KR20160068758A - Pixel mapping and printing for micro lens arrays to achieve dual-axis activation of images - Google Patents

Pixel mapping and printing for micro lens arrays to achieve dual-axis activation of images Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20160068758A
KR20160068758A KR1020167008654A KR20167008654A KR20160068758A KR 20160068758 A KR20160068758 A KR 20160068758A KR 1020167008654 A KR1020167008654 A KR 1020167008654A KR 20167008654 A KR20167008654 A KR 20167008654A KR 20160068758 A KR20160068758 A KR 20160068758A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
method
image
lenses
effect
axis
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Application number
KR1020167008654A
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Korean (ko)
Inventor
마크 에이 레이몬드
헥토르 안드레스 포라스 소토
Original Assignee
루멘코 엘엘씨
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Publication date
Priority to US14/017,415 priority Critical patent/US9132690B2/en
Priority to US14/017,415 priority
Priority to US14/190,592 priority
Priority to US14/190,592 priority patent/US9019613B2/en
Application filed by 루멘코 엘엘씨 filed Critical 루멘코 엘엘씨
Priority to PCT/US2014/018920 priority patent/WO2015034551A1/en
Publication of KR20160068758A publication Critical patent/KR20160068758A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material
    • G01N27/22Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/20Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof characterised by a particular use or purpose
    • B42D25/29Securities; Bank notes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/324Reliefs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/342Moiré effects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/351Translucent or partly translucent parts, e.g. windows
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0006Arrays
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0006Arrays
    • G02B3/0037Arrays characterized by the distribution or form of lenses
    • G02B3/0056Arrays characterized by the distribution or form of lenses arranged along two different directions in a plane, e.g. honeycomb arrangement of lenses
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B30/00Optical systems or apparatus for producing three-dimensional [3D] effects, e.g. stereoscopic images
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B30/00Optical systems or apparatus for producing three-dimensional [3D] effects, e.g. stereoscopic images
    • G02B30/20Optical systems or apparatus for producing three-dimensional [3D] effects, e.g. stereoscopic images by providing first and second parallax images to an observer's left and right eyes
    • G02B30/26Optical systems or apparatus for producing three-dimensional [3D] effects, e.g. stereoscopic images by providing first and second parallax images to an observer's left and right eyes of the autostereoscopic type
    • G02B30/27Optical systems or apparatus for producing three-dimensional [3D] effects, e.g. stereoscopic images by providing first and second parallax images to an observer's left and right eyes of the autostereoscopic type involving lenticular arrays
    • H04N13/0406
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/302Image reproducers for viewing without the aid of special glasses, i.e. using autostereoscopic displays
    • H04N13/307Image reproducers for viewing without the aid of special glasses, i.e. using autostereoscopic displays using fly-eye lenses, e.g. arrangements of circular lenses

Abstract

Visible display assemblies are intended for use as anti-counterfeiting devices for banknotes, product labels and other objects. The assembly includes a transparent film comprising a first surface comprising a lens array and a second surface opposite the first surface. The assembly also includes a print image proximate to the second surface. The printed image includes pixels of one or more frames of images interlaced with respect to two orthogonal axes. The lenses of the array are nested in a plurality of parallel rows and adjacent ones of the lenses in the column of the array are aligned such that they are in one of the rows without offsets of the lenses in adjacent columns / rows. The lenses are either round-based lenses or square-based lenses, and the lenses are provided with 200 LPI or more in both directions.

Description

PIXEL MAPPING AND PRINTING FOR MICRO LENS ARRAYS TO ACHIEVE DUAL-AXIS ACTIVATION OF IMAGES < RTI ID = 0.0 >

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 017,415, filed September 4, 2013, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61 / 743,485, filed September 5, 2012, ≪ / RTI >

The present invention relates generally to combining print images with lens arrays to display three-dimensional (3D) images with motion or without motion, and more particularly to the combination of fuller volume and / or multi- Based, round-based, parallelogram-based, or hexagonal-based microlens array to provide an improved 3D image with a plurality Relates to pixel mapping, providing arrangements of pixels, and imaging methods for use together.

Currently, there are many applications where it is desirable to view printed images through a lens array. For example, anti-counterfeiting efforts may be based on an image that is printed on the back of a lens array (e.g., a sheet of paper or a plastic sheet) or on an underlying substrate or surface And an anti-falsification device or element comprised of a lens array. The anti-counterfeit element may be used to display an image that is uniquely selected as an indicator that the item the item was placed on is not a counterfeit. The anti-counterfeiting market has a wide range of items such as above labels on bills (for example, on the surface of paper bills to help prevent copying) and labels for retail products (for example, Along with anti-fake devices in the world.

In this regard, moire patterns have been used in anti-fake devices having arrays of round lenses and arrays of hexagonal lenses (or round and hexagonal lens arrays) for many years. Typically, the printed image provided in the ink layer below these lens arrays is a small and fine image with respect to the size of the lens. The moiré pattern is provided to the printed image in the form of a derivative and visually evident superimposed pattern that is generated when two identical patterns on the surface are displaced from each other or overlaid with rotation do.

In such a Moire pattern-based anti-falsification element, some images may be printed with frequencies slightly or less than the one-to-one dimension of the lenses in two axes, and some images may be printed slightly differently with respect to each other. FIG. 1 shows an exemplary assembly 100 that may be used as an anti-fake element utilizing magnification of a moiré pattern. The assembly 100 includes a lens array 110 comprised of side-by-side, parallel columns (or rows) 112 of round lenses 114, (E.g., the lens of the next column is placed in the space between the two lenses of the previous column) so that the pairs of neighboring lenses 114 in the first column are aligned (e.g., about 50% ) Are offset from each other.

The printed image 120 is provided on the ink layer below the lens array 110 (on the flat surface on the back side of the lens array 110). The result is difficult to see in FIG. 1, but provides an illusion of depth of field to the observer through the lenses 112 of the array 110, or, in some cases, ≪ / RTI > motion or animation) of the user. Typically, the thickness of each of the lenses 112 is in the range of 0.5 / 1000 inches to 5/1000 inches (or 12 to about 125 microns), and the frequency of these lenses 112 in the array 110 is about 400 x 400 To 1000 x 1000.

The use of a moiré pattern with an enlarged round lens array helps to reduce counterfeiting, but it was not entirely satisfactory for the anti-counterfeiting market. One reason is that the effect that can be achieved with moire patterns is limited. For example, you can not take pictures and you can not display 3D with Moire patterns. Typically, moiré patterns are used in security and / or anti-counterfeiting industries, with focal lengths of about 20 to 75 microns, with over 500 lenses per inch in one axis, or very fine lenses with over 250,000 lenses per square inch . As a result, images placed under the lenses of the lens array are typically printed with at least 12,000 DPI (Dots Per Inch), and can even be provided in excess of 25,000 DPI. These microlens arrays are closely nested as a whole as shown in the element 200 of the array 210 of FIG. The array 210 utilizes a hexagonal lens provided in offsets and overlapping columns 212 to focus or magnify the image or moiré pattern 220 in the underlying ink layer (e.g., , The lenses 214 arranged side by side are not aligned in one row and are arranged to fill the space between two lenses of the neighboring columns 212 or to be nested into the space.

One challenge or issue with the use of such array 21 and image 220 is that the device 200 is relatively easy to reverse engineer and that limits its usefulness as an anti- do. In particular, the pattern 220 under the lens 214 can be viewed as an inexpensive and readily available microscope, allowing determination of the frequency and pattern of the image. The lens 214 may also be cast and re-molded so that it is the only hurdle that successfully replicates the device 200 (and falsifies the label for a piece of paper money or product) quot; hurdle ") remain printed. Unfortunately, printing images is becoming easier to achieve due to high resolution lasers and setters and other print development. Typically, in the case of element 200, the micro-lenses are printed using embossing and fill technology, which process tends to self-contaminate behind one color and is also used in embossing and filling printing processes Due to the fact that it is difficult to control the relative color pitch, the printing is limited to one color.

Accordingly, there is a need for advances in the design and manufacture of assemblies or elements that combine a lens array and a printed image (ink layer containing an image / pattern) to display an image. Such an improvement allows new anti-falsification devices or devices to be produced for banknotes, labels, credit / debit cards and other items, and it is desirable to make such anti-falsification devices more difficult, if not impossible, to copy or copy . It is also contemplated that such an anti-counterfeiting device may be able to detect an incredible or "wow " element with a displayed image such as an image floating above and / or below the focal plane (such as a more realistic 3D display) quot; factor "is increasing.

Briefly, the inventors have found that it is advantageous to provide different nesting of lenses in the array that can be combined with images with dual-axis interlacing. For example, the lenses may be arranged so that the array is arranged in parallel rows and columns of lenses (e.g., where the neighboring lenses are not offset from each other as shown in the arrays of Figures 1 and 2) May be a circular or square-based lens that is aligned. An image is printed from a print file generated from a matrix of frames of an image obtained from a plurality of POVs (Points Of View) along a first axis (X axis) and a second axis (Y axis). The frames are interlaced in both directions to provide pixel mapping to the lenses of the array.

More particularly, a visible display assembly is provided that is useful as an anti-counterfeiting device for banknotes, product labels, and other objects. The assembly includes a transparent film comprising a first surface comprising a lens array and a second surface opposite the first surface. The assembly also includes a printed image near the second surface. The printed image may include pixels of frames of one or more images interlaced over two orthogonal axes (printed from a file generated using a dual axis interlace rather than a single axis as in a conventional lenticular print) . The lenses of the array may be nested in a plurality of parallel rows and the neighboring ones of the lenses in the column of the array may be aligned to be in one of the rows (e.g., in some cases, Lt; / RTI > can not be used).

To provide a lens array, the lenses may be round-based lenses, square-based lenses, or hexagonal-based lenses. The lenses of the array are provided with 200 LPI (or higher LPI) when measured along both orthogonal axes. The lenses may each have a focal length of less than 10.1000 inches. In some embodiments, each of the frames includes another POV of one or more pictures. In that case, the frames comprise an image from at least three POVs along a first one of two orthogonal axes, and at least two additional axes corresponding to each of the three POVs along a second one of the two orthogonal axes And further includes an image from the POV.

In the assembly, an image displayed from a normal POV includes a first set of symbols and a second set of symbols, and in an image displayed when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a first axis, The print image is adjusted such that the first and second sets of the first and second sets are moved in the opposite direction. Further, in an image displayed when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a second axis orthogonal to the first axis, the printed image is adjusted so that the first and second symbols move in a single direction orthogonal to the second axis .

In another assembly, an image displayed from a regular POV includes a first set of symbols and a second set of symbols, and when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a first axis, the first one of the symbols And the second set can move in a single direction parallel to the first axis of the assembly. In such an embodiment of the assembly, in an image displayed when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a second axis orthogonal to the first axis, the first and second symbols are moved in a single direction parallel to the second axis The print image is adjusted.

Another visible effect is achieved in other embodiments of the assembly. In particular, the print image may include a wallpaper pattern (e.g. with icons, logos and other symbols) and an overlay pattern. The printed image can then be viewed from a number of POVs (if the assembly is rotated / tilted at different angles to the viewer's line of sight), and the overlay pattern can be viewed over a number of POVs Range, and may include mapped pixels. For example, other clocks can rotate or tilt the assembly increasingly farther from the norm (in some cases random directions) until the overlay pattern is completely visible (or, for angles within the range of 45 to 60 degrees, The intensity of the pattern is increased, such as the intensity of the color at a more extreme angle, but may include an overlay that can not be seen by the observer (or just faintly visible) along the regular POV of the assembly.

