JP6094013B2 - Evacuation device - Google Patents

Evacuation device Download PDF


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JP6094013B2 JP2012189246A JP2012189246A JP6094013B2 JP 6094013 B2 JP6094013 B2 JP 6094013B2 JP 2012189246 A JP2012189246 A JP 2012189246A JP 2012189246 A JP2012189246 A JP 2012189246A JP 6094013 B2 JP6094013 B2 JP 6094013B2
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JP2014037755A (en
藤原 充弘
充弘 藤原
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    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/30Flood prevention; Flood or storm water management, e.g. using flood barriers


この発明は、津波や洪水、突風(竜巻を含む)などの非常事態発生時に近場において迅速かつ安全に避難できるようにした避難装置に関する。  The present invention relates to an evacuation device that can evacuate quickly and safely in the vicinity when an emergency such as a tsunami, flood, or a gust of wind (including a tornado) occurs.
先の東日本大震災において発生した津波は、想定を大きく超えるもので避難場所が遠い高台に限定されていることもあって大災害を招いた。本出願人は、遠い高台でなく住民の近場で避難可能な人工的な避難装置を提供すべく研究開発を行い、震災前から多くの津波避難装置を提供している。  The tsunami that occurred in the Great East Japan Earthquake was far beyond expectations and caused a major disaster because the evacuation site was limited to a high ground. The present applicant has been conducting research and development to provide artificial evacuation devices that can evacuate in the vicinity of residents rather than distant hills, and has provided many tsunami evacuation devices before the earthquake.
特開2009−036014  JP 2009-036014 A
As one of the tsunami evacuation devices, there is one disclosed in Patent Document 1, which is a local resident before a tsunami strikes on a pedestrian bridge that is built to straddle roads, rivers, railways, etc. In particular, an evacuation stage is provided in addition to the walking road surface so that as many people as possible can evacuate.
However, the pedestrian bridge described in the same document 1 has a narrow stage housing that is separate from the pedestrian bridge main body, so it cannot evacuate many people in the town, which is a big problem. Yes.
In addition, it is common to use a structure called a box type for the frame structure such as the above-mentioned crossover frame or stage frame. However, the box type frame is perpendicular to the direction in which the tsunami strikes one side surface. Because the tsunami flow and floating objects collide with the wall surface of the frame at right angles and receive an excessive load that is not assumed, the frame has a sealed space due to the box structure. As a result of excessive buoyancy, the evacuation device may not only cause unexpected damage such as the base of the column to fall off, breakage of other parts or loss of floating upstream, and may not be able to protect the evacuees safely.
この発明は、上記問題を解決しようとするものであり、近場のできるだけ多くの住民を避難させ得るようにした避難装置を提供することを前提とし、特に津波流や浮流物などが襲来してきてもその直撃を免れしかも浮力が作用しないようにすることで装置自体への被害を軽減し避難者をも安全に護ることができるようにした避難装置を提供することを目的とする。  The present invention is intended to solve the above problems, and is based on the premise of providing an evacuation device that can evacuate as many inhabitants as possible in the vicinity. Especially, tsunami currents and floats have been attacked. It is another object of the present invention to provide an evacuation device that can avoid direct hits and prevent buoyancy from acting so as to reduce damage to the device itself and to protect refugees safely.
この発明は上記目的を達成するため、請求項1に記載の発明は、地上に立設した直柱やアーチ構造体などの支承体と、多数人員が避難可能な面積をもつ避難用ステージとして利用可能なよう前記支承体に取付支持された架構体と、地上と架構体とを結ぶ登降手段とを有する避難装置であって、前記架構体は、襲来が想定される津波流を取り込み外部に排出可能に筒胴前後端を開放状とした筒胴型に形成されていることを特徴とする。  In order to achieve the above object, the invention according to claim 1 is used as a support body such as a straight pillar or an arch structure standing on the ground and an evacuation stage having an area where a large number of people can evacuate. An evacuation device having a frame structure attached and supported to the support body and an ascending / descending means connecting the ground and the frame body, the frame body taking in a tsunami flow that is expected to come in and discharging it to the outside It is formed in the cylinder type | mold which made the cylinder cylinder front-and-back end open shape possible.
