JP5071974B2 - Evaporative dehydrator - Google Patents

Evaporative dehydrator Download PDF

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JP5071974B2
JP5071974B2 JP2007308250A JP2007308250A JP5071974B2 JP 5071974 B2 JP5071974 B2 JP 5071974B2 JP 2007308250 A JP2007308250 A JP 2007308250A JP 2007308250 A JP2007308250 A JP 2007308250A JP 5071974 B2 JP5071974 B2 JP 5071974B2
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dried
water vapor
cylinder
steam
condenser
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JP2009133512A (en
JP2009133512A5 (en
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野 俊 之 日
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鹿島建設株式会社
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Priority claimed from PCT/JP2008/071623 external-priority patent/WO2009069735A1/en
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  The present invention relates to energy saving in a concentration and drying process involving evaporation and dehydration, and more particularly to an evaporation and dehydration apparatus that compresses water vapor and recovers and uses condensation latent heat (heat of vaporization).

Evaporative dehydration such as concentration and drying has a problem that a large amount of energy is consumed and operation cost is high due to the large latent heat of vaporization of water (2258 kJ / kg at 100 ° C.).
In order to solve this problem, there is a technology for increasing the saturation temperature by increasing the water vapor generated in the evaporation and dehydration process, exchanging heat with the material to be dried, condensing, recovering and using this latent heat, and using it for the subsequent evaporation and dehydration. Exists. Since such a technique compresses and condenses water vapor, it is referred to as “VCC (vapor compression and condensation)” or “VCC technique” in this specification.

  In principle, VCC can be widely applied to processes involving evaporation and dehydration, and exhibits a large energy saving effect. However, the conventional technology is limited to the concentration of a solution or the like that is easy to exchange heat, There are no practical examples of. VCC is a well-known technology, but it is difficult to say that it is widely known, and there are few documents describing the details of the technology.

The VCC technique in FIG. 12 is an evaporation apparatus that performs continuous processing using a heat exchanger having a spiral auger shape for the purpose of drying particulate matter (see Patent Document 1).
The dryer shown in FIG. 12 includes three tubes 200, 202, and 204, and the inside of the dryer is shielded from the outside air.
In such an airtight dryer, the pressure inside the dryer is different from the atmospheric pressure. Therefore, when the internal pressure is above atmospheric pressure, steam is prevented from being ejected, and when the internal pressure is below atmospheric pressure, air intrusion is prevented. A structure to prevent is required.

In FIG. 12, the inside of the intermediate chamber 230 and the intermediate chamber 240 is evacuated by the liquid ring pump 236 using special sealing devices 232, 206, 234, 242, 246 and the like at the entrances and exits of the dryers 200, 202, 204. The structure is shown.
However, such an inlet / outlet air intrusion prevention structure is complicated and causes an increase in manufacturing cost.
In addition, if the object to be dried has adhesiveness, the adhered object to be dried causes a rotation with the spiral auger, so that the object to be dried and heat transfer (heat exchange) to the object to be dried are inefficient. It is expected to be possible.

As another conventional technique, for example, a rotary stirring water vapor condenser of a dry container having an airtight structure has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 2).
The drying container of the related art (Patent Document 2) has an airtight structure, and the pressure inside the drying container is operated in a vacuum state below atmospheric pressure as a matter of course.
However, it is not possible to solve the above-described problem that air enters when the material to be dried is discharged. Therefore, batch (batch) processing is assumed.
JP 58-158485 A Japanese Patent No. 3681049

  The present invention has been proposed in view of the above-described problems of the prior art, can simplify the outside air intrusion prevention mechanism, enable efficient heat exchange, and can suppress energy consumption during operation. The purpose is to provide an evaporative dehydrator.

  The evaporation dehydration apparatus (100) of the present invention includes a drying container (1), a steam compressor (2), a steam condenser (3) for exchanging heat with the contents of the drying container (1), and the like. It has a steam line (La, 10, 11) that communicates the devices (1, 2, 3), and a discharge mechanism (40) that discharges the contents of the drying container (1). In the evaporating and dehydrating apparatus for increasing the saturation temperature by increasing the pressure of water vapor and exchanging the latent heat of condensation of the increased water vapor with the material to be dried in the water vapor condenser (3) for use in evaporating and dehydrating the material to be dried, the discharge The mechanism (40) includes a cylinder (41) communicating with the drying container (1), and an object to be dried that has moved from the inside of the drying container (1) into the cylinder (41i) via the outlet (1o). ) Side piston (42) and cylinder outlet (41o) It is characterized by having a check valve (43) which is (claim 1).

