JP6163719B2 - Method for separating hydrogen sulfide - Google Patents

Method for separating hydrogen sulfide Download PDF

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JP6163719B2
JP6163719B2 JP2012191559A JP2012191559A JP6163719B2 JP 6163719 B2 JP6163719 B2 JP 6163719B2 JP 2012191559 A JP2012191559 A JP 2012191559A JP 2012191559 A JP2012191559 A JP 2012191559A JP 6163719 B2 JP6163719 B2 JP 6163719B2
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zeolite
hydrogen sulfide
zeolite membrane
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gas
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JP2014046267A (en
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林 幹夫
幹夫 林
武脇 隆彦
隆彦 武脇
大島 一典
一典 大島
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三菱ケミカル株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including an organic substance, using a zeolite membrane composite.

  In recent years, membrane separation and concentration methods using a membrane such as a polymer membrane or a zeolite membrane have been proposed as a method for separating a gas (gas) or liquid mixture. Polymer membranes such as flat membranes and hollow fiber membranes are excellent in processability, but have the disadvantage of low heat resistance. In addition, polymer membranes have low chemical resistance, especially in the case of organic solvents, organic acids, and gas separations, many of them swell upon contact with organic substances such as light hydrocarbons, and adsorbents such as sulfides. Since degradation due to components occurs, there is a drawback that the application range of separation and concentration is limited. In contrast, inorganic material membranes such as zeolite membranes have excellent heat resistance, can be separated and concentrated in a wider temperature range than polymer membranes, and are also applicable to separation of mixtures containing organic substances. be able to. The zeolite membrane is usually used for separation and concentration as a zeolite membrane composite in which zeolite is formed into a membrane on a support made of an inorganic material.

  As a method for separating a gas mixture (gas) using a membrane, a method using a polymer membrane has been proposed since the 1970s. However, while the polymer film has the characteristics of excellent workability, it has a problem that its chemical resistance is low and its performance deteriorates due to deterioration due to heat, chemicals, and pressure. In recent years, various inorganic films having good chemical resistance, oxidation resistance, heat stability, and pressure resistance have been proposed to solve these problems. Among these, zeolite has regular sub-nanometer pores, and therefore functions as a molecular sieve, so that it can selectively pass specific molecules and is expected to exhibit high separation performance.

  Examples of mixed gas membrane separation include separation of gases emitted from thermal power plants and petrochemical industries, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane, hydrogen and hydrocarbons, hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide , Separation of nitrogen and oxygen, paraffin and olefin. Known zeolite membranes for gas separation that can be used for such gas separation include zeolite membranes such as A-type membranes, FAU membranes, MFI membranes, SAPO-34 membranes, and DDR membranes.

  In natural gas refining plants, carbon dioxide is removed from methane, which is the main component of natural gas. However, natural gas contains sulfides such as hydrogen sulfide, although the concentration varies depending on the production area. It is generally contained, and it is necessary to separate sulfides such as hydrogen sulfide in addition to carbon dioxide. That is, acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in the natural gas need to be removed before liquefaction because they may solidify in the liquefaction process and cause clogging of piping or corrosion of equipment. Conventionally, these acid gases have been subjected to absorption separation using a base such as amine or adsorption separation using activated carbon, etc., but the energy for desorbing the absorbed and adsorbed acid gas is large, and the separation process Needed a lot of energy. For this reason, application of membrane separation with low separation energy has been desired.

  Conventionally, as a method for separating hydrogen sulfide with a membrane, a method using a polymer membrane is known (Patent Documents 1 and 2, Non-Patent Document 1). Patent Document 1 separates hydrogen sulfide using a polysulfide polymer membrane, Patent Document 2 uses a composite diaphragm containing a solvent therein, and Non-Patent Document 1 uses polyphenylene oxide and a polyimide film. In Patent Document 3, although hydrogen sulfide is not separated, carbon dioxide, which is an acidic gas, is separated by a membrane using a specific cyclic amine compound as an acidic gas carrier.

On the other hand, when forming a zeolite membrane on a porous support by hydrothermal synthesis, the present inventors improve the crystal orientation of zeolite crystallized on the support by using a reaction mixture having a specific composition. In the separation of the mixture of the organic compound and water, it was found that a dense zeolite membrane having both a practically sufficient throughput and separation membrane performance was formed, and previously proposed (Patent Documents 4 to 7).
Moreover, when this zeolite membrane composite is used for gas separation, it has been found that a high value can be obtained for both throughput and separation performance, and has been proposed as a zeolite membrane composite for gas separation (Patent Document 8). Patent Document 8 does not discuss the separation of hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including organic substances (Patent Document 8).

  Non-Patent Document 2 describes that the radius of hydrogen sulfide molecules is 0.218 nm.

JP 59-102402 A JP-A 63-175617 JP 2001-293340 A International Publication No. 2010/098473 Pamphlet JP 2011-121040 A JP 2011-121045 JP 2011-121854 A JP 2012-066242 A

M. Pourafshari Chenar et al., "Removal of hydrogen sulfide from methane using commercial polyphenylene oxide and Cardo-type polyimide hollow fiber membranes", Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2011.28.902-913 Keii Tominaga "Adsorption", p29-30,95-97, Kyoritsu Shuppan, Tokyo (1970)

  In the polymer membranes used for membrane separation such as hydrogen sulfide from the mixed gas in Patent Literatures 1 to 3 and Non-Patent Literature 1, hydrogen sulfide permeance (also referred to as “permeance”) is not sufficient. When applied to the separation of a large amount of hydrogen sulfide, a large membrane area is required, and performance sufficient for practical use has not been obtained. Further, since the material is made of an organic material, there is a fear that the chemical resistance, oxidation resistance, heat stability, and pressure resistance are poor as described above.

  If the zeolite membrane can be applied to the separation of hydrogen sulfide, high permeation performance can be expected, but conventionally, hydrogen sulfide permeation examination using a zeolite membrane having an oxygen 8-membered ring structure used in the present invention has not been conducted. As described in Non-Patent Document 2, since the hydrogen sulfide molecule has a large radius of 0.218 nm, oxygen sulfide cannot pass through the pores of the zeolite in an oxygen 8-membered ring zeolite membrane. This is because it was thought that separation from other organic substances was impossible.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above-described conventional situation, has a high throughput and separation performance of hydrogen sulfide, and has excellent characteristics for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including organic substances. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for separating hydrogen sulfide using a zeolite membrane composite.

In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present inventor has studied permeation of hydrogen sulfide using a zeolite membrane composite having an oxygen 8-membered ring structure, which has been conventionally considered not suitable for membrane separation of hydrogen sulfide. As a result, it has been found that it has a higher permeation performance than the previously reported polymer membranes, and can perform membrane separation at a practically feasible level in the separation of hydrogen sulfide from gas containing organic matter. .
The present invention has been achieved based on such knowledge, and the gist of the present invention resides in the following [1] to [ 7 ].

[1] A method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance using a zeolite membrane formed on a porous support, the zeolite membrane comprising oxygen 8 A zeolite structure having a member ring, wherein the organic substance includes methane, the zeolite having an oxygen eight-membered ring is an aluminosilicate, and the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the zeolite having the oxygen eight-membered ring is A method for separating hydrogen sulfide, wherein the gas mixture is brought into contact with the zeolite membrane and hydrogen sulfide is separated from the gas mixture by permeating the zeolite membrane.
[2] A method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture comprising a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance using a zeolite membrane formed on a porous support, the zeolite membrane comprising oxygen 8 The zeolite having a ring structure with a member ring, the zeolite having an oxygen eight-membered ring is a CHA-type aluminosilicate, and the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the zeolite having the oxygen eight-membered ring is 6 or more and 500 or less A method for separating hydrogen sulfide, wherein the gas mixture is brought into contact with the zeolite membrane, and hydrogen sulfide is separated from the gas mixture by permeating the zeolite membrane.

[3 ] The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to [ 1 ], wherein the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is a CHA-type aluminosilicate.

[ 4 ] The zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is a CHA-type aluminosilicate, and in the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the zeolite membrane surface with X-rays, the peak intensity around 2θ = 17.9 ° is 2. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to any one of [1] to [3], which has a value not less than 0.5 times the peak intensity in the vicinity of 2θ = 20.8 °.

[ 5 ] The zeolite having an 8-membered oxygen ring is a CHA-type aluminosilicate, and an X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the zeolite membrane surface with X-rays has a peak intensity around 2θ = 9.6 °. 2. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to any one of [1] to [3], which has a value of 2.0 times or more of a peak intensity around 2θ = 20.8 °.

[6] a zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring CHA-type aluminosilicate, the X-ray diffraction pattern in the zeolite membrane surface obtained by irradiation with X-ray, the peak intensity in the vicinity of 2 θ = 17.9 ° Has a value less than 0.5 times the peak intensity in the vicinity of 2θ = 20.8 °, [ 5 ].

[ 7 ] Any one of [ 1 ] to [ 6 ], wherein the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is formed using a reaction mixture for hydrothermal synthesis containing at least potassium (K) as an alkali source. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide as described.

According to the present invention, hydrogen sulfide can be efficiently separated with a high permeation amount from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance.
The absorption and adsorption separation methods, which are conventional hydrogen sulfide separation methods, require the regeneration energy of the absorbent and the adsorbent. However, if the membrane separation method of the present invention is used, energy-saving separation is possible. In the membrane separation of the present invention, since the amount of permeated hydrogen sulfide is large, the membrane area required for the separation can be reduced, and low-cost separation can be expected with a small-scale facility.

  Further, according to the present invention, when a gas component having a separation size smaller than the pores of the zeolite is mixed in addition to hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture, these gas components can be separated from the organic matter at the same time. it can. These gas components include hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and the like.

