JPH1175329A - Non-contact type ic card system - Google Patents

Non-contact type ic card system

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Publication number
JPH1175329A
JPH1175329A JP9233611A JP23361197A JPH1175329A JP H1175329 A JPH1175329 A JP H1175329A JP 9233611 A JP9233611 A JP 9233611A JP 23361197 A JP23361197 A JP 23361197A JP H1175329 A JPH1175329 A JP H1175329A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
ic card
reader
writer device
writer
card
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP9233611A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Yoshihiko Hayashi
Koichi Kamisaka
Masami Makuuchi
Taku Suga
Ryozo Yoshino
晃一 上坂
亮三 吉野
雅巳 幕内
林  良彦
卓 須賀
Original Assignee
Hitachi Ltd
株式会社日立製作所
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Application filed by Hitachi Ltd, 株式会社日立製作所 filed Critical Hitachi Ltd
Priority to JP9233611A priority Critical patent/JPH1175329A/en
Publication of JPH1175329A publication Critical patent/JPH1175329A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To maximize the power transmission efficiency from a reader or writer device to a proximity wireless card, by setting the respective Q values of a resonance circuit of the reader or writer device and the resonance circuit of an IC card using the Q of the whole communication route. SOLUTION: A reader and/or writer unit 1 constitutes a resonance circuit using a capacitor 104, an antenna drive impedance 120 and an R/W antenna coil 101. A wireless card 2 constitutes a resonance circuit using a card antenna coil 201, a capacitor, and a resistor 220. In such a system, the antenna drive impedance 120 is set so as to maximize the reception efficiency at the proximity wireless card 2 in the target communication distance, and the respective Qs of the resonance circuits are set so as to obtain the necessary bandwidth to secure the sufficient signal level to the target communication speed.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、例えばキャッシュディスペンサ、電子マネー、自動改札システム、入退室管理システム、公衆電話器等におけるキャッシュカード、クレジットカード、乗車券、定期券、回数券、管理カード、IDカード、免許証、テレホンカード等の非接触ICカードとリーダまたは/およびライタ装置との間において近接無線動作用電力伝送及び通信を行う非接触ICカードシステムに関する。 The present invention relates to, for example a cash dispenser, electronic money, automatic ticket gate system, entry and exit management system, cash cards in public telephone, credit card, ticket, commuter pass, tickets, management card, ID card, driver's license, to the non-contact IC card system for performing power transmission and communication proximity radio operating in the non-contact IC card and the reader and / or writer device, such as telephone cards.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】従来、光または磁界を用いて電力供給側から近接無線カード(ICカード)に対して非接触で電力を供給することは知られている。 Conventionally, to supply power in a non-contact manner with respect proximity radio card (IC card) from the power supply side by using light or magnetic fields are known.

【0003】例えば、駅の改札口やバスや入退口等において使用するキャッシュカード、クレジットカード、乗車券や定期券等をICカード化し、このICカードを使用者が駅の改札口やバスや入退口等に備えられたリーダ/ライタに対して非接触で通過させたとき、リーダ/ライタとカードとの間での電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等により電力または/および信号の授受を行う非接触ICカードシステム(近接無線カードシステム)である。 [0003] For example, a cash card to be used in the wicket and bus and Nyushisa opening or the like of the station, credit card, and IC card the ticket and regular coupons, and the like, Ya turnstiles and bus of the IC card user station when it passed without contact to the reader / writer provided in the entering and leaving the mouth or the like, and exchanges power or / and signals by electromagnetic coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method or the like with the reader / writer and the card a non-contact IC card system (proximity radio card system).

【0004】一般に、このような非接触ICカードシステムは、リーダ/ライタ側からICカード側へ電力伝送波及びデータ通信変調波を高効率に伝送できるように、リーダ/ライタとICカードとをそれぞれ別個に設計していた。 In general, such non-contact IC card system, a power transmission wave and data communication modulated wave from the reader / writer side to the IC card side can be transmitted efficiently, the reader / writer and an IC card, respectively It was designed separately.

【0005】具体的には、図4に示すような周波数特性から導かれるQ(=f0/ BW、f0:中心周波数、BW:中心周波数f0の有する利得から−3dBとなる帯域幅)を考慮してリーダ/ライタとICカードとを設計していた。 [0005] Specifically, Q derived from the frequency characteristics shown in FIG. 4 considering (= f0 / BW, f0:: center frequency, BW bandwidth of -3dB from the gain having a center frequency f0) It has been designed and the reader / writer and the IC card Te.

【0006】 [0006]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】しかし、リーダ/ライタが電力伝送波にデータ信号(データ通信変調波)を重畳して送受信を行う場合、非接触ICカードシステムでは、以下の条件を満足しなければならない。 [SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION However, when the reader / writer to transmit and receive by superimposing the data signal (data communication modulated wave) to the power transmission wave, in a non-contact IC card system, have to satisfy the following conditions shall.

【0007】(1)ICカード側において、あらゆるデータ通信変調波を全て確実に受信できるように、利得がある値以上となるような帯域幅BWをなるべく広くするように設計しなければならない。 [0007] (1) In the IC card side, any and all data communication modulated wave so as to receive reliably, must be designed bandwidth BW such that the gain is greater than or equal to possible wide. すなわち、Qが小さくなるように設計しなければならない。 In other words, it must be designed so that Q is reduced.

【0008】(2)ICカード側に十分な電力を供給できるように、電力伝送周波数、例えば前述の中心周波数の利得をなるべく大きくしなければならない。 [0008] (2) so that it can supply sufficient power to the IC card side, must be as large as possible the power transmission frequency, for example, the gain of the above center frequency. この場合、 in this case,
一般には、Qが大きくなるように設計しなければならない。 In general, it must be designed so that Q is increased. なお、単にリーダ/ライタ側から送信される電力伝送波を大きくしただけでは、電力伝送波は法規制のない Incidentally, merely by increasing the power transmission wave transmitted from the reader / writer side, the power transmission wave is no legislation
ISMバンドを使用するので問題はないが、その電力伝送波に重畳されるデータ通信変調波が、使用する周波数帯域(ISMバンド外)において法規制値を満足できなくなることも考慮しなければならない。 There is no problem because it uses ISM band, the data communication modulated wave superimposed on a power transmission wave, must be considered to not be satisfied the legal limits in the frequency band used (outside the ISM band).