In the present invention, the cylinder (41) has a double wall structure, and is connected to the outer wall (41a) of the cylinder (41) via a steam line (11) communicating with the discharge port of the steam compressor (2). It is preferable to supply water vapor whose pressure has been increased by the water vapor compressor (2) to the space (41s) between the inner wall (41b) (claim 2).
Then, the steam that has been pressurized by the steam compressor (2) and supplied to the space (41s) between the outer wall (41a) and the inner wall (41b) of the cylinder (41) is the steam condenser. Preferably it is supplied to (3).
However, the partition wall (41w) of the cylinder (41) can be formed of a single wall.

  In the discharge mechanism (40), it is preferable to provide a cutting means (edge 50) for the object to be dried at the outlet (1o) of the drying container (1).

In the present invention, it is preferable to provide a steam generating means (steam boiler 7).
Alternatively, instead of providing the steam generating means (steam boiler 7), a heating device (for example, an electric heater) is provided in the drying container (1), and the heating device is put into the drying container (1). The dried material can be heated to generate water vapor.

  In the present invention, the water vapor condenser (3) is configured by arranging a plurality of rotors (so-called “squirrel-cage” -shaped rotors 3au) in parallel, and the rotor (3au) is a hollow tube ( For example, a steel pipe, a titanium pipe, an aluminum pipe, a ceramic pipe, a stainless steel pipe, etc.), arranged in parallel and arranged to rotate while intersecting so that the rotors (3au) do not interfere with each other, The rotor (3au) is composed of a plurality of linear hollow tubes (for example, steel pipe: tube 31a), and each of the linear hollow tubes (31a) has a rotating shaft (the whole is a so-called "" It is arranged in parallel with the central axis 32S) of the rotor configured in the shape of a squirrel cage, and is arranged radially outward of the rotary shaft (32S) and at equal intervals in the circumferential direction. Each of the empty pipes (31a) is formed by a hollow communication pipe (33). Rotating shaft is communicated with a passage provided in (32S) (hole 32Eh) (whole is configured in a so-called "squirrel cage" shaped) preferably have (claim 4).

In such a configuration, for example, the rotor (3au) includes a central hollow tube (for example, a steel pipe: body 32a) disposed coaxially with the rotation shaft (32S), and a radius of the central hollow tube (32a). A plurality of hollow tubes (tubes 31a) arranged outward in the direction and parallel to the central hollow tube (32a), and the plurality of hollow tubes (31a) are equally spaced in the circumferential direction It is preferable that each of the plurality of hollow tubes (31a) is supported by the central hollow tube (32a) by a hollow communication tube (33).
Alternatively, in the rotor (3au), the central hollow tube (32a) can be omitted.

  In the present invention, the check valve (43) is constituted by an elastic body (43a, 43b), and is preferably normally closed (Claim 5).

In the present invention, the water vapor condenser (3) is configured by arranging a plurality of stages (main condenser 3a, sub condenser 3b) in series, and the final stage water vapor condenser (sub condenser 3b). It is preferable to provide a non-condensable gas discharge valve (5) communicating with the gas.
More specifically, a non-condensable gas discharge connection port (3bo) and a line (non-condensable gas discharge pipe 27) communicating with the final stage water vapor condenser (sub-condenser 3b) are provided. A condensable gas discharge pipe 27) is preferably provided with a non-condensable gas discharge valve (5).

  In the present invention, the gas (mixture of non-condensable gas and water vapor) flowing through the non-condensable gas discharge line (non-condensable gas discharge pipe 27) is brought into direct contact with the object (6) to be preheated. It is preferable that the heat recovery be performed.

  In the present invention, it is provided in any position (for example, the sub-condenser 3b) from the steam compressor (2) to the outlet of the steam condenser (3), and the discharge system and the suction system of the drying container (1). It is preferable to have a steam pipe communicating with the inside of the gate valve.

According to the present invention having the configuration as described above, an object to be dried moved into the cylinder (41) via the outlet (1o) in the drying container (1) is pressed toward the cylinder outlet (41o). Since the piston (42) and the check valve (43) provided at the cylinder outlet (41o) are provided, the object to be dried discharged from the outlet (1o) of the drying container (1) is removed from the outside air. Since the air is pushed into the blocked space (41i), the outside air (air) does not enter the drying container (1) from the outlet (1o).
Further, the check valve (43) prevents outside air (air) from entering from the cylinder outlet (41o).

If the check valve (43) is configured to be normally closed with an elastic body (43a, 43b) (Claim 5), when the object to be dried accumulates more than a certain amount, the object to be dried pressed by the piston (42) The elastic bodies (43a, 43b) in the check valve (43) provided on the cylinder outlet (41o) side are discharged out of the cylinder (41) so as to push the elastic bodies against each other. The
At that time, since the elastic bodies (43a, 43b) of the check valve (43) are kept pressed against the object to be dried by the elastic repulsive force, air can enter from the check valve (43). Is prevented.

