JPWO2006030532A1 - Electric vehicle drive system - Google Patents

Electric vehicle drive system Download PDF

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Publication number
JPWO2006030532A1
JPWO2006030532A1 JP2006535015A JP2006535015A JPWO2006030532A1 JP WO2006030532 A1 JPWO2006030532 A1 JP WO2006030532A1 JP 2006535015 A JP2006535015 A JP 2006535015A JP 2006535015 A JP2006535015 A JP 2006535015A JP WO2006030532 A1 JPWO2006030532 A1 JP WO2006030532A1
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Japan
Prior art keywords
motor
drive
suspension
wheel
vehicle
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JP2006535015A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
山門 誠
山門  誠
貴臣 西垣戸
貴臣 西垣戸
渡邊 淳
淳 渡邊
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株式会社日立製作所
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Priority to PCT/JP2004/014041 priority Critical patent/WO2006030532A1/en
Publication of JPWO2006030532A1 publication Critical patent/JPWO2006030532A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G3/00Resilient suspensions for a single wheel
    • B60G3/01Resilient suspensions for a single wheel the wheel being mounted for sliding movement, e.g. in or on a vertical guide
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K7/0007Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor being electric
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/10Independent suspensions
    • B60G2200/14Independent suspensions with lateral arms
    • B60G2200/144Independent suspensions with lateral arms with two lateral arms forming a parallelogram
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/422Driving wheels or live axles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/46Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions camber angle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2202/00Indexing codes relating to the type of spring, damper or actuator
    • B60G2202/20Type of damper
    • B60G2202/25Dynamic damper
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2204/00Indexing codes related to suspensions per se or to auxiliary parts
    • B60G2204/10Mounting of suspension elements
    • B60G2204/14Mounting of suspension arms
    • B60G2204/148Mounting of suspension arms on the unsprung part of the vehicle, e.g. wheel knuckle or rigid axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2204/00Indexing codes related to suspensions per se or to auxiliary parts
    • B60G2204/10Mounting of suspension elements
    • B60G2204/30In-wheel mountings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2300/00Indexing codes relating to the type of vehicle
    • B60G2300/50Electric vehicles; Hybrid vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K2007/0038Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor moving together with the wheel axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K2007/0046Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor moving together with the vehicle body, i.e. moving independently from the wheel axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K2007/0053Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor moving relative to the vehicle body and to the wheel axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K2007/0061Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor axle being parallel to the wheel axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K2007/0092Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor axle being coaxial to the wheel axle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/40Electrical machine applications
    • B60L2220/46Wheel motors, i.e. motor connected to only one wheel

Abstract

Provided is a drive device for an in-wheel motor type electric vehicle having a suspension configuration suitable for an in-wheel type motor without causing the motor to become unsprung. A member attached to the vehicle body so as to hold the motor, and a support disk is attached to the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel, and the support disk can be displaced in a direction parallel to the rotation surface of the drive shaft Is attached to suspend the drive wheel, the suspension is attached to the motor, and the drive wheel is suspended from the motor via the suspension.

Description

  The present invention relates to an electric vehicle having a drive motor for each drive wheel, and more particularly to a drive device for an in-wheel electric vehicle.

