JP6076683B2 - Light emitting device - Google Patents

Light emitting device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP6076683B2
JP6076683B2 JP2012230151A JP2012230151A JP6076683B2 JP 6076683 B2 JP6076683 B2 JP 6076683B2 JP 2012230151 A JP2012230151 A JP 2012230151A JP 2012230151 A JP2012230151 A JP 2012230151A JP 6076683 B2 JP6076683 B2 JP 6076683B2
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Prior art keywords
light emitting
light
formed
electrode
emitting unit
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JP2014082133A (en
Inventor
薫 波多野
薫 波多野
尚之 千田
尚之 千田
学 二星
学 二星
菊池 克浩
克浩 菊池
伸一 川戸
伸一 川戸
越智 貴志
貴志 越智
優人 塚本
優人 塚本
知裕 小坂
知裕 小坂
智文 大崎
智文 大崎
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株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所
シャープ株式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/36Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/28Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including components using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part
    • H01L27/32Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including components using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part with components specially adapted for light emission, e.g. flat-panel displays using organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]
    • H01L27/3241Matrix-type displays
    • H01L27/3244Active matrix displays
    • H01L27/3246Pixel defining structures, e.g. banks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/28Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including components using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part
    • H01L27/32Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including components using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part with components specially adapted for light emission, e.g. flat-panel displays using organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]
    • H01L27/3206Multi-colour light emission
    • H01L27/3209Multi-colour light emission using stacked OLED
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED]
    • H01L51/5012Electroluminescent [EL] layer
    • H01L51/5036Multi-colour light emission, e.g. colour tuning, polymer blend, stack of electroluminescent layers
    • H01L51/504Stack of electroluminescent layers
    • H01L51/5044Stack of electroluminescent layers with spacer layers between the emissive layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED]
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/524Sealing arrangements having a self-supporting structure, e.g. containers
    • H01L51/525Vertical spacers, e.g. arranged between the sealing arrangement and the OLED

Description

  The present invention relates to a light emitting device having a tandem element.

Commercialization of organic EL displays is accelerating. In order to withstand outdoor use, the brightness required for displays is increasing year by year.
On the other hand, it is known that the light emission luminance of the organic EL element increases in proportion to the current, and it is possible to emit light with high luminance.

  However, when a large current is passed, the deterioration of the organic EL element is accelerated. Therefore, if high luminance can be obtained with a small current, the lifetime of the light-emitting element can be extended. Therefore, a tandem element in which a plurality of light emitting units are stacked has been proposed as a light emitting element that can obtain high luminance with a small current (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

  Note that in this specification, a light-emitting unit refers to a layer or a stacked body having one region where electrons and holes injected from both ends are recombined.

  A tandem element in which n light emitting units having one configuration are stacked between electrodes can obtain equivalent light emission by passing a current having a density 1 / n of one light emitting element (single element) through the light emitting unit. it can. Further, the tandem element can realize n times the luminance of the single element at the same current density.

  In a light emitting panel in which a tandem element is provided adjacently, there is a problem of occurrence of a crosstalk phenomenon. The crosstalk phenomenon is a phenomenon in which when an adjacent tandem element is provided with a single highly conductive layer, current leaks to the adjacent tandem element through the highly conductive layer and emits light. is there.

  In a tandem element, a plurality of layers are stacked via an intermediate layer having high conductivity, and has a layer having high conductivity and a layer having low conductivity in terms of structure. In tandem elements, a highly conductive carrier injection layer containing a mixed material of an organic compound and a metal oxide, a conductive polymer, or the like is often used in order to reduce the driving voltage. In addition, the tandem element has a higher electrical resistance between the anode and the cathode than the single element, and current easily spreads to adjacent pixels via a highly conductive layer.

  FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram for explaining that the crosstalk phenomenon occurs due to the intermediate layer 86 having high conductivity. It is sectional drawing which shows a mode that only the 2nd tandem element (B line, blue line) was driven in the light emission panel (white panel) in which the tandem element which emits the light which exhibits white was provided in the shape of three stripes.

  The light emitting panel has first to third tandem elements arranged adjacent to each other. The first tandem element (R line, red line) is disposed between the upper electrode 81 and the first lower electrode 82. The second tandem element is disposed between the upper electrode 81 and the second lower electrode 83. The third tandem element (G line, green line) is disposed between the upper electrode 81 and the third lower electrode 84.

  In each of the first to third tandem elements, a first light emitting unit 85, an intermediate layer 86, and a second light emitting unit 87 are sequentially stacked. For example, the first light emitting unit 85 has a light emitting layer that emits blue light, and the second light emitting unit 87 has a light emitting layer that emits green light and a light emitting layer that emits red light. Light emission exhibiting white color can be obtained from each tandem element.

  In FIG. 12, the upper electrode which has translucency is used, and the opposing glass substrate 88 is arrange | positioned on the upper electrode. The counter glass substrate 88 has a blue color filter, a red color filter and a green color filter which are not shown. The red color filter is overlaid on the first lower electrode 82, the blue color filter is overlaid on the second lower electrode 83, and the green color filter is overlaid on the third lower electrode 84.

  In the above light emitting panel, when the voltage is applied to the second lower electrode 83 and the upper electrode 81 to drive only the blue line, the first tandem element or the third adjacent to each other through the intermediate layer 86 having high conductivity. A current leaks to the tandem element, and a red line or a green line emits light and a crosstalk phenomenon may occur.

  FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram for explaining that a crosstalk phenomenon occurs due to a highly conductive carrier injection layer (hole injection layer or electron injection layer) 89. Only a blue line in a light-emitting panel (white panel) is shown. It is sectional drawing which shows a mode that it was driven.

  In each of the first to third tandem elements, a first light emitting unit 85 including a highly conductive carrier injection layer 89, an intermediate layer 86, and a second light emitting unit 87 are sequentially stacked. Examples of the carrier injection layer 89 include a highly conductive layer using a mixed material of an organic compound and a metal oxide, a conductive polymer, or the like.

JP 2008-234485 A

  An object of one embodiment of the present invention is to suppress the occurrence of a crosstalk phenomenon in a light-emitting device including a tandem element.

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, a first electrode and a second electrode formed over an insulating layer, and the insulating layer is formed between the first electrode and the second electrode. A partition, a protrusion formed on the partition, the first electrode, the first light emitting unit formed on each of the partition, the protrusion, and the second electrode, and the first An intermediate layer formed on the light emitting unit; a second light emitting unit formed on the intermediate layer; and a third electrode formed on the second light emitting unit; The light emitting device is characterized in that a constriction is formed by the side surface of the partition wall and the side surface of the partition wall.

  In the above embodiment of the present invention, a space may be provided between a side surface of the convex portion and the partition wall.

  In the embodiment of the present invention, it is preferable that the first light emitting unit and the intermediate layer are cut in the convex portion.

  Moreover, 1 aspect of this invention WHEREIN: The edge part of the said convex part is good to be formed in the surface inclined with respect to the formation surface of the said partition on the said partition.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, the inflection point of the constriction may be formed in the partition wall.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, an intersection of a perpendicular drawn to the formation surface from a first point at which the convex portion protrudes most in a direction parallel to the formation surface of the partition wall and the surface of the partition wall Is a second point, the distance between the first point and the second point is greater than the total thickness of the first light emitting unit and the intermediate layer located on the first electrode, The total thickness of the first light emitting unit, the intermediate layer, the second light emitting unit, and the third electrode positioned on the first electrode may be less than or equal to the total thickness.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, a vertical line drawn from the first point at which the convex portion protrudes most in a direction parallel to the surface on which the partition wall is formed and the surface of the second light emitting unit is drawn. The distance between the first point and the third point when the intersection point with the surface is the third point is preferably smaller than the thickness of the third electrode.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, the first light-emitting unit preferably has a carrier injection layer, so that driving voltage can be reduced. In the light-emitting device of one embodiment of the present invention, the carrier injection layer can be cut off at a convex portion (hereinafter also referred to as a “spacer”). Therefore, even when the carrier injection layer is provided to reduce the driving voltage, the occurrence of the crosstalk phenomenon can be suppressed.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, a color filter is provided over the first electrode and the second electrode, and the color filter includes a first color that overlaps the first electrode; The second color may overlap with the second electrode.