Here, during the operation of the evaporating and dehydrating apparatus of the present invention, it is also assumed that the liquid material fills the drying container (1) at the initial stage of operation. Furthermore, there exists a case where what becomes viscous like sludge should be processed in the stage before drying. Therefore, the discharge mechanism of the VCC evaporation dehydration apparatus is required to be able to discharge liquid, viscous material, solid, and the like.
On the other hand, according to the present invention, since the object to be dried is pressed toward the cylinder outlet (41o) by the piston (42) and moved in the cylinder, regardless of the liquid, viscous body, solid, The object to be dried pushed out from the outlet (1o) of the drying container (1) can be reliably moved to the cylinder outlet (41o) side.

In the present invention, the cylinder (41) has a double wall structure, and the outer wall (41a) of the cylinder (41) is connected via a steam line (11) communicating with the discharge port (2o) of the steam compressor (2). ) And the inner wall (41b) are configured to supply water vapor pressurized by the water vapor compressor (2) to the space (41s) (Claim 2), the outlet (1o) from the drying vessel (1) When the material to be dried supplied to the cylinder (41) passes through the cylinder (41), the sensible heat and latent heat possessed by the water vapor pressurized by the water vapor compressor (2) is retained in the cylinder ( 41i) to be dried, the dried object can be heated and dried.
Therefore, even if the material to be dried is solid, it is additionally heated and dried when the inside of the cylinder (41) is added.

  Furthermore, in the present invention, if a drying object cutting means (edge 50) is provided at the outlet (1o) of the drying container (1) (Claim 3), the dried and cured object to be dried is dried into the drying container (1). ) Can be shredded by the cutting means (50) when pushed out from the cylinder, so that it can easily move in the cylinder (41i) and pass between the elastic bodies of the check valve (43). I can do it.

  If the cage-shaped water vapor condenser (3a) made of a hollow tube is used as the water vapor condenser (3, 3a) used in the present invention, stirring and vaporization of water vapor flowing in the interior are carried out rather than transportation of the object to be dried. The structure is suitable for heat exchange with heat. In addition, it is possible to optimize the rotational speed of the steam condenser (3, 3a) from the viewpoint of energy efficiency.

  Moreover, since the total extension of the hollow tube (31a) can be lengthened, the heat transfer area can be increased and the latent heat of condensation can be reliably input to the material to be dried. As a result, it is also possible to remove moisture from the material to be dried in a dryer from a highly water-containing liquid state to a dried solid state.

  Moreover, since it is a structure which meshes | engages without a mutual hollow tube (31a) contacting, it can reduce the quantity which a to-be-dried object adheres to the condenser (3a) surface, and accumulates. Thereby, the state where the relative position between the water vapor condenser (3a) and the object to be dried does not change, that is, so-called “circulation” is avoided, and the effect of preventing the heat exchange capacity from being lowered is also exhibited.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
First, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
In FIG. 1, an evaporative dehydration apparatus denoted by reference numeral 100 as a whole has water vapor in a dry container 1 having a heat-insulated and closed structure, a compressor 2 that compresses a gas such as water vapor, and an object to be dried 6 in the dry container 1. A steam condenser (condenser) 3 for supplying the latent heat of condensation and a steam boiler 7 are provided.
In the condenser 3, the water vapor in which the amount of heat held (condensation latent heat and sensible heat) is supplied to the material to be dried 6 is condensed and becomes warm water (drain, liquid phase).

The dry container 1 is formed with a dry matter input port (input port) 8 for supplying the dry matter 6 into the container 1 and a dry matter discharge port (discharge port) 9 for discharging the dried product. Yes. Below the discharge port 9, a container 90 for transporting dry matter is disposed.
The supply mechanism 14 in the charging port (hopper) 8 is constituted by a rotary displacement type uniaxial eccentric screw pump (for example, a so-called “Mono pump”). Here, by controlling the rotation speed of the supply mechanism 14, the moisture content of the dried product discharged from the discharge mechanism 40 can be adjusted.

Although mentioned later for details, it has the rotating shaft 32 (refer 32SR of FIG. 3, 32SL) at the trunk | drum both ends of the condenser 3. As shown in FIG.
In FIG. 1, rotary seals 18 are provided at both ends of the rotary shaft 32. The rotary seal 18 can flow water vapor or condensed water (condensed water condensed in the main condenser 3a). The rotary seal 18 at the right end of the shaft 32 in FIG. 1 is indirectly connected to the discharge pipe 11. Further, the rotary seal 18 at the left end of the shaft 32 in FIG. 1 is connected to the inlet 3bi of the sub-condenser 3b.
Further, at the left end of the shaft 32, the rotation of the electric motor 13 is transmitted via the chain 81 and the pulley 82.