Various technical issues such as resource saving, active safety, and freedom of packaging in order for cars to evolve in response to global environmental issues, safety issues, an aging society, globalization, and diverse lifestyles Needs to be resolved. In the conventional configuration with an internal combustion engine, the output torque is increased by the transmission, transmitted by the drive shaft, and distributed by the differential, air pollution due to exhaust gas during cold start, and transmission efficiency decreases due to loss of each part There are many problems to be solved in order to expand the limits such as the reduction of the effective space in the car and the limitation of the design with a view to safety.
In order to revolutionize the making of cars, it is necessary to develop a system that ensures safe driving performance just by deciding packaging and attaching tires and accompanying modules.
In response to such a flow, Total Chassis Management-Heading for the Intelligent Chassis: A. Beller, Dr. P. E. In Rieth, Continental Steels AG & Co, oHG Frankfurt, Germany 2003 SAE World Congress, FIG. The concept of “corner module” that combines “steering module”, “braking module” and “spring / damper module” is proposed as the composition of Intelligent Chassis in 20.29.
Although a drive system is not mentioned in this, a highly functional self-contained module can be configured by introducing a drive system configuration as disclosed in JP-A-7-81430. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-81430 discloses “means for providing a drive mechanism for an electric vehicle that has a high motor efficiency, a wide effective space, and is small and light”. This is a so-called in-wheel motor vehicle, and the vehicle body space can be used more effectively than a conventional vehicle in which the internal combustion engine is replaced with a motor.
On the other hand, in the conventional in-wheel motor type vehicle, since the motor is built in the wheel, the unsprung mass becomes heavy, and there are disadvantages such as deterioration in riding comfort and deterioration in running stability due to deterioration in tire ground contact. . In response to such practical issues, Bridgestone Corporation, 2003.9.4 News, attaches a motor to the axle via a damper and a spring, so that the motor is in antiphase with respect to the movement of the axle. It functions as a dynamic damper by moving. As a result, the vibration of the axle is canceled and the ground contactability and riding comfort of the tire are improved.
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2002-337554 describes an example in which a motor is instructed to a vehicle body.
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-285350 describes that a driving wheel is supported on a vehicle body via a suspension mechanism, and an electric motor is fixedly supported on the vehicle body independently of the driving wheel.