  Note that the light-emitting device in this specification includes a display device including a light-emitting element in a pixel (or a subpixel). The light-emitting panel includes a display panel in which pixels each including a light-emitting element are provided adjacent to each other. Note that the light emitting module includes a light emitting element, and the light emitting element includes a light emitting unit including a light emitting layer.

  By applying one embodiment of the present invention, occurrence of a crosstalk phenomenon in a light-emitting device having a tandem element can be suppressed.

(A) is a top view of a structure of a display panel that can be used for the display device of one embodiment of the present invention, and (B) is a side view of a structure including a cross section taken along cutting lines AB and CD in (A). . (A) is a top view of a pixel, (B) is a cross-sectional view between broken lines MN in (A), (C) is a top view of a pixel showing a modification of (A), and (D) is (A) FIG. FIGS. 3A and 3B are enlarged cross-sectional views of a partition, a spacer, and a light-emitting element shown in FIG. (A), (B) is sectional drawing which shows the modification of FIG. 2 (B). (A) is a figure for demonstrating the structure of the tandem type light emitting element by which two light emitting units were laminated | stacked, (B) is a figure which shows an example of a specific structure of a light emitting unit, (C) is a light emitting unit. FIG. 6 illustrates a structure of a plurality of stacked tandem light-emitting elements. Sectional drawing which shows the modification of FIG. 3 (A). (A) is a photograph showing the cross-sectional structure of the barrier ribs and spacers of the light emitting device of the example, (B) is a photograph showing an enlarged constriction 153 shown in (A), and (C) is an enlarged view of a region 154 shown in (A). Photo. (A)-(C) are the pictures which show the cross section similar to FIG.7 (B), and are the figures explaining the height of a constriction etc. in detail. FIG. 8 is a photograph showing a cross section similar to that in FIG. 7B and explaining details of the height of the constriction and the like. The photograph which displayed the light emission panel provided with the light emitting element of an Example by blue single color. (A) is a photograph showing a cross-sectional structure of a partition wall of a light emitting element of a comparative example, and (B) is a photograph showing a light emitting panel provided with the light emitting element of a comparative example in blue. The schematic diagram for demonstrating that a crosstalk phenomenon generate | occur | produces with an intermediate | middle layer with high electroconductivity. The schematic diagram for demonstrating that a crosstalk phenomenon generate | occur | produces with a carrier injection layer with high electroconductivity.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. However, the present invention is not limited to the following description, and it will be easily understood by those skilled in the art that modes and details can be variously changed without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Therefore, the present invention should not be construed as being limited to the description of the embodiments below.

(Embodiment 1)
<Configuration of display panel>
A structure of a display panel that can be used for the display device of one embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 1A is a top view of a structure of a display panel that can be used for the display device of one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1B is a cross-sectional view taken along lines AB and CD in FIG. It is a side view of the structure containing the cross section in.

  A display panel 400 described as an example in this embodiment includes a display portion 401 over a first substrate 410, and the display portion 401 includes a plurality of pixels 402. The pixel 402 is provided with a plurality of (for example, three) sub-pixels (see FIG. 1A). A source side driver circuit portion 403 s and a gate side driver circuit portion 403 g which drive the display portion 401 are provided over the first substrate 410. Note that the driver circuit portion can be formed not on the first substrate 410 but outside.

  The display panel 400 includes an external input terminal and receives a video signal, a clock signal, a start signal, a reset signal, and the like via an FPC (flexible printed circuit) 409.

  The sealant 405 bonds the first substrate 410 and the second substrate (hereinafter also referred to as “counter substrate”) 170, and the display portion 401 is sealed in a space 431 formed therebetween (see FIG. 1 (B)).

  A structure including a cross section of the display panel 400 will be described with reference to FIG. The display panel 400 includes a source-side driver circuit portion 403 s, subpixels 402 G and 402 B included in the pixels 402, and lead wirings 408. Note that the display portion 401 of the display panel 400 exemplified in this embodiment emits light in a direction of an arrow illustrated in the drawing to display an image.

  The source side driver circuit portion 403s includes a CMOS circuit in which an n-channel transistor 413 and a p-channel transistor 414 are combined. Note that the drive circuit is not limited to this configuration, and may be configured by various CMOS circuits, PMOS circuits, or NMOS circuits.

  The lead wiring 408 transmits a signal input from the external input terminal to the driver circuit portion 403s on the source side and the driver circuit portion 403g on the gate side.

  The sub-pixel 402G includes a switching transistor 411, a current control transistor 412 and a light emitting module 450G. Note that an insulating layer 416 and a partition wall 150 are formed over the transistor 411 and the like. The light-emitting module 450G includes a first electrode (hereinafter also referred to as “first lower electrode”) 118a, a third electrode (hereinafter also referred to as “upper electrode”) 122, and a first lower electrode 118a. And a light emitting element 130 a including the organic layer 120 between the upper electrode 122. Similarly, the light-emitting module 450B included in the sub-pixel 402B includes a second electrode (hereinafter also referred to as “second lower electrode”) 118b, an upper electrode 122, a second lower electrode 118b, and an upper electrode 122. A light-emitting element 130b including the organic layer 120 is provided therebetween. A color filter 171 is provided on the upper electrode 122 side that emits light emitted from the light emitting elements 130a and 130b. Note that the direction in which the display unit 401 displays an image is determined by the direction in which light emitted from the light emitting elements 130a and 130b is extracted.

  Note that in the light-emitting element, at least one of the lower electrode and the upper electrode may transmit light emitted from the organic layer 120. For example, FIG. 1B illustrates a structure in which the upper electrode 122 transmits light emitted from the organic layer 120.

  A light-blocking film (hereinafter also referred to as “black matrix”) 172 is formed so as to surround the color filter 171. The black matrix 172 is a film that prevents the display panel 400 from reflecting external light, and has an effect of increasing the contrast of an image displayed on the display unit 401. Note that the color filter 171 and the black matrix 172 are formed on the counter substrate 170.

  The insulating layer 416 is an insulating layer for planarizing a step generated due to the structure of the transistor 411 or the like or suppressing diffusion of impurities into the transistor 411 or the like, and is a single layer. Alternatively, a laminate of a plurality of layers may be used. The partition 150 is an insulating layer having an opening, and the light emitting elements 130 a and 130 b are formed in the opening of the partition 150.

<Structure of transistor>
In the display panel 400 illustrated in FIG. 1A, a top-gate transistor is used; however, the present invention is not limited to this, and a bottom-gate transistor can also be used. Various structures of transistors can be applied to the driver circuit portion 403s on the source side, the driver circuit portion 403g on the gate side, and the subpixel. Various semiconductors can be used for a region where a channel of these transistors is formed. Specifically, an amorphous semiconductor, polysilicon, single crystal silicon, an oxide semiconductor, or the like can be used. As an example of an oxide semiconductor, an oxide semiconductor containing at least indium (In) or zinc (Zn) can be given, and an oxide semiconductor containing In and Zn is preferable. An oxide semiconductor including one or more selected from gallium (Ga) or tin (Sn) is particularly preferable.