The drying container 1 and the compressor 2 are connected by a suction pipe 10 (a pipe communicating with the suction side 2i of the compressor 2) and a discharge pipe 11 (a line communicating with the discharge side 2o of the compressor 2). Yes.
The suction pipe 10 is composed of lines 10a and 10b. The line 10a is provided with a flow control valve 24, one end of which is connected to the drying container 1, and the other end is connected to a mixer 17 (configured as a gas-liquid separation means). The line 10 b has one end connected to the mixer 17 and the other end connected to the suction side 2 i of the compressor 2.

The discharge pipe 11 is composed of lines 11a and 11b. One end of the line 11a is connected to the discharge side 2o of the compressor 2, and the other end (branch point B) is connected to one end of the line 11b. The other end of the line 11b is connected to the cylinder 41 (see FIG. 8) side of the discharge mechanism 40. Here, the discharge mechanism 40 is provided at the right end of the condenser 3 in FIG.
At the branch point B, the bypass line 11c branches from the line 11a, the bypass line 11c is provided with a bypass valve 21, and the bypass line 11c communicates with the condenser 3.

One end of a condensed water discharge line 28 (discharge line 28) is connected to the condenser 3, and the discharge line 28 is provided for discharging condensed water accumulated at the bottom of the condenser 3.
A steam trap 4 is interposed in the middle of the discharge line 28. The other end of the discharge line 28 is connected to a heat exchanger 19 provided at the inlet 8. The condensed water trap 4 prevents water vapor that can be used for drying from flowing through the discharge line 28.

One end of a gas discharge line 27 (discharge line 27) is connected to the condenser 3, and the discharge line 27 is provided to discharge noncondensable gas (for example, air) out of the condenser 3.
A steam air vent valve (non-condensable gas exhaust valve: air vent valve) 5 is interposed in the non-condensable gas discharge line 27. The discharge line 27 is connected to the junction point G. The confluence G is provided in a region on the heat exchanger 19 side of the steam trap 4 in the discharge line 28.

Condensed water, which is warm water close to 100 ° C., and heated water vapor and non-condensable gas (mainly air) are supplied to the heat exchanger 19 provided at the inlet (hopper) 8 by the discharge lines 27 and 28. . Here, the heat exchanger 19 has a double wall structure.
In the heat exchanger 19, the amount of heat held by the condensed water close to 100 ° C. and the amount of heat held by the heated water vapor and the non-condensable gas (mainly air) are input to the object to be dried in the hopper 8, Preheated. Therefore, if the illustrated embodiment is used, the energy saving property is improved.

Water condensed by preheating the material to be dried by the heat recovery unit 19 is discharged out of the system from a drain port 29 provided near the upper end of the heat recovery unit 19.
The discharge valve 5 interposed in the discharge line 27 opens and closes the valve by expanding and contracting the bellows filled with liquid by utilizing the phenomenon that the saturation temperature is lowered by mixing air with water vapor. The temperature is set to a constant value (about 6K). The discharge valve 5 is a valve that automatically adjusts the opening degree, and is called “steam air vent”.

The steam boiler 7 has a role for start-up heating (preheating) when the evaporative dehydrator 100 is started up and for cooking and heating during operation.
One end of a steam supply line La in which a low-pressure side steam supply valve 12 a is interposed is connected to the steam boiler 7, and the other end of the steam supply line La is connected to a mixer 17. The steam generated in the steam boiler 7 is mixed with the steam supplied via the intake pipe 10 in the mixer 17 and supplied to the suction side (2i: low pressure side) of the compressor 2 via the line 10b. The
Alternatively, the steam generated in the steam boiler 7 is supplied to the discharge side (2o: high pressure side) of the compressor 2 via the line La1 without being mixed by the mixer 17.

On-off valve 12b is interposed in the steam line La1.
With this configuration, when the on-off valve 12b is closed and the low-pressure side steam supply valve 12a is open, the steam generated in the steam boiler 7 is sucked into the suction side (2i: low-pressure side) of the compressor 2. ).
On the other hand, when the low-pressure side steam supply valve 12a is closed and the on-off valve 12b is opened, the steam generated in the steam boiler 7 is supplied to the discharge side 2o of the compressor 2, so that the compressor 2 No power is required. Further, since the steam generated in the steam boiler 7 is not mixed with the steam supplied through the intake pipe 10, it is supplied to the condenser 3 without being depressurized.
Here, the opening and closing of the low-pressure side steam supply valve 12a and the opening / closing valve 12b are selectively used depending on the situation. Note that the low-pressure side steam supply valve 12a and the on-off valve 12b can be opened simultaneously.