上述したようにこの発明は、地上に立設した直柱やアーチ構造体などの支承体と、避難用ステージとして利用可能なよう前記支承体に取り付けられた架構体と、地上と架構体とを結ぶ登降手段とを有する避難装置であって、前記架構体は、襲来が想定される津波流を取り込み外部に排出可能に筒胴前後端を開放状とした筒胴型に形成されていることを特徴とするので、津波流や浮流物などが襲来してきてもその直撃を免れしかも浮力が作用しないようにすることで装置自体への被害を軽減し避難者をも安全に護ることができるようにした避難装置を提供することができる。  As described above, the present invention includes a support body such as a straight column or an arch structure standing on the ground, a frame structure attached to the support body so that it can be used as an evacuation stage, and the ground and frame structure. An evacuation device having an ascending / descending means for connecting, wherein the frame body is formed in a cylinder body shape having an open front and rear end of the cylinder body so that a tsunami flow expected to come in can be taken in and discharged to the outside. Because it is a feature, even if a tsunami current or a floating thing attacks, it can avoid the direct hit and prevent buoyancy from acting so that damage to the device itself can be reduced and refugees can be protected safely An evacuation device can be provided.
この発明の一実施形態を示す避難装置の平面図。  The top view of the evacuation apparatus which shows one Embodiment of this invention. 図1の側面図。  The side view of FIG. 図2のIII−III線断面図。  III-III sectional view taken on the line of FIG. 図2のIV−IV線断面図。  IV-IV sectional view taken on the line of FIG. 他の実施形態を示す平面図。  The top view which shows other embodiment. 他の実施形態を示す避難装置の前部横断平面図。  The front cross section top view of the evacuation apparatus which shows other embodiment. 他の実施形態を示す避難装置の正面図。  The front view of the evacuation apparatus which shows other embodiment. 架構体の他の実施形態を示す模式正面図。  The schematic front view which shows other embodiment of a frame. 架構体の他の実施形態を示す模式正面図。  The schematic front view which shows other embodiment of a frame. 架構体の他の実施形態を示す模式正面図。  The schematic front view which shows other embodiment of a frame. 図12の平面図。  The top view of FIG. 図11の側面図。  The side view of FIG.
Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described. Each technique described in each embodiment can be applied to other related embodiments.
FIGS. 1 to 3 show an embodiment of a large-scale tsunami evacuation device. The device can be used for a meeting or festival of a neighborhood association or a temporary or temporary use type in addition to evacuation in the event of a flood or tornado. It can also be used for applications such as stores and store openings, and can also be used for installation of facilities such as gas stations and government offices, and for installation of solar and wind power generation systems. Large-scale refers to those that can evacuate not only about tens of people but hundreds of people, for example, all local residents.
これらの図において、1は車道で片側1車線や複数車線のもので一方通行型であってもよく、その左右両脇には、車道1よりも少し高くした歩道(あるいは自転車歩行者道)2,2が設けられ、さらに図示しないが歩道2に面した住居などの建造物が設置される。車道1としては、様々な幅員のものがあるが、この実施形態では、片側のみで5m、両側で10m、歩道2は3m前後とされている。車道1の中央には、中央分離帯16aが短くあるいは長く設けられる。Tは津波が押し波として襲来してくる想定方向、−Tは引き波の想定方向を示し、これらT,−Tの流れ方向は、先の大震災時にもみられたように、市街地が車道1、歩道2の両脇に流れ抵抗のある店舗や住居などを存してそれらにより自ずと車道1の通行方向に対応するものと想定される。  In these drawings, reference numeral 1 denotes a roadway, which is a one-lane or multiple-lane road, and may be a one-way type. A sidewalk (or a bicycle pedestrian road) 2 slightly higher than the roadway 1 is provided on both left and right sides. , 2 are provided, and a building such as a residence facing the sidewalk 2 is installed (not shown). Although there are various widths as the roadway 1, in this embodiment, it is 5 m only on one side, 10 m on both sides, and the sidewalk 2 is about 3 m. In the center of the roadway 1, a central separation band 16a is provided short or long. T indicates the assumed direction in which the tsunami strikes as a push wave, -T indicates the assumed direction of the pulling wave, and the flow direction of these T and -T is the roadway 1 as seen in the previous great earthquake. It is assumed that there are stores or houses with flow resistance on both sides of the sidewalk 2 and that they naturally correspond to the direction of traffic on the roadway 1.