【0009】このように(1)、(2)の条件は、一方ではQを小さくすることが、他方ではQを大きくすることが条件となり、両者を満足するようなリーダ/ライタとI [0009] Thus (1), condition (2), on the one hand is possible to reduce the Q becomes a possible condition to increase the Q on the other hand, so as to satisfy both the reader / writer and I
CカードのQをそれぞれ決定することは非常に困難な作業となる。 To determine the Q of C card each becomes a very difficult task.

【0010】例えば、リーダ/ライタおよびICカードのそれぞれのアンテナ部の共振回路のQを高くしてリーダ/ライタとカードとで構成される伝送経路全体のQを高く設定すると、カードでの受信誘起電力は増加するが、 [0010] For example, if by increasing the Q of the resonant circuit of each of the antenna portion of the reader / writer and the IC card is set higher the Q of the entire transmission path composed of a reader / writer and the card, receiving induced in card Although power is increased,
リーダ/ライタとカードとの間での目標とする通信速度に対して十分な信号レベルを確保するための必要な帯域幅が得られないと言った事態となってしまう。 It becomes a reader / writer and the situation in which said bandwidth is not obtained necessary to ensure adequate signal level to the communication speed of a target with the card.

【0011】本発明は、上記問題点を解決すべくなされたものであり、リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と近接無線カード(ICカード)の共振回路に対して、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置から該近接無線カード(I [0011] The present invention has been made to solve the above problems, with respect to the resonant circuit of the reader and / or writer device and the proximity radio card (IC card), said from the reader and / or writer device close proximity wireless card (I
Cカード)への電力伝送効率を最大とし、かつ目標とする通信速度に対して必要な帯域幅を容易に与える全く新規な方法を提供することを目的とする。 To maximize power transfer efficiency to the C card), and an object at all to provide a novel method of providing bandwidth necessary to facilitate the communication speed of a target.

【0012】 [0012]

【課題を解決するための手段】そこで、我々は、非接触 In order to solve the problems] Therefore, we, the non-contact
ICカードシステム全体のQを用いてリーダ/ライタとICカードそれぞれのQを割り振り、設計することで上記目的を達成することとした。 Allocate Q of each reader / writer and the IC card using the Q of the overall IC card system, it was decided to achieve the above object by designing.

【0013】具体的には、リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行い、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードとがそれぞれ該電力または/および該信号を伝送するアンテナコイルと該電力を伝送する電力伝送周波数に同調するように設定した容量と該アンテナコイルの駆動インピーダンスからなる共振回路を備えた非接触式ICカードシステムであって、該リーダまたは/ [0013] Specifically, the reader and / or writer device and performs the transmission of power and / or signals to and from the IC card in a non-contact, said reader and / or writer device and the IC card and the said power respectively or / and a non-contact type IC card system comprising a resonant circuit consisting of the driving impedance of the set volume and the antenna coil to tune to the power transmission frequency for transmitting antenna coil and said power transmitting the signal , the reader or /
およびライタ装置と該ICカードからなる通信経路全体のQを用いることで、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置の有する共振回路と該ICカードの有する共振回路のそれぞれのQを設定したものである。 And by using the Q of the entire communication path consisting writer device and the IC card is obtained by setting the respective Q of the resonant circuit included in the resonant circuit and the IC card possessed by the reader and / or writer device.

【0014】もしくは、リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行う非接触式ICカードシステムであって、 [0014] Alternatively, a non-contact type IC card system for performing a non-contact transmission of power and / or signals between the reader and / or writer device and the IC card,
該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置のアンテナ駆動インピーダンスを該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置のアンテナから該ICカードを見込んだインピーダンスにほぼ等しく設定して導き出した伝送経路全体のQの特性から、該信号の伝送速度に対して所望の帯域幅を得ることが可能となるQ3を算出し、該算出したQ3と該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置から該ICカードへの電力伝送効率を最大となる該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置の The antenna drive impedance of the reader and / or writer device from the characteristics of the antenna from the entire transmission path derived set approximately equal to the impedance in anticipation of the IC card Q of the reader and / or writer apparatus, the transmission of the signal calculates Q3 which is possible to obtain a desired bandwidth for the rate, the reader and / or from Q3 and said reader and / or writer device the calculated the maximum power transfer efficiency to the IC card of the writer device
Q1と該ICカードのQ2との関係とを用いることで、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードの有する共振回路のそれぞれのQ1、Q2を設定したものである。 Q1 and by using the relationship between Q2 of the IC card is obtained by setting the respective Q1, Q2 of the resonance circuit with the said reader and / or writer device and the IC card.

【0015】もしくは、リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行う非接触ICカードシステムであって、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードからなる通信経路全体のQを用いることで、該リーダまたは/ [0015] Alternatively, a non-contact IC card system for performing a non-contact transmission of power and / or signals between the reader and / or writer device and the IC card, the reader and / or writer device and the IC card by using the Q of the entire communication path consisting of the reader or /
およびライタ装置と該ICカードそれぞれのQを設定したものである。 And it is obtained by setting the writer device and the IC card each Q.

【0016】このような構成にすることで、近接されるICカードに対して電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等により電力および信号の授受を行うリーダまたは/およびライタとICカードからなる非接触ICカードシステム(近接無線カードシステム)において、目標とする通信距離においてICカードでの受信効率を最大とし、しかも目標とする通信速度に対して十分な信号レベルを確保するため必要な帯域幅を容易に得ることができる。 [0016] Such arrangement is to be in an electromagnetic coupling method or non-contact IC card comprising a reader and / or writer and the IC card for exchanging power and signal by an electromagnetic induction method or the like to the IC card to be close the system (proximity radio card system), the communication distance to the target receiving efficiency of an IC card as a maximum, to easily obtain the necessary bandwidth to ensure a sufficient signal level with respect Moreover communication speed to the target be able to.

