RU191670U1 - Gasification burner - Google Patents

Gasification burner Download PDF

Info

Publication number
RU191670U1
RU191670U1 RU2019101854U RU2019101854U RU191670U1 RU 191670 U1 RU191670 U1 RU 191670U1 RU 2019101854 U RU2019101854 U RU 2019101854U RU 2019101854 U RU2019101854 U RU 2019101854U RU 191670 U1 RU191670 U1 RU 191670U1
Authority
RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
combustion chamber
housing
burner
casing
chamber
Prior art date
Application number
RU2019101854U
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Марк Семенович Солонин
Original Assignee
Марк Семенович Солонин
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Марк Семенович Солонин filed Critical Марк Семенович Солонин
Priority to RU2019101854U priority Critical patent/RU191670U1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU191670U1 publication Critical patent/RU191670U1/en

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B90/00Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus
    • F23B90/04Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion
    • F23B90/06Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion the primary combustion being a gasification or pyrolysis in a reductive atmosphere

Abstract

The technical result, to achieve which the claimed utility model is proposed, is stable, eliminating the possibility of melting ash, burning agro-pellets and / or crop waste in a device that does not have moving parts in the high temperature zone. This result is achieved by complete oxygen-free gasification of the fuel at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the ash. Volatiles are released during external heating, and gasification of the coal residue is carried out by the regulated supply of water vapor. The resulting gases are burned in a combustion chamber located inside the gasification chamber.

Description

The utility model relates to a power system, in particular, to devices for burning fuel pellets (pellets) made from crop waste (sunflower husk, straw, rice husk, corn stalks and ears, etc.)

The use of wood and crop waste as a renewable source of thermal energy is one of the most important directions in the development of the global economy, and the production of devices for burning fuel has become one of the fastest growing industries. Among the many types of biofuels, the use of pellets (pressed fuel pellets) is growing at a faster pace. This type of fuel attracts consumers' attention with the convenience of storage and transportation, the possibility of using mechanized and even fully automated devices for its supply to the boiler and burning.

The most promising is the use of the so-called "agro-pellets" made from crop wastes (straw, husks of sunflower, wheat, rye and rice husks, stalks and ears of corn, etc.). A huge amount of raw materials for the production of agro-pellets is accumulated in almost all inhabited regions of the planet; in most cases, this raw material has zero or even “minus” cost (no animal is able to feed on the husk, and its disposal by digging into the soil is costly). Nevertheless, despite the obvious advantages of using plant waste for the production of fuel pellets, agro-pellets make up no more than 5-7% of the total consumption of pellet fuel in the EU countries.

The main and almost the only reason that impedes the use of agro-pellets is their inherent low melting point of ash: the chemical composition of the mineral content of crop waste is significantly different from the chemical composition of wood fuel (in the first case, alkali metal oxides prevail), which determines the melting temperature of the ash of the order 900 C, and for some types of raw materials (wheat straw, grapevine) - up to 800 C. Given that the typical temperature of a layer of intensely burning coals reaches 900 and olee degrees C, ash plant fuel melts, spreads, overlaps air supply openings disrupts the combustion process, and after the extinction of flame solidifies into a rigid piece slag ( "cake") of an arbitrary shape, which permanently disables the burner device.

Burners for burning agro-pellets are known from the prior art, in which mechanical destruction of the slag cake is carried out by reciprocating movement of the grate elements (PL 126627, KR 20170119041), special teeth periodically entering from the bottom up into the slots of the grate (PL 123114 ) by turning the grate by 180 degrees. in the direction of the fixed plate with teeth (PL 41154215), the rotation of the walls of the cylindrical combustion chamber around the fixed grate (KR 101125278), the rotation of the hook-scraper ("poker") inside the combustion chamber (GR 20120100052).

A common drawback of all these devices is the presence of moving elements in the zone of high (up to 1000 C) temperatures. This forces the use of heat-resistant steels, special bearings and lubricants, which inevitably increases the cost of the burner, shortens the service life and increases the likelihood of breakdowns. In addition, the movement and upheaval of the grate lead to periodic damping of the fire in the burner, which makes it necessary to repeatedly re-ignite the pellets in the burner, which increases the emissions of soot and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere.

A device is known for gasifying and burning agro-pellets (WO / 2006/117579), in which a stream of exhaust chimneys is blown to reduce the temperature below the melting point of the ash through a layer of agro-pellets burning on a moving grate. Since chimneys consist mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2), then when they pass through a layer of hot coals, the reduction reaction is carried out according to the formula: CO2 + C = 2 CO. This reaction occurs with the absorption of heat, which leads to a decrease in temperature in the layer.