In the illustrated embodiment, the compressor 2 uses an oil-free type that does not use cylinder lubricating oil.
As the type of the compressor 2, there are a centrifugal type, an axial flow type, a screw type, a reciprocating type, a swing type, a roots type, a scroll type, a rotary type and the like.

FIG. 5 shows a wing type oil-free compressor 2 among them.
In FIG. 5, a rotor 202 is swingably provided in a cylinder 201 and is divided into four chambers via a seal bar 203. Two intake valve bases 204 are inserted into the cylinder 201, and an intake passage is formed in the intake valve 204. From the intake passage, suction ports are opened in the respective chambers via the suction valve 205.
A discharge port connected to the side surface of the cylinder 201 communicates with a discharge port from each room via a discharge valve 206.

The rotor 202 is oscillated in place of a reciprocating motion of a rotating motion of an electric motor (not shown) by a crank mechanism.
In the state shown in FIG. 5, when the rotor 202 rotates in the clockwise direction, the space indicated by the plus sign is compressed, and the discharge valve 206 is pushed up to be discharged. At the same time, the pressure in the space indicated by the minus sign decreases, the intake valve 205 is opened, and water vapor is sucked into the cylinder 201.
When the rotor 202 rotates counterclockwise, plus and minus are interchanged, and suction, compression, and discharge are performed in the same manner.

  The clearance between the cylinder 201 and the rotor 202 is made oil-free by using a self-lubricating (carbon-based) seal bar 203. A similar seal bar structure is used for the clearance on the side surface of the cylinder 201.

  In FIG. 1, a steam boiler 7 is provided as a steam generating means. Instead of the steam boiler 7, an electric heater (heating device: not shown) is provided in the drying container 1, and a power supply line is connected from a commercial power source. You may comprise so that it may operate | move via.

When the evaporative dehydrator 100 is activated, the compressor 2 is activated with the bypass valve 21 open. Therefore, the air discharged from the discharge port 2o of the compressor 2 passes through the line 11a, the branch point B, the bypass line 11c, the protrusion 1d formed on the top of the drying container 1, the line 10a, the mixer 17, and the line 10b. Then, the air is sucked from the suction port 2i of the compressor 2. When the operation is continued in this state, the compressor 2 is closed from the discharge port 2o to the suction port 2i of the compressor 2 via the line 11a, the branch point B, the line Lc, the protruding portion 1d, the line 10a, and the line 10b. Since air is circulated in the path and air circulates in the closed path, the temperature inside the compressor 2 is increased.
In order to prevent overload of the compressor 2, the bypass valve 21 may be opened as necessary.

Then, when the temperature inside the compressor 2 is sufficiently raised, water vapor is introduced from the boiler 7. At this time, since the internal temperature of the water vapor compressor 2 is sufficiently high, there is no fear that water vapor condenses inside the compressor 2 (cylinder or the like).
If the bypass line 11c and the bypass valve 21 do not exist, when the compressor 2 is started, water vapor from the boiler 7 is sucked in a state where the temperature inside the compressor 2 is not sufficiently increased. There is a risk that water vapor condenses inside 2 to cause damage due to liquid compression or erosion due to liquid droplets.

In addition, in the illustrated embodiment, the line 10 is also preheated simultaneously when the temperature of the interior of the compressor 2 is increased.
When the temperature of the line 10 is low, the water vapor is condensed in the line 10, and the compressor 2 may suck the condensed water to cause damage. On the other hand, if the line 10 is also preheated simultaneously with the temperature rise inside the compressor 2, condensation of water vapor in the line 10 is prevented, and the compressor 2 is prevented from sucking condensed water.

When the operation of the evaporating and dehydrating apparatus 100 proceeds and the object to be dried is heated, water vapor is generated, and the water vapor partial pressure (ratio) in the mixed gas of air and water vapor in the drying container 1 is increased.
Further, when the temperature of the object to be dried rises to near 100 ° C., the amount of water vapor generated from the object to be dried is balanced with the suction amount of the compressor 2. When such a state is reached, the bypass valve 21 is closed.

The condenser 3 includes a main condenser 3a and a sub condenser 3b.
In the main condenser 3a, the condensation latent heat held by the water vapor is input to the object to be dried, the object to be dried is further heated and dried, and the water vapor having the condensation latent heat is condensed to become condensed water.
The condensed water is discharged from the sub-condenser 3b through the condensed water discharge line 28. The noncondensable gas (for example, air) is discharged through the discharge line 27 without being condensed.