  When a single crystal semiconductor is used for a region where a channel of the transistor is formed, the size of the transistor can be reduced, so that the pixel can be further refined in the display portion.

  As a single crystal semiconductor included in the semiconductor layer, an SOI (Silicon On Insulator) substrate in which a single crystal semiconductor layer is provided over an insulating surface can be used in addition to a semiconductor substrate such as a single crystal silicon substrate.

<Pixel configuration>
A structure of the pixel 402 provided in the display portion 401 is described with reference to FIGS.

  FIG. 2 shows an example of the positional relationship between the partition wall 150, the spacer 155 (also referred to as a convex portion), and the light emitting portions 160R, 160G, and 160B. 2A is a top view of the pixel 402, and FIG. 2B is an example of a cross-sectional view taken along dashed line MN in FIG. 2A. 3A and 3B are examples of cross-sectional views in which the partition, the spacer, and the light-emitting element 130b illustrated in FIG. 2B are enlarged. In FIG. 2A, the organic layer 120, the upper electrode 122, the overcoat layer 173, the color filter 171, the black matrix 172, and the counter substrate 170 are not shown.

  The pixel 402 exemplified in this embodiment includes a sub-pixel 402R that emits light R that exhibits red, a sub-pixel 402G that emits light G that exhibits green, and a sub-pixel 402B that emits light B that exhibits blue. The sub-pixel 402R has a red light-emitting portion 160R, the sub-pixel 402G has a green light-emitting portion 160G, and the sub-pixel 402B has a blue light-emitting portion 160B. Each of the red light emitting unit 160R, the green light emitting unit 160G, and the blue light emitting unit 160B is located in the opening of the partition wall 150 (see FIG. 2A).

  Each color light emitting unit 160R, 160G, 160B includes a light emitting element including a lower electrode, an organic layer, and an upper electrode 122. For example, the green light emitting unit 160G includes a light emitting element 130a including a first lower electrode 118a, an organic layer 120, and an upper electrode 122, and the blue light emitting unit 160B includes a second lower electrode 118b, the organic layer 120, and the upper electrode 122. A light-emitting element 130b made of (see FIG. 2B). The organic layer 120 includes a first light-emitting unit 141, an intermediate layer 142, and a second light-emitting unit 143 (see FIG. 3A). Further, on the counter substrate 170, a color filter 171 provided at a position overlapping with the light emitting portion, a black matrix 172 provided at a position overlapping with the partition wall 150, and an overcoat layer 173 covering the color filter 171 and the black matrix 172. Is formed (see FIG. 2B). The overcoat layer 173 may be omitted if not necessary.

  Each color light-emitting portion 160R, 160G, 160B is a light-emitting element having a lower electrode, an upper electrode 122, and an organic layer 120 including a first light-emitting unit 141, an intermediate layer 142, and a second light-emitting unit 143. Prepare. The conductivity of the intermediate layer 142 is higher than that of the first light emitting unit 141.

  The sub-pixel 402G includes a driving transistor and a light emitting module 450G. The other subpixels 402R and 402B have the same configuration as the subpixel 402G. Each light-emitting module includes a light-emitting element including a lower electrode, an upper electrode 122, and an organic layer 120 positioned between the lower electrode and the upper electrode 122 (see FIG. 1B).

  As a structure of the light emitting element, an organic layer 120 including a first light emitting unit 141, an intermediate layer 142, and a second light emitting unit 143 is provided between the lower electrode and the upper electrode.

  Note that in the light-emitting element, at least one of the lower electrode and the upper electrode only needs to transmit light emitted from the organic layer. For example, a reflective film may be used for the first and second lower electrodes 118 a and 118 b and a semi-transmissive and semi-reflective film may be used for the upper electrode 122. When a microresonator is formed by overlapping a reflective film and a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film and an organic layer 120 is provided between them, light of a specific wavelength can be efficiently extracted from the semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film (upper electrode 122) side. . The wavelength of the extracted light depends on the distance between the reflective film and the semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film, and the distance can be adjusted by forming an optical adjustment layer between the reflective film and the semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film.

  As a material that can be used for the optical adjustment layer, a layer containing a light-emitting organic compound can be used in addition to a conductive film that transmits visible light. For example, the charge generation region may serve as the optical adjustment layer by adjusting the thickness of the charge generation region. Alternatively, by adjusting the thickness of a region (mixed material layer) that includes a substance having a high hole-transport property and a substance having an acceptor property with respect to the substance having a high hole-transport property, A configuration that also serves as an optical adjustment layer may be used, and this configuration is preferable because an increase in driving voltage can be suppressed even when the optical adjustment layer is thick.

  Note that a structural example of the light-emitting element will be described in detail in Embodiment 2.

  In the light-emitting module 450G exemplified in this embodiment, the upper electrode 122 of the light-emitting element provided in each light-emitting module serves as a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film. Specifically, the upper electrode 122 provided in common for each light emitting element also serves as a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film of each light-emitting module.

  Each light emitting module is provided with the lower electrode of the light emitting element electrically independently, and the lower electrode also serves as a reflection film of the light emitting module.

  The lower electrode that also serves as the reflective film of each light emitting module has a configuration in which an optical adjustment layer is laminated on the reflective film. The optical adjustment layer is formed of a conductive film having a property of transmitting visible light, and the reflective film is preferably a metal film having high reflectivity for visible light and having conductivity.

  The thickness of the optical adjustment layer is adjusted according to the wavelength length of light extracted from the light emitting module. This will be described in detail below.

  For example, a light emitting module (blue) includes a color filter that transmits blue light and a lower electrode that also functions as a reflective film whose optical distance is adjusted so as to intensify light having a wavelength of 400 nm to less than 500 nm. The upper electrode that also serves as a reflective film is provided.

  In addition, the light emitting module 450G includes a color filter that transmits green light, a reflective film whose optical distance is adjusted to intensify light having a wavelength of 500 nm to less than 600 nm, and a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film. To do.

  The light emitting module (red) includes a color filter that transmits red light, a reflective film whose optical distance is adjusted to intensify light having a wavelength of 600 nm to less than 800 nm, and a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film. The configuration.

  In the light emitting module having such a configuration, light emitted from the light emitting element interferes between the reflective film and the semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film, and specific light among light having a wavelength of 400 nm or more and less than 800 nm is strengthened, Color filters absorb unwanted light.

  Each light emitting module includes the organic layer 120 including the first light emitting unit 141, the intermediate layer 142, and the second light emitting unit 143. In addition, one of a pair of electrodes (lower electrode and upper electrode) of each light emitting element also serves as a reflective film, and the other serves as a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film.

  In the light emitting module having such a configuration, the light emitting unit can be formed in the same process.

<Configuration of partition and spacer (convex portion)>
The partition 150 is formed around the pixel 402, around the sub-pixels 402B, 402G, and 402R and around the light-emitting portions 160R, 160G, and 160B (see FIG. 2A).

  The partition wall 150 is formed between the first and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b, and is formed so as to cover the end portions of the first and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b. A spacer 155 is formed over the partition wall 150, and the spacer 155 may have a shape protruding in a direction parallel to the formation surface of the partition wall 150, and a constriction is formed by the side surface of the spacer 155 and the side surface of the partition wall 150. It is good to be. That is, the spacer 155 is preferably formed in a convex shape on the outer surface of the partition wall 150, and a constriction is formed between the side surface of the spacer 155 and the side surface of the partition wall 150. Accordingly, it is preferable to have a space (gap) 156 between the side surface of the spacer 155 and the partition wall 150. As a material for the partition wall 150 and the spacer 155, a positive photosensitive resin or a negative photosensitive resin can be used, respectively (see FIG. 2B).