The main advantage of this device is an attempt to eliminate the cause (high temperature in the layer of burning pellets) of ash melting, which is much more effective than expensive and unreliable methods of dealing with the consequence (rotating poker and / or moving grates for breaking the cake of sintered ash).

The main disadvantage is the use for cooling the reaction layer of the reduction of carbon dioxide, because for the stable course of this reaction, a temperature of at least 800 ° C is needed (at lower temperatures, the reaction equilibrium shifts toward the reverse reaction by the formula: 2CO = C + CO2). This temperature is already quite comparable with the temperature of the onset of melting ash of plant waste. The situation is further complicated by the fact that in the device under discussion on the grate there is simultaneously an endothermic (with heat absorption) reduction reaction and exothermic (with heat evolution) oxidation (combustion) of pyrolysis gases and coal residue; in this case, it is very likely that separate zones with a temperature of 900-1000 C are formed, in which ash melting becomes inevitable.

The technical result, to achieve which the claimed utility model is proposed, is stable, eliminating the possibility of melting ash, burning agro-pellets and / or crop waste in a simple and durable device that does not have moving parts in the high temperature zone.

The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that in

        a burner for burning fuel pellets, containing a vertically oriented axisymmetric housing, a mechanical supply device for fuel pellets mounted on the lower end of the housing, a combustion chamber in the form of an axisymmetric duct with a central tubular manifold for supplying air and nozzle devices for air to exit into the chamber’s internal cavity combustion

        the housing is made in the form of a cup turned upside down, the combustion chamber is mounted coaxially and inside the housing, while the upper open end of the combustion chamber is located below the upper bottom of the housing, and the annular channel between the outer surface of the combustion chamber and the inner surface of the housing is filled with fuel granules; in the lower part of the combustion chamber there are at least two transverse gas ducts connecting the internal cavity of the combustion chamber with the space surrounding the housing, and a hollow chamber-water evaporator is installed at the bottom of the combustion chamber.

An axisymmetric casing can be installed around and coaxially with the casing, while the lower end of the casing is below the said transverse flues and this end is connected to the outer surface of the casing by a horizontal annular partition.

As the horizontal annular partition connecting the lower end of the said casing with the outer surface of the housing, the bottom of the furnace, in which the burner is installed, can be used.

The inner surface of the combustion chamber can be coated with a layer of heat-resistant ceramic, while the thickness of the ceramic layer is at least 10% of the inner diameter of the combustion chamber.

The above-mentioned hollow chamber-evaporator can be made in the form of a vertically oriented cone, with its vertex facing down, and the angle at the top of the cone is not more than 45 degrees.

The water supply to said evaporator chamber may occur from an external source through a water flow regulator connected to the burner control system.

On the inner surface of the housing, ribbing in the form of metal plates mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing can be made.

These design solutions ensure the achievement of the claimed technical result and in their totality are not found in any of the known burners for burning fuel pellets, thus the claimed utility model meets the criterion of novelty.

The inventive device can be manufactured on standard equipment using well-known and traditional for the production of burner devices processes and materials. Thus, the claimed utility model meets the criterion of industrial applicability.

The design of the inventive burner is illustrated by sketches of FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, which shows a longitudinal and transverse section of a device in the embodiment with an external casing and a conical chamber-evaporator at the bottom of the combustion chamber.

The burner comprises a housing 1 in the form of a vertically oriented axis-symmetric (for example, cylindrical) glass; the combustion chamber 2 in the form of an axisymmetric (for example, cylindrical) pipe mounted coaxially with the housing 1, while at the bottom of the combustion chamber there are at least two transverse gas ducts 3 for the combustion products to exit the housing, and at the bottom of the combustion chamber top down conical chamber-evaporator 4 with holes for the exit of steam 5; an air supply manifold 6 installed coaxially with the combustion chamber with air outlet nozzles 7 (nozzle devices) and an external axisymmetric (for example, cylindrical) casing 8, in the lower part of which there is a compartment for collecting ash 9. The burner is installed inside the furnace 10, while the lower end of the casing 8 is hermetically connected to the bottom of the furnace, in which a mechanical exhaust fan (not shown in the sketch) creates a vacuum (low pressure area).

The burner operates as follows. Fine fuel 11 (pellets, chopped straw, sunflower husks, etc.) under the influence of a screw conveyor (not shown in the sketch) is forced to move from bottom to top inside the housing 1 and fills the annular channel formed by the inner surface of the housing and the outer surface of the combustion chamber. The conical outer surface of the evaporator chamber directs the flow of fuel, preventing it from jamming.