In an Example, it is a schematic diagram which shows the structure of the apparatus used for the single component gas permeation | transmission test. In an Example, it is a schematic diagram which shows the structure of the apparatus used for the hydrogen sulfide separation test. 2 is an XRD pattern of a CHA type zeolite membrane produced in Example 1. FIG. 3 is an XRD pattern of a CHA type zeolite membrane produced in Example 2. FIG. It is an XRD pattern of CHA type zeolite powder.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail. However, the description of the constituent elements described below is an example of embodiments of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited to these contents. Various modifications can be made within the scope of the gist. In the present specification, “a porous support-zeolite membrane composite in which a zeolite membrane is formed on a porous support” may be referred to as “zeolite membrane composite” or “membrane composite”. is there. The “porous support” may be simply abbreviated as “support”, and the “aluminosilicate zeolite” may be simply abbreviated as “zeolite”.

  The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to the present invention is a method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture comprising a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance using a zeolite membrane, wherein the zeolite membrane has an oxygen 8-membered ring. It contains a zeolite structure and has a feature that it is formed on a porous support.

<Zeolite membrane composite>
(Zeolite membrane)
In the present invention, the zeolite membrane contains zeolite having specific properties as described above, but as a component constituting the zeolite membrane, in addition to zeolite, an inorganic binder such as silica and alumina, an organic substance such as a polymer, or a zeolite membrane A silylating agent for modifying the surface may be included as necessary.
The zeolite membrane may partially contain an amorphous component or the like, but is preferably a zeolite membrane composed substantially only of zeolite.

  The thickness of the zeolite membrane is not particularly limited, but is usually 0.1 μm or more, preferably 0.6 μm or more, more preferably 1.0 μm or more. Moreover, it is the range of 100 micrometers or less normally, Preferably it is 60 micrometers or less, More preferably, it is 20 micrometers or less. When the thickness of the zeolite membrane is too large, the hydrogen sulfide permeation amount tends to decrease, and when it is too small, the selectivity tends to decrease or the membrane strength tends to decrease.

  The particle diameter of the zeolite forming the zeolite membrane is not particularly limited, but if it is too small, there is a tendency to decrease permeation selectivity and the like by increasing the grain boundary. Therefore, the particle diameter of the zeolite is usually 30 nm or more, preferably 50 nm or more, more preferably 100 nm or more, and the upper limit is less than the thickness of the membrane. In particular, it is preferable that the particle diameter of the zeolite is the same as the thickness of the zeolite membrane. When the particle size of the zeolite is the same as the thickness of the zeolite membrane, the grain boundary of the zeolite is the smallest. Zeolite membranes obtained by hydrothermal synthesis described later are preferred because the zeolite particle size and membrane thickness may be the same.

  The shape of the zeolite membrane is not particularly limited, and any shape such as a tubular shape, a hollow fiber shape, a monolith type, and a honeycomb type can be adopted. Also, the size of the zeolite membrane is not particularly limited. For example, the zeolite membrane is formed as a zeolite membrane composite formed on a porous support having a size described later.

(Zeolite)
In the present invention, the zeolite constituting the zeolite membrane is preferably an aluminosilicate having an oxygen 8-membered ring. The aluminosilicate is mainly composed of Si and Al oxides, and may contain other elements as long as the effects of the present invention are not impaired.

In the present invention, the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the aluminosilicate is not particularly limited, but is usually 6 or more, preferably 10 or more, more preferably 20 or more, more preferably 30 or more, still more preferably 32 or more, More preferably, it is 35 or more, Most preferably, it is 40 or more. The upper limit is usually an amount such that Al is an impurity, and the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio is usually 500 or less, preferably 100 or less, more preferably 90 or less, still more preferably 80 or less, and particularly preferably 70. Hereinafter, it is most preferably 50 or less. When the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio is less than the lower limit, the denseness of the zeolite membrane may be lowered, and the durability tends to be lowered.
The SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of zeolite can be adjusted by the reaction conditions of hydrothermal synthesis described later.

In the present invention, the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio is a numerical value obtained by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). In this case, in order to obtain information only on a film having a thickness of several microns, measurement is usually performed with an X-ray acceleration voltage of 10 kV.

(Zeolite with oxygen 8-membered ring)
In the present invention, the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring refers to a zeolite defined by the International Zeolite Association (IZA) and defined as a structure having an oxygen 8-membered ring. Its structure is characterized by X-ray diffraction data.

  As a zeolite structure having an oxygen 8-membered ring, for example, AFX, CAS, CHA, DDR, ERI, ESV, GIS, ITE, JBW, KFI, LEV, LTA can be represented by a code defined by the International Zeolite Association (IZA). , MER, MON, MTF, PAU, PHI, RHO, RTE, RTH and the like.

Among them, a zeolite having a framework density of 18.0 T / nm 3 or less is preferable, more preferably AFX, CHA, DDR, ERI, LEV, RHO, still more preferably CHA, DDR, RHO, and most preferably. CHA. When the framework density is too high, when hydrogen sulfide or other permeation component is present in the gas mixture, resistance when the permeation component permeates increases and the permeation amount decreases, which is not preferable.

Here, the framework density (unit: T / nm 3 ) means the number of T atoms (among atoms constituting the zeolite skeleton, other than oxygen) present per unit volume (1 nm 3 ) of the zeolite. However, this value is determined by the structure of the zeolite. The relationship between the framework density and the structure of zeolite is shown in ATLAS OF ZEOLITE FRAMEWORK TYPES Sixth Revised Edition 2007 ELSEVIER.

(Porous support)
In the present invention, the zeolite membrane is formed on the surface of the porous support. Preferably, the zeolite is crystallized in the form of a film on the porous support.

The porous support of the zeolite membrane composite may be any porous material having a chemical stability such that the zeolite can be crystallized in the form of a membrane on the surface thereof. Specifically, for example, sintered ceramics such as silica, α-alumina, γ-alumina, mullite, zirconia, titania, yttria, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, sintered metals such as iron, bronze, and stainless steel, glass And a porous support made of an inorganic material such as a carbon molded body.
Polyolefins, fluorine polymers, polyimides, polyamines, polyesters, polyurethanes, and the like can also be used.
Among these, a porous support (inorganic porous support) made of an inorganic material is preferably used as the porous support.

Among the porous supports, the ceramic sintered body is partly zeoliticized during the synthesis of the zeolite membrane, thereby improving the adhesion at the interface with the zeolite membrane.
Furthermore, the inorganic porous support containing at least one of alumina, silica, and mullite is easy to partially zeolitize the support, so that the bond between the support and the zeolite becomes strong, and the separation performance is high. It is more preferable because a film having a high thickness is easily formed.

  The shape of the porous support is not particularly limited as long as it can effectively separate the gas mixture. Specifically, for example, the porous support has a tubular shape such as a flat plate shape or a cylindrical shape, a cylindrical shape or a prismatic shape. And honeycomb-like ones having a large number of holes and monoliths (three-dimensional network structure).

  The average pore diameter of the porous support is not particularly limited, but those having a controlled pore diameter are preferred. The pore diameter of the porous support is usually 0.02 μm or more, preferably 0.05 μm or more, more preferably 0.1 μm or more, and usually 20 μm or less, preferably 10 μm or less, more preferably 5 μm or less. If the pore size of the porous support is too small, the amount of permeation tends to be small. If it is too large, the strength of the support itself is insufficient, or a dense zeolite membrane tends to be difficult to form.

  The surface of the porous support may be polished with a file or the like as necessary. The surface of the porous support means the surface portion of the support on which the zeolite membrane is formed, and may be any surface of each shape as long as it is a surface, or may be a plurality of surfaces. For example, in the case of a cylindrical tube support, it may be the outer surface or the inner surface, and in some cases both the outer and inner surfaces.

  The porosity of the porous support is not particularly limited and need not be particularly controlled, but the porosity is usually preferably 20% or more and 60% or less. The porosity of the porous support influences the permeation flow rate when the gas is separated, and if it is less than the lower limit, it tends to inhibit the diffusion of the permeate, and if it exceeds the upper limit, the strength of the support tends to decrease. .

The size of the porous support varies depending on the use of the zeolite membrane composite, the form of use, the material and shape of the porous support, and cannot be generally specified, but the average thickness (wall thickness) is usually 0.1 mm or more The thickness is preferably 0.3 mm or more, more preferably 0.5 mm or more, and is usually 7 mm or less, preferably 5 mm or less, more preferably 3 mm or less. The porous support is used to give mechanical strength to the zeolite membrane composite, but if the average thickness of the porous support is too thin, the zeolite membrane composite will not have sufficient strength, and impact and vibration There is a tendency to become weaker. When the average thickness of the porous support is too thick, the amount of permeation tends to be low.
In the case of a tubular porous support, a length of 2 cm to 200 cm, an inner diameter of 0.5 cm to 2 cm, and a thickness of 0.5 mm to 4 mm are practically preferable.

(Zeolite membrane composite)
In the present invention, the zeolite membrane composite is one in which zeolite is film-like, preferably crystallized and fixed on the surface of the porous support, and in some cases, a part of the zeolite is The thing fixed to the inside of a support body is preferable.
As the zeolite membrane composite, for example, a zeolite membrane crystallized into a membrane form by hydrothermal synthesis on the surface of a porous support is preferable.

  The position of the zeolite membrane on the porous support is not particularly limited. When a tubular support is used, the zeolite membrane may be formed on the outer surface, or may be formed on the inner surface. Depending on the case, it may be formed on both sides. Further, it may be formed by being laminated on the surface of the support, or may be crystallized so as to fill the pores of the surface layer of the support. In this case, it is important that there are no cracks or continuous micropores inside the crystallized film layer, and it is preferable to form a so-called dense film from the standpoint of improving separability.