  As shown in FIG. 3A, the point at which the spacer 155 protrudes most in the direction parallel to the surface on which the partition 150 is formed is defined as a first point X, and the surface on which the partition 150 is formed from the first point X or The intersection of the perpendicular drawn to the surface of the substrate and the surface of the partition wall 150 is defined as a second point Y1, and the distance between the first point X and the second point Y1 is defined as a constriction height L1. In this case, the constriction height L1 is larger than the total thickness A1 of the first light-emitting unit 141 and the intermediate layer 142 located on the second lower electrode 118b, and the first height located on the second lower electrode 118b. The total thickness A <b> 2 of the light emitting unit 141, the intermediate layer 142, the second light emitting unit 143, and the upper electrode 122 is preferably equal to or less. Accordingly, the first light emitting unit 141 and the highly conductive intermediate layer 142 can be disconnected on the side surface of the spacer 155, and the upper electrode 122 can be prevented from being disconnected. A space (gap) 156 exists inside the line connecting the first point X and the second point Y1.

  Here, when the region where the thickness of the upper electrode 122 is thin due to the provision of the spacer 155, a defect such as uneven luminance of display may occur due to a light emission failure due to a potential drop due to the resistance of the upper electrode 122. . Therefore, as shown in FIG. 6, it is preferable that the second light emitting unit 143 is not cut off, so that the upper electrode 122 is not cut off and the upper electrode 122 is prevented from being thinned.

  As shown in FIG. 3B, a point at which the spacer 155 protrudes most in a direction parallel to the surface on which the partition 150 is formed is defined as a first point X, and the surface on which the partition 150 is formed from the first point X or The intersection of the perpendicular drawn with respect to the surface of the substrate and the surface of the second light emitting unit 143 is defined as a third point Y2, and the distance between the first point X and the third point Y2 is defined as L2. In this case, the distance L2 is preferably smaller than the thickness A3 of the upper electrode 122. Thereby, even if all the layers constituting the organic layer 120 are disconnected, the upper electrode 122 can be prevented from being disconnected. The thicknesses A1, A2, and A3 are values on a perpendicular drawn from the surface of each layer to the surface on which the second lower electrode 118b is formed or the surface of the substrate.

Examples of the organic EL element according to one embodiment of the present invention are as follows.
Film thickness of the first light emitting unit 141: about 75 nm (30 nm to 200 nm)
The thickness of the intermediate layer 142: about 30 nm (1 nm to 100 nm)
Film thickness of second light emitting unit 143: about 90 nm (30 nm to 200 nm)
Upper electrode 122 (transparent electrode or reflective electrode): Stack of 15 nm thick MgAg and 70 nm thick ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) (total thickness 5 nm to 200 nm)

  The arrangement of the spacers 155 is not limited to the arrangement shown in FIG. 2A, and may be the arrangement shown in FIG. 2C or FIG. The spacer 155 illustrated in FIG. 2A is provided between all adjacent light emitting portions. In the spacers 155 shown in FIGS. 2C and 2D, the spacers 155 are provided between adjacent light emitting portions that exhibit different colors, and are not provided between adjacent light emitting portions that exhibit the same color. That is, the spacer 155 only needs to be provided at least between the light emitting units that are adjacent and exhibit different colors. Thereby, the 1st light emission unit 141 and the intermediate | middle layer 142 can be disconnected in the spacer 155 located between the light emission parts which adjoin and exhibit a different color.

  The shape of the constriction made by the spacer 155 and the partition wall 150 is not limited to the shape shown in FIG. 2B, but is preferably the shape shown in FIG. 2B, the inflection point of the constriction is formed on the contact surface between the partition wall 150 and the spacer 155, but the inflection point of the constriction is formed in the partition wall 150 in FIG. That is, the spacer 155 is preferably formed in a convex shape on the outer surface of the partition wall 150, and a constriction inflection point is formed on the side surface of the partition wall 150. When the spacer 155 is formed, the inflection point of the constriction can be formed in the partition wall 150 by etching the partition wall 150 using the spacer 155 as a mask. Thereby, the above-mentioned constriction height L1 can be further increased.

  The arrangement of the spacers 155 is not limited to the arrangement shown in FIG. 2B, and the arrangement shown in FIG. 4B is preferable. That is, as shown in FIG. 2B, the end portion of the spacer 155 is provided in a flat portion on the surface of the partition wall 150 (that is, a region having a surface substantially parallel to the surface on which the partition wall 150 is formed). As shown in FIG. 4B, the end portion of the spacer 155 is provided in the inclined portion of the surface of the partition wall 150 (that is, a region having a surface inclined or not parallel to the formation surface of the partition wall 150). Preferably. Thus, by arranging the end portion of the spacer 155 on the inclined portion of the surface of the partition wall 150, the above-described constriction height L1 can be further increased.

2B and 4A and 4B show an example in which the organic layer 120 between adjacent light emitting portions is cut off and the upper electrode 122 is not cut off.
2C and 2D, the organic layer 120, the upper electrode 122, the overcoat layer 173, the color filter 171, the black matrix 172, and the counter substrate 170 are not illustrated, and the opening of the partition wall 150 is not illustrated. Part corresponds to a light emitting part (red light emitting part 160R, green light emitting part 160G, or blue light emitting part 160B).

  According to the present embodiment, the first light emitting unit 141 is disconnected at the constriction formed by the spacer 155 and the partition wall 150, whereby a highly conductive layer (for example, a carrier injection layer) included in the first light emitting unit 141 is obtained. Etc.) can also be cut off. For this reason, the highly conductive layer has a reduced conductivity, so that a flowing current is suppressed, and a crosstalk phenomenon between adjacent pixels having different emission colors or sub-pixels can be suppressed.

  In addition, by cutting the intermediate layer 142 in the constriction formed by the spacer 155 and the partition wall 150, the intermediate layer 142 is impeded by conductivity and current flowing is suppressed, and adjacent pixels having different emission colors or sub-pixels. Crosstalk phenomenon can be suppressed.

  Further, by preventing the upper electrode 122 from being disconnected, the potential of the upper electrode 122 becomes equal in adjacent pixels, and the upper electrode 122 is equipotential in a planar shape, preferably the entire upper electrode 122 is equipotential. There are effects such as suppression of voltage drop.

  Further, in the configuration in which a semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film is provided on the first substrate 410 side and light emitted from the light emitting module is extracted to the first substrate 410 side to display an image, the partition 150 absorbs visible light. When the material to be applied is applied, the partition can absorb the external light reflected by the semi-transmissive / semi-reflective film provided on the first substrate 410 and suppress the reflection.

<Sealing structure>
A display panel 400 exemplified in this embodiment includes a structure in which a light-emitting element is sealed in a space 431 surrounded by a first substrate 410, a second substrate 170, and a sealant 405 (see FIG. 1). .

  The space 431 may be filled with resin in addition to filling with an inert gas (such as nitrogen or argon). Further, an adsorbent (eg, a desiccant) of impurities (typically water and / or oxygen) may be introduced into the space 431.

  The sealant 405 and the second substrate 170 are preferably made of a material that does not transmit impurities (typically water and / or oxygen) in the atmosphere as much as possible. As the sealant 405, an epoxy resin, glass frit, or the like can be used.

  Examples of materials that can be used for the second substrate 170 include glass substrates, quartz substrates, plastic substrates made of PVF (polyvinyl fluoride), polyester, acrylic, and the like, FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics), and the like. Can be listed.

