01-29 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КомПласт" Gasket for joins of arrow crosses
RU2734950C1 (en) * 2017-09-19 2020-10-26 Фоестальпине Бвг Гмбх Switch device

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2455412C1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-07-10 Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Петербургский государственный университет путей сообщения" Blunt crosspiece for dead crossing
RU176808U1 (en) * 2017-06-27 2018-01-29 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КомПласт" Gasket for joins of arrow crosses
RU2734950C1 (en) * 2017-09-19 2020-10-26 Фоестальпине Бвг Гмбх Switch device

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Effective date: 20050217