【0017】 [0017]

【発明の実施の形態】本発明に係る実施の形態について図を用いて説明する。 For DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.

【0018】図1は、本発明に係る例えば改札口やバスや入退口や所定の場所に備えられたリーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置)1から非接触で通過または近接される非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード) [0018] Figure 1 is according to the present invention for example wicket or bus and entering and leaving the mouth or a predetermined reader / or writer unit (apparatus) provided in the location contactless card being passed or proximity from 1 in a non-contact (proximity radio card: IC card)
2に対して電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等により電力を伝送すると共に通信を行う電力伝送および通信方式の概略構成を示す図である。 Against 2 is a diagram showing a schematic configuration of a power transmission and communication method for performing communication with transmitting power by an electromagnetic coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method or the like. 非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード)2は、使用者が保持して改札口やバスや入退口に備えられたリーダまたは/およびライタユニット1に対して非接触で例えば10cm位までの距離を離して通過させることによって電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等によりキャッシュカード、クレジットカード、乗車券、定期券等の情報を送受信してキャッシュカード、クレジットカード、乗車券、定期券等の役目をするものである。 Contactless card (proximity radio card: IC card) 2, to a non-contact, for example 10cm-position relative to the reader and / or writer unit 1 user is provided to wicket, bus and entering and leaving the mouth holding electromagnetic coupling method or a cash card by an electromagnetic induction method or the like by the distance apart to pass, credit card, ticket, cache transmit and receive information such as a commutation ticket card, credit card, ticket, the role of such season ticket it is intended to.

【0019】図2は、図1に示すリーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置)1と該非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード)2の構成を等価回路により表したものである。 [0019] Figure 2, the reader and / or writer unit (apparatus) 1 and the noncontact card (proximity radio card: IC card) shown in FIG. 1 is a second configuration that represents an equivalent circuit. なお、非接触カード(近接無線カード:I The non-contact card (proximate wireless card: I
Cカード)2を簡素化するために、単一のアンテナ(リーダライタアンテナ)101により電力伝送および情報の送受信するように構成した。 To simplify C card) 2, and configured to transmit and receive electric power transmission and information by a single antenna (reader-writer antenna) 101. 従って、図2では、リーダまたは/およびライタユニット1に設けられたリーダライタアンテナ101と近接無線カード2に形成されたカードアンテナコイル201との間で、図3に示す電力伝送波およびデータ通信変調波からなる電磁波(無線) Thus, in FIG. 2, between the reader and / or writer unit writer antenna 101 cards formed proximate wireless card 2 and the antenna coil 201 provided in the 1, the power transmission wave and data communication shown in FIG. 3 modulation an electromagnetic wave consisting of the waves (wireless)
を使って電力の伝送および通信の送受信の両方を行う。 Performing both transmission and reception of the transmission and communication of power using.
なお、図3から分かるように、ASK変調方式における電力伝送波と信号波は、周波数領域で見ると異なる周波数成分であるが、時間領域でみると電力伝送波の振幅が信号速度に応じて変化するだけである。 As can be seen from FIG. 3, the power transmission wave and a signal wave in the ASK modulation scheme is a frequency component different from when viewed in the frequency domain, in accordance with the amplitude signal speed of the power transmission wave when viewed in the time domain variation it only. つまり、電力伝送波に信号波を掛け合わせた変調波は時間領域では、電力伝送波の波形振幅が上下変動しているようにしか見えない。 That is, the time modulated wave multiplied by the signal wave to the power transmission wave region, only visible to the waveform amplitude of the power transmission wave is vertical deformation.

【0020】さて、図2に示す非接触カードシステム(近接無線カードシステム)は、周波数foで発振するOSC(発振器)304と、該OSC304によってアンテナコイル301を駆動する際のアンテナコイル駆動インピーダンス303と、該アンテナコイル301と周波数foで直列共振するように設定したアンテナコイル同調容量302とで構成されるリーダ/ライタ300 [0020] Now, the non-contact card system shown in FIG. 2 (proximity radio card system), the OSC (oscillator) 304 oscillates at a frequency fo, the antenna coil drive impedance 303 when driving the antenna coils 301 by the OSC304 , the antenna coil 301 and the reader / writer 300 consists of the frequency fo and the antenna coil tuning capacitance 302 is set so that the series resonance
と、アンテナコイル401と周波数foで並列共振するように設定したアンテナコイル同調容量402とカード負荷抵抗403とで構成されるICカード400とにより構成されている。 When, it is constituted by the IC card 400 constituted by the antenna coil tuning capacitor 402 and the card load resistor 403 which is configured to resonate in parallel with the antenna coil 401 and the frequency fo. そして、リーダ/ライタのアンテナコイル301とICカードのアンテナコイル401とは電磁誘導または電磁結合によりアンテナ結合係数kをもって結合している。 Then, and bind with an antenna coupling coefficient k by electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic coupling between the antenna coil 301 and the IC card of the antenna coil 401 of the reader / writer. この該アンテナ結合係数kはリーダ/ライタのアンテナコイル301とICカードのアンテナコイル401との距離に応じて変化する。 The said antenna coupling coefficient k changes depending on the distance between the antenna coil 301 and the IC card of the antenna coil 401 of the reader / writer. ここでは説明のため、リーダ/ライタ側の共振回路を直列共振回路とし、ICカード側の共振回路を並列共振回路としているが、共振回路の組み合わせはこれに限らず種々の態様をとることができる。 For illustration here, the resonant circuit of the reader / writer side series resonant circuit, although the resonant circuit of the IC card side as the parallel resonance circuit, the combination of the resonant circuit may take various aspects is not limited to this .