<Method for manufacturing light emitting device>
A method for manufacturing a light-emitting device according to one embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  An electrode layer is formed on the insulating layer 416, a photoresist film (not shown) is formed on the electrode layer, and the photoresist film is exposed and developed to form a resist mask on the electrode layer. The Next, the first and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b are formed over the insulating layer 416 by etching the electrode layer using the resist mask as a mask (see FIG. 2B).

  Next, the partition wall 150 is formed on the end portions of the first and second lower electrodes 118 a and 118 b and on the insulating layer 416. Next, a photosensitive positive material film is applied on the partition wall 150 and the first and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b, and the photosensitive positive material film is exposed and developed, whereby the spacer 155 is formed on the partition wall 150. Form. The spacer 155 has a shape protruding in a direction parallel to the surface on which the partition wall 150 is formed, and a constriction is formed by the side surface of the spacer 155 and the side surface of the partition wall 150.

  Next, a first light-emitting unit 141 is formed on the first and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b, the partition wall 150, and the spacer 155 by an evaporation method, and the intermediate layer 142 is formed on the first light-emitting unit 141 by an evaporation method. Form. The conductivity of the intermediate layer 142 is higher than that of the second light emitting unit 143. Next, the second light emitting unit 143 is formed on the intermediate layer 142 by vapor deposition, and the upper electrode 122 is formed on the second light emitting unit 143.

  The constriction height L1 formed by the side surface of the spacer 155 and the side surface of the partition wall 150 is larger than the total thickness A1 of the first light emitting unit 141 and the intermediate layer 142 located on the second lower electrode 118b, The total thickness A <b> 2 of the first light emitting unit 141, the intermediate layer 142, the second light emitting unit 143, and the upper electrode 122 positioned on the lower electrode 118 b is less than or equal to A <b> 2. Therefore, in the constriction, the first light-emitting unit 141, the highly conductive intermediate layer 142, and the second light-emitting unit 143 are disconnected, and the upper electrode 122 is not disconnected (see FIG. 3A).

  Next, a color filter 171 that is close to or in contact with the upper electrode 122 located on the partition wall is disposed, and the light-emitting element is sealed with an inert gas or a resin with a sealant. The color filter 171 includes, for example, a green color filter that overlaps with the first lower electrode 118a and a blue color filter that overlaps with the second lower electrode 118b, and a gap between the blue color filter and the green color filter. A light-blocking film 172 is formed (see FIG. 2B).

(Embodiment 2)
A structure of a light-emitting element that can be used for the light-emitting module of one embodiment of the present invention is described with reference to FIGS.

  The light-emitting element exemplified in this embodiment includes a lower electrode, an upper electrode, and an organic layer between the lower electrode and the upper electrode. Either the lower electrode or the upper electrode functions as an anode, and the other functions as a cathode. The organic layer is provided between the lower electrode and the upper electrode, and the configuration of the organic layer may be appropriately selected according to the material of the lower electrode and the upper electrode.

<Configuration example of light emitting element>
An example of a structure of the light-emitting element is illustrated in FIG. In the light-emitting element illustrated in FIG. 5A, an organic layer including a light-emitting unit 1103a and a light-emitting unit 1103b is provided between an anode 1101 and a cathode 1102. Further, an intermediate layer 1104 is provided between the light emitting unit 1103a and the light emitting unit 1103b.

  When a voltage higher than the threshold voltage of the light emitting element is applied between the anode 1101 and the cathode 1102, holes are injected into the organic layer from the anode 1101 side and electrons are injected from the cathode 1102 side. The injected electrons and holes are recombined in the organic layer, and the light emitting substance contained in the organic layer emits light.

  The number of light emitting units provided between the anode 1101 and the cathode 1102 is not limited to two. The light-emitting element illustrated in FIG. 5C has a structure in which a plurality of light-emitting units 1103 are stacked, that is, a so-called tandem light-emitting element. However, in the case where, for example, n (n is a natural number of 2 or more) layers of light emitting units 1103 are provided between the anode and the cathode, an intermediate between the mth light emitting unit and the (m + 1) th light emitting unit, respectively. The layer 1104 is provided.

  The light-emitting unit 1103 only needs to include one or more light-emitting layers containing at least a light-emitting substance, and may have a structure in which layers other than the light-emitting layer are stacked. Examples of the layer other than the light emitting layer include, for example, a material having a high hole-injecting property, a material having a high hole-transporting property, a material having a poor hole-transporting property (blocking), a material having a high electron-transporting property, and a material having a high electron-injecting property And a layer containing a substance having a bipolar property (a high electron and hole transport property) and the like. In particular, a layer containing a material having a high hole-injecting property provided in contact with the anode and a layer containing a material having a high electron-injecting property provided in contact with the cathode reduce a barrier related to carrier injection from the electrode to the light-emitting unit. To do. These layers can be referred to as carrier injection layers.

  An example of a specific structure of the light-emitting unit 1103 is illustrated in FIG. In the light-emitting unit 1103 illustrated in FIG. 5B, a hole injection layer 1113, a hole transport layer 1114, a light-emitting layer 1115, an electron transport layer 1116, and an electron injection layer 1117 are stacked in this order from the anode 1101 side.

  An example of a specific structure of the intermediate layer 1104 is shown in FIG. The intermediate layer 1104 may be formed so as to include at least the charge generation region, and may have a structure in which layers other than the charge generation region are stacked. For example, a structure in which the first charge generation region 1104c, the electron relay layer 1104b, and the electron injection buffer layer 1104a are sequentially stacked from the cathode 1102 side can be used.

  The behavior of electrons and holes in the intermediate layer 1104 will be described. When a voltage higher than the threshold voltage of the light-emitting element is applied between the anode 1101 and the cathode 1102, holes and electrons are generated in the first charge generation region 1104c, and the light-emitting unit is provided on the cathode 1102 side. 1103b and electrons move to the electron relay layer 1104b.

  The electron-relay layer 1104b has a high electron-transport property and quickly transfers electrons generated in the first charge generation region 1104c to the electron-injection buffer layer 1104a. The electron injection buffer layer 1104a relaxes the barrier for injecting electrons into the light emitting unit 1103a, and increases the efficiency of electron injection into the light emitting unit 1103a. Therefore, electrons generated in the first charge generation region 1104c are injected into the lowest vacant orbit level (hereinafter referred to as “LUMO level”) of the light emitting unit 1103a through the electron relay layer 1104b and the electron injection buffer layer 1104a. Is done.

  In addition, the electron relay layer 1104b prevents an interaction such as a substance constituting the first charge generation region 1104c and a substance constituting the electron injection buffer layer 1104a from reacting at the interface, thereby impairing the functions of each other. Can do.

  The holes injected into the light emitting unit 1103b provided on the cathode side recombine with the electrons injected from the cathode 1102, and the light emitting substance contained in the light emitting unit 1103b emits light. Further, electrons injected into the light emitting unit 1103a provided on the anode side recombine with holes injected from the anode side, and a light emitting substance contained in the light emitting unit 1103a emits light. Therefore, holes and electrons generated in the intermediate layer 1104 are emitted in different light emitting units.

  In addition, when the same structure as an intermediate | middle layer is formed between both by providing light emitting units in contact, light emitting units can be provided in contact. Specifically, when a charge generation region is formed on one surface of the light emitting unit, the charge generation region functions as the first charge generation region of the intermediate layer. it can.

  An intermediate layer may be provided between the cathode and the nth light emitting unit.

<Material that can be used for light-emitting element>
Next, specific materials that can be used for the light-emitting element having the above-described structure will be described in the order of the anode, the cathode, the organic layer, the charge generation region, the electron relay layer, and the electron injection buffer layer.