In the following, an ideal configuration image of the entire future electric vehicle considered by the inventors will be described first, and then the scope referred to in the present invention will be described. Then, problems to be solved by the present invention will be described.
The future trend of vehicles is the concept of human centered. As described above, as mentioned above, the increasing sense of discomfort at the time of transfer for older users, the ease of driving and ensuring safety through driving support, the reduction of movement to maintain life through the development of IT and logistics, movement There is diversification of user preferences due to an increase in movement for enjoying (driving).
In order to realize human centered, it is necessary to make the vehicle body system a CCV (Control Configured Vehicle). In other words, the influence of the vehicle body characteristics determined by the mechanism for which static stability is obtained is reduced, and the vehicle body characteristics are changed by active control. Thereby, the balance point of maneuverability and stability can be made variable, and it becomes possible to customize to a plurality of vehicle body characteristics with the same mechanism. This makes it possible to have the same basic configuration for vehicles shipped worldwide, leading to cost reduction through global car design. Furthermore, combining personal authentication technology makes it possible to achieve both personalization.
What is required to realize CCV is X-By-Wire system construction technology for integrated control of multiple By-Wire subsystems, high-controllable electric actuators that serve as the core of the By-Wire subsystem, and servo control thereof This is a bidirectional HVI (Human Vehicle Interface) for informing the driver of the technology and detection of the driver's intention and the vehicle body movement status.
In X-By-Wire system construction technology, body motion control technology that achieves the desired maneuverability and stability, and abnormality detection (FDI: Fault Detection & Isolation) technology that ensures the reliability of the entire complex system are important. . These are also essential technologies for cost reduction.
The base technology is body motion analysis and modeling, and motion control needs to be advanced to the point where motion design is possible. In addition, FDI is a model-based estimation method, which enables fewer false detections and more reliable detection than a sensor-only method.
An electric actuator with high controllability is composed of a high-power density motor, functional mechanisms such as a brake and a steer, and a high-speed servo control system. Since the actuator used for vehicle body control has higher output than the engine control device, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the actuator itself. Considering the form of the vehicle body in the future, a suspension configuration that does not increase the wheel-in motor or unsprung weight is necessary.
One configuration that embodies the above concept is shown below.
The functions of electric drive, deceleration, steering, and suspension are combined and integrated (modularized) to achieve the same mechanism and mass production through miniaturization and weight reduction. Simply placing these modules in the four corners of the chassis will form the body of a car. Each module is electrically connected and has no mechanical connection. As a result, there is no need to cross the vehicle compartment, and a wide vehicle compartment space can be obtained. Each module performs integrated control and realizes high maneuverability and safety through CCV (Control Configured Vehicle). Hereinafter, this module will be referred to as a VD (Vehicle Dynamics) module.
In order to enable the above-described merit in the VD module, it is necessary to adopt a so-called in-wheel type in which independent driving wheels are driven by an independent motor.
The scope of reference of the present invention is mainly related to the combination of drive and suspension in the VD module. Further, the speed reduction and steering mechanism in the case of adopting the combined drive and suspension structure disclosed in the present invention will also be mentioned.
In the following, in light of the background art described above, problems to be solved by the present invention for an in-wheel type motor-driven electric vehicle will be described.
FIG. 1 shows a configuration of an in-wheel electric vehicle in which a driving motor is arranged for each conventional driving wheel. A drive wheel, which is a wheel integrated with a motor, is supported from the vehicle body via a suspension. In order for the drive wheels to be displaced, the motor must be displaced at the same time, so-called unsprung mass becomes heavy, and the ride comfort is deteriorated and the grounding property of the tire is reduced.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of the above-mentioned non-Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2002-337554. In the method of the above-mentioned non-Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2002-337554 in which a dynamic damper is provided, both the motor and the driving wheel move in the same phase for excitation at an extremely low frequency (near 1 Hz), and the effect as a dynamic damper is small. . In addition, it is necessary to adjust the rigidity of the support portion of the dynamic damper for each motor weight and vehicle weight, so that it is difficult to expand to various types of vehicles. In addition, an increase in cost is inevitable due to an increase in the number of components. In addition, it seems difficult to ensure robustness due to changes in vibration characteristics due to secular changes.
Also, in any of the above methods, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the motor and the drive wheels are connected to the tip of the vehicle body via the suspension. As a fundamental solution, it is desirable that a heavy motor is not unsprung even if it is an in-wheel motor.
Further, as shown in FIG. 3, the function of the suspension of the vehicle is integrated into the following two points, and a mechanism for solving this is required.
-To reduce the harshness when getting over the protrusions, displacement is possible (reduced rigidity) when an impact force is applied in the longitudinal and vertical directions of the suspension.
・ Toe and camber angle (alignment) changes are kept small even when longitudinal force and cornering force are applied to the drive wheels.
