KR20100103697A - Light multiplexer and recycler, and micro-projector incorporating the same - Google Patents

Light multiplexer and recycler, and micro-projector incorporating the same Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20100103697A
KR20100103697A KR1020107018187A KR20107018187A KR20100103697A KR 20100103697 A KR20100103697 A KR 20100103697A KR 1020107018187 A KR1020107018187 A KR 1020107018187A KR 20107018187 A KR20107018187 A KR 20107018187A KR 20100103697 A KR20100103697 A KR 20100103697A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
light
led
layer
leds
recycler
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Application number
KR1020107018187A
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Korean (ko)
Inventor
케네스 리
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웨이비엔, 인코포레이티드
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Priority to US1145808P priority Critical
Priority to US61/011,458 priority
Priority to US13000208P priority
Priority to US61/130,002 priority
Priority to US61/130,336 priority
Priority to US13033608P priority
Priority to US13095308P priority
Priority to US61/130,953 priority
Priority to US13098108P priority
Priority to US61/130,981 priority
Priority to US61/137,895 priority
Priority to US13789508P priority
Priority to US61/200,764 priority
Priority to US20076408P priority
Priority to US61/203,503 priority
Priority to US20350308P priority
Priority to US61/203,950 priority
Priority to US20395008P priority
Application filed by 웨이비엔, 인코포레이티드 filed Critical 웨이비엔, 인코포레이티드
Publication of KR20100103697A publication Critical patent/KR20100103697A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B19/00Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics
    • G02B19/0004Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed
    • G02B19/0028Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the optical means employed refractive and reflective surfaces, e.g. non-imaging catadioptric systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B19/00Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics
    • G02B19/0033Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the use
    • G02B19/0047Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the use for use with a light source
    • G02B19/0061Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the use for use with a light source the light source comprising a LED
    • G02B19/0066Condensers, e.g. light collectors or similar non-imaging optics characterised by the use for use with a light source the light source comprising a LED in the form of an LED array
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/09Beam shaping, e.g. changing the cross-sectional area, not otherwise provided for
    • G02B27/0938Using specific optical elements
    • G02B27/0994Fibers, light pipes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/20Lamp housings
    • G03B21/2006Lamp housings characterised by the light source
    • G03B21/2033LED or laser light sources
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/20Lamp housings
    • G03B21/2066Reflectors in illumination beam
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/20Lamp housings
    • G03B21/2073Polarisers in the lamp house
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B33/00Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film
    • G03B33/06Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film by additive-colour projection apparatus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B33/00Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film
    • G03B33/10Simultaneous recording or projection
    • G03B33/12Simultaneous recording or projection using beam-splitting or beam-combining systems, e.g. dichroic mirrors

Abstract

The micro-projector is coupled to the LED layer, the light pipe coupled to the LED, the LCOS panel, the projection lens, the PBS, the output end of the light pipe, and towards the input end of the light pipe and a transmission opening for transmitting a portion of the light output. And an aperture layer having a reflective surface for reflecting the rest of the light output. Thus, the rest of the light output is recycled back to the LED to increase the brightness of the LED's light output. In addition, the micro-projector transmits the light output of the predetermined polarization and reflects the other polarization of the light output, thereby increasing the brightness of the light output of the LED by recycling the unused polarization of the light output back to the LED, thereby increasing the brightness of the light pipe and the aperture. And a reflective polarizer disposed between the layers.

Description

LIGHT MULTIPLEXER AND RECYCLER, AND MICRO-PROJECTOR INCORPORATING THE SAME}

The present invention relates to systems and methods for multiplexing the output of LEDs, and more particularly to systems and methods for increasing the brightness of multiplexed LED outputs through recycling and including them in micro projectors.

Light sources are used for all types of lighting applications. Typical light sources include, but are not limited to, arc lamps, halogens, fluorescent devices, microwave lamps, and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Many applications require lighting systems with high levels of brightness in small effective light emitting areas. Conventionally, more light sources could be added to achieve this high level of brightness. However, this may not be technically feasible if space constraints exist in incorporating the light sources and may be economically inadequate because of the high cost of incorporating and using multiple light sources. Accordingly, the present invention has an object to increase the brightness of the light source without increasing the number of light sources.

For example, micro-display based television (MDTV) has the potential to be cheaply equipped with large screens. Conventional MDTVs are usually illuminated by arc lamps. Such a light source may be the brightest at the lowest cost, but is less desirable because of the short lifespan and the requirement to separate white light into three colors. As LED technology advances, the use of LEDs as light sources in MDTV has to be considered to gain other benefits such as the LED's long life characteristics and instant ON. However, current LEDs are not bright enough for low cost applications that use small image panels or have larger screens. The LED recycling concept was used in US Pat. No. 6,869,206 to Zimmerman et al. To enhance the brightness of a light source. However, Zimmerman et al. Patent discloses storing an LED in a light reflecting cavity having one light output opening. In addition, U. S. Patent No. 6,144, 536 to Zimmerman et al. Discloses a fluorescent lamp having a glass envelope with a phosphor coating that houses a gas filled hollow interior. Some of the light generated by the phosphor coating is recycled back to the phosphor coating. The present invention provides a recycling apparatus that can be coupled to one or more LEDs to increase the usable brightness of the LEDs by efficient recycling such that smaller panels can be used or larger screens can be illuminated with sufficient brightness. The purpose.

For example, LEDs are one type of light source used in a variety of lighting applications such as general lighting, architectural lighting and especially recently projection televisions. For example, when used in projection televisions, LEDs must emit light in a small effective light emitting area at high brightness levels to provide the necessary high light output on the television screen. Specifically, LEDs must provide strong, bright light when measured in lumens at small and solid angles in small emitting areas to be useful in projection televisions.

Although the development of light emitting diodes (LEDs) has advanced significantly, the output brightness of currently available LEDs is still not sufficient for most projection applications. Various methods have been proposed for combining LEDs with primary colors and recycling the output light to increase brightness. However, most of these methods involve the use of expensive components and / or therefore large-scale bulk devices, which greatly limit their application. Accordingly, the present invention aims at a low-cost, recycled LED multiplexer that solves this problem.

Advances in information delivery have made video displays an important means of communication in the market. For example, while the size and price of portable electronic devices such as mp3 players, mobile phones, audio and / or video players, portable terminals (PDAs) continue to decrease, the demand for large display areas of such portable electronic devices has not changed. Thus, screen size now limits the size of such portable electronic devices, although it is highly desirable to include micro projectors into the portable electronic devices, but their high price makes this full-scale incorporation difficult. However, currently available micro projectors have a simply reduced architecture from standard projectors, and therefore the price remains too high to be incorporated into low cost portable electronic devices. The most important factor for any element embedded in such a portable electronic device is size and price. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a low cost micro projector with an integrated multiplexer / recycler in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a low-cost, recyclable LED multiplexer to increase the brightness of the LED while keeping the size of the LED multiplexer small. This allows the LED multiplexer / recycler of the present invention to be easily integrated into a low cost micro projector for use in low cost portable electronic devices. That is, the microprojector of the present invention is a recycled LED multiplexer to advantageously provide a compact, low cost, versatile bright LED based illumination system that can be easily integrated with portable electronic devices. Include. In addition, LED-based lighting systems can multiplex colors to provide both color pixel displays and time sequential displays.

Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to provide a recycled LED multiplexer to increase the brightness of the LED.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a compact, low cost LED multiplexer that can be easily integrated into a micro projector.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a recycled light pipe-based RGB multiplexer for efficiently combining LEDs with red, green and blue outputs to increase brightness and recycling the outputs.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a wafer scale LED lighting system that can be extended to a wafer scale LED projector system. That is, a complete illumination and projection system can be manufactured in wafer form and cut into individual systems at the distal end.