<Material that can be used for anode>
The anode 1101 is preferably made of a metal, an alloy, an electrically conductive compound, a mixture thereof, or the like having a high work function (specifically, 4.0 eV or more is preferable). Specifically, for example, indium tin oxide (ITO), indium tin oxide containing silicon or silicon oxide, indium zinc oxide (oxide) containing tungsten oxide and zinc oxide. Examples include indium.

  In addition, gold (Au), platinum (Pt), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), palladium ( Pd), titanium (Ti), or a nitride of a metal material (for example, titanium nitride), molybdenum oxide, vanadium oxide, ruthenium oxide, tungsten oxide, manganese oxide, titanium oxide, or the like.

  However, in the case where the second charge generation region is provided in contact with the anode 1101, various conductive materials can be used for the anode 1101 without considering the work function. Specifically, not only a material having a high work function but also a material having a low work function can be used. The material constituting the second charge generation region will be described later together with the first charge generation region.

<Materials that can be used for the cathode>
The cathode 1102 is preferably made of a material having a low work function (specifically, less than 4.0 eV). However, when the first charge generation region is provided between the light emitting unit 1103 and the cathode 1102, the cathode 1102 has a work function. Various conductive materials can be used regardless of the size of the function.

  Note that at least one of the cathode 1102 and the anode 1101 is formed using a conductive film that transmits visible light. As the conductive film that transmits visible light, for example, indium oxide containing tungsten oxide, indium zinc oxide containing tungsten oxide, indium oxide containing titanium oxide, indium tin oxide containing titanium oxide, indium tin oxide, Examples thereof include indium zinc oxide and indium tin oxide to which silicon oxide is added. In addition, a metal thin film that transmits light (preferably, approximately 5 nm to 30 nm) can be used.

<Materials that can be used for the organic layer>
Specific examples of materials that can be used for each layer included in the light-emitting unit 1103 are described below.

<Hole injection layer>
The hole injection layer is a layer containing a substance having a high hole injection property. As the substance having a high hole injection property, for example, molybdenum oxide, vanadium oxide, ruthenium oxide, tungsten oxide, manganese oxide, or the like can be used. In addition, phthalocyanine compounds such as phthalocyanine (abbreviation: H2Pc) and copper phthalocyanine (abbreviation: CuPc), or poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) / poly (styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT / PSS) The hole injection layer can also be formed by a polymer or the like.

  Note that the second charge generation region may be used instead of the hole injection layer. As described above, when the second charge generation region is used, various conductive materials can be used for the anode 1101 without considering the work function. The material constituting the second charge generation region will be described later together with the first charge generation region.

<Hole transport layer>
The hole transport layer is a layer containing a substance having a high hole transport property. The hole transport layer is not limited to a single layer, and may be a stack of two or more layers containing a substance having a high hole transport property. Any substance that has a property of transporting more holes than electrons may be used, and a substance having a hole mobility of 10 −6 cm 2 / Vs or higher is particularly preferable because the driving voltage of the light-emitting element can be reduced.

<Light emitting layer>
The light emitting layer is a layer containing a light emitting substance. The light emitting layer is not limited to a single layer and may be a stack of two or more layers containing a light emitting substance. As the light-emitting substance, a fluorescent compound or a phosphorescent compound can be used. It is preferable to use a phosphorescent compound for the light-emitting substance because the light-emitting efficiency of the light-emitting element can be increased.

  The light emitting substance is preferably used by being dispersed in a host material. As the host material, a material whose excitation energy is larger than that of the light-emitting substance is preferable.

<Electron transport layer>
The electron transport layer is a layer containing a substance having a high electron transport property. The electron transport layer is not limited to a single layer, and may be a stack of two or more layers containing a substance having a high electron transport property. Any substance that has a property of transporting more electrons than holes may be used, and in particular, a substance having an electron mobility of 10 −6 cm 2 / Vs or higher is preferable because the driving voltage of the light-emitting element can be reduced.

<Electron injection layer>
The electron injection layer is a layer containing a substance having a high electron injection property. The electron injection layer is not limited to a single layer, and may be a stack of two or more layers containing a substance having a high electron injection property. A structure in which an electron injecting layer is provided is preferable because the efficiency of injecting electrons from the cathode 1102 is increased and the driving voltage of the light emitting element can be reduced.

  Examples of the high electron-injecting substance include alkali metals such as lithium (Li), cesium (Cs), calcium (Ca), lithium fluoride (LiF), cesium fluoride (CsF), and calcium fluoride (CaF2), Alkaline earth metals or these compounds are mentioned. Further, an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, magnesium (Mg), or a compound thereof, for example, a substance containing magnesium (Mg) in Alq can be used in a substance having an electron transporting property. .

<Material that can be used for charge generation region>
The first charge generation region 1104c and the second charge generation region are regions including a substance having a high hole-transport property and an acceptor substance. Note that the charge generation region includes not only a case where a substance having a high hole-transport property and an acceptor substance are contained in the same film but also a layer containing a substance having a high hole-transport property and a layer containing an acceptor substance. May be. However, in the case where the first charge generation region provided in contact with the cathode has a stacked structure, a layer containing a substance having a high hole-transport property is in contact with the cathode 1102. In the case where the second charge generation region provided in contact with the anode has a stacked structure, a layer containing an acceptor substance is in contact with the anode 1101.

  Note that in the charge generation region, the acceptor substance is preferably added at a mass ratio of 0.1 to 4.0 with respect to the substance having a high hole-transport property.

  As the acceptor substance used for the charge generation region, a transition metal oxide, particularly an oxide of a metal belonging to Groups 4 to 8 in the periodic table is preferable. Specifically, molybdenum oxide is particularly preferable. Note that molybdenum oxide has a feature of low hygroscopicity.

As the substance having a high hole-transport property used for the charge generation region, various organic compounds such as aromatic amine compounds, carbazole derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbons, and high molecular compounds (including oligomers, dendrimers, and polymers) are used. be able to. Specifically, a substance having a hole mobility of 10 −6 cm 2 / Vs or higher is preferable. Note that other than these substances, any substance that has a property of transporting more holes than electrons may be used.

<Materials that can be used for the electronic relay layer>
The electron-relay layer 1104b is a layer that can quickly receive the electrons extracted by the acceptor substance in the first charge generation region 1104c. Therefore, the electron-relay layer 1104b is a layer containing a substance having a high electron-transport property, and the LUMO level thereof is the acceptor level of the acceptor substance in the first charge generation region 1104c and the LUMO level of the light-emitting unit 1103. It is located in between. Specifically, it is preferably about −5.0 eV to −3.0 eV.

  Examples of the substance used for the electronic relay layer 1104b include a perylene derivative and a nitrogen-containing condensed aromatic compound. Note that the nitrogen-containing condensed aromatic compound is a stable compound and thus is preferable as a substance used for the electronic relay layer 1104b. Furthermore, among nitrogen-containing condensed aromatic compounds, it is preferable to use a compound having an electron-withdrawing group such as a cyano group or fluorine because electrons can be more easily received in the electron-relay layer 1104b.

<Material that can be used for the electron injection buffer layer>
The electron injection buffer layer 1104a is a layer that facilitates injection of electrons from the first charge generation region 1104c into the light emitting unit 1103a. By providing the electron injection buffer layer 1104a between the first charge generation region 1104c and the light emitting unit 1103a, the injection barrier between them can be relaxed.