【0021】ここで、上記のようなリーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置)1、非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード)2からなる非接触ICカードシステム全体のQの近似式を求めると数1のようになる。 [0021] Here, the above-described reader and / or writer unit (apparatus) 1, the non-contact card (proximate wireless card: IC card) When an approximate expression of the non-contact IC card system overall Q of two numbers It becomes one of such.

【0022】 [0022]

【数1】 [Number 1]

【0023】これは図2に示す等価回路に基づいた回路方程式から求めた結果であり、非接触ICカードシステム全体のQ3をリーダまたは/およびライタユニットのQ1 [0023] This is the result obtained from the circuit equations based on the equivalent circuit shown in FIG. 2, the non-contact IC card system overall Q3 reader and / or writer unit Q1
と非接触ICカードのQ2との関係で求めたものである。 And those determined in relation to the Q2 of the non-contact IC card.
なお、リーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置) Note that the reader and / or writer unit (apparatus)
1、非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード)2の構成によって等価回路や数1の内容が当然異なるが、いずれの場合であっても非接触ICカードシステム全体のQ 1, the non-contact card (proximate wireless card: IC card), but the contents of the equivalent circuit and the number 1 by the second configuration is naturally different, the entire non-contact IC card system in either case Q
3をリーダまたは/およびライタユニットのQ1と非接触ICカードのQ2との関係で求めたものであれば良い。 3 as long as determined by the relationship between Q2 reader and / or Q1 and the non-contact IC card writer unit.

【0024】次に、数1に示すような非接触ICカードシステム全体のQ3をリーダまたは/およびライタユニットのQ1と非接触ICカードのQ2とで表した関係を用いてリーダまたは/およびライタユニットのQ1と非接触IC Next, the reader and / or writer unit using the relationship expressed in the non-contact IC card system overall Q3 as shown in Equation 1 and Q1 reader and / or writer unit and Q2 of the non-contact IC card Q1 and the non-contact IC of
カードのQ2とを決定する方法(Q1、Q2の割り振り) Method for determining the card Q2 (Q1, Q2 allocation)
を図5を用いて説明する。 Will be described with reference to FIG.

【0025】図5は、数1を用いて、該ICカード4のQ(Q2)と該リーダ/ライタ3と該ICカード4で構成される伝送経路全体のQ(Q3)との関係、および該ICカード4のQ(Q2)と該リーダ/ライタ3のQ [0025] Figure 5, using a number 1, the relationship between the Q of the IC card 4 (Q2) and said reader / writer 3 and the entire transmission path composed of the IC card 4 Q (Q3), and Q of the IC card 4 (Q2) and Q of the reader / writer 3
(Q1)との関係についてシミュレーションした結果である。 (Q1) is the result of a simulation of the relationship between. この場合、数2を数1に代入することでシミュレーションしている。 In this case, the simulation by substituting Equation 2 in Equation 1.

【0026】 [0026]

【数2】 [Number 2]

【0027】数2は、図2に示す回路において目標とする通信距離でのICカードの受信効率が最大となるよう、リーダ/ライタのアンテナ駆動インピーダンス30 The number 2, so that the reception efficiency of the IC card of the communication distance as a target in the circuit shown in FIG. 2 is maximum, the reader / writer antenna drive impedance 30
3を目標とする通信距離におけるリーダ/ライタの端子a−a'305からICカード4を見たインピーダンスZc306に等しくしてインピーダンスマッチングをとることで導いたものである。 3 equal to the impedance Zc306 viewed IC card 4 from the terminal a-a'305 reader / writer in communication distance to target those led by impedance matching.

【0028】また、図5では、リーダ/ライタ3のアンテナコイル301を、ターン数[T]が3のスパイラル形状で外周を100[mm]×100[mm]とし、I Further, in FIG. 5, the antenna coil 301 of the reader / writer 3, the outer periphery number of turns [T] is 3 spiral and 100 [mm] × 100 [mm], I
Cカード4のアンテナコイル401をターン数[T]が4のスパイラル形状で外周を77[mm]×42[m C card number of turns of the antenna coil 401 of 4 [T] is an outer periphery at 4 spiral 77 [mm] × 42 [m
m]とし、該リーダ/ライタ3と該ICカード4の距離d=30[mm](この時結合係数kの値はk=0.0 And m], a distance d = 30 of the reader / writer 3 and the IC card 4 [mm] (the value in this case the coupling coefficient k is k = 0.0
998)をシミュレーションしている。 It is simulation 998).

【0029】このようなシミュレーション結果に対して、目標とする通信速度における非接触ICカードシステムで必要となる帯域幅と、使用する電力伝送周波数とから伝送経路全体のQ3を設定することができる。 [0029] can be set to such simulation results, the bandwidth required in a non-contact IC card system in a communication speed of a target, the Q3 of the entire transmission path from the power transmission frequency used. そして設定したQ3から図5に示す関数を用いて、Q1Q2を一義的に設定することができる。 And using the function shown in FIG. 5 from Q3 set, it can be set Q1Q2 uniquely.

【0030】例えば、目標とする通信速度に対して必要な帯域幅から伝送経路全体のQであるQ3を10以下とすると、該リーダ/ライタ3のQはQ1=4.5〜2 [0030] For example, when the Q3 is a Q of the entire transmission path from the necessary bandwidth for the communication speed of the target is 10 or less, Q of the reader / writer 3 is Q1 = 4.5 to 2
2.2で、該ICカード4のQはQ2=4.4〜22. In 2.2, Q of the IC card 4 is Q2 = 4.4~22.
0とすればよいことがわかる。 0 and it can be seen that it is sufficient.

【0031】前述の如く、図5では、電力伝送が最大となる場合の関係式(数2)を用いてシミュレーションした結果であるので、設定したQ1、Q2は電力伝送が最大となるような値となる。 [0031] As previously described, in FIG. 5, since the power transmission is the result of a simulation using the equation when the maximum (number 2), the set Q1, Q2 are like power transmission is maximized value to become. すなわち、ICカード4での受信効率を最大にし、しかも目標とする通信速度に対して十分な帯域幅を得ることが可能なリーダ/ライタ3とICカード4それぞれの共振回路のQを設定することができる。 In other words, setting the Q of the received efficiency and the maximum, yet the reader / writer 3 and the IC card 4 respective resonant circuits capable of obtaining a sufficient bandwidth for the communication speed of a target in the IC card 4 can.