3は側支柱(支承体の主材)で、垂直な直柱とされ、各歩道2上にあって車道1の長手に沿って例えば、前後に50m〜100mの間隔をもって複数本垂直に立設されており、4は鋼管杭により固定される各基礎ブロック(支承体の一つ)で、その上に支持部材である取付フランジ(図示省略)とアンカーを介して側支柱3が基部固定されている。  Reference numeral 3 denotes a side column (main material of the support body), which is a vertical pillar, and is vertically erected on each sidewalk 2 along the length of the roadway 1, for example, at intervals of 50m to 100m in the front and rear direction. 4 is each foundation block (one of the support bodies) fixed by the steel pipe pile, and the side strut 3 is fixed to the base via an attachment flange (not shown) as a support member and an anchor thereon. Yes.
側支柱3は丸鋼管でもよいが、ここでは角鋼管を使用し、各角稜部を前後に向けて津波流T,−Tを切り分け得るように構成してある。この側支柱3は地上から15ないし20mの高さまで伸びている。  Although the side support | pillar 3 may be a round steel pipe, a square steel pipe is used here, and it has comprised so that each square ridge part may be turned back and forth, and tsunami flow T, -T can be cut off. This side support 3 extends from the ground to a height of 15 to 20 m.
Reference numeral 5 denotes a frame having an evacuation stage 6 on the upper surface. The upper end flange 7 is attached to a side column 3 having a height of 15 to 20 m, and is attached and supported through the upper surface. The frame body 5 may be supported more firmly by supporting it on a plurality of central support columns 16 disposed along the central separation band 16a of the roadway 1.
As shown in the right column of FIG. 4, the frame 5 is formed by combining a plurality of rectangular cylinder-shaped box-shaped frames 8... A plurality of (5) are integrated and integrated in the left-right width direction using the joining plate 9 to form a long rectangular structure in the front-rear direction. Since each box-type frame 8 is long in the front-rear direction, the joint plate 9 can be used as a common plate to serve as a front-rear connection. The lines joined before and after the box frame 8 are not shown. The frame body 5 is a stage floor base material 10 and is laid so that a plurality of the floor frames 5 are arranged in parallel in the front-rear longitudinal direction of the frame body 5 with the longitudinal direction thereof being directed in the left-right width direction. The evacuation stage 6 is fixed via the upper surface of the stage floor base material 10.
A reinforcing member 11 having a triangular tube shape or a rectangular tube shape may be attached to the inner corner portion of the box-shaped frame 8. 12 is a front water inlet for tsunami flow intake, and 13 is a rear water outlet. The upper end flange 7 has a flat plate shape. However, as indicated by the phantom line in the right column of FIG. 4, the upper end flange 7 is formed into an angle type consisting of a horizontal flat plate portion and a side rising from the horizontal flat plate portion. You may make it aim at the connection reinforcement | strengthening of the side support | pillar 3 and the frame 5 so that it may be attached by attachment or welding. Reference numeral 9a denotes a bottom connecting plate that connects the box-type frames 8 to each other, and is an effective reinforcement without blocking the flow of the tsunami flow T.