For example, as shown in the lower diagram of FIG. 3, when a simple link structure is taken, when the bounce (the drive wheel moves upward), the upper side of the drive wheel opens to the outside, and the camber angle opens to the outside. The grip force of the drive wheel will be reduced. In addition, bushes are used for joining the links, and the joints are displaced with respect to external forces, resulting in more complicated movements. In contrast, conventionally, a complicated link mechanism has been introduced, or the bush hardness of each link portion of the suspension has been finely adjusted.
On the other hand, one of the reasons for arranging a drive motor for each wheel of the drive wheel is the expansion of the company space, but in the conventional in-wheel motor, in order to support the motor integrated with the wheel via the suspension, The sum of the link length in the lateral direction of the suspension and the length of the motor is required for driving and suspension, and it is difficult to obtain an effective space (particularly in the lateral direction) unless the vehicle width is increased. For this purpose, a suspension configuration suitable for an in-wheel type motor is required.
An object of the present invention is to provide a drive device for an electric vehicle, particularly an in-wheel electric vehicle, in which the motor does not become unsprung.
Another object of the present invention is to constitute a suspension suitable for the drive device described above.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a steering and deceleration mechanism in the above configuration.
In a driving device for an electric vehicle having a motor for each driving wheel, particularly an in-wheel electric vehicle, a structure for transmitting a rotational force from the motor to the driving wheel, a structure for allowing the driving wheel to be displaced with respect to the motor, a motor and a driving wheel There is provided a driving apparatus for an electric vehicle, characterized in that a driving wheel is attached to a vehicle body via a motor.
Further, the motor and the suspension are integrated and arranged in the vicinity of the drive wheel wheel, and the drive wheel shaft and the motor shaft are connected by a flexible coupling to support the drive wheel with respect to the motor via the suspension structure. Accordingly, a drive device for an electric vehicle is provided, in which a motor is disposed on the vehicle body side of the suspension structure, and the weight of the suspension on the side opposite to the vehicle body is reduced.
Furthermore, the present invention provides a drive device for an electric vehicle, comprising a second suspension structure for connecting the motor and the vehicle body, wherein the motor is attached to the vehicle body side via the second suspension structure.
Specifically, the present invention relates to a drive device for an electric vehicle provided with a motor for driving the drive wheel for each drive wheel, and is attached to a vehicle body so as to hold the motor, and a suspension for suspending the drive wheel is attached to the motor. And a drive device for an electric vehicle, wherein the drive wheel is suspended from the motor (and the vehicle body) via the suspension.
An embodiment of the present invention is an electric vehicle drive device including a motor for driving each drive wheel.
A member attached to the vehicle body so as to hold the motor, and a support disk is attached to the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel, and the support disk can be displaced in a direction parallel to the rotation surface of the drive shaft. And a suspension for suspending the drive wheel is configured, the suspension is mounted on the motor, and the drive wheel is suspended on the motor via the suspension. To do.
Bearings are provided on both sides of the support disk so as to be in contact therewith and restrain displacement in the drive direction of the support disk, and the drive shaft of the motor and the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel are connected by a flexible joint.
The drive shaft is connected to a speed reducer, and the speed reducer is attached to be held by the motor.
A second suspension is provided for connecting the motor and the vehicle body, and the motor is attached to the vehicle body by a second suspension.
In addition, an embodiment of the present invention is an electric vehicle driving device including a motor for driving each driving wheel.
A support disk is provided so as to hold the motor on the vehicle body, and is parallel to the rotation surface of the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel and restrains displacement in the drive wheel axis direction (that is, the drive shaft direction of the motor). And a suspension that is attached to a member that allows the support disk to be displaced in a direction parallel to the rotation surface and is suspended from the drive wheel, the drive shaft of the motor, the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel, The suspension is attached to the motor by a flexible joint, and the motor has low rigidity in the direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the drive shaft and the axial direction of the drive wheel via the suspension. On the other hand, it constitutes a drive device for an electric vehicle characterized by being suspended with high rigidity.
The motor and the suspension attached to the motor are integrally stored in the vicinity of the drive wheel in the drive wheel.
When an external force is applied to the driving wheels by adopting the configuration disclosed above, the motor is not displaced, only the driving wheels can be displaced, and the unsprung weight can be substantially reduced, thereby improving the riding comfort. Driving stability can be improved by improving tire ground contact.
Since the rigidity of the suspension in the front-rear direction and the vertical direction can be reduced, it is possible to improve the riding comfort when overcoming the protrusion.
Even if longitudinal force and cornering force are applied to the drive wheels, running stability can be improved by keeping the alignment change small.
By having the actuator, the toe angle and camber angle can be controlled. Further, by adopting such a configuration, the steering angle can be controlled.
By adopting the configuration shown above, it is possible to realize the four functions of driving, deceleration, steering, and suspension with one VD module.