Water from an external source-dispenser (not shown in the sketch) in the quantity required for the operation of the device enters the internal cavity of the evaporator 4, where it boils, turns into steam and penetrates through the holes 5 into the moving fuel layer.

The flame torch in the combustion chamber 2 through the wall of the chamber heats the fuel located in the annular channel and the bottom of the evaporator chamber; then the hot combustion products under the influence of rarefaction in the furnace 10 pass through the transverse flues 3, turn 90 degrees and move upward along the outer wall of the housing 1, further heating the fuel in the annular channel.

The dimensions of the housing and the combustion chamber, the thickness and material of the walls are selected in such a way that the fuel in the annular channel is heated to a temperature of 600-700 degrees C. At this temperature, about 70-80% of the mass of wood fuel is gasified during pyrolysis (thermal destruction), and solid coal the residue enters into a chemical reaction with water vapor (coal-water gasification, VUH) according to the formulas:

H2O + C = H2 + CO

2Н2О + С = 2Н2 + СО2

It is important to note that neither high speed nor high accuracy is required from the water / steam supply control system. Already at a temperature of 550 ° C, a mixture of gases is formed in the zone of coal-water gasification, which can burn stably; taking into account the flow of combustible pyrolysis products, the combustion stability will be even higher. Thus, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of about 650 plus / minus 100 degrees C in the VAG zone, i.e. temperature deviations of the order of plus / minus 15% are permissible. The issue of speed is solved by the presence of a massive, with a high heat capacity, ceramic coating of the inner surface of the combustion chamber.

The gaseous products of the pyrolysis of wood fuel and the products of coal-water gasification form a combustible mixture of gases 12, which leaves the annular channel (gasification zone), rotates 180 degrees and, under the influence of rarefaction, in the furnace 10 enters the combustion chamber, where it is mixed with air coming from collector 6 through nozzle 7, and ignites.

Since the above temperature in the gasification zone is much lower than the melting temperature of even the most fusible ash, slag ash and the formation of "cake" does not occur; the flame temperature in the combustion chamber is much higher than the melting temperature of the ash, but the residence time (flyby) of the ash inside the combustion chamber is calculated in fractions of a second, and the ash does not have time to melt and create solid agglomerates. Dusty ash is carried out by a stream of gases through the combustion chamber 2 and the transverse flues 3 into the ash collecting compartment 9. In the future, this ash (since it accumulates in the form of fine powder, rather than petrified "cake") can be used as a mineral fertilizer for plant growing.

The ceramic coating heated to high temperatures on the inner surface of the combustion chamber ensures stable ignition of the mixture and prevents the flame from breaking off. Ultimately, the inventive device, in which combustion occurs exclusively and only in the gas phase, can provide the most complete and environmentally friendly burning of fuel.

On the inner surface of the housing, ribbing in the form of metal plates mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing can be made. This ribbing, due to the high thermal conductivity of the metal plates, contributes to uniform heating of the fuel granules in the annular channel (in the gasification zone).

The inventive device can be used not only for burning agro-pellets, but also for burning various types of finely divided solid fuels (for example, fine coal chips or wood pellets). In the case of using fuel with its own moisture content of at least 30% (sawdust, fine wood chips, peat chips), the water supply from an external source becomes unnecessary, therefore, the operation of the burner is greatly simplified. Moreover, as calculations show, even the maximum possible natural humidity of sawdust, wood chips or peat chips (50-60%) does not interfere with the combustion of the gas mixture in the inventive device.

In conclusion, we note that the proposed technical solution has nothing to do with quack projects for "burning water." In the inventive device, it is not water that burns, but coal, converted with the help of water into a mixture of combustible gases (H2 and CO). The total thermal yield of the process (endothermic reduction in the coal-water gasification zone + exothermic oxidation in the combustion chamber) is theoretically equal to the calculated heat of direct combustion of the coal residue.