It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a low cost micro projector for use in a portable electronic device comprising the LED multiplexer / recycler of the present invention.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light multiplexer and recycler comprise an LED layer comprising a plurality of LEDs each emitting a light output. The light multiplexer and recycler further comprises an optical layer having an input end and an output end. The input end of the optical layer is coupled to the plurality of LEDs for multiplexing light output from the plurality of LEDs. An aperture layer is coupled to the output end of the optical layer and a reflective surface for transmitting a portion of the multiplexed light output to provide a single light output and a reflective surface for reflecting the remainder of the multiplexed light towards the input end of the optical layer. It is provided. Thus, the remaining portion of the multiplexed light is recycled back to the plurality of LEDs to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the micro-projector comprises an LED layer comprising an LED that emits light output. The micro-projector further comprises a light pipe having an input end and an output end, the input end of the light pipe being coupled to the LED. The aperture layer is coupled to the output end of the light pipe and has a transmissive opening for transmitting a portion of the light output and a reflective surface for reflecting the remaining portion of the light output towards the input end of the light pipe. Thus, the rest of the light output is recycled back to the LED to increase the brightness of the LED's light output. In addition, the microprojector transmits the light output of the predetermined polarization and reflects the other polarization of the light output, thereby recycling the unused polarization of the light output back to the LED to increase the brightness of the light output of the LED to increase the brightness of the LED. And a reflective polarizer disposed therebetween. The micro-projector further comprises a silicon liquid crystal (LCOS) panel for receiving and reflecting the light output of the predetermined polarization, wherein the side of the PBS coupled with the LCOS panel is such that the size of the transmissive aperture generally matches that of the LCOS panel. Bigger than the panel The micro-projector also includes a projection lens for capturing the light output of a predetermined polarization from the LCOS panel to project the image.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a micro-projector comprises an LED layer comprising an LED emitting light output and a light pipe having an input end and an output end. The input end of the light pipe is coupled to the LED. The micro-projector includes a polarization beam splitter (PBS) with all polished surfaces to provide total internal reflection, so that the PBS acts as a waveguide.

Various other objects, advantages and features of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description, in particular the novel features set forth in the appended claims.

The following detailed description, which is provided by way of example and not by way of limitation, will be understood in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like elements or components are represented by like reference numerals in various configurations.
1 is a cross-sectional view of a light pipe-based light multiplexer and a recycler according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of the light pipe-based light multiplexer and recycler of FIG. 1;
3 is a perspective view of an output end of a light pipe coated with a reflective coating except for a transmission opening according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
4 is a perspective view of the light pipe-based light multiplexer and recycler of the present invention having an optionally coated thin glass plate attached to the input end of the light pipe according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
5 is a cross-sectional view of the light multiplexer and recycler of the present invention using a light generating layer excited by an external optical source according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
6 is a cross-sectional view of the light multiplexer and recycler of the present invention of FIG. 5, in which a light generating layer is coated directly on an external optical source, in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
7 (a) and 7 (b) are cross-sectional views of a cavity containing a light generating layer and / or an external excitation light source in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the invention,
8 (a) is a cross-sectional view of the light multiplexer and recycler of the present invention of FIG. 5, wherein the light generating layer comprises one or more of various light generating materials excited by a laser in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention; ego,
8 (b) is a view of a light generating layer comprising three different light generating materials excited by a laser in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the invention,
9 (a) to 9 (c) illustrate the example of FIG. 5, wherein the light generating layer includes one or more various light generating materials excited by one or more lasers in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Cross-sectional view of the optical multiplexer and recycler of the invention,
10 is a cross-sectional view of a light generating layer having a coating portion according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention,
11 is a cross-sectional view of three cube prisms for multiplexing three colored lights from three different light generating materials to form a single output according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
12 is a schematic diagram of a wafer scale illumination system and / or a wafer scale projector system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
13 is a schematic diagram of a wafer scale light pipe based illumination system and / or a wafer scale light pipe based projector system in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
14 is a schematic diagram of a wafer scale illumination system and / or a wafer scale projector system in accordance with another exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
15 is a cross-sectional view of an LED package having a cover glass according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
16 to 19 are cross-sectional views of a micro projector according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention,
20 is a view of the face of a PBS that is reflective coated except for openings for coupling LCOS panels according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
21 is a cross-sectional view of a micro projector including a DMD according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
22-26 are diagrams of optical multiplexers and recyclers in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to the drawings, exemplary embodiments of the present invention are described. These embodiments illustrate the principles of the invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 includes an LED layer 1100 including a plurality of LEDs 1140. Each LED 1140 emits light output to an optical layer 1200, such as a light pipe 1200. The optical layer 1200 has an input end 1210 and an output end 1220. The input end 1210 of the optical layer 1200 is coupled to the plurality of LEDs 1140 to multiplex the light output from the plurality of LEDs 1140. The light multiplexer and recycler 1000 also includes an aperture layer 1500, such as a reflective coating 1500, coupled to the output end 1220 of the optical layer 1200. The aperture layer 1500 reflects the remainder of the multiplexed light towards the input end 1210 of the optical layer 1200 and the transmission aperture 1510 that transmits a portion of the multiplexed light output to provide a single light output 1600. By having a reflective surface, the remainder of the multiplexed light is recycled back to the plurality of LEDs 1140 to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs 1140. Preferably, the reflective layer 1400 covers the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 except for the areas 1410, 1420, 1430 of the input end 1210 of the light pipe, wherein the plurality of LEDs 1140 Coupled, the input end 1210 is reflective for light of all colors except regions 1410, 1420, 1430.

1 illustrates an LED layer 1110 and an optical layer or light pipe 1200 having a plurality of LED chips 1140 mounted on a heat sink 1150, in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. A light pipe-based light multiplexer and recycler 1000 is shown to be included. The LED multiplexer and recycler 1000 multiplexes or combines the outputs of the red, green and blue LED chips 1110, 1120, 1130 using the light pipe 1200 to produce a single output 1600. According to one aspect of the invention, since the reflective layer 1400 is a reflective coating 1400 on the input end or surface 1210 of the light pipe 1200, the input end 1210 is above or above the LED chip 1140. Except for the area of the input end or surface 1210 corresponding to the chip 1140, it is reflective for light of all colors. In addition, the area 1410 of the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 above or corresponding to the LED chip 1110 transmits red light but transmits light of other colors such as green and blue light. It is coated with a transmissive red coating that reflects. Similarly, the area 1420 of the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 above or corresponding to the LED chip 1120 transmits green light but transmits light of other colors, such as red and blue light. It is coated with a reflective green coating that reflects. The area 1430 of the input end 1210 above or corresponding to the LED chip 1130 is coated with a transmissive blue coating that transmits blue light but reflects light of other colors such as red and green light. Although only one red LED chip 1110, one green LED chip 1120, and one blue LED chip 1130 are shown in FIG. 1, a plurality of red LED chips 1110, a plurality of green LED chips 1120, a plurality of It can be seen that the blue LED chip 1130 can be mounted on the heat sink 1150. Preferably, the output end or surface 1220 of the light pipe 1200 has a reflective coating (except for the area or transmission opening 1510 of the output end or surface 1220 when the output 1600 is coupled). 1500).

When red light from the red LED chip 1110 enters the light pipe 1200, a portion or part of the red light is emitted from the light pipe through the transmission opening 1510. The remaining or remaining portion of the red light is reflected back to the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 and recycled. Similarly, when green light from the green LED chip 1120 and blue light from the blue LED chip 1130 enter the light pipe 1200, some of the green and red light pass through the light aperture 1200 through the transmission opening 1510. Are emitted and the rest of the green and red light is recycled.

2 shows a perspective view of an optical multiplexer and recycler having nine LED chips 1140 of three different colors (red, green and blue) according to one embodiment of the invention. In practical applications, the number of LED chips 1140 and the color emitted by the LED chips 1140 may be optimized to produce the required output. The LED chips 1140 may be arranged in any MxN arrangement, such as a 3x3 arrangement, as shown in FIG.