Figure 1 shows an anti-counterfeiting element or device (not shown) having a lens array (the lenses are not arranged in a linear row in the array) consisting of columns of vertically offset rounded lenses arranged side by side on a printed moiré pattern, A top view of the assembly used as the < RTI ID =
Fig. 2 is an anti-counterfeit element with a lens array (the lenses are not arranged in a linear row and are closely nested in adjacent contacts), consisting of columns of vertically offset vertically offset hexagonal lenses overlaid on the printed moire pattern, or A top view, similar to FIG. 1, showing an assembly used as a device,
Figures 3a and 3b are top and cross-sectional views, respectively, of an item, such as a piece of bank notes or a product label, having an anti-fake device based on a round lens array, taken on line 3B-3B,
Figures 4A and 4B are top and cross-sectional views, respectively, of an item, such as a bill or a label, having an anti-falsification device or element provided on a surface based on a square lens array, taken on line 4B-4B,
Figure 5 illustrates a process for acquiring frames or images associated with other POVs that have acquired a scene along a horizontal or X-axis;
Figure 6 illustrates a process for acquiring a frame or image associated with other POVs that have acquired the scene of Figure 5 along a vertical or Y-axis;
FIG. 7 illustrates a large frame or set of images obtained by acquiring different viewpoints of a scene at each point along the X-axis (or Y-axis), for example, A set of frames,
8 illustrates an image provided by an exemplary interlaced file (e.g., a vertically combined file) for one of the mattresses of a frame file associated with multiple POVs,
9 shows an image provided by a combination print file (or a bidirectional interlace file or X and Y axis combination file) for use with the lens array of the present description,
10 is a side-by-side comparison of images of an adjusted (enlarged) combination print file and an image of an original combination print file as described in this description,
Figures 11 and 12 illustrate views of two exemplary assemblies seen from other POVs useful as anti-fake devices for banknotes, etc. made up of print images and lens arrays to provide different motion effects,
Figure 13 shows multiple views of another exemplary lens / print image (ink layer) assembly (or anti-fake device) from a number of different POVs,
14 shows a normal (or orthogonal / planar) view and an oblique left and right view of another lens / print image assembly (anti-fake device)
15 shows an assembly (e. G., A tamper resistant device in the form of a label) incorporating a microlens array provided on an ink layer including the dual-axis interlaced image set described herein,
16 is a functional block diagram of a system for use in manufacturing a lens / print image assembly or anti-fake device of the present description,
FIG. 17 is a flowchart of a pixel adjustment method according to the present description, which can be implemented by the system of FIG. 16;
18 is a diagram illustrating a conceptual diagram and a print file (pixel mapping) showing a process for providing a dual axis interlace of an image frame to achieve the visual effects described herein;
Figures 19-21 illustrate ray tracing for assemblies of the present description, such as, for example, a lens array in combination with a dual axis interlaced image,
Figure 22 is a diagram illustrating off-axis ray tracing;
Figure 23 is a spot diagram corresponding to the off-axis ray tracing of Figure 22,
Figures 24 and 25 show two additional spots for a round-based lens (or spherical lens)
Figure 26 shows ray tracing for the lenses associated with Figures 24 and 25,
Figs. 27-29 illustrate, similar to Figs. 11 and 12, other exemplary assemblies as viewed from different POVs, in which a blanket or other object comprised of a lens array and a printed image is provided to provide another motion effect Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > a < / RTI > anti-
30 shows another assembly that can be used as a counterfeit prevention device in which the background pattern is pushed away from the foreground images in all POVs,
Figure 31 shows the top of an item, such as a piece of banknote or product label with a counterfeit-proof device based on a hexagon-based lens array (or an array of hexagon lenses in a nested pattern)
32 illustrates the top of an item, such as a piece of banknote or product label, with a tamper-proof device based on a round or circular based lens array (or an array of round lenses in a nested pattern);

Briefly, the present description relates to a design for assemblies of a lens array in combination with a printed image provided in an ink layer. The assemblies may be used, for example, as anti-tamper devices or devices, but are not limited thereto. The lens array is, in part, different from that shown in Figures 1 and 2 because the lenses are arranged in columns that are not vertically offset so that the lenses are provided in the parallel column and in the parallel row (e.g. , Pairs of adjacent lenses in a column arranged side by side are aligned so that their central axes are collinear). The lenses may be round-based, square-based, parallelogram-based, or hexagon-based lenses and the base image may be a 3D display with a microlens array having a full volume and, in some cases, And pixels that are mapped and arranged to produce an image that has been generated.

3A and 3B, an item 300 (e.g., a bill, a label of an article, etc.) may be provided on the top of the ink layer 320 providing a print image, An anti-falsification element or device in the form of a lens array (round lens array) As shown, the item 300 includes a substrate or body 305, such as paper or plastic sheet (e.g., paper / plastic that may be used as paper or product labels for use as bills). On the surface 307 of the substrate / body 305, an image is printed through the ink layer 320 and a lens array 310 is provided on the exposed surface of the ink layer 320 (e.g., The layer 320 and its pattern / image may be printed on the substrate surface 307 or printed on the back surface of the lens array 310).

As shown, the lens array 310 comprises a plurality of lenses 314, each of which has a round base 317 adjacent a surface 321 of the ink layer 320, And has a dome-shaped cross-section as shown in Figs. The round-based lenses or round lenses 314 are arranged in parallel as shown by the parallel vertical axis or Y-axis 313 (the axis passing through the center of the lenses 314 in the column 312) / RTI > are arranged in a plurality of columns 312, as shown in FIG. In addition, the lenses 314 are arranged such that the pair of lenses 314 in the neighboring columns of the columns 312 are in contact at or near at least the base 317 (see FIGS. 3A and 3B). Axis 315 passing through the centers of the lenses 314 of the array 310. The pairs of adjacent lenses 314 are aligned in a row such that the pairs of adjacent lenses 314 are aligned at a row, 312 are not vertically offset as seen in the arrays 110, 210 of Figures 1 and 2 (e.g., the lenses 314 of the array 310 are horizontal And vertically aligned).

4A and 4B, an item 400 (e.g., a banknote, a label for the product, etc.) is provided on the top of the ink layer 420 providing the print image, (Lens array) 410 that covers the entire surface of the substrate. As shown, the item 400 includes a substrate or body 405, such as sheet or plastic (e.g., sheet or plastic sheet to be used for paper or product labels to be used as bills). An image is printed through the ink layer 420 on the surface 407 of the substrate / body 405 and a lens array 410 is provided on the exposed surface of the ink layer 420 (e.g., The layer 420 and its pattern / image may be printed on the substrate surface 407 or on the backside surface of the lens array 410).

As shown, the lens array 410 is comprised of a plurality of lenses 414, each having a square base 417 proximate the surface of the ink layer 420, Shaped cross-section. The square-based lenses or the square lenses 414 are arranged in parallel (as shown) by the parallel vertical axis or Y-axis (the axis passing through the center of the lenses 414 in the column 412) Lt; / RTI > Also, the pair of lenses 414 in the neighboring columns of the columns 412 are at or near the base 417 (see Figs. 4A and 4B). Axis 415 passing through the centers of the lenses 414 of the array 410. The pairs of adjacent lenses 414 are arranged in rows 412 are not vertically offset as seen in the arrays 110, 210 of Figures 1 and 2 (e.g., the lenses 414 of the array 410 are caused by the illustrated nesting of the lenses 414) Aligned horizontally and vertically).

For the lens arrays 310 and 410, the lenses may be provided at a frequency of only 150 lenses per linear inch on the X and Y axes, or may be provided with a frequency up to about 4000 lenses per linear inch for each of the X and Y axes . It should be noted that when the observer of the items 300, 400 views the image of the ink layer 320, 420, the lenses are nested as shown in Figures 3a and 4a with little or no interference from the near or adjacent lenses. The stacked square-based and round-based lenses 414 and 314 can be used to support an interfacing process that provides images / patterns to the ink layers 320 and 420 described herein. In some cases, square-based lenses 314 may be preferred because they produce a fuller image or a full-filled image.

The ink layers 320 and 420 are intended for use with or for use with the lens arrays 310 and 410 to provide full volume 3D display images with or without multi-directional motion or animation. In particular, the image is interlaced, similar to the lenticular image, in the X-axis and the following Y-axis to produce a full volume 3D interlaced image. Lenses 314 and 414 have point focus on the observer so that the resulting image viewed from the observer (image displayed from the light reflected from the ink layers 320 and 420 through the lens arrays 310 and 410) Make 3D images in all directions.

In this regard, with the following list of effects, the pixel mapping structure in the conventional moiré pattern based assembly (see Figs. 1 and 2) and the ink layers 320 and 420 combined with the lens arrays 310 and 410 It may be useful to compare and contrast the effects that can be generated with That is, (1) a float is provided by both moire and pixel mapping in accordance with the present description; (2) float height is limited to 100% in Moire pattern but 150% float can be achieved in pixel mapping based embodiment; (3) two techniques provide a one-way motion; (4) ON / OFF can be used / attained only by the pixel matching technique; (5) Animation is available only with pixel mapping based embodiments; (6) Using the Moire pattern, zooming can not be provided but can be provided by pixel mapping; (7) A realistic 3D image is provided only by the pixel mapping based embodiment described herein; (8) Movement in the opposite direction can be achieved with only the pixel mapping based embodiment described herein; (9) One image up / one side is another effect possible only with the use of a pixel mapping based embodiment; (10) Full volume 3D can be used only through the use of pixel mapping and lens arrays as taught herein. As a result of some or all of these effects or aspects of the two techniques, moiré pattern based anti-fake devices are easily reversed, whereas pixel-mapping based anti-fake devices are impossible or almost impossible to reverse design.

Along with a general understanding of the lens arrays and their construction, it describes a mapping for pixel arrays, imaging, circular based, and square based lenses (such as, for example, the design of the ink layer of the assemblies shown in Figures 3A-4B) . Conventional lenticular printing (interlaced printing of images for a lenticular lens array) uses a specific number of files generated from different points of view or viewpoints to obtain a 3D effect. For example, a viewpoint in a single plane moves to the left or right to create the next viewpoint. Conventional lenticular printing uses different frames from an image sequence to produce some motion or animation or other visual effect. Once created, the frames or filesets are combined into interlaced files, and the interlaced files are printed on a substrate to which a lenticular lens array can be applied, or on the back side of a lenticular lens array. The process for creating a final file from an original frame is referred to as " interlacing "(e.g., a process of stripping and arranging print information at a given pitch to match a particular lenticular lens array).

Conventionally, the interlace for a lenticular material has only one orientation, the interlace being dependent on the lens orientation to make the strip horizontal or vertical. This process combines the frames so that the observer can see the effect of working horizontally or vertically (but not both), depending on the lens direction. 5 illustrates a process in which a single set of images or a set of scenes 540 viewed from three different viewpoints 510, 520, 530 (e.g., -45 degrees, right angles, +45 degrees, 500). Viewpoints 510, 520, and 530 are views from the same scene acquired along the horizontal or X-axis. The resulting frame or viewpoints 510, 520, 530 from the viewpoints are slightly different and are combined in an interlacing process. When such a frame of an interlaced image is combined with and viewed with a sheet of lenticular material, the frame may produce a depth sensation or a 3D effect.

As shown in FIGS. 3A-4D, circular and square-based lenses can be used in a lens array with printed images, which simultaneously work in two directions, for example, simultaneously in horizontal and vertical directions . The fact that a visible effect is generated in all directions requires that a more complete frame or set of views from the same scene be provided in the print image (or ink layer) used with the round or square lens array. Along with this recognition by the inventors, the inventors have developed a new process (to be described below) that interlaces these frame sets from a single scene (or more precisely, maps, arranges and images the pixels).

For example, a circular, hexagonal, parallelogram, or round-based lens array (as opposed to a cylindrical lens or elongated lenticules) may be used with a set of viewpoints But also other sets of viewpoints from different heights (or along the vertical or Y-axis). 6 illustrates a process 600 for obtaining additional frames or views from a scene 640 (which may be identical to scene / image 540). As shown, a frame from three different viewpoints (e.g., +45 degrees for a right angle to the Y-axis, -45 degrees for a right angle to the Y-axis and a right angle to the Y-axis, etc.) (610, 620, 630) are obtained from a single scene image (640).

However, one of the major differences between the process described herein and conventional lenticular printing is the fact that one or more framesets or sets of viewpoints corresponding to such viewpoints are combined in an image file for printing. In other words, interlacing is performed on view points along the vertical and horizontal axes. This involves, instead of interlacing one frame sequence, a new interlace process (or print file generation process) intelligently maps the matrix of frames corresponding to other viewpoints taken along the X-axis and Y-axis . In this example, there are three sets 710, 720, 730, each of which includes three frames 712, 714, 716, 722, 724, 726, 732, 734, 736, This selects each horizontal axis or X-axis view point for a single scene (as shown in FIG. 5), then two additional vertical or Y-axis viewpoints (as shown in FIG. 6) (Or vice-versa). ≪ / RTI >

Figures 5-7 provide an illustration that shows that a simple but many different number of view points can be used. For example, conventional lenticular printing involves the use of ten frames corresponding to ten different view points along the X-axis (or Y-axis). In contrast, the interlaced or image printing process described herein is accompanied by ten sets of ten frames, providing a matrix of a total of 100 frames. According to the description herein, interlace or print processing involves mapping and imaging each of the 100 frames in an individual pixel.

At this point, it may be desirable to obtain an image file that can be printed for use with one of the lens arrays described herein (e.g., for use on a product label or bill as part of an anti-fake device) It is useful to describe the mapping and imaging of the X-axis and Y-axis pixels in more detail. A matrix of frame files (e.g., matrix 700 of frame files in FIG. 7) is combined to produce a file to be printed, and when used and printed with a predefined / specific lens array, produces a desired visual effect It is preferable to combine them so as to be able to do so. For example, if we assume the use of six frames per each frame set (instead of three shown in FIG. 7 as sets 710, 720 and 730), then the frame matrix would be as follows (the frame number is the set number, Frame).