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of a conventional in-wheel electric vehicle.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing a configuration having a dynamic damper.
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing a problem of the suspension structure.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the configuration of an in-wheel electric vehicle to which the present invention is applied.
FIG. 5 is a diagram showing the overall configuration of a drive device for an electric vehicle equipped with a VD (Vehicle Dynamics) module.
FIG. 6 is a diagram showing the structure of another VD module.
FIG. 7 is a diagram showing the structure of another VD module.
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram showing a component structure of the VD module shown in FIG.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing the structure of another VD module.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a state where the VD module has bound and rebounded.
FIG. 11 is a view showing a configuration provided with a second suspension structure for supporting a motor.
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing an example in which the camber angle is controlled by giving a relative displacement from the vehicle body side to the motor side.

Hereinafter, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an overall configuration of the electric vehicle 1 on which VD (Vehicle Dynamics) modules 21, 22, 23, and 24 are mounted. The drive portion of the VD module adopts a so-called in-wheel type in which independent drive wheels are driven by an independent motor.
Each module is supplied with electric power from the battery 3 via the power line & high-reliability communication bus 9 and via the front wheel inverter 41 and the rear wheel inverter 42. The controller 5 controls the amount of power supplied to each module based on driver operation via an HV (Human Vehicle) interface 8, a camera 6, a distance sensor 7 such as a millimeter wave, or external information from communication means (not shown). . Large devices such as the battery 3, inverters 41 and 42, and the controller 5 are arranged below the vehicle body (floor) 10 to expand the living space.
The VD module integrates the functions of electric drive, deceleration, steering, and suspension into a single unit (modularization), and realizes the same mechanism and mass production through customization and miniaturization. This module is installed at the four corners of the chassis. Just arrange it to form a body as a car. Each module is electrically connected and has no mechanical connection. As a result, there is no need to cross the vehicle compartment, and a wide vehicle compartment space can be obtained. Each module implements integrated control to achieve high maneuverability and safety.
FIG. 5 shows an in-wheel electric vehicle driving apparatus 100 as an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 (a) is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of the driving device 100 when viewed from the side, and FIG. 5 (b) shows the arrangement of the above configuration more simply and compares it with the conventional example. FIG. In FIG. 5, the vehicle body 10 is instructed to rotate the upper portion of the motor holding portion 11 using a pivot 12A. Further, a linear actuator 132 is instructed to rotate freely by a pivot 19B at the lower part of the motor holding portion 11, and the other end of the linear actuator 132 is rotatably supported by a pivot 12B on the vehicle body side. The angle of the portion 11 with respect to the vehicle body can be changed.
A motor 13 is provided inside the motor holding unit 11. The motor 13 includes a stator 14 (not shown) and the rotor 15 includes a drive shaft (motor shaft) 17. In the case of this example, the stator 14 has a function as the motor holding portion 11 and is formed as one body.
Although both can be clearly separated functionally, the motor holding part 11 is treated as a part of the motor 13 here.
On the other hand, drive wheels 31 are provided on the side of the vehicle body 10. The drive wheel 31 has a drive wheel heel 32 and a tire 33, and the drive wheel wheel 32 has a wheel space 34 formed in the vehicle body direction.
In the wheel space portion 34, the hub 35 is fixed to the drive wheel wheel 32 and rotates integrally with the drive wheel 31. The hub 35 is provided with a drive wheel shaft (wheel shaft) 36, and the drive wheel shaft 36 is rotatably supported by an upright 37.
A part of the motor holding portion 11 has an upper portion projecting outward to form a projecting portion 18, and the projecting portion 18 and the upright 37 are pivoted at the upper and lower ends by a suspension arm member 26 (26 A, 26 B). , 27B, 27C, 27D). As a result, the upright 37 and thus the drive wheel 31 can be displaced vertically with respect to the motor holding portion 11 based on a link mechanism including a suspension arm and a pivot.
A spring damper member 25 is provided using the pivot 27A, and the other end of the spring damper member 25 is rotatably connected by the pivot 28 in the vicinity of the pivot 27D of the suspension arm member 26B. Accordingly, the spring damper member 25 constitutes the upright 37 and the suspension (suspension device) 30 that suspends the driving wheel 3 supported thereby by the suspension arm members 26A and 26B, and can be elastically supported with respect to the motor holding portion 11. And The motor holding part 11 is one of the members on the vehicle body side of the suspension.
The drive shaft 17 and the drive wheel shaft 36 are connected by a flexible joint 29, and the driving force of the motor 13 is transmitted to the drive wheel shaft 36 via the drive shaft 17. By the action of the flexible joint 29, it is possible to allow a change in angle with respect to the axial direction of the drive shaft 17 and transmit the drive force of the motor 13 to the drive wheels.
When the motor 13 and the suspension 30 are integrated and inserted into the wheel space 34 to form a wheel-in and mounted on the vehicle body 10 as described above, the suspension 30 (and the drive wheels 31) can be displaced with respect to the motor 13. The vehicle body can be suspended.
The configuration of this embodiment is reconfirmed with reference to FIG. When viewed from the vehicle body side (left side), the vehicle body, motor, suspension, and drive wheels are arranged in this order. In this way, the suspension structure connecting the motor and the drive wheels is provided, and the motor is arranged on the vehicle body side of the suspension structure, so that the motor is not unsprung unlike the conventional example of FIGS. It becomes possible to do.

FIG. 6 shows a second embodiment of the present invention. The same components as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description of the first embodiment is adopted. The same applies to the following embodiments.
In FIG. 6, the reduction gear 60 is attached to the motor holding member 11, that is, to be held by the motor 13, and the drive shaft 17 is connected to the reduction gear 60. As a result, the rotational speed of the drive shaft 17 is reduced and transmitted to the drive wheel shaft 29.
Thus, in this example, the speed reducer 60 is held by the motor 13 as a partial member on the vehicle body side of the suspension.
The configuration and description of FIG. 6 (b) are the same as those of FIG. 5 (b) and will not be repeated.