Since the frame 5 is a structure that is formed in an open shape at the front and rear as described above, not only the strength is satisfied, but also when a tsunami current or a floating object T attacks, the flow passes through the front water inlet 12. Since it is swallowed and acts so as to flow out from the rear water passage 13 through the internal water passage 14, an impact is not applied to the frame body 5 and buoyancy does not act, providing an evacuation device that is not damaged and does not lift up Therefore, evacuees can be safely protected.
15は噴流口で、各箱型フレーム8の底面前後端に形成されており、この噴流口15は、開放口でもよいし、図のようにグレーチングなどの網状部材あるいは多孔板により形成してもよい。この噴流口15…は、架構体5の底面を流れ突き揚げるおそれのある津波流を噴上げて減衰させるものであり、図1の左側(前側)の噴流口15は津波流(押し波)Tが作用するとき、右側(後側)の噴流口17は津波流(返し流)−Tが作用するときにそれぞれ機能する。  A jet port 15 is formed at the front and rear ends of the bottom surface of each box-shaped frame 8. The jet port 15 may be an open port or may be formed by a net-like member such as grating or a perforated plate as shown in the figure. Good. This jet port 15... Jets and attenuates a tsunami flow that may flow through the bottom surface of the frame 5, and the jet port 15 on the left side (front side) of FIG. The right side (rear side) jet port 17 functions when a tsunami flow (return flow) -T acts.
17は側緩衝杭、18は中央緩衝杭で、側緩衝杭17は前後の側支柱3の前方に近接して固定配置されて津波流や浮流物が側支柱3に直接当たるのを阻止するもので、中央緩衝杭18も津波流や浮流物が架構体5に直接当たるのを阻止する役目をもつ。中央緩衝杭18は、中央分離ライン上にあって側緩衝杭17よりも前後に離れた位置にあり、これら中央緩衝杭18および側緩衝杭17は三角形の頂点配置をなすとともに、その上部前側に上からみて山形をなすように水平に架設された複数本のディフェンス19が対抗することにより、浮流物を前以って受け留めながら斜め側方へと流し去り、これにより、津波流や浮流物が架構体5や側支柱3へ直撃するのを阻止するとともに、粗大な浮流物が前通水口12あるいは後通水口13まで到達しないようにし通水口12,13には津波流のみが呑み込まれてスムーズに流れ通るようにしてある。ディフェンス21には強化ネットのような編状材を付せばより細かい浮流物までも前以って捕捉することができる。ディフェンス21はロッドやパイプ、あるいはワイヤなどで形成することができ、緩衝杭17,18の前側を通るように配置することでこれら浮流物が左右に分かれて流れやすくなる。  17 is a side buffer pile, 18 is a central buffer pile, and the side buffer pile 17 is fixedly disposed near the front of the front and rear side columns 3 to prevent a tsunami flow or floating material from directly hitting the side columns 3. Thus, the central buffer pile 18 also has a role of preventing the tsunami flow and the floating material from directly hitting the frame body 5. The central buffer pile 18 is located on the central separation line and at a position farther forward and backward than the side buffer pile 17. The central buffer pile 18 and the side buffer pile 17 form a triangular apex arrangement, and the upper front side thereof. A plurality of defenses 19 installed horizontally so as to form a mountain shape when viewed from above opposes and floats off the slanting side while catching the floating material in advance, thereby allowing tsunami flow and floating material Is prevented from directly hitting the frame 5 and the side column 3, and the coarse floating material is prevented from reaching the front water inlet 12 or the rear water inlet 13, so that only the tsunami flow is swallowed into the water inlets 12, 13. It is designed to flow smoothly. If a knitted material such as a reinforcing net is attached to the defense 21, even fine floating objects can be captured in advance. The defense 21 can be formed of a rod, a pipe, a wire, or the like. By placing the defense 21 so as to pass through the front sides of the buffer piles 17 and 18, these floats can be divided into left and right and easily flow.
21 is a climbing means for evacuees and is provided in the shape of an eight on both the left and right sides of the frame 5 and may be used as a staircase for a footbridge during normal times. Reference numeral 22 denotes a climbing means for the vehicle. In this evacuation device, only the climbing means 21 or the vehicle climbing means 22 may be used. In the case of only the vehicle climbing means 22, the evacuees can also climb along the side. Reference numeral 23 denotes a protective fence.