Figure pct00001

The first step in the mapping / imaging may be to combine in each row of frames from the matrix (e.g., as if vertical lenses were being used). In this method, the sequence of combined pixels is the same scene in the X-axis and is generated from a slightly different height or viewpoint (from the Y-axis). For example, such a combination interlaces six frames from the first row of the matrix until there is one interlaced file for each row of the matrix of frame files (which are images of the scene from different viewpoints) By interlacing six frames from the second row, and so on. It may be useful to name the image sequences for the sequence from the top to the bottom of the matrix, where for the exemplary matrix provided above, but not limited to, the first interlace file resulting from the first row is " IF 01 ", and the sixth interlace file from the sixth row may be "IF 06 ". In FIG. 8, a diagram illustrating an image 800 using images from the matrix of FIG. 7 for one of the rows of the matrix is shown. The resulting file-provided image 800 is a combination of slices 810 (interlaced image strips or slices) from each frame in a particular row.

The second step in mapping / imaging is to combine vertically combined files (X-axis) into one final file for use in printing. It is necessary or useful to have information on one horizontal slice for simultaneously generating an effect in the other direction. A second matching process (horizontal) is performed, but this time uses the previously generated vertical pixel files as input to generate bidirectional (X and Y axis) frames.

In this second step, (1) the pixels in the file are vertically combined with the previously defined same sequence, (2) the files are reproduced by the horizontal information according to the pixel map to generate the print file, and (3) The result is that the final file does not have strips or slices, but instead has bi-directional pixels with all 3D or motion information in both directions, meaning that the data from the matrix has squares arranged in a manner similar to the frames in the matrix Map is preferable. With respect to this third item, when the printed image from such a file is combined with a round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square-based lens of the array, any viewpoint can be achieved / displayed to the observer, Will appear.

Figure 9 shows an image 900 that may be printed for use with a round, hexagonal, parallelogram, or square-based lens array from the final print file output from this second mapping / imaging step. In this final linear image 900, an interlace of slices / strips 912 in the vertical direction and an interlace of slices / strips 914 in the horizontal direction can be seen. The disassembly assembly and / or widening portion 910 shows this two-way interlace and also shows the "square" configuration (eg, see square 916) of this final print file (biaxial assembly file).

Mapping and imaging may be performed using the X-axis and the Y-axis to achieve motion effects. The concept in conventional lenticular printing is to obtain a loop with a sequence of frames that describe or provide motion in an interlaced print image. This "loop" concept is useful for the printing described herein, but in the case of circular, hexagonal, parallelogram or square based lenses (or other lens arrays), it processes the matrix of frames. To obtain a loop sequence in all directions, typically the matrix must be arranged in such a way that the loop sequence can be seen simultaneously in each row and each line / column of the matrix. For example, if the input for printing is a sequence of six frames, a matrix of six by six frames may be arranged as follows.

Figure pct00002

The arrays provided in this matrix allow loops to be viewed in both directions (X and Y axes) (through a circular or square based lens array) when used to generate print images. The printed image produces little or no distortion because it is provided so that each row and each column is slightly shifted relative to other nearby rows and columns. The interlace process based on this matrix may be the same as described above to obtain or generate the final interlaced file (sometimes referred to as the X-axis and Y-axis pixel files).

In order to produce a good image in micro-lens printing (printing for use with the lens array shown here), the optical pitch of the lens is plate-making, It should be precisely matched to the output device. In other words, the result obtained by multiplying the number of frames in the X and Y axes by the number of lenses must coincide with the DPI (Dots Per Inch) of the output device of the optical pitch of the lens ). The number of correct lens LPIs revealed from the configuration of the sheet of lens array material is the so-called mechanical pitch. However, these lenticulars will focus on other frequencies, meaning that there is no match with the number of lenticules per inch when combining the number of lines per inch of a particular frame, based on the viewing distance. Thus, a calibration process (referred to as pitch test) is used to better determine the exact number of lines per inch that are focused on a particular lens sheet or film for a particular printing device and at a given distance .

In other words, the result of multiplying the number of lenses by the X-axis frame count must equal the resolution of the output device (and so on for the Y axis). One challenge is that even when carefully fabricated, the DPI produced during printing does not match the optical pitch of the print lens. This may be due to distortion in the web or sheet process and / or due to typical shrinkage or expansion and distortion during film production. Even if all of the printing processes (e.g., flexo, gravure, offset, letterpress printing, holography, etc.) are performed even if the film is precisely manufactured to match the optical pitch of the output device, , Embossing, filling, etc.), the pitch will change significantly as the film is printed. In addition, the distortion may be larger in the repeat direction of the web or sheet surrounding the cylinder.

In the past, in conventional linear lenticular optics, a file was adjusted to match the target pitch and DPI with software tools such as Adobe PhotoShop, and this process works well with linear lenses as it is also used in relatively coarse lens arrays. However, in a microlens used in the arrays described herein (e.g., lenses provided with LPIs in excess of 200 in any direction), such conventional software tools may be used, or an image or place setter may be used, If the adjustment is made by a rip in the case, there is a serious quality problem which is unsatisfactory. During working in some cases, this quality problem occurs because, in an attempt to match the resolutions, the image slices sometimes generate a damaged file that is not accurately maintained in their channel relative to the lens array.

Again, this problem does not occur when using a thick lens array, and is a problem that must be addressed when using a microlens array as described herein, because otherwise the image may become blurred, Because printed images do not achieve the desired 3D or motion effects at all due to the radiation in the channel being mixed. Such a result may be due to interpolation of files and uneven image slices in the process. Microscoping a file after adjustments made by a lip or other conventional graphics program are used, it can be seen that the interlaced slice is no longer uniform. Therefore, the images are mixed with respect to the lens focus (for example, one image can be mixed with another image (as if the image 2 is mixed with the image 4) and the quality of the image that the observer sees or is provided to the observer . Thus, when considering such a problem or task in the context of dual X-axis and Y-axis or full volume interlacing, the problem / problem is greatly exacerbated, and the output is such that the displayed image is uncomfortable and even understandable It can be so messy that it does not exist.

In some cases, the desired optical pitch may be within some target range (e.g., within 3% of the target). In this case, devices (e.g., Variable Main-scan Resolution (VMR) from Kodak, etc.) can be used to fine-tune the files. However, since this process works only on one axis, it is not very useful for X-axis and Y-axis, or full volume interlacing, as described herein. In order for an image to be worked and properly adjusted to print the film in almost all conditions, the output device may be implemented in parent resolution in both axes without adversely affecting the integrity of the X and Y axis interlaced images The inventors have found that the pitch must be precisely adjusted using other techniques / tools. The channels in both axes are preferably kept precisely as planned in the file with respect to the target optical pitch of the lens. Alternatively, the file may be scaled to its target number by interlacing the files on both axes with the closest integer. Such scaling may be performed above or below the target optical pitch such that the DPI is either higher or lower than the target DPI. By manual or automatic software, pixels can be added or subtracted throughout the file image.

What has been described previously is that the multiplication value between the number of frames used in the combined image and the optical pitch must coincide with the correct resolution of the output device in both directions. This can be expressed as NF x OP = DOR, where NF is the number of frames, OP is the optical pitch, and DOR is the device output resolution. One typical situation in this regard is that despite the fact that the number of frames can be selected, the number of frames must be an integer. Also, the number of lenses per inch may vary over time due to the production batch of the lens and the surrounding environment at the time of printing. As a result, one option for making the above equation work suitable is to select an integer number of frames and an optical pitch that is close enough (although not required) to obtain the correct resolution of the output device Lt; / RTI > Correction can then be made to the file in such a way that the pitch is adjusted without changing the resolution.

Because of the complexity of this process, it will be useful to describe an exemplary process (but not limited to) of how those techniques can be successfully implemented to provide a print image for use with the lens array described herein . For example, a 2400 DPI output device may be used to print combined X-axis and Y-axis files, and the printed image is for use with a 240 LPI lens (mechanical) with an optical pitch of 239.53. What this means is that it is desirable to combine 10 frames with 240 LPI to obtain the 240 DPI required for the assembly (e.g., anti-fake device). So, the challenge is to adjust the 240 LPI interlaced image to 239.53 without losing pixel integrity or changing resolution without modifying the size of the file.

To make this adjustment, it may be useful to enlarge the size of the file to 0.196% (for example, by dividing 240.0 by 239.53) while maintaining the same pixel size. To this end, a calculated number of pixel columns can be inserted at precise locations over the width of the file. In this particular example, if the files are 1 inch wide, the file has a total of 2400 pixels. Following this example, it is necessary to insert five pixels (rounded to 4.7) to reduce the interlaced LPI count while maintaining the same resolution or pixel size. A software routine (or smart algorithm) that acts to exclude a required number of columns of pixels without image distortion or to select the right place to add or clone pixels may be implemented in a computer system (e.g., a computer May be implemented in software or code stored in memory by the processor computer so that it can be accessed by the processor / computer or may execute the described functions for the image file stored in the memory.

FIG. 10 provides a side-by-side comparison 1000 showing the image 1020 provided by the same print file and the image 1010 provided by the original combined (or dual axis) print file after adjustment. In this example, the adjustment is 0.7% expanded through Adobe Photoshop. The image comparison 1000 shows how a simple pitch adjustment can hurt pixel integrity when using a simple single-axis or other conventional scaling technique. 10, the post-adjustment image 1020 is no longer clean, and the focus of the lenses of the array is likely to be an image that does not include a target or a desired visual effect (e.g., 3D or movement in two directions) It will produce a fuzzy image. Adjustments that involve automatic adjustment through the ribs or expansion with one axis act to mix images that viewers can see in an inconsistent manner.

Ray mixing for an observer occurs when images of the above described matrix are reproduced or adjusted using Adobe Photoshop or other automated process. This is because the pixels are no longer uniform in both axes. Therefore, focusing on unmatched numbers of lenses in the array (e.g., circular or square based lenses), the radiation is mixed against the observer. Instead of the observers all receiving the "number three", the observer can simultaneously receive the information under "number 1" and "number 4". The viewing result or the quality of the displayed image becomes poor. Since each pixel can vary in the print image, the height and width of the pixels are no longer uniform and precise height and width needed to achieve good results. As a result, the lens focuses on another image (rather than a specific intended pixel), the image is no longer clean, and in many cases will not even be visible.

Figs. 11 and 12 illustrate two exemplary assemblies useful as anti-counterfeiting devices for banknotes and the like, which are comprised of a lens array and a print image to provide different motion effects. 11 and 12, when the round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square-based lens array is combined with a print image having the dual axis interlace / combination described herein, Which can be effectively used to provide selected motion effects. Because of the partially complicated interlace process that provides pixel mapping, the assemblies shown in Figures 11 and 12 are particularly useful as anti-counterfeiting devices (which can be applied to bills, product labels and other objects / items) It is very difficult.

In the diagram 1100 of FIG. 11, a planar or orthogonal view 1110 of a lens / image assembly according to the description herein is shown. The observer can observe or view the original image with rows of two different icons, both static and motionless. In the diagram or view 1120, the assembly may be inclined or tilted to the right (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees or between 15 and 45 degrees), and a matrix of frames (such as a matrix similar to that shown in FIG. 7) The other POV set of the original image shown in view 1110) causes the rows of other icons to move in the opposite direction. For example, recall logo / icons move to the left, while rows with padlock icons move to the right. In contrast, in the diagram or view 1122, the assembly is inclined or tilted to the left (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees or between 15 and 45 degrees), and the interlace of the matrix of frames is again displayed on another icon Are moved in opposite directions. For example, corporate logos / icons move to the right at the same time, while the rows of padlock icons move to the left. In other words, the printed image provides an animation of the original image when the lens / print image is viewed from a different angle or POV (e.g., the assembly or anti-fake device shown in view 1110 is a first or vertical Rotate around the axis.).

Importantly, the assembly of the lens array with the ink layer providing a dual axis interlaced image provides animation or movement in directions beyond one direction. In the diagram or view 1124, the assembly is inclined or tilted upwardly (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees or between 15 and 45 degrees by rotating about the second or horizontal axis of the assembly) , An interlace of a matrix of frames (a different POV set of the original picture shown in view 1110, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Figure 7) causes the rows of different icons to move in a single direction (e.g., Moving upward). In contrast, in the diagram or view 1126, the assembly is inclined or tilted downward (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees relative to the horizontal axis of the assembly or between 15 and 45 degrees) The interlace of the matrix is configured such that the rows of other icons move back in a single direction (e. G., All move upwards). In other words, the printed image provides an animation of the original image when viewing the lens / print image (or ink layer) from a different angle or POV (e.g., the assembly or anti-fake device shown in view 1110 Rotate about a second or horizontal axis)

In the diagram or view 1200 of FIG. 12, a top view or right angle view 1210 of a lens / image assembly in accordance with the description herein is shown. The observer can observe or view the original image with a row of two different icons that are static or motionless. In a diagram or view 1220, the assembly may be inclined or tilted to the right (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees or between 15 and 45 degrees), and a matrix of frames (a matrix similar to that shown in FIG. 7 (Such as another POV set of the original image shown in view 1110) is configured such that the rows of other icons move in a single direction (not in the opposite direction as shown in 1120 of FIG. 11). For example, both the padlock icon and the row with the company logo / icon move down when the assembly (or anti-fake device) is tilted to the right. In contrast, in the diagram or view 1222, the assembly is tilted or tilted to the left (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees or between 15 and 45 degrees) and the interlacing of the matrix of frames causes the other icons The rows are configured to move in a single direction, such as upward again. 12, an animation of the original image is provided when viewing the lens / print image (or ink layer) from a different angle or POV (e.g., the assembly or counterfeit shown in view 1210) Prevention device rotates about a first or vertical axis). The illustrated animation may be in a direction transverse to the direction of rotation.