【0032】このように設定されたそれぞれのQから、 [0032] From such a set each of Q,
例えば数3、数4等を用いてL1、L2、Rs、RL等を導けば、ICカード4での受信効率を最大にし、しかも目標とする通信速度に対して十分な帯域幅を得ることが可能なリーダ/ライタ3とICカード4を構成することができる。 For example, several 3, if Michibike the L1, L2, Rs, RL or the like using a number 4 or the like, to maximize the reception efficiency of the IC card 4, moreover to obtain sufficient bandwidth to the communication speed of the target possible reader / writer 3 and the IC card 4 can be configured.

【0033】 [0033]

【数3】 [Number 3]

【0034】 [0034]

【数4】 [Number 4]

【0035】なお、数2〜数4やその他の構成要素C1、 [0035] It is to be noted that the number 2 to number 4 and other components C1,
C2等は図2に示す等価回路に基づいた回路方程式から算出することができるのは言うまでもない。 C2, etc. of course can be calculated from the circuit equation based on the equivalent circuit shown in FIG.

【0036】一方、上述の説明においては、リーダ/ライタ3のアンテナコイル301をターン数[T]が3のスパイラル形状で外周を100[mm]×100[m On the other hand, in the above description, the reader / writer 3 of the number of turns of the antenna coil 301 [T] 100 [mm] of the outer periphery at 3 spiral × 100 [m
m]とし、ICカード4のアンテナコイル401をターン数[T]が4のスパイラル形状で外周を77[mm] And m], the number of turns of the antenna coil 401 of the IC card 4 [T] 77 of the outer periphery at 4 spiral [mm]
×42[mm]とし、該リーダ/ライタ3と該ICカード4の距離をd=30[mm]で伝送経路全体のQであるQ3を10以下とした場合について述べたが、本発明はこれに限らず種々の形態のものを適用できる。 × and 42 [mm], the reader / writer 3 and the IC card 4 of the distance is d = 30 [mm] in the entire transmission path Q Q3 has dealt with the case of 10 or less, the present invention will now It can be applied a variety of forms not limited to.

【0037】例えば、上記のリーダ/ライタおよびIC [0037] For example, the reader / writer and the IC
カードのアンテナを用いて目標とする通信距離を5cm 5cm the communication distance to the target using the card of the antenna
以下で伝送経路全体のQを20以下とした場合、該リーダ/ライタ3のQはQ1=3〜40の範囲で、該ICカード4のQはQ2=3〜42の範囲で値を設定すればよい。 If the Q of the entire transmission path is 20 or less below, Q of the reader / writer 3 in the range of Q1 = 3 to 40, Q of the IC card 4 is set a value in the range of Q2 = three to forty-two Bayoi. また、リーダ/ライタおよびICカードのアンテナ形状を変えた場合であっても、アンテナ間の結合係数k Moreover, even when changing the antenna shape of the reader / writer and IC card, the coupling coefficient between the antenna k
と伝送経路全体のQまたは/および通信帯域幅と該通信信号の搬送波周波数との比とを用いて本発明を適用できる。 And the present invention can be applied by using the ratio of the carrier frequency of the transmission path overall Q or / and the communication bandwidth and the communication signal.

【0038】さらに、電力伝送の効率を最大とすることによる条件:数2の代わりに、既知のQ1とQ2の関係を用いて図5のような関係をシミュレーションしても良い。 [0038] Further, condition by maximizing the efficiency of power transmission: the number 2 instead, it may simulate the relationship shown in FIG. 5 by using the relationship between the known Q1 and Q2.

【0039】また、リーダ/ライタ3とICカード4で構成される伝送経路全体のQであるQ3を用いているが、通信帯域幅と該通信信号の搬送波周波数との比をQ Further, although using the reader / writer 3 and Q3 is a Q of the entire transmission path composed of the IC card 4, the ratio between the carrier frequency of the communication bandwidth and the communication signal Q
3として用いてもよい。 It may be used as a 3.

【0040】次に本発明に係るリーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置)1と非接触カード(近接無線カード:ICカード)2との間において電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等により電力伝送および情報の送受信(通信)を行う装置(システム)の一実施の形態に本発明を適用した例について説明する。 [0040] Then the reader and / or writer unit according to the present invention (apparatus) 1 and the non-contact card (proximate wireless card: IC card) of the power transmission and information by electromagnetic coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method or the like between the 2 reception (communication) example of applying the present invention to an embodiment of the apparatus for performing the (system) will be described.