In steady dehydration operation, the bypass valve 21 is fully closed.
The water vapor generated in the drying container 1 is supplied to the suction side of the compressor 2 via the line 10 and the mixer 17. Then, the pressure is increased by the compressor 2 and supplied to the condenser 3a through the line 11, and latent heat (condensation latent heat) is input to the object to be dried in the main condenser 3a, whereby the object to be dried is heated. .
Here, the boiler 7 is cooked up depending on the heat loss of the entire drying container 1 and the amount of heating of the new article 6 to be dried.

When the pressure inside the drying container 1 decreases for some reason, the opening degree of the bypass valve 21 is increased, and the decrease in pressure is quickly recovered.
Further, when the pressure on the condenser 3 side abnormally rises for some reason, this is detected by a pressure sensor (not shown) interposed in the discharge pipe 11 and the bypass valve 21 is opened, and the steam passes through the main condenser 3a. Control to bypass.
Reference numeral 16 in FIG. 1 is a relief valve that is opened when the pressure in the discharge line 11 becomes a predetermined value or more to lower the pressure in the line 11.

In a one-stage steam condenser, the steam is not condensed while flowing in one direction, but when the steam is condensed and the volume is reduced to about one thousandth, the volume reduction is filled (filled). It flows like water is inundated. And condensed water is discharged | emitted by the well-known discharge mechanism, for example.
However, in a one-stage steam condenser, non-condensable gas such as air stays in the steam condenser and inhibits condensation of steam in the steam condenser.

In order to solve the situation where the condensation of water vapor in the water vapor condenser is hindered due to the presence of the non-condensable gas, in the illustrated embodiment, the water vapor condenser 3 is composed of a plurality of stages (2 in FIGS. 1 and 2). Stage: Main condenser 3a and sub condenser 3b).
In FIG. 1, a main condenser 3a corresponding to the first stage water vapor condenser is located in the drying container 1 and functions as a heat exchanging condenser in which the latent heat of condensation of water vapor is input to the material to be dried. The sub-condenser 3b, which is a second stage water vapor condenser, is located below the drying container 1 and has an effect of discharging non-condensable gas to the outside of the drying container 1.
More specifically, the sub-condenser 3b forcibly sucks the mixed gas of water vapor and non-condensable gas in order to prevent the non-condensable gas from staying in the main condenser 3a, and further condenses the water vapor. It is provided for the purpose of recovering latent heat and increasing the ratio of non-condensable gas (air) in the exhausted gas.

The non-condensable gas inlet 3bi of the sub-condenser 3b is provided at the left end of the sub-condenser 3b in FIG. On the other hand, the non-condensable gas discharge port 3bo of the sub-condenser 3b is provided at a position slightly on the right side in the longitudinal center of the sub-condenser 3b in FIG.
The sub-condenser 3b is provided with a condensed water discharge port 3bw for discharging condensed water generated by condensation. The condensed water discharge port 3bw is arranged in the vicinity of the right end in the longitudinal direction of the sub-condenser 3b in FIG.
A non-condensable gas discharge pipe 27 is connected to the non-condensable gas discharge port 3bo, a condensed water discharge line 28 is connected to the condensed water discharge port 3bw, and a steam trap 4 is interposed in the condensed water discharge line 28. Has been.

The steam condenser 3 has a multistage configuration in series (a configuration having a main condenser 3a and a subcondenser 3b), and a subcondenser 3b in the final stage is provided with a non-condensable gas discharge valve (air vent valve) 5 described later. Thus, the non-condensable gas remaining in the main condenser 3a is exhausted out of the system from the sub-condenser 3b, the non-condensable gas discharge pipe 27, and the air vent valve 5. As a result, it is possible to prevent the condensation of water vapor due to the retention of the noncondensable gas from being hindered, and it is possible to avoid a decrease in heat exchange capacity.
In the gas discharged from the sub-condenser 3b through the air vent valve 5, the ratio of non-condensable gas is increased.

The condensed water discharged from the condensed water discharge pipe 28 is warm water close to 100 ° C. In order to recover the heat possessed by the condensed water, in the illustrated embodiment, the inlet (hopper) 8 for supplying the material to be dried is a heat recovery device 19 having a double wall structure, and the condensed water is allowed to flow through this, It is configured to preheat the material to be dried.
Water condensed by preheating the material to be dried by the heat recovery unit 19 is discharged out of the system from a drain port 29 provided near the upper end of the heat recovery unit 19.

The dried product that has been dried in the drying container 1 is discharged from the discharge mechanism 40 at the right end of the drying container 1 in FIG. The detailed configuration of the discharge mechanism 40 will be described later with reference to FIG.
In FIG. 1, symbol Lf indicates a dry matter supply line for supplying a dry matter to the drying container 1 from the inlet 8. Reference sign Vf is an on-off valve interposed in the material to be dried supply line Lf.