Importantly, as described in connection with FIG. 11, an assembly of lens arrays with ink layers providing dual-axis interlaced images provides animation or movement in more than one direction. In the diagram or view 1224, the assembly is inclined or tilted in an upward direction (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees, or between 15 and 45 degrees, by rotating about a second or horizontal axis of the assembly) The interlacing of the matrix of frames (a different POV set of the original image shown in view 1210, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Figure 7) is detected during the time that the rows of the other icons become unidirectional and tilt to the left or right (E. G., All move to the right or scroll). ≪ / RTI > In contrast, in the diagram or view 1226, the assembly is inclined or tilted downward (e.g., between 15 and 45 degrees relative to the horizontal axis of the assembly or between 15 and 45 degrees) The interlace of the matrix is configured such that the rows of other icons move back or scroll in a single direction again (e.g., all move to the left). In other words, the print image provides an animation of the original image when viewing the lens / print image (or ink layer) from a different angle or POV (e.g., the assembly shown in view 1210 or anti- Rotates about a second or horizontal axis).

13 shows an image set or view set 1300 of an oblique or moved assembly to change the viewing angle for another lens / print image (ink layer) assembly or observer viewed by an observer at another location. The assembly may be a double-axis interlaced image (to be printed on a substrate (e.g., a banknote, a plastic card, a paper or plastic label, etc.) to which the lens array will be attached or on a flat surface on the back side of the lens array And takes the form of an array of overlaid round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square-based microlenses. The interlaced picture may be combined with a matrix of frames (e.g., a set of two to four or more frames of a single picture / scene taken in another POV in relation to a horizontal or vertical axis) to provide pixel mapping And is printed using the final printing result.

13, the image or view 1310 shows a straight-on or right-angle view of the assembly or anti-fake device 1300, and the image is the company logo in this example. An observer can view the image or view 1320 if the assembly is tilted up as shown by arrow 1321 (the planar assembly rotates upwards about the horizontal axis or first axis of the assembly). As shown, the view / image 1320 shows additional information related to the original image seen in view 1310, such as the bottom of the logo or object that was the subject of the interlaced image file. If the assembly is tilted or tilted to the right as shown by arrow 1323 (the planar assembly is rotated or tilted about a vertical axis (a second axis that is perpendicular to or at least transverse to the first axis of the assembly) Another image or view 1322 can be viewed. More information or images may be viewed in view 1322, such as the left side of the logo or other object that was the subject of the interlaced image file.

Also, if the assembly is tilted or tilted downwardly (1325) (when rotated about a horizontal axis or a first axis) another view or image 1324 is observed, in which view 1324, Information such as the top side of the logo or other imaged object appears. The view or image 1326 provides additional information or portions of the target object, such as the right side of the logo / target object, and the view 1326 is rotated or tilted about the vertical or second axis of the assembly, Can be seen.

14, a view / image set 1400 of another embodiment or implementation of a lens / print image assembly (or anti-fake device) 1410 is shown. As shown in the view / displayed image 1412, the assembly 1410 (the microlens array described in the specification, located on the double-axis interlace of the matrix of frames corresponding to other images of the scene / object from other viewpoints) Is viewed from a viewpoint that is perpendicular or orthogonal to the front surface 1411 of the assembly 1410. In some embodiments, the front side surface 1411 is provided by an outer surface of an array of round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square based lenses. As shown, an observer can view a background that includes a wallpaper pattern that is unchanged (of icon and pad lock). The icon / image components can appear very deeply in the plane of the film and can be seen at each viewing angle (e.g., when the assembly 1410 is tilted to the right or to the left, it can be seen in views 1414 and 1416). The overlay pattern resides in the plane of the film (but can be seen in views 1414 and 1416) although it is not visible when viewed in front (or only slightly visible) as shown in view 1412.

View 1416 shows the display provided by the interlaced image of assembly 1410 when the assembly is tilted at a slight angle (slightly inclined or tilted to the left about the vertical axis). When tilted to a slight angle (e. G., Up to about 15 degrees), the overlay pattern can only be viewed as black on the front side surface 1411 of the assembly 1410 or on the area of the film closest to the observer . The printed image can be viewed in a gradual manner when the overlay pattern is slightly oblique (e.g., less than about 15 degrees) as it is tilted in any direction (up, down, left, right or rotation of the assembly 1410 about a vertical axis or horizontal axis) (Black in this example). The pattern is an "overlay " that covers the icon or wallpaper pattern (or the outer surface 1411 of the assembly 1410) in the plane of the film or appears to exist on their top surface.

At some angle, the overlay can first be seen on the assembly 1410 or a portion of the film closest to the observer. If the assembly 1410 is tilted farther away from the viewer (more than an angle of about 30-40 degrees), more overlay patterns can be progressively viewed and the assembly 1410 can be viewed over the surface 1411, the full overlay pattern can be seen when viewed at an extreme angle (e.g., an angle of 45 degrees to 60 degrees relative to the normal view 1412). This can be seen in the extreme angle view 1414 of FIG. 14, and in FIG. 14, the assembly 1410 rotates at an angle (e.g., to the right) of greater than about 60 degrees about a vertical axis. In view 1414, the overlay pattern is fully visible over the wallpaper pattern with icons (in this example, the logo and pad lock) spanning the entire surface 1411 of the assembly / film 1410.

In FIG. 15, an assembly 1510 of another embodiment of the present description is shown. The assembly 1510 includes an ink layer for providing a printed image with a dual-axis interlace of a matrix of the body / substrate and the other POV frames described herein, for use as an anti-fake device or label, And may be configured to have an array of round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square based lenses. For example, the assembly 1510 may be a label (e.g., a 2 inch by 1 inch or other size label) that can be printed under the web at 1.125-inch centers during manufacturing. The assembly 1510 may include a front side or top surface 1512 (e.g., a thin lens array formed of a transparent or at least translucent plastic or similar material) through which an interlaced image The image constructed using the pixel mapping) can be viewed as shown. The printed image may be used to print barcode and / or human readable text (e. G., Flexo), which may be added in offline or later processing (e. (Or other color) box 1513, which may be a blank (or other color)

The assembly / label 1510 has a print image specifically designed to provide a number of images and effects that make it more difficult to reproduce and allow an observer to easily verify its authenticity. For example, the print image may be printed on a gray background 1516 (e.g., printed under the surface (e.g., black), which may be printed or layered, with icons or symbols 1514,1517 (colored and / For example, flexo). The symbol 1517 may take the form of a border (e.g., a circle), which includes a text that should be completely inside the border to show that the label 1510 is true, Quot; OK ").

In addition, the printed interlaced image may include a device / or part that allows an observer to check the authenticity of the label 1510. [ For example, a magnifying glass image 1520 may be incorporated into the printing plate used to fabricate the assembly / label 1510 and appear on the plane of the film or surface 1512. One or more icons / symbols 1523 and 1525 may be provided within the image 1520, e.g., under the glass of the magnifying glass image 1520. [ When the viewer views through the glass region of the image 1520 the icon 1523 appears in black and the icon 1525 appears in blue (icons 1514 and 1517 in the rest of the label 1510) (E.g., it may be a reversed color of the color of these icons when viewed under the magnifying glass image 1520)), and a print image may be constructed. Icons 1523 and 1525 under the magnifying glass image 1520 may also appear somewhat larger in magnitude than the corresponding wallpaper / background version of these icons 1514 and 1517. [

The wallpaper icon 1530 may be moved in the same (or opposite) direction when the assembly 1510 is tilted about the second axis (e.g., when the assembly / label is rotated / tilted upwards or downwards) (Or the same) direction when the assembly 1510 is tilted about the first axis (e.g., when the assembly / label is rotated / tilted to the left or right), while the assembly 1510 moves . In contrast, in some embodiments of the label 1510, the corresponding icons / symbols 1523,1525 under the magnifying glass image 1520 are designed to move differently from those icons 1530 that are not under the glass . For example, icons 1523 and 1525 move together in a single direction under magnifying glass image 1520, but icon 1530 indicates that assembly 1510 is centered about a particular axis, as shown by arrow 153 When rotated / tilted, it moves in the opposite direction.

The printed image beneath the lens array of assembly 1510 may include additional elements 1540 (e.g., boxed / bordered displays) for enhanced security (or to further restrict forgeries) have. Element 1540 includes a border 1549 formed in a pattern that is difficult to reproduce, such as, for example, a 0.15-mm (or other size) microtext border that includes one or more intentional misspelling (For example, the border appears to be intact in the eyes of the observer, but under the microscope it is exposed). 15, the first image 1541 is displayed, but as shown in the exploded view, the second image 1542 is displayed when the assembly 1510 rotates about the first axis 1543 (Fig. (E.g., rotated about the vertical axis of the assembly 1510 to the right or to the left) element 1540. To further enhance security, a third image 1540 is displayed on element 1540 when assembly 1510 rotates in another direction 1545 (e.g., rotating up or down about the horizontal axis of assembly 1510) Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 1544 < / RTI >

16, a system 1600 is shown for use in the manufacture of an assembly, such as the anti-falsification device described herein. The system 1600 includes an imaging workstation 1610 having a processor 1612 executing code or software programs to perform a particular function. The workstation 1610 sends data that can be used by the mapping and imaging module 1620 to an operator of the station 1610 to generate a print file 1648 that is passed to the print controller 1680 as shown at 1675 And takes the form of almost any computer device having a processor 1612 that acts to manage the operation of input and output devices 1614, such as devices that allow viewing and inputting. The CPU 1612 manages the memory 1630 that can be accessed by the mapping and imaging module 1620.

The mapping and imaging module 1620 generates a frame set 1640 from the original image 1632 and generates a frame matrix 1646 from these image sets 1640 and generates a bidirectional bitmap or print from the frame matrix 1646 And performs functions useful for executing the functions and processes described herein, such as generating a file 1648 (i.e., a print file using pixel mapping). For example, the memory 1630 may include one or more icons / symbols 1636, which may be provided as wallpaper, and a background 1634 (e.g., these elements may be layered on the background 1634) ) Original image 1632. [0064]

Module 1620 serves to generate a plurality of framesets 1640 from an original image 1632 and each of the sets 1640 includes 2 to 10 or more frames from different viewpoints of the original image (See, for example, the frame set shown in Figure 7, which provides another POV frame along the two axes (the X axis and Y axis frame / image of the base or source frame 1632)). The module 1620 may generate the frame matrix 1646 described above to appropriately map the pixels with motion effects and to provide appropriate X and Y axis interlaces without motion effects. From the matrix 1648, the rows and columns of the matrix 1646 with proper sequencing (with all 3D and / or motion information in both directions, such as a square with data from the matrix 1646, Directional pixel map or print file 1648 is generated by combining the two-way pixel map or print file 1648. [

The mapping and imaging module 1620 generates a print file 1648 based on various imaging / mapping parameters 1650. For example, lens array design information 1652, which includes lens round, hexagon, parallelogram, or square, optical pitch 1654, and LPI 1656 values, generates print file 1648 Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 1620 < / RTI > Device output resolution 1670 may also be used by module 1620 to generate print file 1648 to set the number of frames in set 1640. [ The parameter 1650 includes a method of animating the original image according to the tilt / rotation of the assembly by setting the direction of movement of the icon / symbol and a method of generating fast motion (how much rotation is required to achieve a specific motion effect) And may include motion parameters 1660 for definition. The parameters 1650 include color parameters 1666, such as, for example, whether the color of the icon / symbols changes with rotation of the assembly having the image printed from file 1648 and whether such color should be in the displayed image ).

Once the print file 1648 has been generated, the imaging workstation 1610 sends the file 1648 to the print controller 1680 (e.g., another computer or computing device) (e.g., via a digital communications network Wired or wireless). The print controller 1682 can use this print file 1648 to produce a printing or embossing plate 1682 that can be used to emboss a surface such as the flat / back side of the lens array with the manufacturing device 1684 . Such an embossed surface can be filled with one or more coating / ink layers to form a print image on the lens array / print image assembly (e.g., anti-fake device). Controller 1680 may be used to provide a counterfeit-proof device on the bill / label, so that the lens array can be used to detect the presence or absence of a double-axis interlaced image on one side of a product label or one bill or a flat back side of the lens array, The print file 1648 can be used to provide the digital file 1670 to the color digital printer 1674 for printing.