3 shows two examples of an opening layer 1500 that includes a transmission or output opening 1510 at the output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200 surrounded by the reflective coating 1510. The transmissive opening 1510 is smaller than the output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200. In addition, the transmissive opening 1510 may have an aspect ratio of 16: 9 (FIG. 3 (a)], 4: 3 (FIG. 3 (b)) or any other acceptable aspect ratio.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the transmissive opening 1510 transmits light of a predetermined color, such as red light, and reflects light of all other colors towards the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 for recycling. Coated with a reflective coating 1530. Preferably, the transmissive aperture 1510 is a reflective polarization coating for transmitting the light output of a predetermined polarized light such as s-polarized or p-polarized light and reflecting the light output of all other polarized light (ie, unused polarized light) for recycling. It may be additionally coated with 1540 or it may be a cover having a reflective polarizing coating layer 1540. Alternatively, the transmissive opening 1510 is coated with a reflective polarizing coating or covered with a reflective polarizing layer 1540 without the reflective coating 1530. According to one aspect of the invention, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 has a wavelength disposed between the reflective polarizing layer 1540 and the reflective coating 1530 or between the reflective polarizing layer 1540 and the transmissive opening 1510. And further includes plate 1550. Wave plate 1550 rotates the polarization state of the light output to convert unused polarization into a useful, predetermined polarization.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 includes a color wheel having a plurality of color filters that transmit light of a color corresponding to the color filter and reflect light of all other colors. wheel). That is, the reflective coating 1530 is replaced with a color wheel covering the transmission opening 1510 to selectively transmit light of various colors, so that the color filter of the color wheel covers the transmission opening 1510.

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, an exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes reflective coatings 1400, 1500 directly coated on the input and output ends 1210, 1220 of the light pipe 1200. do. This is very efficient but can be expensive. Thus, in low cost applications, the reflective coatings 1400, 1500 can be made individually using, for example, a thin glass plate 1400 that is selectively and reflectively coated. The large glass plate may be selectively or patterned coated with a reflective coating, and then cut to an appropriate size to match the input end 1210 or output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200, as shown in FIG. Can be. The patterned or optionally coated glass plate 1400 is attached to the light pipe 1200.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light pipe 1200 is a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, a straight light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser, shape One of any suitable combination, such as a free form light pipe formed by this equation, or a complete free form light pipe determined numerically or by other means, or a straight hollow light pipe or an incrementally tapered solid light pipe. Can be. All of these various light pipes are collectively referred to herein as light pipes. All references to light pipes include any of the light pipes described herein or a combination of various light pipes.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 5, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 emits light and has a reflective surface when excited by the light source 1750 at the input side. The light generating layer 1700 is included. The input end 1210 of the light pipe 1120 is coupled to the light generating layer 1700 to multiplex the light rays from the light generating layer 1700 to provide light output. As shown in FIG. 1, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 reflects the rest of the light output toward the transmission opening 1510 and the light generating layer 1700 that transmit a portion of the light output at the output side. An opening layer 1500 coupled to the output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200, having a reflective surface to reflect and recycle the rest of the light output back towards the transmissive opening 1510.

In addition, as indicated herein, although not shown in FIG. 5, the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 that includes the light generating layer 1700, as shown in FIG. 1, has a predetermined color of light and / or Or with reflective coating 1530 and / or reflective polarizing layer 1540, and / or wave plate 1550 to transmit polarized light and reflect / recycle light and / or polarization of all other unused colors of light. Light pipe 1200 having a partially or wholly covered output end 1220. The input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 is disposed near the light generating layer 1700 which is excited by the external optical light source 1750, so that the light emitted by the light generating layer 1700 is transferred to the light pipe 1200. Coupled into. Also, preferably, since the light generating layer 1700 is reflective, the light reflected from the output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200 is reflected by the output end 1220 of the light pipe 1200 from the reflective light generating layer 1700. Again or completely reflected in part.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light generating layer 1700 near the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1200 includes one or more types of material compositions to emit light having a plurality of wavelengths or colors. . That is, the light generating layer 1700 may emit only one light color or a plurality of light colors according to the material composition of the light generating layer 1700. Preferably, the various material components of the light generating layer 1700 are spatially disposed such that each region of the light generating layer 1700 emits light of various colors. The external excitation light source 1750 may be an arc lamp, LED, laser, or the like that emits light of a single wavelength or multiple wavelengths (ie, a single color or multiple colors). According to one aspect of the invention, the excitation wavelength (ie, the wavelength of light emitted by the external excitation light source 1750) may be shorter than the wavelength emitted by the light generating layer 1700. For example, blue or UV light can be used to produce red, green, blue or other colored light. Preferably, the light generating layer 1700 may be made of a phosphor or another material having the same properties as the phosphor. For example, infrared light can be used to produce red, green, blue or other colored light using nonlinear crystals.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light generating layer 1700 may be coated on the input end 1210 of the light pipe similar to the reflective coating 1400 of FIG. 1. Alternatively, the light generating layer 1700 may be coated on a sheet of transparent material, such as a glass plate similar to the thin glass plate 1400 of FIG. 4 and located very close to the input end 1210 of the light pipe 1220. Or may be coated directly onto the excitation light source 1750 as shown in FIG. 6. For example, the phosphor material may be coated directly on a blue or UV LED 1750 and the nonlinear crystalline material may be coated directly on the infrared LED 1750. One example of a blue or UV LED 1750 is a light emitting junction fabricated on GaN. One example of an infrared LED 1750 is a light emitting junction fabricated on GaAs.

In accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 7B, the light generating layer 1700 includes all or partially reflective layers of opposing sides of the light generating layer 1700 to form a cavity 1800. Positioning between 1810 enables a small output angular distribution or reduces the angular distribution of light emitted by the light generating layer 1700. According to one aspect of the present invention, both the excitation light source 1750 and the light generating layer 1700 are inside the cavity 1800, as shown in FIG. 7A.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 8 (a), the light generating layer 1700 may emit one or more various (eg, various colors) to emit one or more colored lights when excited by a laser. Light generating material 1710) comprising a phosphor. The light generating materials can be arranged in rows, columns, arrays or some predetermined pattern. For example, FIG. 8B shows a light generating layer 1700 with three different light generating materials 1710 (green, red and blue light generating materials 1710). Preferably, the laser is a diode laser. One example of a blue or UV laser is a laser made using a GaN material. One example of an infrared laser is a laser manufactured using GaAs.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 9A, one or more lasers 1750 may be used to excite one or more various light generating materials 1710 of the light generating layer 1700. . For example, in FIG. 9 (b), three different lasers 1750 can be used, each of which laser 1750 excites various light generating materials 1710 such that the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 is Enables independent control of the emission of three different colors from the light generating layer 1700. According to one aspect of the present invention, more than one laser 1750 can be used to excite the same light generating material 1710, thereby producing higher light output from the light generating material. For example, in FIG. 9C, the red and blue light generating materials 1710 are each excited by one laser 1750, while the green light generating material 1710 is excited by the two lasers, thereby providing light to the light generating layer 1700. Thereby producing more green light than blue or red light.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 10, the coating 1760 transmits light from the excitation light source 1750 while reflecting light generated by the light generating layer 1700. The light generating layer 1700 is coated so that the generated light is emitted in only one direction, thereby increasing the efficiency of the light generating layer 1700 and the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 of the present invention. Preferably, the surface of the light generating layer 1700 near the excitation light source 1750 is coated.

In accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the invention, laser beams from three different lasers 1750 are used to excite three different light generating materials 1710 (red, green and blue light generating materials 1710). Light emitted from three light generating materials 1710 is multiplexed into a single output using three internal total reflection (TIR) prisms or cubes 1900, as shown in FIG. Because the laser beam has a very narrow emission angle, each color light generating material 1710 can be excited by one or more laser beams to produce higher light output. For example, if a higher output of green light is needed for white balance, then only one laser beam may be directed to the blue and red light generating materials, while two laser beams may be directed to the green light generating material 1710, thus providing more light of the green light. Produces high output.