FIG. 7 is a schematic view showing a cross section of the VD module (the brake mechanism is omitted to avoid complication). FIG. 8 shows the components of the VD module shown in FIG. 7 and how to assemble it. In these drawings, a mount 201 is integrally attached to a vehicle body 10, and a motor 13 (stator 16, rotor 15) is attached thereto. Further, the motor 13 is joined to the intermediate drive shaft 204 from the joint portion 2031, and is connected to the drive wheel 31 via the suspension 30 constituted by the support disk 137, each bearing, the suspension bush, and the like.
In this example, a drive bearing 207 is provided on the outer side of the disc-shaped support disk 37, and a suspension bush 208 that constitutes a suspension member is provided on the outer side of the drive bearing 207. Both side surfaces are held by two support bearings, that is, an inner support bearing 205 and an out support 209. These support bearings are held by the protruding portion 18 of the motor holding portion 11.
By adopting the structure shown in FIG. 8, the structure of the drive device 100 is further saved, and the motor is on a spring and a configuration without camber change is provided.
As described above, the support disk 137 that is attached to the vehicle body 10 so as to hold the motor 13, is provided on the drive wheel shaft 36 of the drive wheel 31 in parallel with the rotation surface and restrains the axial displacement, and the support disk 137 is provided with the support disk 137. The suspension 30 can be displaced in the direction parallel to the rotation surface, that is, a member to be allowed is attached, and the suspension 30 is suspended on the drive wheel 31 to drive the drive shaft 17 of the motor 13 and the drive wheel 31. The wheel shaft 36 is connected by a flexible joint 29, so that the suspension 30 is attached to the motor 13, and the motor 13 has low rigidity in the direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the drive shaft 17 via the suspension 30 to the drive wheel 31. In addition, the driving device 100 that is suspended with high rigidity in the axial direction is configured, and the motor 13 and the suspension attached to the motor 13 are configured. Structure for accommodating the drive wheel wheel 32 of the drive wheel 31 down 30 integrally constitute.
In FIG. 8, reference numeral 201 denotes a mount for attaching a module, which is attached to the vehicle body 10 integrally. A steering actuator 40 driven by the controller 5 is fixed above the mount 201, and a stator 16 is fixed to its output shaft. Thereby, the angle (displacement) with respect to the vehicle body of the entire module including the drive wheel 32 can be given. A rotor 15 is connected to the intermediate drive shaft 204 of the 204 by a joint portion 2031 that can be angularly displaced. The other end of the intermediate drive shaft 204 is connected to a disk-like member called a support disk 137 via equivalent connecting means 2061. A drive shaft 2061 is connected to the support disk 137, and a hub 210 having a brake disk 2101 and a drive wheel wheel 32 are connected to the drive shaft 2062 at the other end thereof, and the rotational torque of the rotor 15 is supplied to the drive wheel wheel 32. Is communicating.
Reference numerals 205 and 209 denote an inner support bearing (outer bearing) and an outer support bearing, respectively. The support disk 137 is sandwiched from the front / back, and can be displaced only in the direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the drive shaft 2062 (perpendicular direction). That is, the support disk 137, the hub 210, and the drive wheel 32 are displaced only in the front-rear direction, the up-down direction, or their combined direction without being inclined with respect to the vehicle body 10 or the mount 201.
A drive bearing 207 is fitted on the outer circumference of the support disk 137, and a suspension bush 208, which is an elastic member, is fitted on the outer circumference. The suspension bush 208 is fixed between the inner support bearing 205 and the outer support bearing 209. ing. As a result, the support disk 206 is integrated with the drive bearing 207 and can be supported by the suspension bushing 208 in the direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the shaft. In this embodiment, an elastic member is used for the suspension. However, a metal spring, an air spring, a hydraulic actuator, or the like may be used so that the suspension can be displaced in the vertical direction and the front-rear direction.
A brake caliper 211 controlled by the controller 5 is fixed to the outer support bearing 209, and the drive wheel 31 can be decelerated based on a command from the controller 5 by sandwiching the brake disc 2101 of the hub 210.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a state where the VD module bounces from the neutral position (a) (the tire moves upward) and rebounds (the tire moves downward). Since the support disk 137 connected to the drive wheel 32 is sandwiched from the front / back by the inner support bearing 205 and the outer support bearing 209, the support disk 137 is displaced at right angles to the axial direction of the rotor 15 or the drive shaft 2062. As shown in the figure, camber change does not occur during bound / rebound. Although not shown, a toe change or the like does not occur due to the above-described configuration even when displaced in the front-rear direction (direction perpendicular to the paper surface).
The rigidity in the front-rear direction and the vertical direction can be adjusted independently by appropriately selecting the rigidity of the suspension bush 208 for each circumferential portion.
As described above, according to the configuration of this embodiment,
-To reduce the harshness when getting over the protrusions, displacement is possible (reduced rigidity) when an impact force is applied in the longitudinal and vertical directions of the suspension.
・ Toe and camber angle (alignment) changes are kept small even when longitudinal force and cornering force are applied to the drive wheels.
The above-described two problems can be solved simultaneously, and a suspension configuration suitable for an in-wheel type motor is provided.