【0041】図6は、13.56MHzの高周波数の電圧を発生するOSC(発振器)105と、近接無線カード2へ送信するための入力された送信データ(DAT FIG. 6 is a OSC (oscillator) 105 for generating a high frequency voltage of 13.56 MHz, input transmission data to be transmitted to the proximity radio card 2 (DAT
A)106を符号化する符号化回路107と、上記OS An encoding circuit 107 for encoding the A) 106, the OS
C105から発生した13.56MHzの高周波数の電圧を上記符号化回路107の出力信号に従って変調する変調回路108と、該変調回路の出力信号に従ってアンテナコイルを駆動するアンテナコイル駆動回路109 The high frequency of the voltage of 13.56MHz and the modulation circuit 108 which modulates in accordance with the output signal of the encoding circuit 107 generated from C105, the antenna coil drive circuit 109 which drives an antenna coil in accordance with the output signal of the modulation circuit
と、該アンテナコイル駆動回路で増幅された信号をインダクタンス結合103により結合させ、コンデンサ10 If the signal amplified by the antenna coil drive circuit is coupled by inductance coupling 103, a capacitor 10
4とアンテナ駆動インピーダンス120とを有してインピーダンスをマッチングさせるための整合回路(給電回路)102と、該整合回路102の出力に応じて電力の伝送およびデータの送信を行うべく電磁波を発生し、近接無線カード2のカードアンテナコイル201から電磁波によって送信されてきたデータを受信するR/Wアンテナコイル101と、該R/Wアンテナコイル101で受信した信号を整合回路102で整合させてインダクタンス結合103により生じた信号からノイズ成分を取り除くフィルタ回路110と、該フィルタ回路110を通して得られる信号を増幅する受信アンプ111と、該受信アンプ111で増幅された信号を復調する復調回路1 4 a matching circuit for matching the impedance and a antenna drive impedance 120 (feed circuit) 102, and generates an electromagnetic wave to perform the transmission of the transmission and data power according to the output of 該整 case circuit 102, the R / W antenna coil 101 for receiving data transmitted by an electromagnetic wave from the card antenna coil 201 of the proximity radio card 2, the R / W signal received by the antenna coil 101 in alignment with the matching circuit 102 inductance coupling 103 a filter circuit 110 which removes noise component from the signal generated by a reception amplifier 111 for amplifying a signal obtained through the filter circuit 110, a demodulation circuit for demodulating the amplified signal by the receiving amplifier 111 1
12と、該復調回路112で復調された信号を復号化して受信データ(DATA)114として出力する復号化回路113とを備えている。 12, and a decoding circuit 113 for outputting as the reception data (DATA) 114 decodes the demodulated signal by demodulation circuit 112. そして、送信データ106 Then, the transmission data 106
および受信データ114はネットワークを介してホストコンピュータ115に接続されている。 And receive data 114 is connected to a host computer 115 via the network.

【0042】近接無線カード(非接触カード:ICカード)2には、R/Wユニット1のR/Wアンテナコイル101から電力の伝送およびデータの送信を行うべく発生した電磁波を受信し、ロードスイッチング変調された送信データに応じた電磁波を発生するカードアンテナコイル201と、該カードアンテナコイル201で受信した13.56MHzの電力については整流し、送受信信号についてはコンデンサ221と抵抗220を用いてインピーダンスをマッチングさせて整合する整合/整流回路203と該整合/整流回路203から整流された誘起電圧から5mW程度で2〜5V程度の一定の直流電圧電源205として供給する電源回路204と上記整合/整流回路203から得られる受信信号からクロックを抽出するクロック抽出 The proximity radio card (noncontact card: IC card) The 2 receives the electromagnetic wave generated to perform the transmission of the power transmission and data from the R / W antenna coil 101 of the R / W unit 1, a load switching a card antenna coil 201 for generating an electromagnetic wave corresponding to the modulated transmission data, the 13.56MHz power received by the card antenna coil 201 is rectified, the impedance with a capacitor 221 and a resistor 220 for transmitting and receiving signals power supply circuit 204 and the matching / rectifier circuit supplies a matching / rectifier circuit 203 and the constant DC voltage power supply 205 of about 2~5V at about 5mW from rectified induced voltage from the matching / rectifier circuit 203 for matching by matching clock extraction for extracting a clock from the reception signal obtained from the 203 路206と上記整合/整流回路20 Road 206 and the matching / rectifier circuit 20
3から得られる受信信号からノイズ成分を取り除くLP LP from the received signal obtained from 3 removes noise components
F回路207と該LPF回路207から得られる受信信号を波形整形する波形整形回路208と送信信号をロードスイッチング変調させて上記整合/整流回路203に与えて整合させてカードアンテナコイル201に供給するロードスイッチング変調回路とを有する無線チップ2 A waveform shaping circuit 208 for shaping the waveform of the reception signal obtained from the F circuit 207 and the LPF circuit 207 transmits signals by loading the switching modulated loaded supplied to the card antenna coil 201 in alignment with given above matching / rectifier circuit 203 wireless chip 2 and a switching modulator circuit
02と、該無線チップ202のクロック抽出回路206 02, the clock extraction circuit 206 of the wireless chip 202
で抽出されたクロック信号に基づいて分周してマイコン214を働かせる信号を生成する分周回路211と無線チップ202の波形整形回路208から得られる信号を復号化して復号化データ(受信データ)としてマイコン(CPU)214へ入力する復号化回路212とマイコン214から得られる送信データを符号化して無線チップ202のロードスイッチング回路209へ入力する符号化回路213カードとしての情報を記憶するメモリを内蔵して送受信データの処理およびメモリとの間のデータの転送等を行うマイコン(CPU)214とを有し、 In by dividing based on the extracted clock signal by decoding a signal obtained from the waveform shaping circuit 208 of the frequency dividing circuit 211 and the wireless chip 202 that generates a signal to exert a microcomputer 214 as the decoded data (received data) a built-in memory for storing information as encoding circuit 213 cards for inputting transmission data obtained from the decoding circuit 212 and the microcomputer 214 for inputting to the microcomputer (CPU) 214 to the load switching circuit 209 of the wireless chip 202 is encoded and a microcomputer (CPU) 214 for transferring of data between the processing and memory of the transmitting and receiving data Te,
上記無線チップ202の電源回路204から安定した電源205の供給を受けるCPU等(CPU+インタフェース)のチップ210とを備えている。 And a chip 210 such as a CPU for receiving a supply of a power supply circuit 204 from the stable power supply 205 of the wireless chip 202 (CPU + interface).