According to one aspect of the invention, the TIR cube prism cube 1900 includes two triangular prisms. All surfaces or faces of the two triangular prisms are polished such that the TIR cube prism 1900 acts as a wavelength guide. The faces of the triangular prism at the interface between the two triangular prisms are coated with a dichroic coating 1910 to transmit the predetermined wavelength and color of the light and reflect all other wavelengths or colors of the light. Preferably, the interface is filled with an air gap or low index glue.

Referring now to FIGS. 12-14, a schematic diagram of a wafer scale illumination system 2000 and / or a wafer scale projector system 3000 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is shown. The wafer scale illumination system 2000 includes a heat sink layer 2100 for mounting an LED wafer or layer 2200, preferably an optical filter layer 2300, an optical layer 2400 and an aperture layer (which is a color filter layer 2300). 2500). Wafer scale projector system 3000 further includes an image or display panel layer 2700 and a projection lens layer 2800, such as a reflective polarizing layer 2600, a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel layer or a transmissive image panel layer. In the prior art, LEDs can be manufactured in the same color, but LEDs 2210 of various colors can be fabricated on the same wafer using colored phosphors in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention. Emission from the same color LED 2210 can be converted to several other colors using color phosphors. For example, a blue or UV LED wafer can be used to provide a plurality of LEDs 2210 of a single color. Phosphors of various colors can be deposited on the LED wafer, producing LEDs 2210 of various colors. That is, three primary (red, green and blue) emitting LEDs 2210 can be produced using red, green and blue phosphors.

Preferably, color filter layer 2300 is positioned on LED layer 2200 including color LED 2210 to improve the recycling efficiency of wafer scale illumination system 2000. The color filter on top of the color LED 2210 transmits only the color of the light emitted by the LED 2210 and reflects all other colors of the light. For example, the color filter on top of the blue LED 2210 transmits only blue light and reflects all other colors of light. In white or single color LED applications, filter layer 2300 is not necessary and can be removed.

The optical layer 2400 converts or forms light on the next layer. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 12, the optical layer 2400 includes a reflector layer 2420 and a lens layer 2440. Depending on the application, the optical layer 2400 includes a series of light pipes 2450 or spherical reflector layer 2460 and aiming lens layer 2480, as shown in FIG. Depending on the application, it can be seen that the wafer scale illumination system 2000 and the wafer scale projector system 3000 can have multiple optical layers 2400.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the light pipe 2450 is a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, a straight light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser, a shape One of any suitable combination, such as a free form light pipe formed by this equation, or a complete free form light pipe determined numerically or by other means, or a straight hollow light pipe, an incrementally tapered solid light pipe. Can be. All of these various light pipes are collectively referred to herein as light pipes. All references to light pipes include any of the light pipes described herein or a combination of various light pipes.

Thereafter, light exiting the optical layer 2400 is incident on the opening layer 2500 including a plurality of openings or transmission openings 2510 through which some of the light is reflected and some of the light passes through the opening 2510. The reflected light is recycled back to the LED 2210. Light exiting through aperture 2510 is a non-polarization output that may be utilized for non-polarization purposes, for example, to provide wafer scale illumination system 2000.

For example, in order to provide a wafer scale projection system 3000, in LCD, liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) and other polarization applications, an optical reflective polarization layer 2600 is utilized. Preferably, the optical reflective polarization layer 2600 includes a waveplate layer (not shown) similar to the waveplate 1550 of FIG. 1. Reflective polarizer or reflective polarizer 2600 transmits the predetermined polarized light and increases recycling efficiency by reflecting all other polarized light (ie, unused polarized light) back to LED layer 2200. The optical waveplate layer rotates the polarization state of the light output to convert unused polarization into a useful, predetermined polarization. In this step, the composite wafer comprising illumination layers 2100 to 2600 (with or without optical filter layer 2300, optical reflective polarizing layer 2600 or optical waveplate layer) is arranged in an LED lighting system 2000. To form. The arrangement of the LED lighting system 2000 may be cut on a saw cut line 2900 into individual pieces to provide a plurality of individual LED lighting systems 2000.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, wafer scale illumination system 2000 may be further integrated with other layers to provide wafer scale projector system 3000. The wafer scale projector system 3000 further includes a display or image panel layer 2700 positioned on top of the illumination layers 2100-2600 followed by one or more projection lens layers 2800. 12 illustrates a wafer scale projector system 2000 in which an image panel layer comprises a transmissive LCD panel 2710 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. In the color pixel LCD panel 2710, the LED 2210 may be a white LED 2210 with a white phosphor, or a red / green / blue (RGB) LED coupled to each other with the ability to adjust real time color. (2210). In the fast switching LCD panel 2700, the wafer scale projector system 3000 may utilize known time color multiplexing to turn on one or more red / green / blue LEDs 2210 at a time. In addition, the completed projector unit / system 3000 of the wafer may be cut into individual projector units / system 3000 on saw cut lines 2900.

An implementation of a wafer scale projection system using a light pipe is shown in FIG. 13, and similarly, the image panel layer 2700 and the projection lens layer 2800 are illuminated layers 2100 to FIG. 14 to provide a wafer scale projection system. 2600).

For embedded micro-projectors such as those used in portable electronic devices such as cell phones, MP3 players, portable terminals (PDAs) and the like, the most important factors are size and cost. Therefore, it is important to minimize the number of elements in such embedded micro projectors in order to reduce their size and cost. According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the micro-projector utilizes multiple LEDs, ie red, green and blue LEDs, in a single package. Light output from multiple LEDs is multiplexed to combine colors, recycled to increase the brightness of the LEDs, and coupled to LCOS panels without lenses to minimize the number of elements.

Referring now to FIG. 15, a structure of an LED package 4000 including a plurality of LEDs 4100 is shown. Preferably, the LED package 4000 consists of one red LED, one blue LED, and two green LEDs 4100, which are generally supplied by LED manufacturers such as Osram. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the LED package 4000 is preferably coated with a dichroic coating 4400, a substrate for mounting a cover window or glass 4200 and a plurality of LEDs 4100. 4300. For example, on top of the red LED 4100, as shown in FIG. 15, the coating 4400 transmits red light and reflects all other colors of light. On top of the green LED 4100, as shown in FIG. 15, the coating 4400 transmits green light and reflects all other colors of light. On top of blue LED 4100, coating 4400 transmits blue light and reflects all other colors of light (not shown). According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, each color LED 4100 is driven independently. Optionally, the two green LEDs 4100 can be driven together or separately.

16 illustrates a micro projector 5000 including an LED structure 4000 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The micro-projector 5000 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention includes an LED package 4000, a light pipe 5100, a PBS 5200, a projection lens 5600, an LCOS panel 5500, and a selective reflective polarizer 5300. And an optional wave plate 5400. Light pipe 5100 with input end or face 5110 generally covers all LEDs 4100 of LED package 4000 and is located on cover window 4200, which is a package window, from LED 4100. It is used to couple the light emitted. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the light pipe 5100 is a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, a straight light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser, a shape One of any suitable combination, such as a free form light pipe formed by this equation, or a complete free form light pipe determined numerically or by other means, or a straight hollow light pipe, an incrementally tapered solid light pipe. Can be. All of these various light pipes are collectively referred to herein as the light pipe 1200. All references to light pipes include any of the light pipes described herein or a combination of various light pipes.