FIG. 9 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention. The same components as those in the third embodiment are given the same numbers.
In FIG. 9, the speed reducer 60 is attached to the motor holding member 11, that is, to be held by the motor 13, and the drive shaft 17 is connected to the speed reducer 60. As a result, the rotational speed of the drive shaft 17 is reduced and transmitted to the drive wheel shaft 29.
Thus, in this example, the speed reducer 60 is held by the motor 13 as a part of the suspension vehicle body example.
The configuration and description of FIG. 9B are the same as those of FIG. 7B and will not be repeated.

For vehicles that require a very large wheel stroke (displacement in the vertical direction of the drive wheels) such as off-road vehicles, there is a concern that the stroke may be insufficient when the structure shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 is adopted. The In such a case, the second suspension 31 that supports the motor 13 may be provided as shown in FIG. That is, the motor 13 is attached to the vehicle body 10 by the second suspension 31. A mount 202 is newly provided, a parallelogram link mechanism 303 is provided between the mount 202 and the mount 201, and a suspension member 305 is provided by connecting the mount 202 and a pivot point 304 of the link mechanism. The other structure is the same as that of FIG. As a result, a large stroke is possible, and for a minute and high frequency displacement, the motor is not displaced, and only the driving wheel can be displaced. As a result, it is possible to provide a suspension configuration that ensures ride comfort, handling stability, and running performance even for off-road vehicles.
Next, a steering mechanism and a speed reduction mechanism that can be employed in each of the above-described embodiments will be described.
The motor side has the structure shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 and moves only at right angles to the motor rotation axis (no tilt angle occurs with respect to the axis). The angle of the wheel to the car body is equal. Therefore, the steering actuator 40 is fixed to the mount 201 (vehicle body side), and steering can be performed by directly giving an angular displacement to the stator 16 corresponding to the motor casing.
If the characteristic that the angle of the motor with respect to the vehicle body is equal to the angle of the drive wheel with respect to the vehicle body is used, a relative displacement is applied from the vehicle body side to the motor side using the linear actuator 132 as shown in FIG. It is possible to control the angle of the drive wheel with respect to the road surface, such as control of the angle. As a result, the running stability can be improved by improving the tire ground contact property. FIG. 12 (a) shows an example with camber control, and FIG. 12 (b) shows an example without camber control.
By having the linear actuator 132 in this way, the toe angle and camber angle can be controlled. Further, by adopting such a configuration, the steering angle can be controlled.
By adopting the configuration shown above, it is possible to realize the four functions of driving, deceleration, steering, and suspension with one VD module.
As shown in FIG. 8, a brake caliper 211 that allows the drive wheels to decelerate by sandwiching a brake disc 2101 provided on the hub 210 is fixed to the outer support bearing 209. As can be seen from FIG. 10, the outer support bearing 209 is integrated with the motor side and is not displaced up and down with respect to the bounce and rebound of the drive wheel (on the spring). Therefore, since the brake caliper 211 is also arranged on the spring, the unsprung weight can be reduced, and the running stability can be improved by improving the riding comfort and the tire ground contact property. If there is concern about the generation of force in the direction perpendicular to the wheel axis during braking with the drive wheels displaced and eccentric, a brake disk and caliper are placed inside the motor (non-displacement part) because each wheel has a motor. May be. When a VD module is used as the driven wheel, a brake structure may be incorporated in place of the motor stator and rotor.
The brake force generated by the brake caliper 211 can be finely controlled by the controller 5 by integrating it with motor drive or regenerative braking torque according to the required deceleration, and it is highly accurate and highly functional. Control and the like are possible.
As described above, the configuration shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 provides a steering / deceleration mechanism when a suspension configuration suitable for an in-wheel type motor is adopted.
As described above, as shown in FIG. 5, FIG. 7, or FIG. 8, the self-contained VD (Vehicle Dynamics) module that combines the functions of electric drive, deceleration, steering, and suspension is combined. realizable.
As shown in FIG. 4, an electric vehicle can be formed simply by arranging the modules at the four corners of the chassis. Each module is electrically connected and has no mechanical connection. As a result, nothing crosses the passenger compartment (flat floor), and a large passenger compartment space can be obtained. Each module can perform integrated control and achieve high maneuverability and safety.