【0043】上記リーダまたは/およびライタユニット(装置)1では、コンデンサ104とアンテナ駆動インピーダンス120とR/Wアンテナコイル101とを用いて共振回路を構成しており、また上記近接無線カード(非接触カード:ICカード)2では、カードアンテナコイル201とコンデンサ221と抵抗220とを用いて共振回路を構成している。 [0043] In the reader and / or writer unit (apparatus) 1, it constitutes a resonance circuit with the capacitor 104 and the antenna driving impedance 120 and R / W antenna coil 101, also the proximity radio card (noncontact card: the IC card) 2 constitutes a resonant circuit with a card antenna coil 201 and a capacitor 221 and a resistor 220. 上記システムであっても、 Even in the above-mentioned system,
前記の実施例と同様にして、目標とする通信距離において該近接無線カード(非接触カード:ICカード)2での受信効率を最大とするように該アンテナ駆動インピーダンス120を設定し、かつ目標とする通信速度に対して十分な信号レベルを確保するための必要な帯域幅を得るようにこれら共振回路のそれぞれのQをそれぞれ設定することができる。 In the same manner as in the above embodiment, the proximity radio card (noncontact card: IC card) in a communication distance to target reception efficiency at 2 sets the antenna drive impedance 120 to the maximum, and goals and so as to obtain the necessary bandwidth to ensure a sufficient signal level with respect to the communication speed of each of the Q of the resonant circuit can be respectively set to.

【0044】最後に、従来はリーダまたは/およびライタ装置のQと、近接無線カードのQとを別々に設計・設定していたので、非接触ICカードシステムの性能は両者の性能だけでなく両者の相性にも依存していたが、本発明を用いて非接触ICカードシステムの有するQを基準とした製品設計を行えば、その値から必要となるリーダまたは/およびライタ装置のQ、近接無線カードのQを一義的に決定・設定できるので(リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と、近接無線カードとの相性を設定できるので)、 [0044] Finally, conventional and Q of the reader and / or writer device, both proximity since radio card has been designed separately and set and Q of the performance of the non-contact IC card system, as well as performance in both of it was also dependent on the chemistry, by performing the product design relative to the Q having been a contactless IC card system using the present invention, Q of the reader and / or writer apparatus required from that value, the close proximity wireless since the Q of the card can be uniquely determined and set (and the reader and / or writer device, can be set to compatibility with the proximity radio card),
従来に比べて製品個々の性能のみを考慮した製品設計が可能となるといった効果もある。 Prior some such effective products designed considering only individual products in performance is possible compared to. すなわち、非接触ICカードシステムの有するQを基準として、リーダまたは/ That is, based on the Q having a contactless IC card system, a reader or /
およびライタ装置のQ、近接無線カードのQを割り振ることで、リーダまたは/およびライタ装置、近接無線カードを標準化する上で非常に統一のとりやすい条件になるといった効果を有する。 And a Q of writer device, by allocating Q proximity radio card, reader and / or writer apparatus, such an effect becomes easy to take the conditions of very unified on standardizing the proximity radio card.

【0045】 [0045]

【発明の効果】以上説明したように、本発明によれば、 As described in the foregoing, according to the present invention,
リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と近接無線カード(I Reader and / or writer device and the proximity radio card (I
Cカード)の共振回路に対して、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置から該近接無線カード(ICカード)への電力伝送効率を最大とし、かつ目標とする通信速度に対して必要な帯域幅となるそれぞれのQを全く新規な方法により設定した非接触ICカードシステムを提供することができる。 Against resonance circuit C card), the required bandwidth for the communication speed of the power transmission efficiency from the reader and / or writer device to the proximity radio card (IC card) to the maximum, and the target each Q at all may provide a non-contact IC card system which is set by the novel method.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本発明に係るリーダまたは/およびライタ装置と近接無線カード(ICカード)との間において電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等によって電力伝送および通信を行うことを示した概略構成斜視図である。 [1] a schematic configuration perspective view showing that perform power transmission and communication by electromagnetic coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method or the like between the reader and / or writer device and the proximity radio card according to the present invention (IC card) is there.

【図2】本発明に係るリーダまたは/およびライタ装置と近接無線カード(ICカード)との間において電磁結合方式または電磁誘導方式等によって電力伝送および通信を行う装置(システム)を等価回路に置き換えた基本概念図である。 Replacement apparatus for performing power transmission and communication by electromagnetic coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method or the like (system) in the equivalent circuit between the reader and / or writer device and the proximity radio card according to the present invention; FIG (IC card) It was a basic conceptual diagram.

【図3】本発明に係る電力伝送波とデータ通信変調波との関係を示す図である。 3 is a diagram showing the relationship of the present invention according to the power transmission wave and data communication modulated wave.

【図4】Qの原理を示した図である。 FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the principle of Q.

【図5】本発明に係るリーダまたは/およびライタ装置の共振回路のQと近接無線カード(ICカード)の共振回路のQと該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該近接無線カード(ICカード)とで構成される伝送経路全体のQとの関係を示す図である。 [5] and the resonant circuit of Q and the reader and / or writer device and said proximity wireless card Q and the proximity radio card of the resonant circuit of the reader and / or writer apparatus according to the present invention (IC card) (IC card) in is a diagram showing the relationship between Q of the entire constructed transmission path.

【図6】本発明に係るリーダまたは/およびライタ装置と近接無線カード(ICカード)の実施の形態における一実施例を示す図である。 6 is a diagram showing an example of the embodiment of the reader and / or writer device and the proximity radio card according to the present invention (IC card).