The output end 5120 of the light pipe 5100 is generally the same size as the polarizing beam splitter (PBS) 5200 and couples light into the PBS 5200. PBS 5200 has all surfaces polished to act as waveguides. Between the light pipe 5100 and the PBS 5200, the reflective polarizer 5300 is positioned such that the predetermined polarization is transmitted into the PBS 5200. Between the light pipe 5100 and the reflective polarizer 5300, an optional wave plate 5400, preferably quarter wave plate, can be used to increase the recycling efficiency of the system. As shown in FIG. 16, the LCOS panel 5500 is positioned in a straight line opposite the light pipe 5100. Depending on the orientation of the PBS 5200, the LCOS panel 5500 may be located on a vertical plane as shown in FIG. 17. The projection lens 5600 may be positioned perpendicular to the light pipe as shown in FIG. 16 or 17. Since the incident light on the LCOS panel 5500 has a certain divergence, typically F / 2.4, the PBS 5200 is such that the light is captured by the projection lens 5600 without blocking by the PBS 5200. ) Is larger than LCOS panel 5500. LCOS panel 5500 is placed as close to PBS 5200 as possible to minimize losses. The surface of the PBS 5200 facing the LCOS panel 5500 is coated with a reflective coating 5210 with an opening 5215 such that the size of the opening 5215 matches the size of the LCOS panel 5500. Thus, some or a portion of the light illuminates the LCOS panel 5500, and the remaining or remaining portion of incident light on the reflective coating 5210 is reflected back to the light pipe 5100 and recycled back to the LED package 4000.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIGS. 18 and 19, the reflective polarizer 5300 of FIGS. 16 and 17 can be removed, and the function thereof is as shown in FIGS. 18 and 19. As well as a combination of PBS 5200 and an additional reflective coating 5210 on the PBS. This advantageously removes one or more elements from the micro projector, thereby reducing the cost of the micro projector.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the output end 5120 of the light pipe 5100 can be made convex for improved coupling of light. Preferably, the convex surface of the output end 5120 of the light pipe 5100 forms an integrated lens. According to one aspect of the invention, the functionality of the integrated lens may be performed by an optional Fresnel lens 5700 disposed between the light pipe 5100 and the PBS 5200. The advantage of Fresnel lens 5700 is that it is very thin and very suitable for the integrated micro projector of the present invention. The focal length of the Fresnel lens 5700 or integrated lens is preferably adjusted for maximum performance.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the micro-projector 5000 may additionally include a color filter as described herein, located on the cover glass 4200 of the LED package 4000. Alternatively, due to the light multiplexer and recycler 1000 as described herein, the color filter 4400 may be coated on the input side or end 5110 of the light pipe 5100. This preferably removes other elements from the micro projector 5000 by selectively making the cover glass 4200.

Although the LED package 4000 described herein is an RGGB LED package, the LED package 4000 may include a plurality of LEDs 4100 or any MxN array of color LEDs 4100 in which both M and N are positive. . According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, each color LED 4100 may strategically include one or more LED locations such that the color filter can be easily fabricated. That is, each color can be formed from several small LED locations adjacent to each other. Thus, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, each cluster of LEDs of the same color can be treated as a single LED.

It can be seen that the number of colors is not limited to three (red, green and blue) as described herein. The microprojector of the present invention can be implemented using an LED package including LEDs of a single color, two colors, three colors or three or more colors.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, certain surfaces of the PBS 5200 are polished. Any surface of the PBS 5200 is for transmission and total internal reflection (TIR), and the other surface is used only for the TIR. Preferably, this TIR only surface of the PBS 5200 may be selectively coated with a reflective coating for ease of assembly.

Referring now to FIG. 20, a diagram of PBS 5200 from the direction of LCOS panel 5500 is shown, showing that LCOS panel 5500 uses only a portion of the PBS face. The remainder of the PBS face is made reflective or has a reflective coating 5210 for recycling purposes.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the micro projector 5000 utilizes an LED package 4000 that includes only the white LED 4100 instead of the RGGB LED 4100. Thus, the coating 4400 on the LED package can be removed. The micro projector 5000 includes a white LED 4100, a light pipe 5100, and a PBS 5200. If a standard LCOS panel 5500 is used as shown in FIGS. 16-19, the output will be a black and white picture on a screen (not shown). Preferably, color pixel LCOS can be used in place of the standard LCOS panel to produce color pictures. The color pixel LCOS may be formed with a transparent color filter positioned on top of the pixel such that the portion of the pixel is red, the portion of the pixel is green and the portion of the pixel is blue. According to one aspect of the present invention, the portion of the pixel is not colored and is regarded as a white pixel, thereby improving the brightness of the display. Although color pixel LCOS simplifies configuration, the resolution can be lower. In certain applications, lower resolution may also be allowed if the complexity of the microprojector is reduced so that the cost of the microprojector is reduced.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the micro-projector 5000 uses a digital mirror device (DMD) 5910, similar to a digital light processing (DLP®) device manufactured by Texas Instruments. Include. DMD 5910 is preferably mounted on DMD package 5900. DMD 5910 has a number of small mirrors (pixels) that can be tilted. When light is incident on the DMD 5910 where the pixel is turned off, the light is reflected in the direction of incidence and away from the projection lens 5600 and is not projected on the screen (not shown). When the pixel is turned on, the mirror of the DMD 5910 is inclined toward the incident beam and the reflected light is directed toward the projection lens 5600 and projected onto the screen. TIR cube prism 5800 includes two triangular prisms 5810 and 5820, the first triangular prism 5810 provides an incident beam to DMD 5910 and the incident beam is reflected by total internal reflection. The beam reflected from the DMD 5910 is not reflected but is transmitted through the interface to the second triangular prism 5820. The two triangular prisms 5810 and 5820 form a parallel interface so that the image from the DMD 5910 is not distorted.

All faces of the first triangular prism 5810 (and preferably all faces of the second triangular prism 5820) are polished to form a wavelength guide. Angular theta θ is adjusted for maximum efficiency. Since the incident light on the DMD 5910 has a specific numerical aperture, the size of the TIR prism 5800 is larger than the image area of the DMD as shown in FIG. 21. The light guided onto the TIR prism 5800 at the DMD surface is larger, and if no light is collected, the light is normally lost. Thus, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an area outside the image area on the TIR prism 5800 is covered with a reflective structure 5920. Preferably, the reflecting structure 5920 is an angular mirror arrangement, an angular reflector arrangement, a mirror, an angular arrangement of mirrors, or a retroreflector arrangement, such that the incident light on the angular mirror arrangement 5920 is shown as ray b of FIG. 21. As reflected, it is reflected back in the incident direction. Angled mirror arrangement 5920 can be formed to have a gap, which is determined by how thick it can be. Typically, the limits are defined by the spacing between the TIR prism 5800 and the DMD package 5900. The reflected light eventually travels back through the light pipe 5100 and back into the LED 4100.

Referring now to FIGS. 22A and 22B, an optical multiplexer and recycler 6000 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is shown. The light multiplexer and recycler 6000 includes a light pipe 6100. The cross section of the light pipe 6100 may be rectangular, square, circular, or the like. According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the light pipe 6100 is a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, a straight light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser, a shape One of any suitable combination, such as a free form light pipe formed by this equation, or a complete free form light pipe determined numerically or by other means, or a straight hollow light pipe, an incrementally tapered solid light pipe. Can be. All of these various light pipes are collectively referred to herein as the light pipe 1200. All references to light pipes include any of the light pipes described herein or a combination of various light pipes.

The top, bottom and left surfaces of the light pipe 6100 have an output end 6120 to the right and are reflective coated. As shown in FIG. 22A, the facing bottom surface 6310 has three openings for the LED chip 6200. The red chip 6200 is located in a red window 6310 with a CR coating that transmits red light and reflects green and blue light. Green chip 6200 is located in green window 6320 with CG coating, which transmits green light and reflects red and blue light. The blue chip 6200 is located in a blue window 6330 with a CB coating that transmits blue light and reflects red and green light. The side wall of the light pipe can be selectively coated because total internal reflection can be used by default. Thus, light from the red chip 6200 does not meet the green or blue chip 6200 due to the red reflective window 6310. The same is true for the light from the green and blue chips 6200.