(CHA type zeolite membrane composite)
In the present invention, when the zeolite of the zeolite membrane composite is made of CHA-type zeolite, the intensity of the peak around 2θ = 17.9 ° is obtained in the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the membrane surface with X-rays. It is preferably 0.5 times or more of the peak intensity around 2θ = 20.8 °. That is, the peak intensity ratio represented by (the intensity of the peak near 2θ = 17.9 °) / (the intensity of the peak near 2θ = 20.8 °) (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “peak intensity ratio A”). .) Is preferably 0.5 or more. The peak intensity ratio A is preferably 0.6 or more. The upper limit of the peak intensity ratio A is not particularly limited, but is usually less than 20.

  Further, in the present invention, when the zeolite of the zeolite membrane composite is made of CHA-type zeolite, in the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the membrane surface with X-rays, a peak around 2θ = 9.6 ° is obtained. The intensity is preferably at least 2.0 times the intensity of the peak around 2θ = 20.8 °. That is, the peak intensity ratio represented by (2θ = peak intensity around 9.6 °) / (peak intensity around 2θ = 20.8 °) (hereinafter, this may be referred to as “peak intensity ratio B”). .) Is preferably 2.0 or more. The peak intensity ratio B is preferably 2.1 or more, more preferably 2.3 or more, more preferably 2.5 or more, and the upper limit of the peak intensity ratio B is not particularly limited, but is usually less than 20.

Here, the peak intensity refers to a value obtained by subtracting the background value from the measured value.
The X-ray diffraction pattern is obtained by irradiating the surface on which zeolite is mainly attached with X-rays using CuKα as a radiation source and setting the scanning axis to θ / 2θ. The shape of the sample to be measured may be any shape as long as the surface on the zeolite membrane side of the zeolite membrane composite can be irradiated with X-rays, and expresses the characteristics of the zeolite membrane composite well. As such, it is preferable to use the prepared zeolite membrane composite as it is or a product obtained by cutting the zeolite membrane composite into an appropriate size restricted by the apparatus.
The X-ray diffraction pattern may be measured by fixing the irradiation width using an automatic variable slit when the surface of the zeolite membrane composite is a curved surface. An X-ray diffraction pattern using an automatic variable slit refers to a pattern subjected to variable → fixed slit correction.

Here, the peak in the vicinity of 2θ = 17.9 ° refers to the maximum of the peaks present in the range of 17.9 ° ± 0.6 ° among the peaks not derived from the porous support.
The peak in the vicinity of 2θ = 20.8 ° refers to the maximum peak in the range of 20.8 ° ± 0.6 ° among the peaks not derived from the porous support.
The peak in the vicinity of 2θ = 9.6 ° refers to the maximum of the peaks present in the range of 9.6 ° ± 0.6 ° among the peaks not derived from the porous support.

In the X-ray diffraction pattern, the peak near 2θ = 9.6 °, the peak near 2θ = 17.9 °, the peak near 2θ = 20.8 ° are COLLECTION OF SIMULATED XRD POWDER PATTERNS FOR ZEOLITE Third Revised Edition 1996 (Hereafter, this is sometimes referred to as “Non-Patent Document 3”.) According to rhombohedral setting,
(No. 166), in the CHA structure, a peak derived from the (1, 0, 0) index, a peak derived from the (1, 1, 1) plane, (2, 0, -1) peak derived from the plane.
That is, the peak near 2θ = 17.9 ° is a peak derived from the (1,1,1) plane, and the peak near 2θ = 20.8 ° is a peak derived from the (2,0, −1) plane, The peak near 2θ = 9.6 ° is a peak derived from the (1, 0, 0) plane.

  A typical ratio (peak intensity ratio B) of the peak intensity derived from the (2, 0, -1) plane of the peak intensity derived from the (1,0, 0) plane in the CHA type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane is: Halil Kalipcilar et al., “Synthesis and Separation Performance of SSZ-13 Zeolite Membranes on Tubular Supports”, Chem. Mater. 2002, 14, 3458-3464 (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “Non-Patent Document 4”). According to this, it is less than 2.

  Therefore, when this ratio is 2.0 or more, for example, the (1, 0, 0) plane when the CHA structure is a rhombohedral setting is oriented in a direction almost parallel to the surface of the membrane complex. This is considered to mean that the zeolite crystals are oriented and growing. Orientation and growth of zeolite crystals in the zeolite membrane composite is advantageous in that a dense membrane with high separation performance can be formed.

  The term “zeolite crystal grows in an oriented manner” here means that there is a high proportion of crystallites whose (1, 0, 0) plane is oriented parallel to the surface of the zeolite membrane composite. This ratio means that the orientation of crystallites such as powdered CHA type aluminosilicate is larger than that of random.

  Moreover, the typical ratio (peak intensity ratio A) of the peak intensity derived from the (1,1,1) plane and the peak intensity derived from the (2,0, -1) plane in the CHA type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane is According to Non-Patent Document 4, it is less than 0.5.

  This ratio is 0.5 or more, for example, when the zeolite crystal is oriented so that the (1, 1, 1) plane when the CHA structure is a rhombohedral setting is oriented almost parallel to the surface of the membrane composite. This is considered to mean that the degree of orientation and growth is high.

  Here, the zeolite crystal is oriented and growing is that the (1,1,1) plane is higher in the crystallites oriented in a direction almost parallel to the surface of the membrane composite than the entire crystallite. This ratio means that the orientation of crystallites such as powdered CHA type aluminosilicate is larger than that of random.

  As described above, the fact that the peak intensity ratios A and B are values in the above-described specific range indicates that the zeolite crystal is oriented and grows to form a dense membrane with high separation performance. It is.

  Further, a typical ratio of peak intensity derived from the (1,1,1) plane and peak intensity derived from the (2,0, -1) plane in the CHA type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane (peak intensity ratio A ) Is less than 0.5 and the peak intensity derived from the (2, 0, −1) plane of the peak intensity derived from the (1, 0, 0) plane (peak intensity ratio B) is 2. 0 or more means that the zeolite crystal is not oriented so that the (1,1,1) plane is almost parallel to the surface of the membrane composite, and only the (1,0,0) plane is That is, the zeolite crystals are oriented and grown so that the orientation is nearly parallel to the surface of the membrane composite.

  Usually, in the case of orientation growth, orientation growth is often performed so that both the (1, 0, 0) plane and the (1, 1, 1) plane are oriented almost parallel to the surface of the film composite. However, the fact that the peak intensity A is less than 0.5 and the peak intensity B is 2.0 or more means that the zeolite crystal grows by orientation only on the (1,1,1) plane, and has a high separation performance. It shows that a film is formed.

  In the case of orientation growth only on the (1,1,1) plane, the orientation is only on one plane, and the transmission performance may be higher than the case of growing simultaneously with the (1,0,0) plane.

As described later, a dense zeolite membrane in which CHA-type zeolite crystals are oriented and grown is formed by using a specific organic template, for example, in the aqueous reaction mixture when forming the zeolite membrane by a hydrothermal synthesis method. It can be achieved by coexisting + ions.

The air permeation amount of the zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention is usually 1 L / (m 2 · h) or more, preferably 2 L / (m 2 · h) or more, more preferably 5 L / (m 2 · h) or more. is there. The upper limit of the air permeation amount is not particularly limited, but is preferably 1000 L / (m 2 · h) or less, more preferably 800 L / (m 2 · h) or less, and further preferably 700 L / (m 2 · h) or less. .

Here, the air permeation amount is the amount of air permeation when the zeolite membrane composite is placed under atmospheric pressure and the inside of the zeolite membrane composite is connected to a 5 kPa vacuum line, as described in detail in the Examples section. [L / (m 2 · h)].

The air permeation amount is a numerical value that leads to the gas permeation amount. When the air permeation amount is large, the gas permeation amount is large, but when the air permeation amount is excessive, the selective separation tends to be low.
The zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention preferably has a moderate amount of air permeation as described above, and therefore has a moderate amount of gas permeation and good separation performance.

<Method for producing zeolite membrane composite>
In the present invention, the method for forming the zeolite membrane is not particularly limited as long as it is a method capable of forming the specific zeolite membrane described above on the porous support. For example, (1) zeolite is formed into a membrane on the support. A method of crystallizing, (2) a method of fixing zeolite to a support with an inorganic binder or an organic binder, (3) a method of fixing a polymer in which zeolite is dispersed to a support, and (4) a slurry of zeolite as a support. Any method can be used, such as a method in which the zeolite is fixed to the support by impregnating and optionally sucking.

Among these, a method of crystallizing zeolite on a porous support in a film form is particularly preferable. There is no particular limitation on the method of crystallization, but the support is placed in a reaction mixture for hydrothermal synthesis used for zeolite production (hereinafter sometimes referred to as an “aqueous reaction mixture”) and directly hydrothermal synthesis is performed. Thus, a method of crystallizing zeolite on the surface of the support is preferred.
In this case, the zeolite membrane composite is, for example, sealed in a heat-resistant pressure-resistant container such as an autoclave in which a porous support is placed in an aqueous reaction mixture whose composition has been uniformized and heated for a certain period of time. Can be manufactured.

  The aqueous reaction mixture contains an Si element source, an Al element source, an alkali source and water, and further contains an organic template (structure directing agent) as necessary.

  Examples of the Si element source used in the aqueous reaction mixture include one or more of amorphous silica, colloidal silica, silica gel, sodium silicate, amorphous aluminosilicate gel, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), trimethylethoxysilane, and the like. Can be used.

  As the Al element source, for example, one or more of sodium aluminate, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum sulfate, aluminum nitrate, aluminum oxide, amorphous aluminosilicate gel, and the like can be used.

  In addition to the Si element source and the Al element source, the aqueous reaction mixture may contain other element sources such as element sources such as Ga, Fe, B, Ti, Zr, Sn, and Zn.