Next, the condenser 3 will be described with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3.
As shown in FIG. 2, a main condenser 3 a is provided in the drying container 1, and a sub-condenser 3 b is provided below the drying container 1. A protrusion 1d is formed above the main condenser 3a, and a filter 17 is interposed at the boundary between the main condenser 3a and the protrusion 1d.
The sub-condenser 3b can be configured not only as illustrated in FIG. 2 but also so as to cover the periphery of the drying container 1.

The condenser 3 (main condenser 3a) shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 includes two common units 3au. Each unit 3au has a spoke-like shape in which a hollow cylindrical body 32a extending in the condenser longitudinal direction, a plurality of hollow tubes 31a extending in the condenser longitudinal direction, and the tubes 31a communicate with the body 32a. The communication pipe (hollow pipe) 33 is provided. The communication pipe 33 extends in the radial direction.
The unit 3au arranges a plurality of tubes 31a radially outward of the trunk portion 32a and equidistantly in the circumferential direction so as to form a cage (such as a squirrel or a mouse raised as a pet animal). The shape is like a rotating instrument for exercise: a shape like a so-called “squirrel basket”.

As clearly shown in FIG. 3, the tube 31a extends in the longitudinal direction of the condenser (longitudinal direction of the unit 3au) in parallel with the trunk portion 32a.
In FIG. 2, the communication pipe 33 extends radially outward, and one tube 31 a communicates with a plurality of communication pipes 33 constituted by hollow tubes. In FIG. 3, only two communication pipes 33 (two places at both ends in the longitudinal direction) are shown.

In FIG. 2, a scraper 35 is provided at the radially outer end of the tube 31a. The scraper 35 has an effect of scraping and removing the object to be dried fixed to the inner wall of the drying container 1 and the periphery of the other unit 3au.
As clearly shown in FIG. 2, the two units 3au are arranged by adjusting the relative positions of the plurality of tubes 31a so as not to interfere with each other during rotation.
The two units 3 au rotate in the clockwise direction on the left side in FIG. 2 and in the counterclockwise direction on the right side as indicated by broken arrows.

In FIG. 3, the body portion 32 a is configured integrally with left and right end surface members 32 e and rotation shafts 32 SR and 32 SL at an end portion in the axial direction (left and right direction in FIG. 3).
The rotation of the rotation shafts 32SR and 32SL is transmitted from the electric motor 13 (see FIG. 1) via a rotation transmission system (chain 81 in FIG. 1, pulley 82: not shown in FIG. 3).

3, holes 32h into which water vapor supplied from the compressor 7 flows are formed at equal intervals in the circumferential direction. The hole 32h communicates with a blind hole 32eh extending in the axial direction in the end face member 32e, and the blind hole 32eh communicates with the internal space 32ai of the trunk portion 32a.
Here, a plurality of holes 32er extending radially outwardly branch from the blind hole 32eh, and the hole 32er passes through a hollow portion on the inner diameter side of the communication tube 33 to pass through the internal space 31ai of the tube 31a. Communicated with.
As clearly shown in FIG. 2, the holes 32er are formed at equal intervals in the circumferential direction.

Referring again to FIG. 3, the left end face member 32e is also formed with a plurality of holes 32er extending outward in the radial direction and a blind hole 32eh.
The blind hole 32eh communicates with the hollow portion 32i of the trunk portion 32a. At the same time, a plurality of holes 32er extending outward in the radial direction communicate with the blind hole 32eh.

Further, in the hollow portion 32ai of the body portion 32a, a hole 32ih is formed on the left side in FIG. 3 and radially outward, and the hole 32ih communicates with a plurality of holes 32er extending radially outward. Yes.
In FIG. 2, the hole 32ih and the hole 32er have the same circumferential position.

A condensate drain hole 32dh is formed at the left end portion of the blind hole 32eh formed in the left end face member 32e in FIG. 3, and the condensate drain hole 32dh extends radially outward.
The condensed water drain hole 32dh is formed to discharge condensed water from the condenser 3, and condensed water flows through the condensed water drain hole 32dh.

In the blind hole 32eh on the left side of FIG. 3, a partition member 32W is disposed in the vicinity of the boundary with the hollow portion 32ai.
As shown in FIG. 4, the partition member 32W is configured by bundling a plurality of (six) partition members in the vicinity of the central axis of the blind hole 32eh, and the blind hole 32eh is divided into a plurality of spaces (6 in FIG. 4). It is divided into compartments.
In addition, in FIG. 3, the code | symbol 34 has shown the reinforcement material for supporting the tube 31a to the trunk | drum 32a.