Thus, each color forms its own recycling system and all colors are mixed in the same light pipe 6100 to form multiplexed output 6400.

Although FIGS. 22A and 22B show a structure using red, green, and blue LED chips 6200, a general configuration may include two or more chips having one or more colors as shown in FIG. Can be configured. Corresponding coatings that match each color of the LED chip 6200 are used. For example, two or more chips 6200 of the same color may be used with coated windows 6310, 6320, 6330 of the same shape. Depending on the relative intensity of the various colors required for a particular application, an appropriate number of chips can be utilized. The LED chip 6200 is shown as the single LED chip 6200 of FIGS. 22 and 23, and may also consist of multiple chips of the same color with several chips grouped together in an array. The minimum spacing between these chips is desirable.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 24, the light multiplexer and recycler 6000 has an output having an opening suitable for a particular application at the output end 6120 of the light pipe 6100. By further including reflective openings, additional recycling is provided. In polarization applications, reflective polarizer 6500 and optional waveplate 6600 may be added. The descriptions of the reflective coatings or apertures, reflective polarizers, and optional waveplates described herein in connection with other exemplary embodiments of the present invention may equally apply and are not described herein again.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 25, the light multiplexer and recycler 6000 may be integrated with a recycling / multiplexing light pipe 6100 or to convert the output to a predetermined size and angle. Tapered light pipe 6700 as individual light pipe 6700 is included.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 26A, the light multiplexer and recycler or system 6000 uses a white LED 6200 and the window 6340 does not have a coating. Do not. When a single color LED 6200 is used, a transparent window 6200 without a coating may also be used, as shown in FIG. 26 (a).

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 26 (b), the system 6000 can be multiplexed together using two coating windows 6350, 6360, with wavelengths very close to each other. It can be used to increase the brightness of. For example, this embodiment may be used with two or more green chips 6200 when the wavelengths of the green chips are considered close enough to be green.

The invention described is obvious to those skilled in the art and can be modified in many ways within the spirit and scope of the invention. Any and all such variations are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (104)