  The kind of alkali used as the alkali source is not particularly limited, and alkali metal hydroxides and alkaline earth metal hydroxides can be used.

The metal species of these metal hydroxides are usually Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, preferably Na, K, more preferably K. Further, two or more kinds of metal species of the metal oxide may be used in combination. Specifically, it is preferable to use Na and K or Li and K in combination.
Specific examples of metal hydroxides include alkali metal hydroxides such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, rubidium hydroxide, cesium hydroxide; calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, water Alkaline earth metal hydroxides such as strontium oxide and barium hydroxide can be used.

  Further, as an alkali source used in the aqueous reaction mixture, a hydroxide ion of a counter anion of an organic template described below can be used.

  In the crystallization of zeolite according to the present invention, an organic template is not necessarily required, but by using an organic template (structure directing agent) of a type corresponding to each structure, It is preferable to use an organic template because the ratio of silicon atoms to aluminum atoms increases and crystallinity improves.

  The organic template may be any type as long as it can form a desired zeolite membrane. Further, one type of template or a combination of two or more types may be used.

  The type of organic template suitable for the reaction varies depending on the zeolite structure to be synthesized, and an organic template that provides a desired zeolite structure may be used. Specifically, for example, N, N, N-trialkyl-1-adamantanammonium cation or the like for the CHA structure, 1-adamantanamine or the like for the DDR structure, 18-crown-6 ether for the RHO structure, for example. Etc. can be used.

When the organic template is a cation, it is accompanied by an anion that does not harm the formation of the zeolite. Representative examples of such anions include halogen ions such as Cl , Br and I , hydroxide ions, acetates, sulfates, and carboxylates. Among these, hydroxide ions are particularly preferably used. In the case of hydroxide ions, they function as an alkali source as described above.

The ratio of Si element source to Al element source in the aqueous reaction mixture is usually expressed as the molar ratio of the oxide of each element, that is, the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio.

The SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 ratio of the aqueous reaction mixture is not particularly limited as long as it can form a zeolite having the above-mentioned SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 ratio, but is usually 5 or more, preferably 20 or more, more Preferably it is 30 or more, More preferably, it is 40 or more, Most preferably, it is 50 or more. Moreover, an upper limit is 500 or less normally, Preferably it is 200 or less, More preferably, it is 150 or less, More preferably, it is 100 or less. When the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 ratio is in this range, an aluminosilicate zeolite capable of forming a dense film can be crystallized.

Among the above preferable ranges, although depending on other raw material compositions and synthesis conditions, when the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 ratio is 5 or more and 150 or less, the aforementioned peak intensity ratio A is 0.5 or more and the peak intensity ratio B Having a value of 2.0 or more tends to be generated. When the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 ratio is 50 or more and 500 or less, the peak intensity ratio B is 2.0 or more, and the peak intensity ratio A is Those having a value of less than 0.5 tend to be easily generated.

The ratio of the Si element source and an organic template in the aqueous reaction mixture, the molar ratio of the organic template for SiO 2 (organic template / SiO 2 ratio) is usually 0.005 or higher, preferably at least 0.01, more preferably 0 0.02 or more, usually 1 or less, preferably 0.4 or less, more preferably 0.2 or less. When the organic template / SiO 2 ratio of the aqueous reaction mixture is within this range, in addition to being able to form a dense zeolite membrane, a zeolite having excellent acid resistance and being difficult to desorb Al is obtained. Under these conditions, a CHA-type aluminosilicate zeolite that is particularly dense and excellent in acid resistance can be formed.

The ratio of the Si element source to the metal hydroxide in the aqueous reaction mixture is M (2 / n) 2 O / SiO 2, where M represents an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, and n is a valence of 1 or 2) The molar ratio is usually 0.02 or more, preferably 0.04 or more, more preferably 0.05 or more, and usually 0.5 or less, preferably 0.4 or less, more preferably 0.00. 3 or less.

When a CHA type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane is formed, it is preferable that potassium (K) is contained among alkali metals in terms of producing a denser and higher crystalline membrane. In this case, the molar ratio of K to all alkali metals and / or alkaline earth metals containing K is usually 0.01 or more, preferably 0.1 or more, more preferably 0.3 or more, and the upper limit. Is usually 1 or less.
Also, the addition of K to the aqueous reaction mixture is preferable because it tends to increase the aforementioned peak intensity ratios A and B.

The ratio of Si element source to water in the aqueous reaction mixture is usually 10 or more, preferably 30 or more, more preferably 40 or more, particularly preferably the molar ratio of water to SiO 2 (H 2 O / SiO 2 molar ratio). Is 50 or more, usually 1000 or less, preferably 500 or less, more preferably 200 or less, and particularly preferably 150 or less.

When the H 2 O / SiO 2 molar ratio in the aqueous reaction mixture is in this range, a dense zeolite membrane can be formed.
The amount of water is particularly important in the production of a dense zeolite membrane, and a dense membrane tends to be formed more easily under conditions where the amount of water is greater than that of the general powder synthesis method.
Generally, the amount of water when synthesizing powdered aluminosilicate zeolite is about 15 to 50 in terms of H 2 O / SiO 2 molar ratio. On the other hand, by setting the H 2 O / SiO 2 molar ratio to be high (over 50 and 1000 or less), that is, with a lot of water, the aluminosilicate zeolite is formed into a dense film on the porous support. A crystallized zeolite membrane composite with high separation performance can be obtained.

  In hydrothermal synthesis, it is not always necessary to have a seed crystal in the reaction system. However, the presence of the seed crystal can promote crystallization of the zeolite on the porous support. There is no particular limitation on the method of making the seed crystal exist in the reaction system, and a method of adding the seed crystal to the aqueous reaction mixture as in the synthesis of the powdered zeolite, or attaching the seed crystal on the support. Although a method etc. can be used, in this invention, it is preferable to make a seed crystal adhere on a support body. By attaching a seed crystal in advance to the support, a dense zeolite membrane with high separation performance can be easily formed.

  The seed crystal to be used is not particularly limited as long as it is a zeolite that promotes crystallization, but in order to crystallize efficiently, it is preferably the same crystal type as the zeolite membrane to be formed. For example, when forming a CHA type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane, it is preferable to use a seed crystal of CHA type zeolite.

  It is desirable that the seed crystal has a small particle size, and it may be used after pulverization if necessary. The particle size of the seed crystal is usually 0.5 nm or more, preferably 1 nm or more, more preferably 2 nm or more, and is usually 5 μm or less, preferably 3 μm or less, more preferably 2 μm or less.

  The method for attaching the seed crystal on the porous support is not particularly limited. For example, the seed crystal is dispersed in a solvent such as water to form a dispersion, and the support is immersed in the dispersion to form the seed crystal on the surface. It is possible to use a dip method for attaching, or a method of applying a seed crystal mixed with a solvent such as water to form a slurry on the support, and the seed crystal is attached to the support in this way. Thereafter, it is desirable to form a zeolite membrane after drying. Of these seed crystal deposition methods, the dip method is desirable for controlling the amount of seed crystal deposition and producing a zeolite membrane composite with good reproducibility.

  The solvent for dispersing the seed crystal is not particularly limited, but water and an alkaline aqueous solution are particularly preferable. Although the kind of alkaline aqueous solution is not specifically limited, A sodium hydroxide aqueous solution and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution are preferable. These alkali species may be mixed. The alkali concentration of the alkaline aqueous solution is not particularly limited, and is usually 0.0001 mol% or more, preferably 0.0002 mol% or more, more preferably 0.001 mol% or more, and further preferably 0.002 mol% or more. Moreover, it is 1 mol% or less normally, Preferably it is 0.8 mol% or less, More preferably, it is 0.5 mol% or less, More preferably, it is 0.2 mol% or less.

  The amount of the seed crystal to be dispersed is not particularly limited, but is usually 0.01% by mass or more, preferably 0.1% by mass or more, more preferably 0.5% by mass or more with respect to the total mass of the dispersion. is there. Moreover, it is 20 mass% or less normally, Preferably it is 10 mass% or less, More preferably, it is 5 mass% or less, More preferably, it is 3 mass% or less.

  If the amount of seed crystals to be dispersed is too small, the amount of seed crystals adhering to the support is small, so that a portion where no zeolite is generated on the support during hydrothermal synthesis is created, resulting in a defective film. there is a possibility. On the other hand, for example, the amount of seed crystals attached to the porous support by the dip method is almost constant when the amount of seed crystals in the dispersion is higher than a certain level, so the amount of seed crystals in the dispersion is too large. This is disadvantageous in terms of cost due to the waste of seed crystals.

The amount of the seed crystal to be deposited in advance on the porous support is not particularly limited, and is generally 0.01 g or more, preferably 0.05 g or more, by mass per 1 m 2 of the film-forming surface of the porous support. The amount is preferably 0.1 g or more, and is usually 100 g or less, preferably 50 g or less, more preferably 10 g or less, and still more preferably 8 g or less.

  When the amount of seed crystals attached is less than the lower limit, crystals are hardly formed, and the film growth tends to be insufficient or the film growth tends to be uneven. In addition, when the amount of the seed crystal exceeds the above upper limit, surface irregularities are increased by the seed crystal, or spontaneous nuclei are likely to grow due to the seed crystal falling from the support, thereby inhibiting film growth on the support. May be. In either case, it tends to be difficult to form a dense zeolite membrane.

  When a zeolite membrane is formed on a porous support by hydrothermal synthesis, there are no particular limitations on the method of immobilizing the support, and it can take any form such as vertical or horizontal placement. In this case, the zeolite membrane may be formed by a stationary method, or the zeolite membrane may be formed under stirring of the aqueous reaction mixture.