In this regard, a useful technique for performing (at least in part) pixel adjustment that may be executed by a software module / program, such as the mapping and imaging module 1620 of FIG. 16, is described. FIG. 17 is a flow chart similar to the pixel adjustment method 1700 according to the description herein. The method 1700 includes, at 1710, determining the optical pitches of the lens arrays in the X and Y axes (e.g., the components 1680 of FIG. 16 To 1684). ≪ / RTI > At 1720, the target viewing pitch for the desired or input viewing distance (in the X and Y axes) is selected. For example, as shown at 1730, the method 1700 involves setting the target pitch to 416.88 for the X-axis and 384.47 for the Y-axis.

The method 1700 continues to interlace the X and Y axes of the pixel map at 1740. This typically involves a mapping at the closest device output for the desired target pitch (e.g., the 400 output is close to the pitch set at step 1730). In step 1750, the method 1700 includes calculating the difference between the device output and the target optical pitch. In this example, the difference in the X axis is + 4.22% (i.e., the target pitch divided by 416.88 at 400 device outputs) and the difference in the Y axis is -3.9% (384.47 at 400 device outputs Divided target pitch).

In step 1760, the mapping and imaging module / software program acts to remove the pixels based on the difference determined in step 1750. In this example, the module specifically targets the low information region in the X-axis, removing 4.22% of the pixels. Step 1770 of method 1700 determines whether the module works to identify pixels with little information for removal (evenly in the X-axis in this example), while, for example, at the neighboring blending pixels This process is described where the addition of pixels is performed (e.g., mixed pixels are added in the Y-axis). At 1780, the plate is output based on the print file that is modified to provide pixel adjustment. In this working example, the flat panel for printing is output as 4800 pixels on the X axis and 4800 pixels on the Y axis. It is noted that at 1790, the process 1700 maintains the integrity of the displayed image without blur due to, for example, a clean pixel of re-resolution.

18 further illustrates a process for providing a dual axis interlace in the lens array of the present description. A small lens array or lenslet 1810 is shown that includes four lenses 1812, 1814, 1816, and 1818 in a top or top view (more typical arrays have more lenses). As shown in 1815, the lenses 1812, 1814, 1816, 1818 are round-based lenses in this non-limiting example. Below the lens array 1810, a double-axis print image (or an ink layer with a print image) can be provided in which each of the boxes 1813 in the figure are used to represent pixels. Further, each of these "pixels" 1813 can be regarded as a lens focus point.

The printed image provided in the pixel 1813 provides a display device that, when combined with the lens array 1810, can be used to provide a full 3D image and a multi-directional motion. For example, each lens 1812, 1814, 1816, 1818 may be used to display a looping image. To this end, the set of diagonally shaded pixels 1830 is used to provide a 45-degree tilt loop sweep, and a set of horizontally and vertically-illustrated pixels 1820, And arranged top to bottom.

With this in mind, the graph 1850 can be used to determine whether an array of 7 pixels by 7 pixels provided below each lens 1812, 1814, 1816, 1818 is printed with a dual axis combined / interlaced image to provide this effect This is to illustrate the method. In this example, four frames in the X axis are combined with four frames in the Y axis (e.g., "X = 3" refers to a particular frame in the set of four frames along the X axis). A mapping and imaging module (e.g., module 1620) may be used to select the appropriate frame to generate the matrix and / or print map, and the graph 1820, 1830, A print file can be generated from this mapping for use in printing a dual axis interlaced image for each pixel as shown in block 1850. [

19 through 21 are plots 1900, 2000, and 2100 illustrating ray tracing for assemblies described herein for a lens array that is combined with a dual axis interlaced image. In particular, FIG. 19 shows a plot 1900 of tracing of radiation 1920 using an assembly (e.g., a tamper resistant device) configured as described herein. As shown, the assembly 1910 includes a lens array 1912 of a round-based lens 1914 overlying an ink layer / print image 1916 that includes a plurality of interlaces 1918 Interlaced using interlaces).

Plot 1900 shows the radiation 1920 being traced from the ideal lenticular interlaced strip 1918 in the print image / ink layer 1916. The order of the interlaces was modified so that the observers were properly interlaced with the images. In this example, it was assumed that the radius of each lens 1914 was 1.23 mils, the lens 1914 was provided at 408 LPI, the lens 1914 was 3 mils thick, and the refractive index was 1.49. For clarity, zero interlaces have been indicated with seven interlaces 1918 per set of two lenses 1914. [ Over the range of +30 to -30 degrees, tracing was performed in 5 degree steps showing the adjacent lenticular region.

Plot 2000 is a filled-in radiation trace showing a larger overall view of plot 1900 of FIG. The interlace for plot 2000 was made up of two millimeters wide and seven interlaces were provided for each set of two lenses. Five steps were traced for each interlace, ranging from +30 degrees to -30 degrees using 1 degree steps. The sequence of interlaces was 6, 4, 2, 3, 7, 5, 1. Plot 2100 includes a 1.23 millimeter lens, a lens provided with 408 LPI, a lens thickness of 3 millimeters, and a regular sequence of interlaces with a refractive index of 1.49 (e.g., 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 ). ≪ / RTI > The lens width is 2 mils and seven interlaces are provided for each set of two lenses. Five steps were traced across each lens again, with a range of +30 degrees to -30 degrees using 1 degree steps. In summary, the plots 1900, 2000, and 2100 show the coding performed by changing the interlace sequence to give the observer a change in distortion and multiple interlaces per multiple lenticular.

In analyzing the use of the inventive lens array with dual-axis interlaced print images, it is useful to generate the radiation tracing and spot diagrams to check the planned array / image design. In this regard, Figure 22 is a plot 2200 of off-axis radiation tracing, and Figure 23 is a corresponding spot diagram 2300 that can be generated to analyze a planned array / image design. 24 and 25 are two additional spot plots or diagrams 2400 and 2500 for a round-based lens (or spherical lens), and Fig. 26 is a cross-sectional view of radiation tracing for a lens associated with the plots of Figs. Plot 2600. For these latter three figures, the radius of the lens was 5 units and the focal plane was about 10 units (e.g., the unit could be any unit such as a mill).

While the present invention has been described and illustrated with a certain degree of particularity, it is to be understood that the present disclosure is made only by way of example and that numerous changes in the combinations or arrangements of parts, as set forth below, ≪ / RTI >

The description teaches a display assembly (e.g., an anti-fake device) that includes an array of round or square lenses in combination with an ink layer having a print image / pattern. The lens array consists of nested round, hexagonal, parallelogram or square lenses arranged as shown in Figures 3A-4B. The print image / pattern provided in the ink layer (or layers) is aligned with the lens array (e.g., the X and Y axes of the print image) and the print image / pattern consists of vertically and horizontally mapped pixels (E.g., printed using a print file that defines a double-axis interlace (or interlace on two axes) of the frames of the matrix described herein. The pixels can be of any type and match the optical pitch of the output device and the observer in two axes. The lens array may be provided with more than 200 LPI in both directions to provide more than 4000 lenses per square inch. Although the focal length of the lens is variable, some arrays have been implemented with a focal length of less than about 10/1000 inches for a round-based lens or a square-based lens.

Printing of a dual-axis interlaced image for use with a lens array may be performed using one or more colors using pixel mapping provided in the generated print file. In some cases, a diffraction technique can be used to create color with the separation of wavelength lengths, either objectively or accidentally, in an interlaced image of a round-based lens array. In particular, the printing step may be used to produce a printing plate or digital image, which may be used to provide the ink layer with a print image / pattern that can be used in combination with the rounded and square based lenses nested in the arrays described herein. And printing the Y pixel imaged file or pixel map (e.g., printing on the back side or plane surface of the lens material to provide X and Y axis pixel-mapped images). In other cases, an embossing plate is created for use in embossing the back side of the lens material (lens array). The embossed backside surface is then filled with ink or metallized for use in holography in combination with a round or square based lens array. However, in some cases, printing can be done on the front surface of the lens array or on a contoured surface. For example, the printing may be combined with printing on the back side or the planar side of the lenses using an interlaced image to create a feature, color, or pattern on the top of the lens (i.e., on the non-planar side of the lens array) And involves printing an image directly.

Many unique visible or display effects can be achieved with the printed image through one of the lens arrays described herein. For example, a wallpaper-like array of repetition icons (e.g., a company logo or pad lock in an illustrative drawing) may be used when a substrate (or assembly or anti-fake device) is tilted left and right (Rotating about the first axis) and scrolls or moves across the substrate in opposite directions and scrolls or moves in the same direction when the substrate is tilted up and down (rotating about a horizontal axis or a second axis perpendicular to the first axis) Y-axis image mapping is executed. These effects are referred to as " Continuum Movement in Opposite Directions ".

In other cases, the wallpaper-like array of repeat icons will move or scroll up or down across the surface of the assembly / anti-fake device if the assembly / device is tilted left and right, and if the assembly / device is tilted up and down (Again, all icons move in the same direction) (e.g., the left slope causes all icons to scroll up, and the right slope causes all icons to scroll down , Upwards tilt causes all icons to scroll to the right, and downward tilt causes all icons to scroll to the left). This effect is called " Continuum Movement in Orthogonal Directions ".

The image mapping of the X and Y axis pixels can be performed such that a volumetric icon or image such as a company logo or symbol has five viewable sides (e.g., top, bottom, left, right, front side) have. When the assembly / device is tilted or rotated in different directions (orthogonal / normal view, left tilt, right tilt, up tilt, down tilt, or positioning between them), these five sides have three dimensions, (full parallax). The face of the 3D logo / symbol / icon can be a different color than the side to create a more pronounced 3D effect, which is called "full volume 3D".

Another effect that can be achieved through image mapping of the X and Y axes described herein is to provide the wallpaper with an icon with a different overlay pattern. The overlay pattern may then be provided to the print file and the resulting print image, so that when the assembly is viewed from a particular POV (e.g., regular POV), it is hidden from the view (e.g., (In the plane of the film or wallpaper pattern) towards the topmost of the icon / symbol / logo of the wallpaper. A complete printed image does not require providing a single effect. Instead, other zones or portions of the print image may be used to provide other visual effects (e. G., Any effect described herein).

Several means can be used to implement the systems and methods described herein. These means include, but are not limited to, digital computer systems, microprocessors, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), general purpose computers, programmable controllers, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) But are not limited thereto. For example, in one embodiment, the signal processing may be incorporated by an FPGA or an ASIC and, alternatively, by a buried or discrete processor. Therefore, other embodiments include program instructions resident on a computer readable medium that, when implemented by such means, enable implementation of various embodiments. The computer-readable medium is any type of non-transient physical computer memory device. Such a physical computer memory device may be, for example, a punch card, a magnetic disk or tape, an optical data storage system, a flash read only memory (ROM), a nonvolatile ROM, a programmable ROM (PROM) But are not limited to, programmable ROM (E-PROM), random access memory (RAM) or any type of permanent, semi-permanent or temporary memory storage system or device. The program instructions include, but are not limited to, computer-executable instructions executed by a computer system processor and hardware description languages such as VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL).

Although Figures 11-15 illustrate a number of effects that can be achieved using the pixel mapping technique described herein in combination with arrays of microlenses, it is now useful to describe these unique effects in more detail can do. Pixel mapping (or dual-axis interlacing) allows the creation of a print file with multiple pixels, each of which is created for a specific purpose that will enable the activation of the effect on one of the two axes. In other words, activation in two axes requires pixel mapping taught herein, or at least is improved by its pixel mapping. &Quot; effect "that can be achieved (including those shown in Figures 11 to 15) can be considered to be the same as the effects achieved in a single axis using interlaces of images in a single direction and lenticular lenses. However, these effects can be provided one at a time (or two, three or more) in each direction using pixel mapping, and the anti-fake device can use any combination of these effects (in many cases one in each direction) have. The effects include 3D, motion, flip (changing the image to another or modified image), animation, on / off (rotating or "revolving" zoom, morph (similar to a flip but capable of seeing a transition to a new image), and color shift (changing color as part of activation).

As a first example, the lens array and print image assembly provide 3D in one axis (e.g., the X axis) and provide 3D at a right angle to the first axis (e.g., by providing activation in the Y axis) Can be designed and manufactured to provide effect activation in a second (vertical) second axis. 3D may have elements or patterns in different layers in the first axis of the assembly (e.g., by having foreground images on one or more background images). A flip (e.g., image "A" in the case of a two-image flip is changed to image "B" Or more than two pictures may be used to provide additional flip); (c) animation (e.g., a sequence of frames may be used to describe or define the animation of the image); (d) on / off (e.g., single or multiple elements that may appear or disappear according to viewing angles in frames); (e) zooming (e.g., single or multiple elements that magnify or reduce the size of the displayed image may be provided based on the viewing angle); (f) Morph (e.g., the effect may be the same as a flip from picture "A" to picture "B ", but conversion frames are included between the final pictures, Can be seen); And (g) activation of additional effects such as color shifts (e.g., one or more elements may change color with activation that can be triggered by rotation of the assembly through multiple viewing angles or POVs) May be provided on the second axis.