  1. An LED layer comprising a plurality of LEDs each emitting a light output;
    An optical layer having an input end and an output end, the input end of the optical layer being coupled to the plurality of LEDs to multiplex the light output from the plurality of LEDs;
    A coupling aperture coupled to the output end of the optical layer, for transmitting a portion of the multiplexed light output to provide a single light output and a reflection for reflecting the remaining portion of the multiplexed light towards the input end of the optical layer And having an surface, the aperture layer for recycling the remaining portion of the multiplexed light back into the plurality of LEDs to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  2. 4. The optical layer of claim 1, wherein the optical layer further comprises a lens layer for transmitting a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the aperture layer and the remainder of the light output from the plurality of LEDs for recycling. A reflective layer for reflecting with the LED
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  3. The optical layer of claim 1, wherein the optical layer transmits a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the opening layer and reflects the remaining portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs back to the plurality of LEDs for recycling. Containing light pipes for
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  4. The plurality of LEDs of claim 1, wherein the optical layer further comprises a lens for transmitting a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the aperture layer and the remainder of the light output from the plurality of LEDs for recycling. With a spherical reflector for reflecting
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  5. 4. The apparatus of claim 3, further comprising a reflective layer covering the input end of the light pipe except for the region of the input end to which the plurality of LEDs are coupled.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  6. The reflective layer of claim 5, wherein the reflective layer is a reflective coating on the input end of the light pipe except for the region of the input end to which the plurality of LEDs are coupled.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  7. 6. The apparatus of claim 5, further comprising a glass plate selectively coated with a reflective coating to cover the input end of the light pipe except for the region of the input end to which the plurality of LEDs are coupled.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  8. The method of claim 1, wherein the through aperture has an aspect ratio of 16: 9 or 4: 3.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  9. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of LEDs are arranged in an M × N array, wherein M and N are both positive integers.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  10. The heat sink of claim 1, further comprising a heat sink for mounting the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  11. The device of claim 1, wherein the plurality of LEDs comprises a plurality of color LED chips.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  12. 12. The device of claim 11, wherein the plurality of color LED chips comprises a plurality of green LED chips, red LED chips, and blue LED chips.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  13. 12. The device of claim 11, further comprising a filter layer covering the LED layer such that the area of the filter layer covering one color LED chip transmits the color of light emitted by the color LED chip and reflects all other colors of the light.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  14. 4. The light pipe of claim 3 wherein the light pipe comprises at least one of a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, a straight light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser and a free form light pipe. sign
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  15. 10. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the transmissive opening includes a reflective coating that transmits a predetermined color of light and reflects all other colors of light.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  16. 2. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a color wheel, wherein the color wheel comprises a plurality of color filters covering the transmissive opening to selectively transmit various colors of light, depending on which color filter of the color wheel covers the transmissive opening. Containing
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  17. The method of claim 1, further comprising a reflective polarizing layer covering the transmission aperture to transmit the single light output of predetermined polarization and reflect the single light output of all other polarizations toward the input end of the optical layer. Recycling the unused polarized light into the plurality of LEDs again to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  18. 18. The device of claim 17, further comprising a wave plate for rotating the polarization state of a single light output and converting the unused polarization into the predetermined polarization.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  19. The method of claim 15, further comprising a reflective polarizing layer covering the transmission aperture to transmit the single light output of predetermined polarization and to reflect the single light output of all other polarizations toward the input end of the optical layer. Recycling the unused polarized light into the plurality of LEDs again to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  20. 20. The device of claim 19, further comprising a wave plate for rotating the polarization state of a single light output and converting the unused polarization into the predetermined polarization.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  21. 13. The area of the filter layer according to claim 12, further comprising a filter layer covering the LED layer, such that the area of the filter layer covering the green LED chip transmits green light and reflects all other colors of light, and the area of the filter layer covering the blue LED chip. This blue light is transmitted and reflects all other colors of light, and the area of the filter layer covering the red LED chip transmits red light and reflects all other colors of light.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  22. 19. The system of claim 18, further comprising a projection lens for capturing said light output of said predetermined polarization to provide a micro projector.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  23. The method of claim 1, wherein the LED layer is an LED wafer mounted on a heat sink layer.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  24. 24. The method of claim 23, further comprising a color phosphor stacked on the LED wafer to provide the plurality of LEDs of various colors.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  25. 25. The device of claim 24, further comprising a filter layer covering the LED wafer such that the area of the filter layer covering each LED transmits the color of light emitted by each LED and reflects all other colors of the light.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  26. 27. The method of claim 25, wherein the optical layer further comprises a lens layer for transmitting a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the aperture layer and the remainder of the light output from the plurality of LEDs for recycling. Providing an array of wafer scale LED lighting systems, including a reflective layer for reflecting back to the LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  27. 27. The system of claim 26, wherein the arrangement of wafer scale LED lighting systems is cut into individual pieces to provide a plurality of separate wafer scale LED lighting systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  28. 27. The method of claim 26, further comprising a reflective polarizing layer covering the transmission aperture to transmit the single light output of predetermined polarization and reflect the single light output of all other polarizations towards the input end of the optical layer. Recycling unused polarized light with the plurality of LEDs to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  29. 29. The device of claim 28, further comprising a wave plate for rotating the polarization state of a single light output and converting the unused polarization into the predetermined polarization.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  30. 29. The method of claim 28, further comprising a display panel layer over the reflective polarization layer and a projection lens layer over the display panel layer to provide an array of wafer scale projector systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  31. 31. The display panel of claim 30, wherein the display panel layer comprises a transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) panel layer.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  32. 32. The device of claim 31, wherein the color phosphor comprises a white phosphor to provide a plurality of white colored LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  33. 32. The device of claim 31, wherein the color phosphor comprises red, green and blue phosphors to provide a plurality of red, green and blue color LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  34. 34. The arrangement of claim 33, wherein the arrangement of wafer scale LED projector systems is cut into individual pieces to provide a plurality of separate wafer scale projector systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  35. 27. The plurality of LEDs of claim 25 wherein the optical layer further comprises a lens for transmitting a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the aperture layer and the remainder of the light output from the plurality of LEDs for recycling. Providing an array of wafer scale illumination systems, including a spherical reflector for reflecting into the
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  36. 27. The method of claim 25, wherein the optical layer transmits a portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs to the aperture layer and reflects the remaining portion of the light output from the plurality of LEDs back to the plurality of LEDs for recycling. To provide an array of wafer scale lighting systems including light pipes for
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  37. 37. The arrangement of claim 36, wherein the arrangement of wafer scale illumination systems is cut into individual pieces to provide a plurality of separate wafer scale illumination systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  38. 37. The method of claim 36, further comprising a reflective polarizing layer covering the transmissive opening to transmit the single light output of predetermined polarization and reflect the single light output of all other polarizations toward the input end of the optical layer. Recycling unused polarized light back into the plurality of LEDs to increase the brightness of the light output of the plurality of LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  39. 39. The device of claim 38, further comprising a wave plate for rotating a polarization state of a single light output and converting the unused polarization into the predetermined polarization.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  40. 39. The arrangement of claim 38, further comprising a display panel layer over the reflective polarization layer and a projection lens layer over the display panel layer to provide an array of wafer scale projector systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  41. 41. The display panel of claim 40, wherein the display panel layer comprises a transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) panel layer.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  42. 42. The method of claim 41 wherein the color phosphor comprises a white phosphor to provide a plurality of white colored LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  43. The apparatus of claim 41, wherein the color phosphor comprises red, green, and blue phosphors to provide a plurality of red, green, and blue color LEDs.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  44. 44. The arrangement of claim 43, wherein the arrangement of wafer scale LED projector systems is cut into individual pieces to provide a plurality of separate wafer scale projector systems.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  45. 4. The opening of claim 3 wherein the aperture layer is a reflective coating on the output end of the light pipe.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  46. The method of claim 3, wherein the opening layer is a glass plate selectively coated with a reflective coating to cover the output end of the light pipe.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  47. An LED layer comprising an LED emitting light output,
    An optical pipe having an input end and an output end, the light pipe having the input end of the light pipe coupled to an LED;
    Coupled to the output end of the light pipe and having a transmissive opening for transmitting a portion of the light output and a reflective surface for reflecting the remaining portion of the light output towards the input end of the light pipe, An opening layer for recycling the remaining portion back to the LED to increase the brightness of the light output of the LED;
    In order to recycle the unused polarization of the light output back to the LED by transmitting the light output of the predetermined polarization and reflecting another polarization of the light output to increase the brightness of the light output of the LED; A reflective polarizer disposed between the opening layers,
    A silicon liquid crystal (LCOS) panel for receiving and reflecting a light output of a predetermined polarization, wherein the size of the transmissive aperture generally coincides with the size of the LCOS panel so that one side of the PBS coupled with the LCOS panel is Larger than the panel, with LCOS panel,
    A projection lens for capturing the light output of the predetermined polarization from the LCOS panel to project an image
    Micro projector.
  48. 48. The light pipe of claim 47, wherein the light pipe comprises at least one of a straight light pipe, a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser and a free form light pipe. sign
    Micro projector.
  49. 48. The apparatus of claim 47, further comprising a wave plate for rotating the polarization state of the light output and converting the unused polarization into the predetermined polarization by the reflective polarizer.
    Micro projector.
  50. 48. The method of claim 47, wherein the aperture layer is a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) polished to provide total internal reflection, wherein the PBS acts as a waveguide and one side of the PBS coupled with the light pipe is Having substantially the same size as the output end of the light pipe
    Micro projector.
  51. 48. The panel of claim 47, wherein the LCOS panel is disposed opposite the output end of the light pipe or perpendicular to the light pipe.
