RU2062230C1 - Method of making decorative plates of wood material - Google Patents

Method of making decorative plates of wood material Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2062230C1
RU2062230C1 RU94025544A RU94025544A RU2062230C1 RU 2062230 C1 RU2062230 C1 RU 2062230C1 RU 94025544 A RU94025544 A RU 94025544A RU 94025544 A RU94025544 A RU 94025544A RU 2062230 C1 RU2062230 C1 RU 2062230C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
blanks
glued
wood
square
cutting
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RU94025544A
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Russian (ru)
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RU94025544A (en
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Владимир Алексеевич Рябов
Сергей Фаритович Диваев
Жанна Валентиновна Ташнова
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Владимир Алексеевич Рябов
Сергей Фаритович Диваев
Жанна Валентиновна Ташнова
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Priority to RU94025544A priority Critical patent/RU2062230C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: wood-working industry. SUBSTANCE: method includes sawing the fellings out of cut logs along longitudinal wood fibers. Cross section of each felling is made smaller than longitudinal one and it is made as equilateral regular polygon with equal areas for each felling. Feelings are gathered and glued into packet along lengthy edges. Then the packet is cut in its transversal direction and at least one of face edges of plate is polished. EFFECT: enhanced quality. 9 cl, 8 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to the woodworking industry and can be used for the manufacture of decorative plates used as parquet boards, wall panels, door panels, furniture panels and other glued lumber.
 A known method of manufacturing decorative plates, including transverse cutting of a workpiece, a set of cut workpieces and gluing them. The application of Germany N 2922046, B 27 M 3/04, 1980.
 In this method, the cut blanks are placed on a plane and the narrow edges of the blanks are glued together to obtain a solid surface. The method is time-consuming and does not provide high enough quality for the manufacture of decorative plates due to the variation in the size of the blanks and their alignment on the plane. In this connection, using this method, it is possible to obtain plates with large fragments of the areas of the workpieces and with large thicknesses, and therefore, the consumption of wood material increases.
 A known method of manufacturing end-face parquet boards, including the manufacture of parquet blocks, filling their joints with adhesive material and surface treatment of the front layer. USSR patent N 1642957, B 27 M 3/06, 1991.
 In this method, parquet blocks of arbitrary cross-section are glued to the underlying layer, and holes are made in the lateral adhesive layer between the blocks, which are filled with cylindrical wood inserts to obtain a continuous face layer.
 The advantages of this method are the possibility of additional use of small parts of trees or brushwood. However, the method is time-consuming and difficult to automate the process at the stage of filling the gaps between the checkers with small parts.
 A known method of manufacturing decorative plates from wood material, including transverse cutting of the bar, and the bar is made integral in thickness of at least two blanks. USSR author's certificate N 1000311, B 27 M 3/04, 1983.
 In this method, before connecting the components on the abutting surfaces, longitudinal profile grooves are made, whereby a through openwork thread is obtained. When selecting components in this method, it is difficult to use a tonometer, branches and twigs, and even more so to produce longitudinal shaped grooves in a bar from them. The implementation of openwork holes reduces the strength of the product, and there is a problem of joining the parts when their number is more than four, because component parts have different side lengths in cross section. The method can only be used for the manufacture of various art products, for example panels, caskets, etc.
 A known method of manufacturing decorative plates from wood material, in particular the production of parquet squares, including sawing bars from churak, cutting them into blanks, calibrating the blanks, in which at least one of the sections of each of the blanks is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon with equal areas, set in a package of at least four blanks and gluing them. USSR author's certificate N 1799730, B 27 M 3/04, 1993.
 In this method, cutting is carried out in the vertical position of the bars, the workpieces are calibrated and fed into the set piece by piece, while the set of squares is carried out by gluing the rows.
In the method, they are sawed off from a bar to a predetermined size of the workpiece, which are individually delivered sequentially to three calibration units, where the opposite faces of the workpieces are calibrated by sequential rotation of them by 90 ° . At the end of the calibration, the workpieces are individually delivered to the bonding area, where rows are formed from them, glue is applied, and they are compressed until the glue hardens.