The frame 5 is formed by connecting a plurality of box-shaped frames 8 horizontally, but as shown in FIG. 5, one large box-shaped frame 5a is formed by the upper and lower and left and right end plates of the horizontally long plate. However, it may be configured to be partitioned by vertical partition plates 25. Further, as shown in the upper right column of the figure, the frame body 5 may be configured by arranging a diagonal partition plate 26 inside the box frame 5a, and further, as shown in the lower right column of the figure, A diagonal partition plate 26 may be combined between the vertical partition plates 25 to increase the strength without impairing water permeability.
As shown in FIG. 6, the frame body 5 may be formed such that the front part or the rear part has a step shape and the whole is viewed from above to form a mountain shape. In this case, for example, when the tsunami flow T flows along with the floating material A ..., a gap is formed between the floating material A ... and the front water inlet 12, and the tsunami current T is in the frame 5. It becomes easy to flow into.
In addition, you may arrange | position the capture protection means which consists of the said side buffer pile 17, the center buffer pile 18, and the defense 19 in the front and back of this structure 5. FIG.
図7に示す架構体5は、その内部に菱形をした流れガイド29を対向配置するとともに、その前側および後側の内部仕切り板30を短いものとして、前通水口12から流れ込んできた津波流を斜めの振り分け通路31に流して矢印のように架構体5の外側方域へと流出させるようにしたものである。流れガイド29は架構体5の補強に有効であるだけでなく、早い段階で津波流を外側方域へとTのように流出させることで後方域への津波流の流れを分散して減衰させることもできる。尚、架構体5の両側壁面一部には、津波流を外側方へと流出させるための流出口31aが開設されている。  The frame 5 shown in FIG. 7 has a rhombus-shaped flow guide 29 disposed in the interior thereof, and the front and rear internal partition plates 30 are short, and the tsunami flow flowing from the front water inlet 12 is reduced. It is made to flow in the diagonal distribution channel | path 31, and is made to flow out to the outer side area | region of the frame 5 like the arrow. The flow guide 29 is not only effective for reinforcing the frame 5 but also disperses and attenuates the flow of the tsunami flow to the rear region by causing the tsunami flow to flow out to the outside region like T at an early stage. You can also In addition, an outlet 31a for allowing the tsunami flow to flow outward is formed in a part of both side wall surfaces of the frame body 5.
8 to 10 show other configuration examples of the frame 5. In the example of FIG. 8, a connecting member 34 such as a grooved steel is provided between the box-shaped frames 33 so as to be connected and integrated. Is also formed. The connecting material 34 may be H-shaped steel as shown in the lower column.
In the example of FIG. 9, an H-shaped steel is used as a girder 36, and the upper and lower portions of the flanges are connected and integrated by a connecting plate 37, so that a strong frame 5 can be obtained. 38 is a water passage.
In the example of FIG. 10, one girder 39 is formed with grooved steels back to back, and a plurality of them are connected by a connecting plate 40 to form a frame 5. Also in this case, since the upper and lower flange portions have a double structure, a strong frame 5 can be obtained. 41 is a water passage.