    Micro projector.
  52. 51. The method of claim 50, wherein the output end of the light pipe has a convex surface and forms an integrated lens.
    Micro projector.
  53. 51. The apparatus of claim 50, further comprising a Fresnel lens disposed between the light pipe and the PBS.
    Micro projector.
  54. 48. The LCD of claim 47, wherein the LED is a white LED and the LCOS panel is a color pixel LCOS.
    Micro projector.
  55. 55. The apparatus of claim 54, wherein the color pixel LCOS comprises a transparent color filter to provide a plurality of red, green and blue pixels.
    Micro projector.
  56. 48. The LED package of claim 47 wherein the LED layer is an LED package comprising an array of color LEDs.
    And further comprising a reflective layer covering the array of color LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  57. 57. The method of claim 56, wherein the reflective layer is coated with a dichroic coating such that the area of the reflective layer covering the color LEDs transmits the color of light emitted by the color LEDs and reflects all other colors of light back to the color LEDs for recycling. Letting
    Micro projector.
  58. 57. The system of claim 56, wherein an area of the reflective layer on the input end of the light pipe coupled to the color LED transmits the color of light emitted by the color LED and returns all other colors of light back to the color LED for recycling. To reflect, the reflective layer is a dichroic coating on the input end of the light pipe.
    Micro projector.
  59. 59. The LED package of claim 56 wherein the LED package comprises an array of blue, green and red LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  60. 60. The LED package of claim 59 wherein the LED package comprises an arrangement of at least one red LED, one blue LED and one red LED.
    Micro projector.
  61. 61. The LED package of claim 60 wherein the LED package comprises an arrangement of at least one red LED, one blue LED and two green LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  62. 48. The method of claim 47, wherein the LEDs comprise LED clusters of the same color densely packed with each other.
    Micro projector.
  63. An LED layer comprising an LED emitting light output,
    A light pipe having an input end and an output end, the input end of the light pipe being coupled to an LED;
    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) with all surfaces polished to provide total internal reflection, wherein the PBS acts as a waveguide, the PBS coupled with the output end of the light pipe and having a transmissive opening, One side of the PBS to be coupled is a polarizing beam splitter having substantially the same size as the output end of the light pipe,
    A silicon liquid crystal (LCOS) panel for receiving and reflecting the light output of a predetermined polarization, wherein the size of the transmissive aperture generally coincides with the size of the LCOS panel such that one side of the PBS coupled with the LCOS panel is Larger than LCOS panels, with LCOS panels,
    A projection lens coupled to one side of the PBS to capture the light output of the predetermined polarization from the LCOS panel to project an image,
    The transmission aperture and the projection lens to reflect and recycle the remaining portion of the light output back to the LED to transmit a portion of the light output through the transmission aperture and increase the brightness of the light output of the LED. All of the faces of the PBS except the face to which they are coupled have a reflective coating.
    Micro projector.
  64. 64. The light pipe of claim 63, wherein the light pipe comprises at least one of a straight light pipe, a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser and a free form light pipe. sign
    Micro projector.
  65. 64. The device of claim 63, further comprising a wave plate disposed between the light pipe and the PBS to rotate the polarization state of the light output and convert the unused polarization reflected by the reflective polarizer into the predetermined polarization. Containing
    Micro projector.
  66. The system of claim 63, wherein the LCOS panel is disposed opposite the output end of the light pipe or perpendicular to the light pipe.
    Micro projector.
  67. 66. The system of claim 63, wherein the output end of the light pipe has a convex surface and forms an integrated lens.
    Micro projector.
  68. 64. The method of claim 63, further comprising a Fresnel lens disposed between the light pipe and the PBS.
    Micro projector.
  69. 64. The LCD of claim 63, wherein the LED is a white LED and the LCOS panel is a color pixel LCOS.
    Micro projector.
  70. 70. The apparatus of claim 69, wherein the color pixel LCOS comprises a transparent color filter to provide a plurality of red, green and blue pixels.
    Micro projector.
  71. 66. The LED package of claim 63 wherein the LED layer is an LED package comprising an array of colored LEDs,
    And further comprising a reflective layer covering the array of color LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  72. 72. The apparatus of claim 71, wherein the reflective layer is coated with a dichroic coating such that the area of the reflective layer covering the color LEDs transmits the color of light emitted by the color LEDs and reflects all other colors of light back to the color LEDs for recycling. Letting
    Micro projector.
  73. 72. The system of claim 71, wherein an area of the reflective layer on the input end of the light pipe coupled to the color LED transmits one color of light emitted by the color LED and again returns all other colors of light for recycling. To reflect with the LED, the reflective layer is a dichroic coating on the input end of the light pipe.
    Micro projector.
  74. 76. The LED package of claim 71 wherein the LED package comprises an array of blue, green and red LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  75. 75. The LED package of claim 74, wherein the LED package comprises an array of at least one red LED, one blue LED, and one red LED.
    Micro projector.
  76. 76. The LED package of claim 75, wherein the LED package comprises an arrangement of at least one red LED, one blue LED, and two green LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  77. 64. The method of claim 63, wherein the LEDs comprise LED clusters of the same color densely packed with each other.
    Micro projector.
  78. An LED layer comprising an LED emitting light output,
    A light pipe having an input end and an output end, the input end of the light pipe being coupled to an LED;
    An internal total reflection (TIR) cube prism comprising a first triangular prism and a second triangular prism, wherein all faces of the first and second triangular prisms are polished to form a waveguide;
    A digital mirror device (DMD) comprising a plurality of inclined mirrors coupled to one side of the first triangular prism of the TIR cube prism to provide an image area, wherein the face of the first triangular prism is the image. A light beam of light output larger than an area is incident on the DMD;
    The triangular prism outside the image region to increase the brightness of the light output of the LED and to reflect and recycle light rays of the light output incident on a reflecting structure that reflects the rest of the light output back to the LED. A reflective structure covering the face of the and
    A projection lens coupled to one side of the second triangular prism to capture the light reflected from the DMD to project an image when the inclined mirror of the DMD is turned on
    Micro projector.
  79. 79. The light pipe of claim 78, wherein the light pipe comprises at least one of a straight light pipe, a hollow light pipe, a solid light pipe, an incrementally tapered light pipe, a reduced tapered light pipe, a compound parabolic condenser, and a free form light pipe. sign
    Micro projector.
  80. 79. The gap between the light pipe, the TIR cube prism, the DMD and the projection lenses is filled with an air gap or low index adhesive.
    Micro projector.
  81. 79. The system of claim 78, wherein the reflective structure is one of an angled reflector array, a mirror, an angled array of gratings, or a retroreflector array.
    Micro projector.
  82. 79. The LED package of claim 78 wherein the LED layer is an LED package comprising an array of colored LEDs,
    And further comprising a reflective layer covering the array of color LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  83. 79. The apparatus of claim 78, wherein the reflective layer is coated with a dichroic coating such that the area of the reflective layer covering the color LEDs transmits the color of light emitted by the color LEDs and reflects all other colors of light back to the color LEDs for recycling. Letting
    Micro projector.
  84. 79. The system of claim 78, wherein an area of the reflective layer on the input end of the light pipe coupled to the color LED transmits one color of light emitted by the color LED and again returns all other colors of light for recycling. In order to reflect to the LED, the reflective layer is a dichroic coating on the input end of the light pipe.
    Micro projector.
  85. 79. The LED package of claim 78 wherein the LED package comprises an array of blue, green and red LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  86. 86. The system of claim 85, wherein the LED package comprises an arrangement of at least one red LED, one blue LED, and one red LED.
    Micro projector.
  87. 87. The system of claim 86, wherein the LED package comprises an arrangement of at least one red LED, one blue LED, and two green LEDs.
    Micro projector.
  88. 79. The system of claim 78, wherein the LEDs comprise clusters of LEDs of the same color densely packed with each other.
    Micro projector.
  89. A light generating layer having a reflective surface for emitting light when excited by a light source,
    An optical pipe having an input end and an output end, the input end of the light pipe being coupled to the light generating layer to multiplex the light beam from the light generating layer to provide light output; ,
    Coupled to the output end of the light pipe and having a transmissive opening for transmitting a portion of the light output and a reflective surface for reflecting the remaining portion of the light output toward the light generating layer, An aperture layer for reflecting and recycling the remaining portion back towards the transmissive opening;
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  90. 89. The light emitting device of claim 89, wherein the light generating layer comprises one or more compositional forms for emitting the light rays having a plurality of wavelengths or colors.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  91. 91. The method of claim 90, wherein the one or more compositional forms are spatially distributed over the light generating layer such that each of the various regions of the light generating layer emits the light of various colors.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  92. 90. The light source of claim 89 wherein the light source used to excite the light generating layer is one of an arc lamp, LED or laser.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  93. 91. The apparatus of claim 89, wherein the light source emits light of a first wavelength and the light generating layer emits light of a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is shorter than the second wavelength.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  94. 90. The apparatus of claim 89, wherein the light source emits light of a first wavelength and the light generating layer emits light of a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is longer than the second wavelength.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  95. 91. The light emitting device of claim 89, wherein the light generating layer is coated on the input end of the light pipe.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  96. 91. The apparatus of claim 89, further comprising a glass plate disposed in the vicinity of the input end of the light pipe, wherein the light generating layer is coated on the glass plate.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  97. 91. The light emitting device of claim 89, wherein the light generating layer is coated on the light source.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  98. 91. The cavity of claim 89, further comprising a cavity formed by an opposing reflective layer for receiving the light generating layer to reduce the angular distribution of the light rays emitted by the light generating layer.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  99. 90. The system of claim 89, further comprising a cavity formed by an opposing reflective layer for receiving the light generating layer and the light source to reduce the angular distribution of the light rays emitted by the light generating layer.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  100. 95. The laser of claim 92, wherein the laser is a diode laser.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  101. 101. The light emitting device of claim 100, wherein the light generating layer comprises red, green, and blue light generating materials excited by the diode laser.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  102. 101. The apparatus of claim 100, wherein the light generating layer comprises red, green, and blue light generating materials, each light generating material being excited by at least one diode laser.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  103. 90. The light generating layer of claim 89, wherein the light generating layer is coated to transmit light rays from the light source and reflect the light rays emitted from the light generating layer such that the light generating layer emits light in one direction.
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
  104. 107. The apparatus of claim 103, further comprising three cube prisms, wherein the light generating layer comprises red, green, and blue light generating materials for emitting red, green, and blue light rays, respectively; Excited by at least one diode laser and coupled to various cube prisms to multiplex red, green and blue light rays into a single red light output
    Optical multiplexer and recycler.
KR1020107018187A 2008-01-17 2009-01-20 Light multiplexer and recycler, and micro-projector incorporating the same KR20100103697A (en)

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US1145808P true 2008-01-17 2008-01-17
US61/011,458 2008-01-17
US13000208P true 2008-05-27 2008-05-27
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US13033608P true 2008-05-30 2008-05-30
US61/130,336 2008-05-30
US13095308P true 2008-06-04 2008-06-04
US61/130,953 2008-06-04
US13098108P true 2008-06-05 2008-06-05
US61/130,981 2008-06-05
US13789508P true 2008-08-04 2008-08-04
US61/137,895 2008-08-04
US20076408P true 2008-12-03 2008-12-03
US61/200,764 2008-12-03
US20350308P true 2008-12-23 2008-12-23
US61/203,503 2008-12-23
US20395008P true 2008-12-30 2008-12-30
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CA2710963A1 (en) 2009-07-23
EP2255242A4 (en) 2012-01-04

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