  The reaction temperature at the time of forming the zeolite membrane by hydrothermal synthesis is not particularly limited as long as it is a temperature suitable for obtaining a membrane having the target zeolite structure, but is usually 100 ° C. or higher, preferably 120 ° C. or higher. Preferably it is 150 degreeC or more, and is 200 degrees C or less normally, Preferably it is 190 degrees C or less, More preferably, it is 180 degrees C or less. If the reaction temperature is too low, the zeolite may be difficult to crystallize. In addition, if the reaction temperature is too high, a zeolite of a type different from the target zeolite may be easily generated.

  The heating (reaction) time for forming the zeolite membrane by hydrothermal synthesis is not particularly limited, and may be any time suitable for obtaining a membrane having the desired zeolite structure, but usually 1 hour or more, preferably 5 hours or more. More preferably, it is 10 hours or more, usually 10 days or less, preferably 5 days or less, more preferably 3 days or less, still more preferably 2 days or less. If the reaction time is too short, the zeolite may be difficult to crystallize. If the reaction time is too long, a zeolite of a type different from the target zeolite may be easily formed.

  The pressure at the time of hydrothermal synthesis is not particularly limited, and the self-generated pressure generated when the aqueous reaction mixture placed in a closed vessel is heated to the above temperature range is sufficient. If necessary, an inert gas such as nitrogen may be added.

  The zeolite membrane composite obtained by hydrothermal synthesis is washed with water, then heated and dried. Here, the heat treatment means that the zeolite membrane composite is dried by applying heat, and when the organic template is used, the organic template is baked and removed.

  In the case of drying, the temperature of the heat treatment is usually 50 ° C. or higher, preferably 80 ° C. or higher, more preferably 100 ° C. or higher, usually 200 ° C. or lower, preferably 150 ° C. or lower. The temperature of the heat treatment is usually 350 ° C. or higher, preferably 400 ° C. or higher, more preferably 430 ° C. or higher, more preferably 450 ° C. or higher, and usually 900 ° C. or lower, when firing the organic template for the purpose. Preferably it is 850 degrees C or less, More preferably, it is 800 degrees C or less, Most preferably, it is 750 degrees C or less.

  For the purpose of removing the organic template by baking, if the temperature of the heat treatment is too low, the residual ratio of the organic template tends to increase, and the pores of the zeolite decrease, which is used for hydrogen sulfide separation. There is a possibility that the permeation amount will decrease. If the heat treatment temperature is too high, the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the support and the zeolite will increase, and the zeolite membrane may be prone to cracking, and the denseness of the zeolite membrane will be lost, resulting in poor separation performance. There is.

  The time for the heat treatment is not particularly limited as long as the zeolite membrane is sufficiently dried and the organic template is baked and removed. For the purpose of drying, preferably 0.5 hours or more, more preferably If it is 1 hour or longer and the purpose is to remove the organic template by baking, it varies depending on the rate of temperature rise or the rate of temperature fall, but it is preferably 1 hour or longer, more preferably 5 hours or longer. The upper limit of the heating time is not particularly limited, and is usually 200 hours or less, preferably 150 hours or less, more preferably 100 hours or less.

  The heat treatment for the purpose of firing the template may be performed in an air atmosphere, but may be performed in an atmosphere to which an inert gas such as nitrogen or oxygen is added.

  When hydrothermal synthesis is performed in the presence of an organic template, the obtained zeolite membrane composite is washed with water, and then the organic template is removed by, for example, heat treatment or extraction, preferably by the above heat treatment, that is, baking. Is appropriate.

  In order to prevent cracking of the zeolite membrane due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the porous support and the zeolite, the rate of temperature increase during the heat treatment for the purpose of firing and removing the organic template is as much as possible. It is desirable to slow down. The temperature rising rate is usually 5 ° C./min or less, preferably 2 ° C./min or less, more preferably 1 ° C./min or less, and particularly preferably 0.5 ° C./min or less. The lower limit of the heating rate is usually 0.1 ° C./min or more in consideration of workability.

  In heat treatment for the purpose of firing and removing the organic template, it is necessary to control the temperature drop rate after the heat treatment in order to avoid cracks in the zeolite membrane. The slower it is, the better. The temperature lowering rate is usually 5 ° C./min or less, preferably 2 ° C./min or less, more preferably 1 ° C./min or less, and particularly preferably 0.5 ° C./min or less. The lower limit of the cooling rate is usually 0.1 ° C./min or more in consideration of workability.

  The synthesized zeolite membrane may be ion-exchanged or silylated as necessary.

When the zeolite membrane is synthesized using an organic template, the ion exchange is usually performed after removing the organic template. Examples of ions to be ion-exchanged include protons, alkali metal ions such as Na + , K + and Li + , alkaline earth metal ions such as Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ , Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Examples include ions of transition metals such as Ga and La. Of these, protons, Na + , Mg 2+ and Fe, Al, Ga, La ions are preferred.

In the ion exchange, the zeolite membrane after calcination (for example, when an organic template is used) is replaced with an ammonium salt such as NH 4 NO 3 or NaNO 3 or an aqueous solution containing a salt to be exchanged, or an acid such as hydrochloric acid in some cases. Usually, it may be performed by a method of washing with water after treatment at a temperature of room temperature to 100 ° C. Furthermore, you may bake at 200-500 degreeC as needed.

  The silylation treatment is performed by immersing the zeolite membrane composite in a solution containing, for example, a Si compound. Thereby, the zeolite membrane surface can be modified with the Si compound to have specific physicochemical properties. For example, it is considered that the polarity of the membrane surface can be improved and the separation performance of polar molecules can be improved by reliably forming a layer containing a large amount of Si—OH on the zeolite membrane surface. In addition, by modifying the zeolite membrane surface with a Si compound, an effect of closing fine defects existing on the membrane surface may be obtained as a secondary effect.

  The solvent used for the silylation treatment may be water or an organic solvent. The solution may be acidic or basic. In this case, the silylation reaction is catalyzed by the acid or base. Although there is no restriction | limiting in the silylating agent to be used, An alkoxysilane is preferable. The treatment temperature is usually from room temperature to 150 ° C., and the treatment may be performed for about 10 minutes to 30 hours, and these treatment conditions may be appropriately set according to the silylating agent and solvent type to be used.

  The zeolite membrane composite thus produced has excellent characteristics and can be suitably used as a means for membrane separation of hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture in the present invention.

<Method for separating hydrogen sulfide>
In the method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to the present invention, a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance is brought into contact with the zeolite membrane composite, and hydrogen sulfide is selectively permeated from the gas mixture for separation. This makes it possible to concentrate a gas component having low membrane permeability in the gas mixture.
One of the separation functions of the zeolite membrane in the present invention is separation as a molecular sieve, and gas molecules having a size larger than the effective pore diameter of the zeolite used can be suitably separated from gas molecules smaller than that. .

  In the present invention, the organic substance contained in the gas mixture to be separated has the same molecular size as that of methane having the smallest molecular diameter or larger than that of methane. The molecular diameter of methane is 0.38 nm, and the pore size of the oxygen 8-membered ring zeolite is, for example, 0.38 × 0.38 nm for CHA, 0.36 × 4.4 nm for DDR, and 0.36 for RHO. Since it is × 0.36 nm, the organic substance cannot permeate through these oxygen 8-membered ring pores with high transmittance. The pore size of other oxygen 8-membered ring zeolites is as follows: AFX: 0.34 × 0.36 nm, CAS: 0.24 × 0.47 nm, ERI: 0.36 × 0.51 nm, ESV: 0. 35 × 0.47 nm, GIS: 0.31 × 0.45 nm, 0.28 × 0.48 nm, ITW: 0.24 × 0.54 nm, 0.39 × 0.42 nm, KFI: 0.39 × 0. Since it is 39 nm, LEV: 0.36 × 0.48 nm, and is smaller than methane, which is the smallest molecular size of organic matter, or has a pore diameter almost the same, organic matter cannot permeate with high permeability.

  When the separation performance of hydrogen sulfide and organic matter is not sufficiently high, such as when the pore size of the zeolite is larger than that of methane, the effective pore size of the zeolite is It can be controlled by ion exchange, acid treatment, silylation treatment, and the like. It is also possible to improve the separation performance by controlling the effective pore diameter.

  The zeolite pore diameter is slightly affected by the atomic diameter of the metal species introduced into the zeolite framework. When a metal having a smaller atomic diameter than silicon, specifically, for example, boron (B) or the like is introduced, the pore diameter becomes smaller, and a metal having a larger atomic diameter than silicon, specifically, for example, tin (Sn ) Etc., the pore diameter increases. In addition, the pore diameter may be affected by desorbing the metal introduced into the zeolite skeleton by acid treatment.

  When the ions in the zeolite are exchanged with monovalent ions with a large ionic radius by ion exchange, the effective pore diameter becomes smaller, while effective when the ions are exchanged with monovalent ions with a small ionic radius. The pore diameter is a value close to the pore diameter of the CHA structure. Even in the case of divalent ions such as calcium, depending on the position of the exchange site, the effective pore size becomes a value close to the pore size of the CHA structure.

  The effective pore diameter of zeolite can be reduced also by silylation treatment. For example, by silylated the terminal silanol on the outer surface of the zeolite membrane and further laminating a silylated layer, the effective pore diameter of the pores facing the outer surface of the zeolite is reduced.

  Further, another separation function of the zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention is to control the adsorptivity of gas molecules to the zeolite membrane by controlling the surface physical properties of the zeolite. That is, by controlling the polarity of the zeolite, the adsorptivity of hydrogen sulfide to the zeolite can be controlled to facilitate permeation.