 The advantages of this method are the ability to automate the manufacturing process. Disadvantages: piece processing of workpieces, which increases the process time; the need for very accurate calibrations, as workpieces are not oriented in space when they are set in a bag along the longitudinal and transverse cuts of wood material; large heterogeneity in hardness of the front side of the parquet square and a decrease in decorativeness due to the non-orientation of wood fibers; the difficulty of using blanks with small cross-sectional areas due to the difficulty of accurately calibrating and aligning on the same plane; the impossibility of obtaining in the cross section individual fragments of any other shape except the square, which reduces decorativeness, the impossibility of manufacturing plates with different thicknesses and different sizes of individual fragments, since the plate thickness and the dimensions of an individual fragment are directly determined by the cubic shape of the workpiece and, therefore, with increasing ( reducing) the thickness of the plate, it is necessary to increase (decrease) the length of the side of the cube; when using a pine tonometer and branches as a wood material, it is impossible to obtain sufficiently thick and strong plates, for example, for the manufacture of parquet squares, door or furniture panels, which limits the application of the method in the case of using wood waste as raw material.
 The problem solved by the invention, improving the quality of manufacture of decorative plates and making it possible to use wood waste as a wood material.
 The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the invention is to reduce manufacturing time, improve decorativeness, obtain a uniform, increased hardness of the front side of the plate when using one type of wood material, obtain plates with different thicknesses regardless of the size of a single fragment.
 To solve the problem with the achievement of the specified technical result in a known method of manufacturing decorative plates from wood material, including sawing bars from churak, cut them into blanks, calibrate the blanks, in which at least one of the sections of each of the blanks is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon with equal areas, a set of at least four workpieces in a package and gluing them, according to the invention, the workpiece calibration operation is divided into preliminary calibration alignment and final calibration, sawing operations from churaks of bars, cutting them into blanks and preliminary calibration are combined into a single technological method, for which sawing from churaks of bars and their cutting into blanks is carried out along the longitudinal fibers of the chura wood, with the cross section of each of the blanks being performed smaller than the longitudinal, and only the cross section is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon with equal areas, the blanks are gathered and glued into a bag along the long longitudinal th edges, and the final calibration is carried out by cutting the concatenated packet in its transverse direction, and grinding at least one of the end faces of the concatenated packet.
Possible embodiments of the method, in which it is advisable that
additionally polished the second cut end face of the glued package,
during the collection of blanks in a package they were placed in the direction of the churak’s butt,
when collecting blanks, they were stacked in a checkerboard pattern with alternating one end face of the butt and the top of the churak,
before cutting the glued package, its outer longitudinal surface was additionally processed to give the decorative plate a predetermined profile,
the cross section of the workpiece was made in the form of a triangle,
the cross section of the workpiece was made in the form of a square,
the cross section of the workpiece was made in the form of a hexagon,
trunks and branches with a ratio of their length l to average diameter d of at least 8 are used as churaks.
 In addition to the variant of the method in which the cross section of the workpiece is made in the form of a square, a variant is possible in which it is advisable that the square of one row is made offset from the square of the adjacent row by half the length of the side of the square.
 These advantages, as well as features of the present invention will become apparent during a subsequent review of the following embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings.
 FIG. 1 shows a workpiece, for example, with a square cross-section; FIG. 2 typed in a package and glued blanks in figure 1; FIG. 3 - made decorative plate; FIG. 4. same as FIG. 3 with alternating butt and top of churak; FIG. 5 is the same as FIG. 3 with the processing of the outer longitudinal surface to give the decorative plate a predetermined profile, for example in the form of a circle; FIG. 6 is a front view of FIG. 3, when the cross section of the workpiece is in the form of a triangle; FIG. 7 is a front view of FIG. 3, when the cross section of the workpiece is in the form of a hexagon; FIG. 8 is a front view of FIG. 3, when the square of one row is offset by the relative square of the adjacent row.
 An example implementation of the method.
 The raw material for the manufacture of decorative plates made of wood material is a tonometer remaining after thinning and sanitary development of coniferous stands, branches, branches and broken trees. Trunks and branches with a diameter of 50 to 100 mm are used, and for a more complete use of wood along the length of the branches, reducing waste and shortening the drying time of wood material, branches from 1000 to 1500 mm in length are mainly used. Taking into account the waste of wood and increasing the number of decorative plates obtained from one glued package of blanks, and therefore reducing the processing time, the ratio of the length of the branch to its average diameter can be selected at least 8, which increases productivity without affecting the decorativeness of the plates.
The branches are freed from the bark and in order to avoid cracks are placed in the drying chamber with a mild drying mode of up to 60 o C with periodic steaming, because tonometer is used. The drying process is essentially no different from known methods for preparing wood, for example churaks.