With this combination in mind, FIG. 27 shows a view 2700 set of exemplary assemblies viewed from different POVs (dual axis activation) to provide different motion effects, including a lens array and a print image , Anti-counterfeiting devices for banknotes or other objects. 27, a plan or right angle view 2710 of the lens / image assembly according to the present description is shown. The observer can view or view the original image with rows of two other icons 2712 that are static or motionless. In addition, the original image includes an overlay image or a foreground image 2714A (shown here as check marks) appearing in a different hierarchy than the rows of the icon 2712. [ Thus, the assembly is suitable for providing 3D effects. In the figure, the rows of the two icons are shown, but it will be appreciated that this is for ease of explanation and not for limitation. If we understand how the rows of the two icons can be used to provide security on two axes for security, each row may contain two or more different icons (rather than a single icon per row), and the third , Fourth, or other rows of other icons may be included in the assembly as desired to achieve the desired display image.

In the diagram or view 2720, the assembly is tilted or tilted to the right (e.g., at angles of 15 to 45 degrees, or over that angle), and the interlacing of the matrix of frames (a matrix similar to that shown in FIG. 7 The set of different POVs of the original image shown in view 2710 is used for pixel mapping, as shown in Figure 5B) are configured such that the rows of different icons 2712 move in the opposite direction. For example, rows with padlock icons and / or logos 2712 move left and right when the assembly (or anti-fake device) is tilted to the right. In contrast, in the diagram or view 2722, an assembly is tilted or tilted to the left (e.g., at angles of 15 degrees to 45 degrees, or the like), and the interlaces of the matrix of frames are different icons (The icons 2712 that have moved to the right now move to the left, and the icon to the left moves to the right).

27, the printed image is printed on the lens / print image (or ink layer) as viewed from another angle or viewpoint (e.g., as shown in view 2710, The device rotates around a first or vertical axis) to provide animation of the original image. The illustrated animation may be in a direction parallel to the direction of rotation. However, some images, such as foreground or other layered images 2714A, remain in the same relative position (since these moving icons 2712 may be foreground images and symbol / icon 2714A may be provided in the background layer ) The print file is configured such that such movement of the background or other layer icons improves or provides the 3D effect of the assembly.

Further, if the assembly is activated in another axis or in a second one of the two orthogonal axes, the 3D effect can be combined with additional effects. As shown, an ink that is activated along one axis and is activated during flipping (or morphing) in a second direction, or along a second axis, or when displaying an image of a double-axis interlaced image in one direction The assembly of layers and lens arrays provides animation and 3D effects. In the diagram or view 2724, the assembly may be tilted or sloped upward (e.g., over an angle of 15 to 45 degrees or the like, such as by rotating about a second or horizontal axis of the assembly) , The symbol / icon 2714A in the other layer (foreground image) is flipped (morph) to the other image 2714B (in this case the check sign is flipped), but the icons 2712 remain in the same place (Such as a set of other POVs of the original image shown in view 2710, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Fig. 7) so that it can be maintained or unaltered.

Similarly, in the diagram or view 2726, the assembly may be tilted or tilted downward (e.g., over an angle of fifteen degrees to forty-five degrees, or the like, or the like, about the horizontal axis of the assembly) The symbol / icon 2714A of the layer is flipped (morph) to another image 2714B (here, the same image as when the assembly is tilted upwards) (here, the check sign is flipped) , The interlaces of the matrix of frames are configured such that the rows of the icons 2712 remain stationary. In other words, the printed image provides flipping of the image as the assembly rotates about a second axis (e.g., horizontal or X axis). Flipping is shown in Fig. 27 for the effect provided when activated in the second direction, but the effect may also be morphing, on / off, movement, animation, zoom or color shift.

To further illustrate many possible combinations, a set of views 2800 of an exemplary assembly as viewed from different POVs is shown in FIG. 28, which includes a lens array (dual-axis activation) And is useful as an anti-fake device for a bill or other object composed of a print image. In the diagram or view 2800 of FIG. 28, a planar or orthogonal view 2810 of a lens / image assembly according to the present description is shown, wherein the assembly includes the same or different image elements with Y- (E.g., to have motion, flip, morph, or have other effects that can be achieved with interlacing of the picture frames), to provide a 3D view from all view points (e.g., floating and / or depth) . The observer can view or view the original image with rows of two other icons 2812 that are static or motionless. Also, the original image includes the foreground images 2814A and 2816B (shown as the word "OK " and check symbol) or first and second overlay images appearing to be in a different hierarchy than the row of icons 2812. Thus, the assembly provides a 3D effect.

In the diagram or view 2820, the assembly is tilted or tilted (e.g., at angles of 15 to 45 degrees or over), and the interlaces of the matrix of frames (such as a matrix similar to that shown in FIG. 7) A set of different POVs of the original picture shown in view 2810 are used for pixel mapping) is configured such that the rows of different icons 2812 move in a single direction (e.g., ). (For example, no flip at this point). This movement of the assembly (although tilted in an upward direction, the foreground images 2814A and 2816A remain unchanged). Under the symbols 2814A and 2816A The movement of the icon 2812 in the uppermost position in the embodiment increases the 3D effect achieved with that assembly.

In contrast, in the diagram or view 2822, the assembly is tilted or tilted downward (e.g., at angles of 15 to 45 degrees or over), and the interlacing of the matrix of frames is again performed by another icon (However, this time the movement is opposite to the up or active direction). At the same time, a flip effect is achieved in which the foreground symbol / icon 2814A is flipped (e.g., from the word "OK" to "Yes") to the picture shown in 2814B, In the example, it remains unchanged. Flipping will again occur from view 2822 to view 2820 as symbol 2814B is converted back to image 2814A or flip back (e.g., the flipping effect By rotating about the horizontal axis or X axis of the assembly at the same time as the movement effect on the icon 2812 (in a limited example in a single direction).

The 3D effect can also be combined with additional flip effects when the assembly is activated in another axis or a second one of the two orthogonal axes. As shown, an ink that is activated along one axis and is activated during flipping (or morphing) in a second direction, or along a second axis, or when displaying an image of a double-axis interlaced image in one direction The assembly of layers and lens arrays provides animation and 3D effects. In the diagram or view 2824, the assembly is tilted or tilted to the left (e.g., at an angle, such as 15 to 45 degrees, or the like, by rotating about a second or horizontal axis of the assembly) The interlacing of the matrix of frames (such as a set of other POVs of the original picture shown in view 2710, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Fig. 7) may cause the icons 2812 to move in the same direction 2820, and 2822). ≪ / RTI > At the same time, the symbol / icon 2814A or 2814B in the other layer (foreground image) remains unchanged and the symbol / icon 2816A is not flipped, but is changed to pivot to a new position as shown in 2816B (For example, the check code in this example has a new orientation, which can be regarded as an animation effect).

Similarly, in the diagram or view 2826, an assembly may be tilted or tilted (e.g., at an angle of 15 to 45 degrees about the horizontal axis of the assembly, or over that angle), and the interlacing of the matrix of frames may, The foreground or other layer symbol / icon 2816A is remanned (animated) to pivot into the image 2816B, but the rows of icons 2812 may be moved (e.g., move in a single direction opposite the active direction) . In other words, the print image provides 3D with a foreground image that can be flipped, morphized or animated according to activation, such activation for effects being independent of each other and independent of the background image. The printed image also provides a simultaneous motion effect with a background image that appears to be activated to move together in a single direction opposite the active direction. As the icons 2812 move in the directions shown, they result in a depth effect (e.g.,) that looks like the icons 2812 are being pushed from the background symbols / icons 2814A-2816B. This effect can be combined with some layers that are pushed toward the front or outward toward the observer.

To further illustrate the many possible combinations, a set of views 2900 of exemplary assemblies viewed from different POVs are shown in Figure 29, and the exemplary assemblies are shown in Figure 29 to provide different motion effects (dual-axis activation) An anti-counterfeiting device for a banknote or other object comprised of an array and a print image. In the diagram or view 2900 of FIG. 29, a plan or orthogonal view 2910 of a lens / image assembly according to the present description is shown, wherein the assembly includes a second axis of the same or other image elements (e.g., Y- Axis of the image element, in combination with the activation in the first axis of the image element. The observer can observe or view the original image with a row of two other icons 2912 that are stationary or motionless. Also, the original image includes first and second overlay images or foreground 2914A and 2916A (shown here as the word "OK" and check code symbol) that appear to be in a different hierarchy from the row of icons 2912 . Thus, the assembly provides a 3D effect.

In the diagram or view 2920, the assembly is tilted or tilted to the right (over a 15- to 45-degree angle or over that angle) and the rows of other icons 2912 are moved in a single direction , All the icons are moving downward or orthogonal to the active direction) interlace of the matrix of frames (a set of different POVs of the original picture shown in view 2910, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Figure 7, Is used. Despite this movement of the assembly (tilted to the right), foreground images 2914A and 2916A remain unchanged (e.g., there is no flip at this point). The movement of the icon 2912 below (or in some embodiments above) the symbols 2914A, 2916A enhances the 3D effect achieved by that assembly.

In contrast, in the diagram or view 2922, the assembly is tilted or tilted to the left (e.g., at angles of 15 to 45 degrees or over), and the interlacing of the matrix of frames again (However, this time it moves upwards (the direction opposite to the motion shown in view 2920) and the direction perpendicular to the active direction). At the same time, a flip effect is achieved in which the foreground symbol / icon 2814A is flipped to the picture shown in 2914B (e.g., from the word "OK" to "Yes") while the other symbol / icon 2816A, Without any change. Flipping will again occur from view 2922 to view 2920 as symbol 2914B is converted back into image 2814A or flip back (e.g., the flipping effect By rotating about the vertical axis or Y axis of the assembly at the same time as the movement effect on the icon 2912 (in a limited direction in a single direction).

The 3D effect can also be combined with additional flip effects when the assembly is activated in another axis or a second one of the two orthogonal axes. As shown, an ink that is activated along one axis and is activated during flipping (or morphing) in a second direction, or along a second axis, or when displaying an image of a double-axis interlaced image in one direction The assembly of layers and lens arrays provides animation and 3D effects. In the diagram or view 2924, the assembly is tilted or tilted upwards (e.g., at an angle or over an angle such as 15 to 45 degrees, such as by rotating about a second or horizontal axis of the assembly) The interlacing of the matrix of frames (such as a set of other POVs of the original picture shown in view 2710, such as a matrix similar to that shown in Fig. 7) may cause the icons 2812 to move in the same direction (in this example, Lt; / RTI > direction). At the same time, the symbol / icon 2914A or 2914B in the other layer (foreground image) remains unchanged and the symbol / icon 2916A is not flipped, but is changed to turn to a new position as shown in 2916B (For example, the check code in this example has a new orientation, which can be regarded as an animation effect).

Similarly, in the diagram or view 2926, the assembly may be tilted or tilted downward (e.g., at an angle or over an angle such as 15 to 45 degrees, etc., about the horizontal axis of the assembly) The symbol / icon 2714A of the layer is morph (or animated) to be pivoted to the image 2916B while the rows of the icons 2912 move in a single direction such as left Axis or the Y-axis of the assembly), the interlace of the matrix of frames is configured to have a motion effect.

30, there is shown another assembly 3010 useful as an anti-counterfeiting device that may be used with or in addition to a bill or the like. An assembly 3010 having a lens array on the top or outer surface 3102 may be formed. The assembly 3010 provides a printed image printed using a print file with the pixel mapping described herein to provide dual axis activation (or 3D, activation of image effects such as motions) in two axes Ink layer (s). In particular, the print image of assembly 3010 allows viewing of a background image comprised of a number of smaller symbols / icons 3014 (e.g., check marks shown in FIG. 30). The print image of assembly 3010 allows viewing of a foreground image (via lens array / front layer 3012) comprised of one or more symbols / icons (typically larger than background image elements 3014).

In some implementations of assembly 3010, the printed image is a pixel mapped to the lens array in such a way that full 3D is provided in all directions by providing image elements 3014, 3018 to two or more layers. As shown in FIG. 30, the pattern or background image provided by the symbol / icon 3014 is pushed away from the viewer and appears to be behind the background composed of the symbol / icon 3018. Elements 3018 are provided more and they appear to float at different levels than picture elements 3014 from all viewpoints. This causes the background image 3018 to move, in part, as the image 3018 remains stationary during dual axis activation (rotation of the assembly 3010 about the X and Y axes) 3014).