  Moreover, it is possible to increase the polarity by substituting Si of the zeolite skeleton with Al, and thereby, gas molecules having a large polarity can be actively adsorbed and permeated into the zeolite pores. Further, when the amount of Al substitution is reduced, a zeolite membrane with a small polarity is obtained, which is advantageous for allowing gas molecules with a small polarity to permeate. It is also possible to control the polarity of the resulting zeolite by adding other element sources other than Al element sources such as Ga, Fe, B, Ti, Zr, Sn, Zn to the aqueous reaction mixture of hydrothermal synthesis. It is.

  In addition, the permeation performance can be controlled by controlling not only the pore diameter of zeolite but also the adsorption performance of molecules by ion exchange.

  In the present invention, hydrogen sulfide is separated from a gas mixture composed of a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance by permeating the zeolite membrane. However, the component permeating the zeolite membrane may be present in addition to hydrogen sulfide. The gas to be permeated other than hydrogen sulfide is not particularly limited as long as the molecular diameter is smaller than 0.38 nm which is the molecular diameter of methane. Specific examples include hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide.

  Gas separation conditions vary depending on the gas species to be separated, the composition of the gas mixture, and the performance of the membrane, but the temperature is usually -20 to 300 ° C, preferably 0 to 200 ° C, more preferably 0 to 150 ° C. is there. Separation at 0 to 25 ° C. is preferable in that energy for adjusting the temperature of the separation target gas is not required or energy is small. Since the permeability of hydrogen sulfide tends to increase at a low temperature, cooling may be performed in a range of 25 ° C. or lower and −20 ° C. or higher for the purpose of increasing the permeability.

  The pressure of the supply gas (gas mixture) may be the same as long as the gas to be separated is high, or may be adjusted to a desired pressure by adjusting the pressure appropriately. When the gas to be separated is lower than the pressure used for separation, the pressure can be increased with a compressor or the like.

  The pressure of the supply gas is not particularly limited, but is usually atmospheric pressure or larger than atmospheric pressure, preferably 0.1 MPa or more, more preferably 0.11 MPa or more. Moreover, an upper limit is 20 MPa or less normally, Preferably it is 10 MPa or less, More preferably, it is 1 MPa or less.

  The pressure on the permeate side is not particularly limited, but is usually 10 MPa or less, preferably 5 MPa or less, more preferably 1 MPa or less, and still more preferably 0.5 MPa or less. When separating until the hydrogen sulfide concentration reaches a low value, it is preferable that the permeate side is at a low pressure, and when reduced to a pressure below atmospheric pressure, it is possible to separate the hydrogen sulfide until a lower concentration is reached. It is.

  The differential pressure between the gas on the supply side and the gas on the permeate side is not particularly limited, but is usually 20 MPa or less, preferably 10 MPa or less, more preferably 5 MPa or less, and even more preferably 1 MPa or less. Moreover, it is 0.001 MPa or more normally, Preferably it is 0.01 MPa or more, More preferably, it is 0.02 MPa or more.

  Here, the differential pressure refers to the difference between the partial pressure on the gas supply side and the partial pressure on the permeation side. Further, the pressure [Pa] indicates an absolute pressure unless otherwise specified.

  The flow rate of the supply gas is such that it can compensate for the decrease in the permeated gas, and the concentration in the vicinity of the membrane of the gas having a low permeability in the supply gas matches the concentration in the entire gas. The flow rate is sufficient to mix the gas, and depending on the tube diameter of the separation unit and the separation performance of the membrane, it is usually 0.5 mm / sec or more, preferably 1 mm / sec or more. 1 m / sec or less, preferably 0.5 m / sec or less.

In the method for separating hydrogen sulfide from the gas mixture of the present invention, a sweep gas may be used. In the method using the sweep gas, a gas different from the supply gas is allowed to flow on the permeate side, and the gas that has permeated the membrane is recovered.
The pressure of the sweep gas is usually atmospheric pressure, but is not particularly limited to atmospheric pressure, and is preferably 20 MPa or less, more preferably 10 MPa or less, further preferably 1 MPa or less, and the lower limit is preferably 0.09 MPa. As mentioned above, More preferably, it is 0.1 MPa or more. In some cases, the pressure may be reduced.

  The flow rate of the sweep gas is not particularly limited, but is usually 0.5 mm / sec or more, preferably 1 mm / sec or more, and the upper limit is not particularly limited, usually 1 m / sec or less, preferably 0.5 m / sec or less. is there.

  Although the apparatus used for gas separation is not specifically limited, Usually, it uses as a module. The membrane module may be, for example, an apparatus as schematically shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, and for example, the membrane module exemplified in “Gas Separation / Purification Technology”, Toray Research Center 2007, issue 22 page, etc. May be used.

  The zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention has excellent chemical resistance, oxidation resistance, heat stability, pressure resistance, high permeation performance, separation performance, and excellent durability.

The high permeation performance here indicates a sufficient throughput, for example, the permeance (Permeance) [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] of the gas component that permeates the membrane, for example, hydrogen sulfide at a temperature of 50 In the case of permeation at a temperature of 0 ° C. and a differential pressure of 0.098 MPa, it is usually 1 × 10 −8 or more, preferably 1.5 × 10 −8 or more, more preferably 2 × 10 −8 or more, and further preferably 3 × 10 −8. As described above, it is particularly preferably 5 × 10 −8 or more. The upper limit is not particularly limited, and is usually 3 × 10 −4 or less.

In addition, the permeance [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] of the zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention is usually 3 × 10 −8 or less, preferably 1 × when methane is permeated under the same conditions, for example. It is 10 −8 or less, more preferably 5 × 10 −9 or less, and the permeance is ideally 0, but it may be practically on the order of 10 −10 to 10 −14 .

Here, permeance (also referred to as “permeability”) is obtained by dividing the amount of substance to be permeated by the product of the membrane area, time, and the partial pressure difference between the permeate supply side and the permeate side. [Mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] is a value calculated by the method described in the section of the examples.

  The selectivity of the zeolite membrane is expressed by an ideal separation factor and a separation factor. The ideal separation factor and the separation factor are indicators that represent the selectivity generally used in membrane separation. The ideal separation factor is a value calculated as follows by the method described in the section of the embodiment.

When obtaining the separation coefficient α, the following formula is used.
α = (Q ′ 1 / Q ′ 2 ) / (P ′ 1 / P ′ 2 )
[In the above formula , Q ′ 1 and Q ′ 2 represent the permeation amounts [mol · (m 2 · s) −1 ] of a highly permeable gas and a low permeable gas, respectively, and P ′ 1 and P ′ ' 2 indicates the partial pressure [Pa] of the highly permeable gas and the low permeable gas in the supply gas, respectively. ]
The separation factor α can also be obtained as follows.
α = (C ′ 1 / C ′ 2 ) / (C 1 / C 2 )
[In the above formula , C ′ 1 and C ′ 2 indicate the concentration [mol%] of a highly permeable gas and a low permeable gas, respectively, and C 1 and C 2 are respectively supplied. It shows the concentration [mol%] of a gas with high permeability in gas and a gas with low permeability. ]

  For example, when hydrogen sulfide and methane are permeated at a temperature of 50 ° C. and a differential pressure of 0.1 MPa, the ideal separation factor is usually 2 or more, preferably 3 or more, more preferably 4 or more, and even more preferably 5 or more. The upper limit of the ideal separation factor is a case where only hydrogen sulfide permeates completely. In that case, the separation factor is infinite, but in practice, the separation factor may be about 100,000 or less.

  The separation factor of the zeolite membrane used in the present invention is usually 2 or more, preferably 3 when a mixed gas of 1: 1 volume ratio of hydrogen sulfide and methane is permeated at a temperature of 50 ° C. and a differential pressure of 0.1 MPa. As mentioned above, More preferably, it is 4 or more, More preferably, it is 5 or more. The upper limit of the separation factor is a case where only hydrogen sulfide permeates, and in that case, the separation factor is infinite, but in practice, the separation factor may be about 100,000 or less.

  As described above, the zeolite membrane composite used in the present invention is excellent in chemical resistance, oxidation resistance, heat stability, pressure resistance, exhibits high permeation performance, separation performance, and is excellent in durability. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide of the present invention using such a zeolite membrane composite is useful for removing hydrogen sulfide from off-gas of petroleum, coal gas, natural gas, biogas, chemical plants, or removing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. It can be used suitably.

EXAMPLES Hereinafter, although this invention is demonstrated further more concretely based on an Example, this invention is not limited by a following example, unless the summary is exceeded. In addition, the values of various production conditions and evaluation results in the following examples have meanings as preferable values of the upper limit or the lower limit in the embodiment of the present invention, and the preferable range is the value of the upper limit or the lower limit. It may be a range defined by a combination of values of the following examples or values of the examples.
In the following, “CHA-type silicate zeolite” is simply referred to as “CHA-type zeolite”.

[Measurement of physical properties and separation performance]
In the following, the physical properties and separation performance of the zeolite membrane composite were measured as follows.

(1) X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement XRD measurement of the zeolite membrane was performed under the following conditions.
-Device name: X'PertPro MPD manufactured by PANalytical, the Netherlands
Optical system specifications Incident side: Enclosed X-ray tube (CuKα)
Soller Slit (0.04 rad)
Divergence Slit (Variable Slit)
Sample stage: XYZ stage
Light receiving side: Semiconductor array detector (X 'Celerator)
Ni-filter
Soller Slit (0.04 rad)
Goniometer radius: 240mm
Measurement conditions X-ray output (CuKα): 45 kV, 40 mA
Scanning axis: θ / 2θ
Scanning range (2θ): 5.0-70.0 °
Measurement mode: Continuous
Reading width: 0.05 °
Counting time: 99.7 sec
Automatic variable slit (Automatic-DS): 1 mm (irradiation width)
Lateral divergence mask: 10 mm (irradiation width)

X-rays were irradiated in a direction perpendicular to the axial direction of the cylindrical tube. Also, the X-ray is not a line in contact with the surface of the sample table out of two lines where the cylindrical tubular membrane composite placed on the sample table and a surface parallel to the surface of the sample table are in contact with each other so that noise is not required as much as possible. The main line was placed on the other line above the surface of the sample table.
In addition, the irradiation width is fixed to 1 mm with an automatic variable slit, and the XRD pattern is measured by performing variable slit → fixed slit conversion using XRD analysis software JADE7.5.2 (Japanese version) of Materials Data, Inc. Got.