 Further, the operations of preparing bars from churaks, cutting them into blanks 1 (Fig. 1) and preliminary calibration are combined. Cutting on the workpiece 1 is carried out along the longitudinal fibers of the wood churaks. The cross section of the workpiece 1 is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon, for example a square (Fig. 1), a triangle (Fig. 6), a hexagon (Fig. 7). In principle, it is possible to use any kind of polygon, with this, a different degree of breakage of tree growth rings and variegation of the pattern is achieved, due to which, depending on the purpose of the decorative plate, the visual impression of the front surface can be changed. Why it is also possible to change the length of the side of the polygon depending on the diameter of the tonometer. Typically, blanks 1 are made with sides from 20 to 70 mm; for this, a longitudinal cutting machine with an adjustable distance between the saws is used. To ensure preliminary calibration of the workpieces 1 hard guides are required on the supply of the workpiece and its output after the saws.
 Then the blanks 1 are grouped along the length, are typed and glued into a bag along the long longitudinal edges 2 (Fig. 1 and 2). The blanks 1 are stacked in conductors and tightly tightened like the above method. However, the main distinguishing feature is gluing along the long longitudinal faces 2, i.e. along the edges of the bar, which have maximum flexibility in this direction, which allows for any selected wood of pine, birch, beech, oak to provide a minimum gap between the faces 2 when gluing the package. A variety of synthetic carpentry adhesives, including PVA, can be used as glue, and bone or glue glue can be used to produce environmentally friendly products.
 As a result (Fig. 2), a glued packet is obtained, the transverse dimensions of which are determined by the dimensions of the conductors used. For example, from 12 square blanks 1 with a side of 50 mm, a glued bag of size 100 by 300 mm is obtained, and from any larger number of blanks 1, a glued bag with large cross-sectional sizes can be obtained.
 Next, the glued package is cut on the wall for transverse cutting. The cutting direction is shown in FIG. 2 dashed dotted line. The result is decorative plates (Fig. 3) with the end surface of the wood material on the front surface of the plate. The end face 3 of the glued package is ground on a flat grinding machine to obtain a given thickness of the decorative plate and its quality. Depending on the thickness of the decorative plate chosen, various transverse cuts of the glued bag can be obtained. So, for a tabletop trunk measuring 2600 x 1500 mm, the thickness of decorative plates, for example, 45 mm, for wall decoration panels up to 20 mm, for parquet plates 30 mm can be obtained. The resulting surface can be coated with both various varnishes and wax.
 A feature of the decorative plate is to obtain the end face 3 formed by the end fibers of the wood material, which are more durable than the longitudinal fibers, and since a tonometer is used in which the core structure consists of very dense and solid wood, the resulting decorative panel without any additional processing can be used as a substitute for parquet.
 In addition, the cross-section of the tonometer has a peculiar, unique texture, and the end face 3 visually creates the impression of inlay.
 Depending on the purpose of the decorative panel, it can be sanded on one or both sides. For example, for the manufacture of parquet or wall panels, only one end face 3 is ground, for the manufacture of countertops, doors, etc. both end faces 3 (Fig. 3).
 In the manufacture of decorative plates, a set of blanks 1 in the parquet can be produced with different orientations of the longitudinal fibers of the apex and lump of churak. To do this, the top and butt are determined by the size of the annual rings of wood, and then the blanks 1 can be laid in one direction with the churak butt. In this case, the end face 3 will have approximately one texture.
 It is possible to produce a set of blanks 1 in a bag in a checkerboard pattern with alternating one end face 3 (Fig. 3) of the butt and the top of the churak. In this case, a greater variegation of the texture of the resulting pattern is ensured, and in some cases, when using knots in the section cuts from branches, wood stains are even more emphasized even for such tree species that do not have such a nut-like structure, such as pine or spruce. Therefore, the options for obtaining various inlaid surfaces in this method are not directly limited to the structure of wood, which increases decorativeness.
 In the process of manufacturing decorative plates, before cutting the glued bag, it is possible to further process its outer longitudinal surface to give it a given profile. In FIG. 5 shows a profile of a decorative plate in the form of a circle, for example, for the manufacture of round trunks, stools. In principle, any given profile can be obtained, for example, in the form of an oval, polygon, etc. And this profile can be used without any additional set of blanks 1 in the manufacture of a particular product. This reduces the complexity of manufacturing, because several of the same type of plates are obtained from a glued bag.