Claims (13)

In an electric vehicle drive device including a motor for driving the drive wheel for each drive wheel,
A drive device for an electric vehicle, wherein the motor is attached to a vehicle body so that the motor is held, a suspension for suspending the drive wheel is attached to the motor, and the drive wheel is suspended from the motor via the suspension.
2. The drive device for an electric vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the motor and the suspension attached to the motor are integrally stored in the vicinity of the drive wheel of the drive wheel. 3. The electric vehicle drive device according to claim 1, wherein a drive shaft of the motor and a drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel are connected by a flexible joint. 4. The drive device for an electric vehicle according to claim 3, wherein the drive shaft is connected to a speed reducer, and the speed reducer is attached to be held by the motor. 5. The electric vehicle drive device according to claim 1, further comprising a second suspension for connecting the motor and the vehicle body, wherein the motor is attached to the vehicle body by the second suspension. . In an electric vehicle drive device including a motor for driving the drive wheel for each drive wheel,
A member attached to the vehicle body so as to hold the motor, and a support disk is attached to the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel, and the support disk can be displaced in a direction parallel to the rotation surface of the drive shaft. An electric vehicle driving apparatus comprising: a suspension configured to suspend the driving wheel, wherein the suspension is mounted on the motor, and the driving wheel is suspended on the motor via the suspension.
7. The bearing according to claim 6, wherein bearings are provided on both sides of the support disk so as to constrain the displacement of the support disk in the drive shaft direction, and the drive shaft of the motor and the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel are flexible. An electric vehicle drive device characterized by being connected by a joint. 8. The drive device for an electric vehicle according to claim 6, wherein the drive shaft is connected to a speed reducer, and the speed reducer is attached to be held by the motor. 9. The drive apparatus for an electric vehicle according to claim 6, further comprising a second suspension for connecting the motor and the vehicle body, wherein the motor is attached to the vehicle body by the second suspension. . In an electric vehicle drive device including a motor for driving the drive wheel for each drive wheel,
A support disk is provided on the vehicle body so as to hold the motor, and the drive wheel is parallel to the rotation surface of the drive wheel shaft and restrains displacement in the direction of the drive wheel axis, and the support disk is parallel to the rotation surface. A suspension that is attached to a member that allows displacement of the support disk in a direction to suspend the drive wheel is configured, and the drive shaft of the motor and the drive wheel shaft of the drive wheel are connected by a flexible joint, thereby The suspension is attached to the motor, and the drive wheel is suspended through the suspension with the motor having low rigidity in a direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the drive shaft and strong rigidity in the axial direction. Electric vehicle drive device.
11. The drive device for an electric vehicle according to claim 10, wherein the motor and the suspension attached to the motor are integrally stored in the vicinity of the drive wheel of the drive wheel. 12. The drive device for an electric vehicle according to claim 1, further comprising a mechanism for decelerating rotation of the drive wheels. 13. The electric vehicle drive apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an actuator for applying a relative displacement with respect to the vehicle body from the vehicle body to the motor.
JP2006535015A 2004-09-17 2004-09-17 Electric vehicle drive system Pending JPWO2006030532A1 (en)

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