(E.g., X-axis), along with any of the effects described or listed herein, may be used to generate an image or pattern that is activated in a first axis Assemblies can be created. In addition, the print image can include any of the described or listed effects (same or other effects) and the same image element (e.g., an icon or symbol) activated in the second axis (Y axis) As shown in FIG. For example, the effects may include: (a) 3D layering effects (e.g., image elements that are displayed such that each layer appears in different layers that are flat images), (b) (E.g., providing 3D elements or pictures generated by 3D software, etc.), (c) motion effects (e.g., moving or moving picture elements in a frame), (d) flip effects , The image "A" may be changed to image "B " in the case of a two-image flip, or more than two images may be used for a flip effect), (e) animation (e.g., animation for one or more image elements (F) an on / off effect (e.g., causing a single or multiple picture elements to appear or disappear based on the viewing angle of the assembly), and (g) a zoom effect For example, if a single or multiple picture elements are round, six Type, including that the size can be enlarged or reduced) on the basis of a parallelogram or square-based micro-lens in the viewing angle through the print image, but is not limited to this.

Figures 3a-4b provide examples of items formed using a round-based or square-based lens to form a lens array. Also, these lens arrays are specifically patterned or arranged to not use offset or nested rows and columns of lenses (e.g., the lenses of adjacent rows and columns are aligned, not offset). The anti-falsification devices with lens arrays / print image assemblies, according to the inventors' use of pixel mapping taught herein, include a lens array with offset / nested lenses and a lens configured to include hexagonal or hexagon- With the use of arrays, it can be manufactured effectively. Thus, Figures 31 and 32 provide specific working examples of such implementations.

31, an item 3100 (e.g., a piece of paper currency, a label for the product, etc.) may be provided on the top of the ink layer 3120 providing a print image, or may be provided on the ink layer 3120 And devices or anti-fake elements in the form of a lens array (array of hexagon-based lenses) 3110 that covers. As shown, the items 3100 include a substrate or body 3105, such as sheet or plastic (e.g., sheet / flockstick) sheets to be used for paper and / or product labels to be used as bills. An image is printed through the ink layer 3120 on the surface of the substrate / body 3105 and the lens array 3110 is provided on the exposed surface of the ink layer 3120 (e.g., the ink layer 3120) And the pattern / image thereof may be printed on the back surface or substrate surface of the lens array).

As shown, the lens array 3110 is comprised of a plurality of lenses 3114, each of which has a hexagonal base adjacent the surface of the ink layer 3120 and has a dome-shaped cross-section and / It has two or more sides / sides. The hexagonal-based lenses or round lenses 3114 are arranged in parallel as shown in Figure 31 with parallel vertical axes or Y axes (axes passing through the centers of the lenses 3114 in the column 3112) Gt; 3112 < / RTI > In addition, lenses 3114 are arranged such that the pairs of lenses 3114 in adjacent columns of columns 3112 are at least in contact or proximity at the base. Columns 3112 are also vertically offset such that pairs of adjacent lenses 3114 in a particular column 3112 are spaced apart. The array 3110 is then configured to have rows of lenses in parallel and each lens is aligned with the horizontal axes or X axes 3115 passing through the center of the lenses 3114 in the array 3110, As can be, adjacent to their neighboring lenses in such a row, the rows appear to be adjacent to each other and offset (e.g., have a horizontal offset and a vertical offset). In this manner, the lenses 3114 are closely nested in the pattern shown in FIG. 31 (array 3110), for example, 90 nm for use, so that "column" Lt; / RTI > can also be rotated).

   32, an item 3200 (e.g., a piece of banknote, a product label, etc.) may cover an ink layer 3220 that provides a print image, or may be on the top of the ink layer 3220 A device or an anti-fake device in the form of a lens array (array of round-based lenses) 3210 provided. As shown, the item 3200 includes a substrate or body 3205, such as a sheet or a sheet of plastic (e.g., sheet or plastic for a paper or product label to be used as a bill) sheet. On the surface of the substrate / body 3205, an image is printed through the ink layer 3220 and a lens array 3110 is provided on the exposed surface of the ink layer 3220 (e.g., the ink layer 3220) And its pattern / image may be printed on the backside or substrate surface of the lens array 3210).

As shown, the lens array 3210 is comprised of a plurality of lenses 3214, each of which has a round or circular base adjacent to the surface of the ink layer 3220 and has a dome shaped cross section and / One or more sides / sides. The round lenses 3214 are arranged in parallel in a plurality of columns (not shown) as indicated by parallel vertical axes or Y axes (axes passing through the centers of the lenses 3214 in the column 3212) 3212). Lenses 3214 are also arranged such that the pairs of lenses 3214 in adjacent columns of columns 3212 are at least in contact or proximity at the base. Columns 3212 are also vertically offset such that pairs of adjacent lenses 3214 in a particular column 3212 are spaced apart. Array 3210 is then configured to have parallel rows of lenses 3214 that each have parallel horizontal axes or X axes 3215 passing through the center of lenses 3214 in array 3210 (As they are in close proximity to each other at their bases) in such a row, the rows appear to be adjacent and offset from each other (e.g., have horizontal and vertical offsets ). In this manner, lenses 3214 are closely nested in the pattern shown in FIG. 32 (array 3210), for example, 90 nm for use, so that "column" Lt; / RTI > can also be rotated).

As described in the earlier part of this specification, moiré patterns have been used in combination with round and hexagonal lens arrays for many years. Typically, the printed image is a small fine image with respect to the size of the lens. Some of the images may be printed with a frequency slightly or less than the one-to-one dimension of the lenses in two axes, and some images may be printed slightly differently with respect to each other. The result is a moiré pattern that shows the viewer an illusion of depth of field with the lens or shows the movement of the items to the observer. Typically, these lens arrays are used in anti-counterfeiting markets for labels and banknotes in combination with printing of images. The thickness of the lens is from 5/1000 inches to about 0.5 / 1000 inches (i.e., 125 microns to 12 microns). The frequency of these lenses is about 400 X 400 to 1000 X 1000 or more per inch.

The effect that can be achieved with moire patterns is somewhat useful, but limited. For example, you can not take a picture with a moiré pattern, and you can not display a 3D with a moiré pattern. Typically, moiré patterns are used in the security industry for very fine lenses having a frequency of more than 500 (or more than 250,000 per square inch) lenses per inch on one axis and a focal length of about 20 to 75 microns. Print images below the lens typically have at least 12,000 DPI, may be provided in excess of 25,000 DPI, and the micro-lens arrays are closely nested (as shown in Figures 1 and 2). In other cases, these lenses may be a complete course with 30 lenses in linear inches with a focal length of greater than 0.125 inches, even 0.25 inches, and about 900 lenses per square inch.

One major problem with the use of moiré patterns is that they can be relatively easily reversed. It is easy to see the pattern under the lens with a cheap microscope and to judge the frequency of the image and the pattern. In addition, the lenses can be forged and cast again. The relative difficulty in reverse engineering is to print the image, but it is becoming easier to achieve due to the high resolution laser and setter.

Typically, microlenses are printed using emboss-and-fill techniques. This typically limits the print to one color because of the fact that the process tends to be self-contaminated after one color, and that the process is difficult to control the relative intercolor pitch in the embossing and filling print processes. Some have implemented motion techniques that utilize one color of embossing and filling high resolution printing, in which the web or sheet is pre-embossed, flood coated with ink, cleaned (the embossed area is emptied ), And the fact that the blade leaves and stains the ink residue and rejects additional color. Another problem associated with general web stretching and movement is that it is difficult to achieve the small optical pitch differences needed to magnify moiré due to differences in run tension between colors.

Thus, the inventors determined that it is not impossible to copy, but a much more difficult anti-fake device is needed. Preferably, the device has determined that it should be devised to have a "wow" element for a clear display of the image floating above and below the focal plane.

Printed lens arrays can be difficult to print in sheet or web form (especially web form) in offset, gravure, flexo or any other way. There are some problems with devices that make plates or "plate-setters" with physical capabilities to print very small dots or images. This fact, when combined with printing registration inaccuracies in the equipment, film stretch and other variables, allows very high resolution images with the necessary or any substantial accuracy in a micro-lens array in a four-color process It makes printing impossible or difficult. This fact limits what can be done in a printed microlens.

Typical printing accuracy limits found in the printing manual are: (1) Best Sheetfed Press (Heidelberg or Komori) - 8 microns; (2) Best bank note printing machine (Sheet only-KBA Notsys) - 4 to 6 microns; (3) Best Web (gravure or flexo) - 150 plus microns; And (4) Best Central Impression Web - 50 microns. Further, in physics, for the correlation between the target thickness and the focal length, it is stated that the smaller the substrate or lens array used (required for security and anti-falsification), the finer or smaller the lens array. The basic formula is: (A) Chord whidth = C; (B) Lens radius = R; (C) Focal length = F (or lens thickness); And (D) LPI = lens frequency or number of lenses in linear inches. Then the basic lens physics shows R> 0.5 (C). Also, F = 1.5 (C) (approximate).

For example, a currency thread can be printed in a number of colors and plain colors in a pattern of about 25 microns. The minimum real LPI in both directions enabling this is about 1200 LPI, which requires a minimum of 5 pixels for good 3D or animation. Therefore, 5 X 1200 = 6000 DPI in both directions. However, a much better quality requires 10 pixels and about 12,000 DPI. A non-registering pattern showing motion in multiple colors and 3D, etc. can be printed. However, the printing registration requirements for intercolor printing, 4-color processing, or color printing registration at this level are not possible or at least extremely difficult in the prior art. In this case, the width of the lens or the width C of the strings is about 21 microns. Since one pixel is required for each frame and five frames are required for each lens, the printing requirement for a single color is also difficult. As noted above, the best web printing is to match the color to the color at about 50 microns. The print registration requirement for a four-color process with a width of about 21 microns (5 frames each, 4.2 microns each) or other comparable multiple color processes is about 2-3 microns. Unfortunately, this proved difficult or impossible to achieve with current technology.

It is not possible with the present technology to generate a non-hologram image (print image) in print registration with two or more colors, even in one axis. Obviously, the movement under the lens array or the photograph of 3D is irrelevant irrespective of the printing technique. There is practically no practical limitation with respect to today's technology on the web (color-to-color matching requires the material thickness to be essentially 15/1000 microns or more and about 100 LPI, in). Therefore, printed and printed matched colors are limited to sheet fed offset technology (not practical for banknotes or labels for security purposes).

In order for the technology to evolve beyond traditional printing, a new way to deal with these problems is needed. For the microwave portion of the spectrum with little loss, the patterned and perforated metal film coated with the subwavelength size metal achieves specific selectivity by balancing the transmission and reflection characteristics of the surface. In the case of optical frequencies where joule losses are important, the planar structure of discontinuous or (nonperforated) metal films is sufficient to provide or achieve a substantial modification of reflectivity. By designing the geometry of structures imposed or embossed on the surface, the "perceived" color of the metal can be dramatically altered without the use of chemicals, thin film coating, or diffraction effects.

This novel selective frequency effect can be used to distinguish between the plosonic streak loss (" dull "or" shallow embossed ") of successive elements of the successive patterns of metamaterial plasmonic joule losses, and is specified for the optical portion of the spectrum. Such a technique has the advantage of maintaining the integrity of the metal structure on the surface and can be extended to high production techniques and fabrication.

The most likely solution for a printed color image is determined by the diffraction limitation of visible light. To overcome "limit ", a pitch of 250 nm (e.g., in the range of 200 to 300 nanometers or less than 300 nm and a width of less than 300 nm) may be used to achieve effective print resolution (sometimes given as dots per inch &Quot; pixels "with a pitch of less than 10,000 nanometers (or even less than 10 microns)) or individual color elements that can be regarded as" pixels " The color information can be encoded into the dimensional parameters of the metal nanostructures so that the color of the individual pixels can be determined by tuning their plasmonic resonance. This type of color mapping produces images with vivid color differences and fine tonal variations. The method can be used for large size color printing without ink via nanoimprint lithography.

This technique can be used to generate a full spectrum of visible colors, from distinct colors to RGB blend and CMYK process colors, for reproduction of photographs or other images. Unlike a diffraction image, it is important to know that the color resulting from the balanced manipulation of the reflected and transmitted wavelengths is highly insensitive to the viewing angle. Therefore, because combining the lens arrays described herein using moiré and interlaced images and these nanostructures tuned to produce color pixels up to 100,000 DPI results in input light (due to lens focus) The resulting color to the observer is not distorted or altered, as is the diffraction pattern. Interlaced images with individual pixels or lenses focused on a pixel group are maintained as designed when provided or reflected to an observer, and the color remains unchanged. The resulting color is not significantly affected by the input angle.