図11および図12は他の実施形態を示す。同実施形態は、前記のような直柱タイプの支承体に代えて、アーチ型の支承体を構成したもので、そのアーチ部材(支承体の主材)43は、丸あるいは角パイプを円弧状に形成したもので、左右一対をなし、これらアーチ部材43は、歩道2内に固定した基礎ブロック(図示省略)上に基部フランジ44とアンカー45を介して連結固定されている。左右のアーチ部材43は互いに平行をなすが、正面から見てハの字をなすように配置してもよい。46は連結部材で、両アーチ部材43間を連結する。こうした両アーチ部材43,43間の中段位置に架構体5を固定設置してある。47は仕切り板、48は前通水口、49は後通水口であり、内部には通水路50が左右複数列形成されている。51は避難者用の登降手段であり、平時には歩道橋の階段として活用される。52は車両用の登降手段であり、車道1のいずれの方向からも走行方向に沿って乗り入れることができるようになっている。アーチ部材43は、側面ハの字状をなすものでもよい。  11 and 12 show another embodiment. In this embodiment, instead of the above-described straight column type support body, an arch-type support body is configured, and the arch member (main material of the support body) 43 is a circular or square pipe having an arc shape. The arch members 43 are connected and fixed via a base flange 44 and an anchor 45 on a foundation block (not shown) fixed in the sidewalk 2. The left and right arch members 43 are parallel to each other, but may be arranged so as to form a letter C when viewed from the front. A connecting member 46 connects the arch members 43. The frame 5 is fixedly installed at a middle position between the arch members 43 and 43. 47 is a partition plate, 48 is a front water inlet, 49 is a rear water outlet, and water passages 50 are formed in a plurality of rows on the left and right. 51 is a climbing means for evacuees, and is used as a staircase of a footbridge during normal times. Reference numeral 52 denotes a climbing means for the vehicle, which can be entered from any direction of the roadway 1 along the traveling direction. The arch member 43 may have a lateral C-shape.
Since such an arch type support body is provided with a leg base portion a that rises diagonally, the tsunami flow T and the floating material that has come in from the front (left side in FIGS. 11 and 12) act diagonally upward and are difficult to come off. Moreover, it has a structure that is not easily damaged. This also functions in the same way against the tsunami current-T attack from the rear (right side of FIGS. 11 and 12). Further, the weight of the frame 5 is effectively supported with a simple structure. In particular, in the frame 5, even if the tsunami flow T acts, they flow away through the water channel 50, so that the impact force and load in the horizontal direction act on the support body to a small extent. As a result, the tsunami It can be a strong evacuation device. 53 is an evacuation stage and 54 is a protective fence.
In addition, as shown in the upper left column of FIG. 12, the front water flow port 48 (or the rear water flow port 49) can be formed in the diagonal cut shape which inclines downward from the upper end toward the lower end (forward) and inclines. In this case, there is no possibility that the floating material will block the front water inlet 48. The front water inlet 48 may be obliquely cut in the direction opposite to that shown in the figure.
尚、図1ないし図12までに示す実施形態の避難装置は、車道1、歩道2のない設置地盤上に設置する場合もある。  The evacuation device according to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 to 12 may be installed on an installation ground without the roadway 1 and the sidewalk 2.
1…車道 2…歩道 3…側支柱 5…架構体 6、53…避難ステージ 12,48…前通水口 13,49…後通水口 14,50…通水路。  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Roadway 2 ... Sidewalk 3 ... Side support 5 ... Frame structure 6, 53 ... Evacuation stage 12, 48 ... Front water inlet 13, 49 ... Rear water outlet 14, 50 ... Water passage.

Claims (1)

  1. 地上に立設した直柱やアーチ構造体などの支承体と、多数人員が避難可能な面積をもつ避難用ステージとして利用可能なよう前記支承体に取付支持された架構体と、地上と架構体とを結ぶ登降手段とを有する避難装置であって、前記架構体は、襲来が想定される津波流を取り込み外部に排出可能に筒胴前後端を開放状とした筒胴型に形成されていることを特徴とする避難装置。  A support body such as a straight column or an arch structure standing on the ground, a frame structure mounted and supported on the support body so that it can be used as an evacuation stage having an area where a large number of people can evacuate, and the ground structure and the frame structure An evacuation device having an ascending / descending means for connecting to the cylinder, wherein the frame body is formed in a cylinder body shape having an open front and rear end of the cylinder body so as to be able to take in a tsunami flow that is expected to come in and to be discharged to the outside. An evacuation device characterized by that.
JP2012189246A 2012-08-13 2012-08-13 Evacuation device Expired - Fee Related JP6094013B2 (en)

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