  The electron-injection buffer layer 1104a includes an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a rare earth metal, and a compound thereof (including an alkali metal compound (including an oxide such as lithium oxide, a halide, and a carbonate such as lithium carbonate and cesium carbonate). , Alkaline earth metal compounds (including oxides, halides, carbonates) or rare earth metal compounds (including oxides, halides, carbonates) can be used. It is.

  In the case where the electron injection buffer layer 1104a is formed including a substance having a high electron transporting property and a donor substance, the mass ratio with respect to the substance having a high electron transporting property is 0.001 or more and 0.1 or less. It is preferable to add the donor substance at the ratio of As donor substances, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, rare earth metals, and compounds thereof (alkali metal compounds (including oxides such as lithium oxide, halides, carbonates such as lithium carbonate and cesium carbonate) In addition to alkaline earth metal compounds (including oxides, halides and carbonates) or rare earth metal compounds (including oxides, halides and carbonates), tetrathianaphthacene (abbreviation: TTN), Organic compounds such as nickelocene and decamethyl nickelocene can also be used. Note that the substance having a high electron-transport property can be formed using a material similar to the material for the electron-transport layer that can be formed over part of the light-emitting unit 1103 described above.

<Method for Manufacturing Light-Emitting Element>
One embodiment of a method for manufacturing a light-emitting element is described. An organic layer is formed by appropriately combining these layers on the lower electrode. Various methods (for example, a dry method or a wet method) can be used for the organic layer depending on the material used for the organic layer. For example, a vacuum deposition method, an inkjet method, a spin coating method, or the like may be selected and used. Further, different methods may be used for each layer. An upper electrode is formed on the organic layer to manufacture a light emitting element.

  By combining the above materials, the light-emitting element described in this embodiment can be manufactured. The light-emitting element can emit light from the above-described light-emitting substance, and the emission color can be selected by changing the type of the light-emitting substance.

  In addition, by using a plurality of light-emitting substances having different emission colors, the emission spectrum can be widened to obtain, for example, white light emission. In order to obtain white light emission, for example, a structure including at least two layers containing a light-emitting substance may be used, and each layer may be configured to emit light having a color complementary to each other. Specific complementary color relationships include, for example, blue and yellow or blue green and red.

  Furthermore, in order to obtain white light emission with good color rendering properties, it is preferable that the emission spectrum extends over the entire visible light region. For example, one light emitting element emits blue light, a layer emitting green light, red What is necessary is just to set it as the structure provided with the layer which emits the light which exhibits.

  Note that this embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments described in this specification as appropriate.

  FIG. 7A is a photograph showing a cross-sectional structure of the partition walls and the spacers (convex portions) of the light-emitting element of the example, and FIG. 7B is a side view of the spacer and the partition walls shown in FIG. 7C is an enlarged photograph of the constriction 153 formed by the above, and FIG. 7C is an enlarged photograph of the region 154 shown in FIG.

  In this embodiment, the arrangement of the spacers 155 shown in FIG. 4B is the same, and the end portions of the spacers 155 are arranged on the inclined portion of the surface of the partition wall 150.

The materials constituting the light emitting element of this example are as follows.
First and second lower electrodes 118a and 118b: Laminated lanthanum-containing aluminum-nickel alloy film (film thickness: 200 nm) and titanium film (film thickness: 6 nm) Microcavity structure 149: Indium tin oxide containing silicon oxide (ITSO) ) Film (the light emitting element included in the blue light emitting portion has a thickness of 0 nm, the light emitting element included in the green light emitting portion has a thickness of 40 nm, and the light emitting element included in the red light emitting portion has a thickness of 80 nm.)
Partition wall 150: Brown resist material (colored insulating material having transmittance of 50% or less at wavelengths of 460 nm, 540 nm, and 620 nm)
Spacer 155: Positive photosensitive polyimide First light emitting unit 1411: Composite material layer (hole injection layer, film thickness 20 nm) containing hole transporting anthracene derivative and molybdenum oxide, hole transport layer (film thickness 20 nm) Lamination of blue light emitting layer (film thickness 30 nm) and electron transport layer (film thickness 20 nm) Intermediate layer 142: Lithium oxide film (film thickness 0.1 nm), copper phthalocyanine film (film thickness 2 nm), hole Stacking of Composite Material Film (Film Thickness 20 nm) Containing Transport Anthracene Derivative and Molybdenum Oxide Second Light-Emitting Unit 143: Hole Transport Layer (Film Thickness 20 nm), Green Light-Emitting Layer (Film Thickness 20 nm), Red Light Emitting Lamination of layer (film thickness 20 nm), electron transport layer (film thickness 30 nm), and electron injection layer (film thickness 1 nm) Upper electrode 122: Silver-magnesium alloy film (film thickness 15 nm) and I A stack of O (thickness of 70nm)

A method for manufacturing the light-emitting element of this example is as follows.
After the first and second lower electrodes (anodes) are formed on the TFT substrate, a photoresist film is formed on the first and second lower electrodes, and the photoresist film is exposed and developed to obtain the first. And the partition which consists of a resist material is formed so that the edge part of each of 2nd lower electrode may be covered. This resist material is a light-absorbing material colored, for example, brown.

  Next, for example, a positive photosensitive polyimide film is formed as a positive photosensitive resin on the partition wall, and the positive photosensitive polyimide film is exposed and developed to form a spacer made of the positive photosensitive polyimide film on the partition wall. Is formed. If a spacer is formed with a positive photosensitive resin on the colored partition walls in this way, light is absorbed by the colored partition walls during the exposure of the positive photosensitive polyimide film, and the temperature of the colored partition walls increases. The reaction is easy to proceed. Among the spacers, the photoreaction on the bottom surface that is in contact with the colored partition is particularly likely to proceed. For this reason, a structure (necking) having a large taper can be formed only by the bottom surface in contact with the colored partition wall. Therefore, a structure having a constriction is formed with a two-layer structure of a partition and a spacer on the partition.

  Next, a first light emitting unit is formed on the first and second lower electrodes, the partition walls, and the spacers by vapor deposition, and an intermediate layer is formed on the first light emitting unit by vapor deposition. The first light emitting unit has a hole injection layer which is a carrier injection layer. Next, a second light emitting unit is formed on the intermediate layer by vapor deposition, and an upper electrode is formed on the second light emitting unit. The intermediate layer and the carrier injection layer are preferably thinned, and the upper electrode is preferably not cut off.

  The use of colored barriers also has implications for viewing angle dependence in addition to crosstalk countermeasures. Coloring the partition walls is preferable because it is possible to prevent color mixture of light emission from adjacent pixels when the panel is viewed obliquely.

  FIGS. 8 to 9 are photographs showing the same cross section as FIG. 7B, and are for explaining the height of the constriction and the like in detail.

  As shown in FIG. 8A, the point at which the spacer 155 protrudes most is a point E, and a perpendicular drawn from the point E to the formation surface of the partition 150 or the surface of the first substrate, and the partition 150 Let the intersection of be point F. The distance between the points E and F is defined as the constriction height L1. Further, as shown in FIG. 7C, the thickness from the first light emitting unit 141 to the upper electrode 122 is A2, and the thickness from the first light emitting unit 141 to the intermediate layer 142 is A1. A1 and A2 are thicknesses on a perpendicular line drawn from the surface of the first substrate or the formation surface of the second lower electrode 118b (formation surface of the light-emitting element), respectively.

  Specific dimensions of the light emitting element of this example are such that the constriction height L1 is 230 nm, the thickness A1 is 110 nm, and the thickness A2 is 280 nm.