For the reasons stated above, the combination of the lens arrays and the "plasmonic resonance " described herein may be combined with a lens array for use in security, branding and other applications, It is possible to make an ideal or at least very useful combination for the four-color process of the film. For the first time, you can take advantage of the dramatic color effects that can be created in a single-step engraved or shallow embossed material. It can be equally applied to bulk and thin film surfaces and can be implemented in a single step process. The mapping of the pixels may be done in a post interlace or mapping of the 3D or animated image. To simulate the desired color, the images are interlaced at first and then converted at the pixel level into a suitable conversion method (continuous engraving or shallow embossing).

Examples of incredible depths of features and animations that may occur are illustrated by the conventional equivalent of 75 microns (conventional printing in combination with these lenses). Up to 6x6 images can be achieved at about 2400 DPI for 400 LPI lenses (bi-directional round or square-based lenses), even in the processing environment (print matching and non-printable images in production). Conversely, the plasmonic resonant system described above allows very sharp focus lenses to be designed to provide 75 micron pixels. A 250X250 image pattern can be achieved with process color, straight color (PMS equivalent), or 100,000 DPI with 62,500 views or image frames in RGB color than a 6X6 frame pattern (36 images in one lens) . Thus, the plasmonic resonance enables a frame pattern larger than a 6X6 pattern, for example, from a 7X7 frame pattern (49 picture frames) to a maximum 250X150 frame pattern (62,500 picture patterns).

The lens array can be cast, extruded, or laminated to a shallow embossed or embossed film of nanostructures that includes an image or a shallow embossed nanostructure. The optical pitch of the lens can be designed or manufactured to match the exact resonance of the color pixels produced by the shallow embossed nanostructure, and vice versa. The optical pitch is determined by the addition of a nanostructure expressed in pixel or blending (interference free) color or by the addition of a set of nanostructures (formed by sets of nanostructures) so that the correct resolution of the device writing the file matches up to about 250 nanometers without interlacing ) Pixel set by systematic removal of the pixel set.

Using a continuous metal frequency or plasmonic resonance to produce an image using an interlaced file allows final adjustment of the file to a combined nanopost combination that produces a color resonance at the 250 nm level And therefore adjustment for matching the optical pitch (image) to the microlens is made up to about 250 nm. This is ideal for creating a precise match between the microlens and the image itself, since final adjustments can be made without using auxiliary programs that cause averaging and distortion in the file.

With regard to conventional interlacing for all lens arrays utilizing continuous metal frequency techniques, images can be generated in a conventional manner using photographs, Adobe Photoshop Illustrator, or any number of programs. The color file is then separated into color zones through color separation software, which may be RGB or CMYK for the image. This is done with a very high resolution, and therefore the pixels can be destroyed in making color builds up to about 100,000 DPI at about 250 nm per pixel. The shape of the nanopost is shaped to match the appropriate color that is provided with the plasmonic resonance associated with the color when matching the wavelength length with the electrons. This can be done in color separation software.

The individual color selections for these pixels are converted to the appropriate physical shape of the micro-structure (nanopost) to produce the appropriate color for the viewer. However, prior to the final selection of the shape, files are interlaced for 3D and / or animation up to a possible level of 250 nm or one pixel per frame based on the file or microlens. The file is then interlaced to match the lens, depending on whether round, square, hexagonal, linear, parallelogram or aspherical lenses are used in the lens array. The pixels are then transformed (after interlacing) by software that identifies the color and pixel and provides the data necessary to create a nanopost or micro-embossing file containing X, Y, Z coordinates.

With regard to lens applications and general manufacturing, after the files are created with the interlaced image and converted to an embossed file, the plastic substrate is first embossed and properly metallized, and the exact meta-material used is application-specific. The material may be an individual conductive material such as gold, aluminum, silver, or the like, or a combination thereof. Conversely, the film itself may be pre-coated with a meta material and post-embossed with a nanostructure.

A lens (again, any of the above types / shapes may be used) may be applied after or before the metallization and embossing process. The lens array is formed as part of or part of the film and is metallized, which is then embossed on the plane side of the lens. However, if the lens is later applied, the adhesive and / or stamping process, the associated hot melt adhesive and the refractive index can be considered to calculate the proper focal length.

In summary, a lens or microlens array can be applied (1) after the creation, embossing and metallization of the substrate, (2) embossed (the lens array is extruded with the nano-interlaced image, Then embossed) (then metallized as a meta material) 3) on the back (planar side), metallized and embossed.

Dual axis Interlace  And round or square  Based lens array or a subroutine

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Claims (43)

  1. A visible display assembly useful as an anti-counterfeiting device for bills, product labels and other objects,
    A film comprising a first surface comprising an array of lenses and a second surface opposite the first surface; And
    An image layer proximate to the second surface and comprising pixels of frames of images interlaced with respect to two orthogonal axes,
    The image layer displays an image comprising a set of symbols,
    The set of symbols is activated with a first display effect when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a first axis and when the assembly rotates from a regular POV about a second axis orthogonal to the first axis Activated by the second display effect,
    Visible display assembly.
  2. The method according to claim 1,
    The first display effect includes moving a first subset of symbols in a first direction and moving a second subset of symbols in a second direction opposite the first direction
    Visible display assembly.
  3. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Wherein both the first direction and the second direction are perpendicular to the first axis
    Visible display assembly.
  4. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Wherein the set of symbols includes a foreground symbol and a number of background symbols appearing in a hierarchy offset behind the foreground symbol and during the first display effect the foreground symbol remains stationary while the background symbol is associated with the foreground symbol Moving about
    Visible display assembly.
  5. 5. The method of claim 4,
    During the second display effect, the background symbol remains stationary, while the foreground symbol is activated to be flipped or morphed between the first picture and a second picture different from the first picture
    Visible display assembly.
  6. The method according to claim 1,
    The first and second display effects are respectively selected from a display effect group constituting a 3D layering effect, a 3D sensation effect, a motion effect, a flip effect, an animation effect, a morph effect, an on and off effect and a zoom effect
    Visible display assembly.
  7. The method according to claim 1,
    The lenses may be round-based lenses, square-based lenses, hexagonal-based lenses, or parallelogram-
    Visible display assembly.
  8. 8. The method of claim 7,
    The lenses of the array are provided with an LPI of 200 or greater when measured along a row of lenses in one direction
    Visible display assembly.
  9. The method according to claim 1,
    Each of the frames comprises a different POV (Point of View) of one or more pictures
    Visible display assembly.
  10. The method according to claim 1,
    The imaging layer comprises a film or print ink layer having a plurality of metal nanostructures or clear film nanostructures
    Visible display assembly.
  11. The method according to claim 1,
    The imaging layer comprises a film having a surface with metal or clear film nanostructures formed to provide pixels of frames of images interlaced with respect to two orthogonal axes
    Visible display assembly.
  12. 12. The method of claim 11,
    The metal nanostructure is formed using plasmonic resonance
    Visible display assembly.
  13. 12. The method of claim 11,
    The film may comprise a non-bas relief or embossed film comprising metal or clear film nanostructures
    Visible display assembly.
  14. 12. The method of claim 11,
    Metal or clear film nanostructures are provided at pitches less than 10,000 nanometers
    Visible display assembly.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14,
    Metal or clear film nanostructures provide effective print resolution of at least 10,000 dots per inch
    Visible display assembly.
  16. 12. The method of claim 11,
    The metal nanostructures are formed to encode the color information into the dimensional parameters of the metal nanostructures to define the color of each of the pixels of the frames of images
    Visible display assembly.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16,
    The optical pitch of the array of lenses is matched to the resonance of color pixels provided by metal or clear film nanostructures
    Visible display assembly.
  18. 12. The method of claim 11,
    The film may comprise a layer of gold, aluminum, silver, or polymer on which the nanostructure is formed
    Visible display assembly.
  19. 12. The method of claim 11,
    The frames correspond to a matrix with a maximum of 62,500 picture frames
    Visible display assembly.
  20. An apparatus for protecting against forgery,
    A film comprising a first surface comprising an array of lenses and a second surface opposite the first surface;
    A print image having pixels of frames of images arranged in accordance with a pixel mapping configured to provide dual axis activity, the print image being proximate to a second surface; And
    A substrate having a print image and a surface for supporting the film
    Device.
  21. 21. The method of claim 20,
    The dual axis activation comprises displaying images with a first layer of pictures and a second layer of pictures, wherein the first layer of pictures are from a plurality of POVs, floating at a different level than the second layer of pictures Appearing
    Device.
  22. 21. The method of claim 20,
    Wherein dual axis activation comprises generating a first display effect as the device rotates about a first axis and generating a second display effect as the device rotates about a second axis transverse to the first axis , The first display effect and the second display effect are respectively selected from a display effect group constituting a 3D layering effect, a 3D sensation effect, a motion effect, a flip effect, an animation effect, a morph effect, an on and off effect and a zoom effect
    Device.
  23. 23. The method of claim 22,
    The first and second display effects comprise causing the set of picture elements to move in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the device
    Device.
  24. 24. The method of claim 23,
    The first display effect further comprises causing the foreground picture element to flip at a first symbol to a second symbol different from the first symbol
    Device.
  25. 24. The method of claim 23,
    The second display effect further comprises causing the foreground image element to animate or have motion in a manner independent of the set of image elements
    Device.
  26. 23. The method of claim 22,
    The first and second display effects comprise causing a set of picture elements to move in a direction perpendicular to the direction of rotation of the device
    Device.
  27. 27. The method of claim 26,
    The first display effect further comprises causing the foreground image element to flip in a first symbol to a second symbol different from the first symbol
    Device.
  28. 27. The method of claim 26,
    The second display effect further comprises causing the foreground image element to animate or have motion in a manner independent of the set of image elements
    Device.
  29. A method of manufacturing an anti-counterfeiting device,
    Generating a print file that defines a dual axis interlace of a matrix of picture frames;
    Providing a transparent film comprising an array of lenses on a first surface; And
    Providing a thin metal film having a nanostructure on a second surface opposite to the first surface or printing an ink layer based on the print file,
    The lenses of the array are round, hexagonal or square based lenses nested in the array,
    Wherein the generation of the print file is activated to provide a first display effect when the anti-fake device is rotated about a first axis when viewed through the array of lenses, and wherein the anti-fake device comprises a second axis Providing pixel mapping of an interlaced image that provides image elements that are activated to provide a second display effect
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  30. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The image frames have images from a number of viewpoints of the horizontal and vertical axes
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  31. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The generation of the print file includes combining the image frames from the rows of the matrix to obtain the vertical pixel files, which combination combines the pixels in the X-axis to obtain the print file and combines the vertical pixel files Equipped
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  32. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The generation of the print file comprises adjusting the size of the print file to match the optical pitch of the array of lenses
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  33. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The creation of a print file that defines dual axis interlacing of a matrix of image frames comprises mapping the pixels to two or more lenses in the array in a non-sequential process
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  34. 34. The method of claim 33,
    A non-sequential process is performed based on a viewing distribution for the lenses of the array, wherein the lenses of the array are non-linear lenses having a square, hexagonal, or circular base
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  35. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The first display effect and the second display effect are respectively selected from a group of display effects constituting a 3D layering effect, a 3D sensation effect, a movement effect, a flip effect, an animation effect, a morph effect, an on and off effect and a zoom effect
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  36. 36. The method of claim 35,
    The first display effect is different from the second display effect
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  37. 36. The method of claim 35,
    The first display effect is used to activate the first set of pixel elements and the second display effect is used to activate the second set of pixel elements different from the first set of pixel elements
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  38. 30. The method of claim 29,
    Nanoparticles are formed using plasmonic resonance.
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  39. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The thin metal film may comprise a non-bas relief or embossed film made to contain the nanostructures
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  40. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The nanostructures are provided at a pitch of less than 300 nanometers.
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  41. 41. The method of claim 40,
    The nanostructures provide effective print resolution of at least 10,000 dots per inch
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  42. 30. The method of claim 29,
    The nanostructures are configured to encode the color information into the dimensional parameters of the metal nanostructures to define the color of each of the pixels of the frames of images
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
  43. 43. The method of claim 42,
    The optical pitch of the array of lenses is matched with the resonance of the color pixels provided by the nanostructures
    A method for manufacturing an anti-counterfeit device.
KR1020167008654A 2012-09-05 2014-02-27 Pixel mapping and printing for micro lens arrays to achieve dual-axis activation of images KR20160068758A (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/017,415 US9132690B2 (en) 2012-09-05 2013-09-04 Pixel mapping, arranging, and imaging for round and square-based micro lens arrays to achieve full volume 3D and multi-directional motion
US14/017,415 2013-09-04
US14/190,592 2014-02-26
US14/190,592 US9019613B2 (en) 2012-09-05 2014-02-26 Pixel mapping and printing for micro lens arrays to achieve dual-axis activation of images
PCT/US2014/018920 WO2015034551A1 (en) 2013-09-04 2014-02-27 Pixel mapping and printing for micro lens arrays to achieve dual-axis activation of images

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