Claims (7)

1. A gasification burner containing a vertically oriented axisymmetric housing, a mechanical pellet feeding device mounted on the lower end of the housing, a combustion chamber in the form of an axisymmetric duct with a central tubular air supply manifold and nozzle devices for air to enter the internal cavity of the combustion chamber characterized in that the housing is made in the form of a glass turned upside down, the combustion chamber is installed coaxially and inside the housing, while the upper open end of the combustion chamber located below said upper bottom of the casing, and an annular channel between the outer surface of the combustion chamber and the inner surface of the housing is filled with fuel pellets; in the lower part of the combustion chamber there are at least two transverse gas ducts connecting the internal cavity of the combustion chamber with the space surrounding the housing, and a hollow chamber-water evaporator is installed at the bottom of the combustion chamber.
2. The burner according to claim 1, characterized in that an axisymmetric casing is installed around and coaxially with the casing, the lower end of the casing being below the said transverse flues and this end is connected to the outer surface of the casing by a horizontal annular partition.
3. The burner according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the bottom of the furnace in which the burner is installed is used as the said horizontal annular partition connecting the lower end of the casing with the outer surface of the housing.
4. The burner according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner surface of the combustion chamber is coated with a layer of heat-resistant ceramic, while the thickness of the ceramic layer is at least 10% of the inner diameter of the combustion chamber.
5. The burner according to claim 1, characterized in that the said hollow chamber-evaporator is made in the form of a vertically oriented cone, with its vertex facing down, the angle at the top of the cone being not more than 45 ° .
6. The burner according to claim 1, characterized in that the water supply to said evaporator chamber comes from an external source through a water flow regulator associated with the burner control system.
7. The burner according to claim 1, characterized in that on the inner surface of the housing there is a ribbing in the form of metal plates mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing.
RU2019101854U 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 Gasification burner RU191670U1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2019101854U RU191670U1 (en) 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 Gasification burner

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2019101854U RU191670U1 (en) 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 Gasification burner

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
RU191670U1 true RU191670U1 (en) 2019-08-15

Family

ID=67638300

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
RU2019101854U RU191670U1 (en) 2019-01-23 2019-01-23 Gasification burner

Country Status (1)

Country Link
RU (1) RU191670U1 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2133409C1 (en) * 1995-06-21 1999-07-20 Свинарев Борис Михайлович Wood waste incinerator
WO2006117579A1 (en) * 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 FOCK, József Method and apparatus for gasifying and burning pellets made from herbaceous plants
RU77665U1 (en) * 2008-06-17 2008-10-27 Петр Васильевич Стопа Device for combustion of bulk solid fuel

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2133409C1 (en) * 1995-06-21 1999-07-20 Свинарев Борис Михайлович Wood waste incinerator
WO2006117579A1 (en) * 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 FOCK, József Method and apparatus for gasifying and burning pellets made from herbaceous plants
RU77665U1 (en) * 2008-06-17 2008-10-27 Петр Васильевич Стопа Device for combustion of bulk solid fuel

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Susastriawan et al. Small-scale downdraft gasifiers for biomass gasification: A review
Bhavanam et al. Biomass gasification processes in downd raft fixed bed reactors: A review
Lackner et al. Handbook of combustion
Skoulou et al. Low temperature gasification of olive kernels in a 5-kW fluidized bed reactor for H2-rich producer gas
FI123143B (en) Myötavirtakaasutin
US4334484A (en) Biomass gasifier combustor
EP2334762B1 (en) Method for production of a clean hot gas based on solid fuels
EP0977965B1 (en) Solid fuel burner for a heating apparatus
US6485296B1 (en) Variable moisture biomass gasification heating system and method
US20090274985A1 (en) Powdered fuel conversion systems and methods
US6647903B2 (en) Method and apparatus for generating and utilizing combustible gas
CN105135437A (en) Household garbage lack oxygen gasification and combustion integration type tri-treatment (reduction, harmless treatment and resourceful treatment) processing device and method
WO2007081296A1 (en) Downdraft/updraft gasifier for syngas production from solid waste
KR20090117973A (en) Gas distribution arrangement for a rotary reactor
JP2008064370A (en) Woody pellet burning steam boiler
US8882493B2 (en) Control of syngas temperature using a booster burner
JP3799449B2 (en) Combustion device, carbonization furnace and gasification furnace having a structure of lower gasification combustion of solid biomass
US4452611A (en) Downdraft channel biomass gasifier
AU2011201584B2 (en) A solid fuel unit having the feature of burning solid fuels together with their volatile gases
AU2009233850B2 (en) Powdered fuel conversion systems and methods
Striūgas et al. An evaluation of performance of automatically operated multi-fuel downdraft gasifier for energy production
EP2627739B1 (en) Device for the conversion of a fuel
US4254715A (en) Solid fuel combustor and method of burning
CN201145305Y (en) Biomass boiling gasification combustion apparatus
US20100089295A1 (en) Continuously-Fed Non-Densified Biomass Combustion System

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
MM9K Utility model has become invalid (non-payment of fees)

Effective date: 20190604