(2) Air permeation amount At atmospheric pressure, one end of the zeolite membrane composite is sealed, and the other end is connected to a 5 kPa vacuum line while maintaining airtightness. The flow rate of air that permeated through the zeolite membrane composite was measured with a mass flow meter installed in between, and the air permeation amount [L / (m 2 · h)] was obtained. As the mass flow meter, 8300 manufactured by KOFLOC, for N 2 gas, and a maximum flow rate of 500 ml / min (20 ° C., converted to 1 atm) were used. When the mass flow meter display on the KOFLOC 8300 is 10 ml / min (20 ° C, converted to 1 atm) or less, Lintec MM-2100M, for Air gas, maximum flow rate 20 ml / min (converted to 0 ° C, 1 atm) It measured using.

(3) Single component gas permeation test The single component gas permeation test was performed as follows using the apparatus schematically shown in FIG.
The sample gas used was carbon dioxide (purity 99.9%, manufactured by High Pressure Gas Industries), methane (purity 99.999%, manufactured by Japan Fine Products), hydrogen (purity 99.99% or more, HORIBA
STEC hydrogen generator OPGU-2200), nitrogen (purity 99.99%, manufactured by Toho Oxygen Corporation), helium (purity 99.99, manufactured by Japan Helium Center).

  In FIG. 1, a cylindrical zeolite membrane composite 1 is installed in a thermostatic chamber (not shown) in a state of being stored in a pressure vessel 2 made of stainless steel. The thermostat is provided with a temperature control device so that the temperature of the supply gas can be adjusted.

  One end of the cylindrical zeolite membrane composite 1 is sealed with an end pin 3 having a T-shaped cross section. The other end of the zeolite membrane composite 1 is connected to the discharge pipe 11 for the permeated gas 8 through the connection portion 4, and the pipe 11 extends to the outside of the pressure vessel 2. A pressure gauge 5 for measuring the pressure on the supply side of the supply gas 7 is connected to the supply pipe 12 for the supply gas (sample gas) 7 to the pressure vessel 2. Each connection part is connected with good airtightness.

  In the apparatus shown in FIG. 1, when a single component gas permeation test is performed, a supply gas (sample gas) 7 is supplied between the pressure vessel 2 and the zeolite membrane composite 1 at a constant pressure, and the zeolite membrane composite 1 is supplied. The permeated gas 8 that permeated was measured with a flow meter (not shown) connected to the pipe 11.

(4) Hydrogen sulfide separation test In the apparatus schematically shown in Fig. 2, a hydrogen sulfide separation test was performed as follows.
In FIG. 2, a cylindrical zeolite membrane composite 1 is installed in a thermostat (not shown) in a state of being stored in a pressure vessel 2 made of stainless steel. The thermostat is provided with a temperature control device so that the temperature of the supply gas can be adjusted.

  One end of the cylindrical zeolite membrane composite 1 is sealed with an end pin 3 having a T-shaped cross section. The other end of the zeolite membrane complex 1 is connected to the discharge pipe 10 for the permeated gas 8 through the connection portion 4, and the pipe 10 extends to the outside of the pressure vessel 2. Further, a pressure gauge 5 for measuring the supply pressure of the supply gas 7 from the supply pipe 12 and a back pressure valve 6 for adjusting the supply pressure are connected to the gas discharge pipe 13 from the pressure vessel 2. Each connection part is connected with good airtightness.

  In the apparatus shown in FIG. 2, a mixed gas of 10% hydrogen sulfide / 90% nitrogen is supplied as a supply gas 7 at a flow rate of 600 SCCM (245 mm / sec) between the pressure vessel 2 and the zeolite membrane composite 1, and a back pressure valve 6, the gas pressure on the supply side is kept constant at 0.6 MPa, the flow rate of the exhaust gas discharged from the pipe 10 is measured with a flow meter (not shown) connected to the pipe 11, and the gas detection pipe (see FIG. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide was measured.

In (3) single component gas permeation test and (4) hydrogen sulfide permeation test, in order to remove components such as moisture and air from the pressure vessel 2, it is used for drying and exhausting above the measurement temperature. After the sample gas is purged, the sample gas temperature and the pressure difference between the supply gas 7 side and the permeate gas 8 side of the zeolite membrane composite 1 are kept constant, and the flow rate of the permeate gas is stabilized. The flow rate of the permeated sample gas (permeated gas 8) was measured, and the gas permeance [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] was calculated. As the pressure for calculating the permeance, the pressure difference (differential pressure) between the supply side and the permeation side of the supply gas was used. In the case of a mixed gas, a partial pressure difference was used.
Moreover, based on the measurement result, the ideal separation coefficient α ′ was calculated by the following formula (1).
α ′ = (Q 1 / Q 2 ) / (P 1 / P 2 ) (1)
Wherein (1), Q 1 and Q 2, respectively, the amount of transmission of high permeability gas and low permeability gas indicates [mol · (m 2 · s ) -1], P 1 and P 2 Indicates the pressure difference [Pa] between the supply side and the permeation side of the gas with high permeability and the gas with low permeability, respectively. ]
This indicates the permeance ratio of each gas. Therefore, the permeance of each gas can be calculated and obtained from the ratio. Conventionally, the permeance ratio obtained from the permeation test of a single component gas is used, but this time the permeance of hydrogen sulfide calculated from the permeation test using a mixed gas of nitrogen / hydrogen sulfide as the ideal separation factor of hydrogen sulfide and methane. And the value calculated | required from the ratio of the permeance of methane computed from the permeation | transmission test using methane single component gas was shown.

(5) SEM-EDX measurement SEM-EDX measurement of the zeolite membrane was performed under the following conditions.
-Device name: SEM: FE-SEM Hitachi: S-4800
EDX: EDAX Genesis
・ Acceleration voltage: 10 kV
X-ray quantitative analysis was performed by scanning the entire field of view (25 μm × 18 μm) at a magnification of 5000 times.

[Example 1]
<Manufacture of zeolite membrane composite>
A CHA-type aluminosilicate zeolite membrane was directly hydrothermally synthesized on a porous support by the following method to prepare a porous support-CHA-type zeolite membrane composite.
An aqueous reaction mixture for hydrothermal synthesis was prepared as follows.
A mixture of 1.4 g of 1 mol / L-NaOH aqueous solution, 5.8 g of 1 mol / L-KOH aqueous solution, 0.195 g of aluminum hydroxide (containing 53.5% by mass of Al 2 O 3 , manufactured by Aldrich), and 114 g of water is mixed. It was set as the solution. As an organic template, 2.4 g of an aqueous solution of N, N, N-trimethyl-1-adamantanammonium hydroxide (hereinafter referred to as “TMADAOH”) (containing 25% by mass of TMADAOH, manufactured by Seychem) was added, and 10.8 g of colloidal silica (Snowtech-40, Nissan Chemical Co., Ltd.) was added and stirred for about 2 hours to obtain an aqueous reaction mixture.

The composition (molar ratio) of this aqueous reaction mixture was SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 / NaOH / KOH / H 2 O / TMADAOH = 1 / 0.014 / 0.02 / 0.08 / 100 / 0.04, a SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 = 70.

  As the porous support, a porous alumina tube (outer diameter 12 mm, inner diameter 9 mm) was cut into a length of 80 mm, washed with an ultrasonic cleaner, and then dried.

Prior to hydrothermal synthesis, seed crystals were deposited on the porous support. As a seed crystal, SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 / NaOH / KOH / H 2 O / TMADAOH = 1 / 0.033 / 0.1 / 0.06 / 40 / 0.07 was obtained by the same method as described above. A CHA-type zeolite having a particle size of about 0.5 μm, which was crystallized by hydrothermal synthesis at 160 ° C. for 2 days, was used.

The support was immersed in a dispersion obtained by dispersing the seed crystal in demineralized water at about 1% by mass, and then dried at 100 ° C. for 4 hours or more to attach the seed crystal. The amount of seed crystals attached after drying was 1.5 g / m 2 .

  The support to which the seed crystal was attached was immersed in a Teflon (registered trademark) inner cylinder (200 ml) containing the aqueous reaction mixture in the vertical direction to seal the autoclave, and was allowed to stand at 1600 ° C. Heated for 48 hours under autogenous pressure. After a predetermined time, the zeolite membrane composite was taken out of the aqueous reaction mixture after being allowed to cool, washed, and dried at 100 ° C. for 4 hours or more.

The dried zeolite membrane composite was fired at 500 ° C. for 5 hours in an electric furnace. The rate of temperature increase and decrease during firing was 2.2 ° C / min from room temperature to 150 ° C, 0.5 ° C / min from 150 ° C to 450 ° C, and 0.1 ° C / min from 450 ° C to 500 ° C. did. The mass of the CHA-type zeolite crystallized on the support, determined from the difference between the weight of the zeolite membrane composite after calcination and the total weight of the support and seed crystals, was 118 g / m 2 .
The air permeation amount of the zeolite membrane composite after calcination was 37 L / (m 2 · h).

  The XRD pattern of the produced zeolite membrane is shown in FIG. * In the figure is a peak derived from the support. From this XRD pattern, it was confirmed that CHA-type zeolite was produced. The peak intensity ratio B = 4.2 and the peak intensity ratio A = 0.59. Compared with the XRD pattern of the powdered CHA-type zeolite shown in FIG. 5, the XRD pattern of the obtained zeolite membrane has a high peak intensity ratio A and B, and (1,1,1), (1,0) in the rhombohedral setting. , 0) plane was estimated.