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1…リーダ/ライタユニット、2…近接無線カード(I 1 ... reader / writer unit, 2 ... close proximity wireless card (I
Cカード:非接触カード)、101…リーダライタアンテナ、102…整合回路(給電回路)、104…コンデンサ、105…電源、107…符号化回路、108…変調器、109…送信アンプ、110…フィルタ回路、1 C card: contactless card), 101 ... writer antenna, 102 ... matching circuit (feeding circuit) 104 ... condenser, 105 ... power supply, 107 ... encoding circuit, 108 ... modulator, 109 ... transmission amplifier, 110 ... filter circuit, 1
11…受信アンプ、112…復調器、113…復号化回路、115…ホストコンピュータ、120…アンテナ駆動インピーダンス、201…カードアンテナ、202… 11 ... receiving amplifier, 112 ... demodulator, 113 ... decoding circuit, 115 ... host computer, 120 ... antenna drive impedance, 201 ... card antenna, 202 ...
無線チップ、203…整合・整流回路、204…電源回路、206…クロック抽出回路、207…LPF回路、 Wireless chip, 203 ... matching and rectifier circuit, 204 ... power circuit, 206 ... clock extraction circuit, 207 ... LPF circuit,
208…波形整形回路、209…ロードスイッチング回路、210…CPU等のチップ(CPU+インターフェースチップ)、211…分周回路、212…復号化回路、213…符号化回路、214…マイコン(CP 208 ... waveform shaping circuit, 209 ... load switching circuit, 210 ... CPU, etc. of the chip (CPU + interface chip), 211 ... frequency divider, 212 ... decoding circuit, 213 ... encoding circuit, 214 ... microcomputer (CP
U)、220…抵抗、221…コンデンサ、300…リーダ/ライタ、301…アンテナコイル、302…アンテナコイル同調容量、303…アンテナコイル駆動インピーダンス、304…OSC(発信器)、400…IC U), 220 ... resistor, 221 ... capacitor, 300 ... reader / writer, 301 ... antenna coil, 302 ... antenna coil tuning capacitance, 303 ... antenna coil drive impedance, 304 ... OSC (oscillator), 400 ... IC
カード、401…アンテナコイル、402…アンテナコイル同調容量、403…カード負荷抵抗 Card, 401 ... antenna coil, 402 ... antenna coil tuning capacitance, 403 ... card load resistance

フロントページの続き (72)発明者 上坂 晃一 神奈川県横浜市戸塚区吉田町292番地株式 会社日立製作所生産技術研究所内 (72)発明者 吉野 亮三 神奈川県秦野市堀山下1番地株式会社日立 製作所汎用コンピュータ事業部内 Of the front page Continued (72) inventor UESAKA Kanagawa Prefecture, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama-shi Yoshida-cho, address 292 Koichi stock company Hitachi Production Engineering in the Institute (72) inventor Ryozo Yoshino Kanagawa Prefecture Hadano Horiyamashita address 1 Hitachi Seisakusho general purpose computer in the Division

Claims (5)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行い、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードとがそれぞれ該電力または/および該信号を伝送するアンテナコイルと該電力を伝送する電力伝送周波数に同調するように設定した容量と該アンテナコイルの駆動インピーダンスからなる共振回路を備えた非接触ICカードシステムであって、 該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードからなる通信経路全体のQを用いることで、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置の有する共振回路と該ICカードの有する共振回路のそれぞれのQを設定したことを特徴とする非接触ICカードシステム。 1. A sends a transmission of power and / or signals between the reader and / or writer device and the IC card without contact, and said reader and / or writer device and said IC card said power and / or respectively the contactless IC card system having a resonant circuit consisting of the driving impedance of the set volume and the antenna coil to tune to the power transmission frequency for transmitting antenna coil and said power transmitting the signal, the reader or / and by using the Q of the entire communication path consisting writer device and the IC card, and characterized in that setting the respective Q of the resonant circuit included in the resonant circuit and the IC card possessed by the reader and / or writer device non-contact IC card system.
  2. 【請求項2】前記ICカードに設けた共振回路のQを3 2. A 3 Q of the resonant circuit provided in the IC card
    〜42の範囲に設定し、前記リーダまたは/およびライタ装置に設けた共振回路のQを3〜40の範囲に設定したことを特徴とする請求項1記載の非接触ICカードシステム。 Set in the range of -42, the reader and / or non-contact IC card system according to claim 1, wherein the Q of the resonant circuit provided writer device is characterized in that set in the range of 3 to 40.
  3. 【請求項3】前記通信経路全体のQを前記ICカードに設けた共振回路と前記リーダまたは/およびライタ装置に設けた共振回路とのインピーダンスをほぼ等しくなるようにして算出したことを特徴とする請求項1又は請求項2記載の非接触ICカードシステム。 Characterized in that wherein was calculated to be approximately equal to the impedance of the resonant circuit having a Q of the entire communication path to said reader and / or writer device and the resonant circuit provided in the IC card claim 1 or claim 2 contactless IC card system according.
  4. 【請求項4】リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行う非接触ICカードシステムであって、 該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置のアンテナ駆動インピーダンスを該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置のアンテナから該ICカードを見込んだインピーダンスにほぼ等しく設定して導き出した伝送経路全体のQの特性から、該信号の伝送速度に対して所望の帯域幅を得ることが可能となるQ3を算出し、該算出したQ3と該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置から該ICカードへの電力伝送効率を最大となる該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置の 4. A non-contact IC card system for transmitting power and / or signals between the reader and / or writer device and the IC card in a non-contact, the antenna drive impedance of the reader and / or writer device that from the characteristics of the antenna from the entire transmission path derived set approximately equal to the impedance in anticipation of the IC card Q of the reader and / or writer device to obtain the desired bandwidth for the transmission rate of the signal calculates Q3 that is possible, from the Q3 and said reader and / or writer device the calculated of the reader and / or writer apparatus having the maximum power transfer efficiency to the IC card
    Q1と該ICカードのQ2との関係とを用いることで、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードの有する共振回路のそれぞれのQ1、Q2を設定したことを特徴とする非接触ICカードシステム。 Q1 and by using the relationship between Q2 of the IC card, contactless IC card system characterized by setting the respective Q1, Q2 of the resonance circuit with the said reader and / or writer device and the IC card .
  5. 【請求項5】リーダまたは/およびライタ装置とICカードとの間で電力または/および信号の伝送を非接触で行う非接触ICカードシステムであって、 該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードからなる通信経路全体のQを用いることで、該リーダまたは/およびライタ装置と該ICカードそれぞれのQを設定したことを特徴とする非接触ICカードシステム。 5. A non-contact IC card system for transmitting power and / or signals between the reader and / or writer device and the IC card in a non-contact, said reader and / or writer device and the IC card by using the Q of the entire communication path consisting of the non-contact IC card system is characterized in that setting the reader and / or writer device and the IC card each Q.
JP9233611A 1997-08-29 1997-08-29 Non-contact type ic card system Pending JPH1175329A (en)

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