Said dimension L1, A1, A2 satisfy | fills following formula (1).
A1 <L1 ≦ A2 (1)

In this example, in order to satisfy the above formula (1), the intermediate layer and the carrier injection layer (composite material layer) which are highly conductive layers below the light emitting layer of the uppermost light emitting unit are cut off. .
That is, in this embodiment, a spacer is formed on the partition wall to form a constriction, and the constriction height L1 is thicker than the thickness A1 to the intermediate layer of the organic layer, and the combined thickness of the organic layer and the upper electrode is not more than A2. It is. As a result, it was confirmed that the intermediate layer and the carrier injection layer having a particularly low resistance can be stepped out of the organic layer. In addition, it was confirmed that the upper electrode could be cut off as a result of filling the step as a structure in which the side of the organic layer was in contact with the most constricted portion.

  As shown in FIG. 7C and FIG. 8A, when the constriction height L1 which is the distance between the points E and F is larger than the thickness A1 from the first light emitting unit to the intermediate layer, the first It was confirmed that the light emitting unit and the intermediate layer were disconnected. In addition, when the constriction height L1 which is the distance between the points E and F is equal to or less than the thickness A2 from the first light emitting unit to the upper electrode, the first light emitting unit and the intermediate layer are disconnected, and the upper portion It was confirmed that the electrode did not break.

  As shown in FIG. 8B, in the region surrounded by the dotted line H, the constriction is filled with the organic layer, so that the constriction height for the upper electrode is smaller than the constriction height for the organic layer.

  As shown in FIG. 8C, an intersection of a perpendicular drawn from the point E to the formation surface of the partition wall or the surface of the substrate and the surface of the second light emitting unit is defined as a point J. The distance between point J and point E is L2. Since this distance L2 corresponds to the height of the constriction for the upper electrode, it was also confirmed that the upper electrode would not be cut off if the distance L2 was thinner than the thickness A3 of the upper electrode. Note that A3 is the thickness of the upper electrode on the vertical line drawn with respect to the surface of the first substrate or the formation surface of the lower electrode (formation surface of the light-emitting element) (see FIG. 7C).

  As shown in FIG. 9, a straight line connecting the point L to the partition 150 side from the most constricted point L and the point L is a straight line N, and a straight line parallel to the surface of the substrate is a straight line K. Here, in order to make a constriction whose height is equal to or greater than the thickness of the intermediate layer of the organic layer, it is preferable that the angle θ formed by the straight line N and the straight line K is larger than 0 and the partition 150 is inclined. By inclining the partition wall 150 so that the constriction height L1 is increased, the condition that the constriction height L1 is larger than the thickness A1 from the first light emitting unit 141 to the intermediate layer 142 is easily satisfied.

FIG. 10 is a photograph showing a state in which a light-emitting panel including the light-emitting element of this example is displayed in a single blue color of 150 cd / m 2 .
FIG. 11A is a photograph showing a cross-sectional structure of a partition wall of a light-emitting element of a comparative example, and FIG. 11B shows a light-emitting panel including the light-emitting element of the comparative example in a blue color of 150 cd / m 2. It is the photograph which shows the state made to do.
In FIGS. 10 and 11B, subpixels that emit blue light are indicated by B, subpixels that emit green light are indicated by G, and subpixels that emit red light are indicated by R. It was.

  The light emitting element of the comparative example shown in FIG. 11A is obtained by removing the spacer from the light emitting element of the example shown in FIG. 7A, and the method for manufacturing the light emitting element of the example except that the spacer is not formed. It was produced by the same method.

  In the light emitting panel of the comparative example shown in FIG. 11, current leaks to the adjacent tandem element through the highly conductive intermediate layer, and the red line and the green line of the adjacent pixel emit light and the crosstalk phenomenon occurs. . On the other hand, in the light-emitting panel of this embodiment shown in FIG. 10, the first light-emitting unit and the highly conductive intermediate layer are cut off at the constriction formed by the spacer and the partition wall, and therefore adjacent to each other through the intermediate layer. It was confirmed that the current leak to the tandem element can be suppressed, and the occurrence of the crosstalk phenomenon that the red line and the green line of the adjacent pixel emit light can be suppressed.

118a first lower electrode 118b second lower electrode 120 organic layer 122 upper electrode 130a light emitting element 130b light emitting element 141 first light emitting unit 142 intermediate layer 143 second light emitting unit 150 partition 153 constriction 155 spacer (convex part)
156 Space (void)
160R Red light emitting unit 160G Green light emitting unit 160B Blue light emitting unit 170 Second substrate (counter substrate)
171 Color filter 172 Black matrix 173 Overcoat layer 400 Display panel 401 Display unit 402 Pixel 402B Sub-pixel 402G that emits light that exhibits blue light Sub-pixel 402R that emits light that exhibits green light Sub-pixel 403g that emits light that exhibits red light Side drive circuit section 403s Source side drive circuit section 405 Seal material 408 Lead-out wiring 409 FPC (flexible printed circuit)
410 First substrate 411 Switching transistor 412 Current control transistor 416 Insulating layer 450G Light emitting module

Claims (9)

  1. A first electrode and a second electrode formed on the insulating layer;
    A partition wall formed on the insulating layer and positioned between the first electrode and the second electrode;
    A convex portion formed on the partition;
    A first light emitting unit formed on each of the first electrode, the partition, the convex portion, and the second electrode;
    An intermediate layer formed on the first light emitting unit;
    A second light emitting unit formed on the intermediate layer;
    A third electrode formed on the second light emitting unit;
    Comprising
    A constriction is formed by the side surface of the convex portion and the side surface of the partition wall ,
    In the constriction, the first light emitting unit and the intermediate layer are cut,
    In the constriction, the second light emitting unit does not break off .
  2. In claim 1,
    A light emitting device having a space between a side surface of the convex portion and the partition wall.
  3. In claim 1 or 2 ,
    An end portion of the convex portion is formed on a surface inclined with respect to a surface on which the partition wall is formed on the partition wall.
  4. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 3 ,
    The light-emitting device, wherein the inflection point of the constriction is formed in the partition wall.
  5. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 4 ,
    When the intersection of the perpendicular drawn with respect to the surface to be formed from the first point where the convex portion protrudes most in the direction parallel to the surface on which the partition wall is formed is the second point The distance between the first point and the second point is greater than the total thickness of the first light emitting unit and the intermediate layer located on the first electrode, and is located on the first electrode. A light emitting device having a thickness equal to or less than a total thickness of the first light emitting unit, the intermediate layer, the second light emitting unit, and the third electrode.
  6. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 5,
    The intersection of the perpendicular drawn with respect to the surface to be formed and the surface of the second light emitting unit from the first point at which the convex portion protrudes most in the direction parallel to the surface to be formed of the partition wall is a third point. In this case, the distance between the first point and the third point is smaller than the thickness of the third electrode.
  7. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 6 ,
    The light emitting device, wherein the first light emitting unit has a carrier injection layer.
  8. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 7 ,
    A color filter disposed on the first electrode and the second electrode;
    The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the color filter has a first color that overlaps the first electrode and a second color that overlaps the second electrode.
  9. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 8,
    A first light emitting element corresponding to the first light emitting unit, the intermediate layer and the second light emitting unit formed on the first electrode; and the first light emitting element formed on the second electrode. A second light emitting element corresponding to the light emitting unit, the intermediate layer, and the second light emitting unit, wherein the first light emitting element and the second light emitting element adjacent to the first light emitting element include: In the case of exhibiting different colors, the convex portion is provided between the first light emitting element and the second light emitting element, and the first light emitting element and the second light emitting element adjacent to the first light emitting element are provided. When the light emitting elements exhibit the same color, the projection is not provided between the first light emitting element and the second light emitting element.
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US20140103368A1 (en) 2014-04-17

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