  Hereinafter, the produced CHA-type zeolite membrane composite is referred to as “CHA-type zeolite membrane composite 1”.

<Evaluation of membrane separation performance>
A single component gas permeation test was conducted using the CHA-type zeolite membrane composite 1.
As pretreatment, at 140 ° C., CO 2 is introduced as the supply gas 7 between the pressure vessel 2 and the zeolite membrane composite 1 to keep the pressure at about 0.16 MPa. The inside was 0.098 MPa (atmospheric pressure) and dried for about 60 minutes.
Thereafter, the temperature was set to 50 ° C., and after the temperature was stabilized, the supply gas was changed to each evaluation gas. At this time, the pressure on the supply side was 0.2 MPa, and the differential pressure between the supply gas 7 side and the permeate gas 8 side was 0.1 MPa.
Table 1 shows the measured permeance of each evaluation gas.

As apparent from Table 1, the permeance of carbon dioxide at 50 ° C. was as high as 1.40 × 10 −6 . Further, a high value of 4.39 × 10 −7 was also obtained for hydrogen, indicating that a zeolite membrane composite with high permeance was obtained. The ideal separation coefficient α ′ of carbon dioxide and methane at 50 ° C. was 230 (= 1.40 × 10 6 /6.09×10 9 ).

Further, a hydrogen sulfide permeation test was performed using a mixed gas of nitrogen / hydrogen sulfide using a membrane synthesized in the same batch as the zeolite membrane composite 1. In the pretreatment in the pretreatment is a single component gas permeation test, was performed in the same manner except that the gas species in the N 2. Thereafter, a mixed gas of 10% hydrogen sulfide / 90% nitrogen was circulated at 600 SCCM (245 mm / sec), and the back pressure was set to 0.6 MPa. At this time, the differential pressure between the supply gas 7 side and the permeate gas 8 side of the zeolite membrane composite 1 was 0.5 MPa.

The concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the obtained permeated gas was 7.6%. When permeance is calculated, the permeance of hydrogen sulfide is 2.57 × 10 −8 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)], and the permeance of nitrogen is 3.65 × 10 −8 [mol / (m 2 · s). -Pa)]. The permeance of hydrogen sulfide was in the same order as that of nitrogen and was sufficiently high. This nitrogen permeance is lower than that of 7.31 × 10 −8 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] obtained in the single-component gas permeation test, and permeates as a mixed gas with hydrogen sulfide. It is estimated that the effect of

The ratio of hydrogen sulfide permeance in the hydrogen sulfide separation test to methane permeance in the single component gas permeation test (ideal separation factor) is 4.2 (= 2.57 × 10 −8 /6.09×10 −9 ). Met. The ratio of carbon dioxide permeance in the single component gas permeation test to hydrogen sulfide permeance in the hydrogen sulfide separation test (ideal separation factor) is 54.5 (= 1.40 × 10 −6 /2.57×10). 8 ).
From this result, it is possible to efficiently permeate and separate hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide and methane, and also from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and methane, and sulfide together with carbon dioxide. It can be seen that hydrogen can be efficiently permeated and separated.

[Example 2]
<Manufacture of zeolite membrane composite>
A CHA-type zeolite membrane composite was produced in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the aqueous reaction mixture for hydrothermal synthesis was prepared as follows.
113 g of water was added to a mixture of 1.2 g of 1 mol / L-NaOH aqueous solution, 5.0 g of 1 mol / L-KOH aqueous solution, and 0.104 g of aluminum hydroxide (containing 53.5% by mass of Al 2 O 3 , manufactured by Aldrich). The solution was stirred and dissolved to obtain a transparent solution. As an organic template, 2.4 g of an aqueous solution of N, N, N-trimethyl-1-adamantanammonium hydroxide (hereinafter referred to as “TMADAOH”) (containing 25% by mass of TMADAOH, manufactured by Seychem) was added, and 10.8 g of colloidal silica (Snowtech-40, Nissan Chemical Co., Ltd.) was added and stirred for 2 hours to obtain an aqueous reaction mixture.

The composition (molar ratio) of this aqueous reaction mixture was SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 / NaOH / KOH / H 2 O / TMADAOH = 1 / 0.0077 / 0.017 / 0.069 / 100 / 0.04, a SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 = 130.

The adhesion amount of the seed crystal of the porous support was 1.4 g / m 2 .
The mass of the CHA zeolite crystallized on the support was 46 g / m 2 . Further, the SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the zeolite membrane measured by SEM-EDX was 21.
In addition, the air permeation amount of the obtained CHA-type zeolite membrane composite was 315 L / (m 2 · h).

The XRD pattern of the produced zeolite membrane is shown in FIG. * In the figure is a peak derived from the support. From this XRD pattern, it was confirmed that CHA-type zeolite was produced. The peak intensity ratio B = 3.8 and the peak intensity ratio A = 0.45. Compared with the XRD pattern of the powdered CHA-type zeolite shown in FIG. 5, the XRD pattern of the obtained zeolite membrane has the same peak intensity ratio A, but the peak intensity ratio B is high, and the rhombohedral setting Orientation to the (1, 0, 0) plane was estimated.
Hereinafter, the produced CHA-type zeolite membrane composite is referred to as “CHA-type zeolite membrane composite 2”.

<Evaluation of membrane separation performance>
A single component gas permeation test was conducted in the same manner as in Example 1 using the CHA-type zeolite membrane composite 2 and the membrane synthesized in the same batch. Table 2 shows the permeance of each evaluation gas obtained.

As apparent from Table 2, the permeance of carbon dioxide at 50 ° C. was as high as 2.01 × 10 −6 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)]. Further, a high value of 6.65 × 10 −7 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] was obtained for hydrogen, indicating that a zeolite membrane composite with high permeance was obtained. The ideal separation coefficient α ′ of carbon dioxide and methane at 50 ° C. is 126 (= 2.01 × 10 −6 /1.60×10 −8 ), and the zeolite membrane composite exhibiting a high value in the separation performance. It can be seen that

Further, when the hydrogen sulfide separation test was conducted in the same manner as in Example 1 using this CHA-type zeolite membrane composite 2, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the permeate gas was 9.0%. When permeance is calculated, the permeance of hydrogen sulfide is 6.54 × 10 −8 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)], and the permeance of nitrogen is 7.51 × 10 −8 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)]. The permeance of hydrogen sulfide was in the same order as that of nitrogen and was sufficiently high. This nitrogen permeance is lower than 1.13 × 10 −7 [mol / (m 2 · s · Pa)] obtained in the single-component gas permeation test, and permeates as a mixed gas with hydrogen sulfide. It is estimated that the effect of

The ratio of hydrogen sulfide permeance in the hydrogen sulfide separation test to methane permeance in the single component gas permeation test (ideal separation factor) is 4.1 (= 6.54 × 10 −8 /1.60×10 −8). )Met. The ratio of carbon dioxide permeance in the single component gas permeation test to hydrogen sulfide permeance in the hydrogen sulfide separation test (ideal separation factor) was 30.7 (= 2.01 × 10 −6 /6.54×10). -8 ).
From this result, it is possible to efficiently permeate and separate hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide and methane, and also from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and methane, and sulfide together with carbon dioxide. It can be seen that hydrogen can be efficiently permeated and separated.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Zeolite membrane composite 2 Pressure-resistant container 5 Pressure gauge 6 Back pressure valve 7 Supply gas (sample gas)
8 Permeated gas

Claims (7)

  1. A method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture comprising a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance using a zeolite membrane formed on a porous support, wherein the zeolite membrane has an oxygen 8-membered ring. Including a zeolite structure having
    The organic matter includes methane,
    The zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is an aluminosilicate;
    The SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is 6 or more and 500 or less,
    A method for separating hydrogen sulfide, wherein the gas mixture is brought into contact with the zeolite membrane, and hydrogen sulfide is separated from the gas mixture by permeating the zeolite membrane.
  2. A method for separating hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture comprising a plurality of components including hydrogen sulfide and an organic substance using a zeolite membrane formed on a porous support, wherein the zeolite membrane has an oxygen 8-membered ring. Including a zeolite structure having
    The zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is CHA type aluminosilicate,
    The SiO 2 / Al 2 O 3 molar ratio of the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is 6 or more and 500 or less,
    A method for separating hydrogen sulfide, wherein the gas mixture is brought into contact with the zeolite membrane, and hydrogen sulfide is separated from the gas mixture by permeating the zeolite membrane.
  3. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to claim 1 , wherein the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is a CHA type aluminosilicate.
  4. In the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the zeolite membrane surface with X-rays, the peak intensity in the vicinity of 2θ = 17.9 ° is 2θ = The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to any one of claims 1 to 3, which has a value not less than 0.5 times the peak intensity in the vicinity of 20.8 °.
  5. In the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by irradiating the zeolite membrane surface with X-rays, the peak intensity around 2θ = 9.6 ° is 2θ = The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to any one of claims 1 to 3, which has a value of 2.0 times or more of a peak intensity in the vicinity of 20.8 °.
  6. It said zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is CHA-type aluminosilicate, the X-ray diffraction pattern in the zeolite membrane surface obtained by irradiation with X-ray, the peak intensity in the vicinity of 2 θ = 17.9 ° is, 2 [Theta] 6. The method for separating hydrogen sulfide according to claim 5 , which has a value less than 0.5 times the peak intensity in the vicinity of 20.8 °.
  7. The sulfide according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein the zeolite having an oxygen 8-membered ring is formed using a reaction mixture for hydrothermal synthesis containing at least potassium (K) as an alkali source. Hydrogen separation method.
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