 Figures 6 and 7 show a view of the end face 3 with a cross section of the workpiece 1 in the form of a triangle and a hexagon. The type of the selected polygon in the cross section of the workpiece 1 is limited only by the requirement of its equilibrium and the equality of the cross-sectional areas. Because when the number of corners of the polygon is reduced, a larger section of the annual rings of the workpiece 1 is made, then a greater variegation of discontinuities is obtained, with an increase in the angles of the polygon, the annual rings and whole circles are more preserved on the end face 3, and the texture is more uniform.
 In the case of the cross-section of the workpiece 1 in the form of a square (Fig. 1), the square of one row of the glued packet can be offset from the square of the adjacent row (Fig. 8). This technique also further changes the texture of the end face 3 and the visual impression of the front side of the panel.
 Thus, the proposed method allows to improve the quality of the manufacture of decorative plates and use wood waste as broken wood material: broken fine-grained trunks, branches and branches.
 The most successfully claimed method can be used in the woodworking industry in the manufacture of glued lumber without the need for veneers from wood of expensive and valuable species to obtain a decorative front surface, while the decorative surface can be obtained on both sides of a plate of increased strength. YYY2 YYY4 YYY6

Claims (10)

 1. A method of manufacturing decorative plates made of wood material, including sawing out chunks of timber, cutting them into blanks, calibrating the blanks, in which at least one of the sections of each of the blanks is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon with different areas, a set of at least four blanks and their gluing, characterized in that the calibration operation of the blanks is divided into preliminary and final calibrations, the operation of sawing bars from churaks, cut them into blanks and precede Calibration is carried out in a single technological method, sawing out bars from churaks and cutting them into blanks is carried out along the chura wood fibers, while the cross section of each of the blanks is smaller than the longitudinal, cross section is made in the form of an equilateral regular polygon with equal areas, the blanks are drawn and glued into a bag along long longitudinal faces, and the final calibration is carried out by cutting the glued bag in its transverse direction and grinding at least one of the ends s faces glued package.
 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further grind the second cut end face of the glued package.
 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that during the collection of the blanks in a packet they are laid with the churak butt in one direction.
 4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the set of blanks in the package they are stacked in a checkerboard pattern with alternating one end face of the butt and the top of the churak.
 5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before cutting the glued package, its outer longitudinal surface is additionally treated to give the decorative plate a predetermined profile.
 6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cross section of the workpiece is in the form of a triangle.
 7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cross section of the workpiece is made in the form of a square.
 8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cross section of the workpiece is in the form of a hexagon.
 9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that trunks and branches with a ratio of their length to average diameter of at least eight are used as churaks.
 10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the square of one row is offset from the square of the adjacent row by half the length of the side of the square.
RU94025544A 1994-07-12 1994-07-12 Method of making decorative plates of wood material RU2062230C1 (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2471617C1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2013-01-10 Владимир Владимирович Буравлев Method of making composite face decorative boards
RU2494659C2 (en) * 2011-12-02 2013-10-10 Владимир Антонович Лященко Physiotherapeutic bust bodice of enhanced functionality
RU2512359C2 (en) * 2012-08-01 2014-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Поволжский государственный технологический университет Method of making end board elements from wood
RU2522727C1 (en) * 2012-11-27 2014-07-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Поволжский государственный технологический университет" Method to produce end face board panel elements from wood
RU2537822C1 (en) * 2013-11-19 2015-01-10 Владимир Антонович Лященко Headwear article of natural or artificial fur with framework base
RU2690963C1 (en) * 2018-05-18 2019-06-07 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Министерство обороны Российской Федерации Method of producing aircraft protective panel

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Авторское свидетельство СССР N 1799730, кл. B 27 M 3/04, 1993. *

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2471617C1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2013-01-10 Владимир Владимирович Буравлев Method of making composite face decorative boards
RU2494659C2 (en) * 2011-12-02 2013-10-10 Владимир Антонович Лященко Physiotherapeutic bust bodice of enhanced functionality
RU2512359C2 (en) * 2012-08-01 2014-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Поволжский государственный технологический университет Method of making end board elements from wood
RU2522727C1 (en) * 2012-11-27 2014-07-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Поволжский государственный технологический университет" Method to produce end face board panel elements from wood
RU2537822C1 (en) * 2013-11-19 2015-01-10 Владимир Антонович Лященко Headwear article of natural or artificial fur with framework base
RU2690963C1 (en) * 2018-05-18 2019-06-07 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Министерство обороны Российской Федерации Method of producing aircraft protective panel

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