The flow of water vapor or condensed water in the condenser 3 will be described with reference to FIG.
In the condenser 3, the water vapor condenses by generating latent heat of condensation, so that the internal space 32 ai of the trunk portion 32 a and the internal space 31 ai of the tube 31 a are at a lower pressure than the discharge pipe 11 from the compressor 2. Therefore, the steam discharged from the compressor 2 passes through the piping 11 (see FIG. 1) and, as indicated by an arrow F in FIG. 3, through a hole 32h formed in the end face member 32e on the right side in FIG. The steam flows into the condenser 3.
Here, the steam discharged from the compressor 2 flows through the pipe 11, passes through the discharge mechanism 40 shown in FIG. 8, and then enters the condenser 3 through the hole 32h of the end face member 32e.

The steam that has flowed into the end face member 32e on the right side of FIG. 3 flows through the blind hole 32eh, partly flows through the space 31ai in the tube 31a via the hole 32er, and partly flows into the internal space 32ai of the trunk part 32a.
When flowing through the space 31ai in the tube 31a or the internal space 32ai in the trunk portion 32a, the condensation latent heat possessed by the water vapor is transmitted to the object to be dried in the vicinity of the condenser 3 to heat the object to be dried. Thereby, the water | moisture content contained in the to-be-dried material of the trunk | drum 32a and the tube 31a vaporizes, water vapor | steam generate | occur | produces from a to-be-dried material, and to-be-dried material dries.

When the condensation latent heat is released to condense the water vapor into a liquid phase (condensed water), the condensed water accumulated in the tube 31a positioned above in the condenser 3 is in the radial direction as indicated by the arrow Fu. The inside of the hole 32er extending to the bottom is dropped.
The condensed water falling in the hole 32er flows to the left side of FIG. 3 along the partition wall of the partition member 32W, and is discharged from the condenser 3 as indicated by an arrow D through the condensed water discharge hole 32dh.

On the other hand, the condensed water accumulated in the internal space 31ai of the tube 31a positioned below the condenser 3 is a hole extending in the radial direction when the tube 31a is positioned above due to the rotation of the condenser 3. It falls in 32er.
The condensed water accumulated in the internal space 32ai of the trunk portion 32a flows into the internal space 31ai of the tube 31a located below the condenser 3 through the holes 32ih and 32er as indicated by the arrow Fd. . Then, together with the condensed water accumulated in the tube 31a, when the tube 31a is positioned upward, it falls in the hole 32er extending in the radial direction (arrow Fu).

FIG. 6 shows a first modification of the main condenser.
In FIG. 6, the main condenser according to the first modification generally indicated by reference numeral 3ac is provided with substantially triangular reinforcing members 34 on both sides (both sides in the circumferential direction) of the six communication pipes 33 in the unit 3au. Yes.

It is difficult to give the hollow communication pipe 33 strong enough to reliably support the tube 31a.
By providing the reinforcing member 34, the tube 31a is supported by the reinforcing member 34, so that the tube 31a is reliably (stiffly) supported by the trunk portion 32a.
Other configurations and operational effects of the main condenser 3ac according to the first modification are the same as those of the main condenser 3a shown in FIG.

FIG. 7 shows a second modification of the main condenser.
In the reinforcing material 34 as shown in FIG. 6, there is a possibility that the material to be dried may be prevented from moving in the longitudinal direction of the tube 31a (the direction perpendicular to the paper surface in FIG. 6).
On the other hand, since the reinforcing member 34A shown in FIG. 7 is composed of a rod-shaped member, a gap is formed between the communication pipe 33 and the rod-shaped reinforcing member 34A, and the object to be dried is a tube via the gap. It is possible to move in the longitudinal direction of 31a (the direction perpendicular to the paper surface in FIGS. 6 and 7).

Then, by providing the circular tubular (spoke-like) reinforcing members 37 on both sides of the communication pipe 33, the tube 31a is firmly supported with respect to the trunk portion 32a.
Furthermore, in FIG. 7, the cross-sectional shape of the tube 31a is not circular, but is configured such that the radially inner portion is cut, in other words, the gap between the body portion 32a is increased.
Other configurations and operational effects of the main condenser 3ad in the second modification are the same as those of the main condenser 3a shown in FIG.

Next, the discharge mechanism 40 will be described with reference mainly to FIGS.
In FIG. 8, the discharge mechanism 40 includes a cylinder 41, a piston 42, an air cylinder 70 for driving the piston, and a check valve 43.
The cylinder 41 is disposed adjacent to the drying object discharge port (outlet) 1o at the right end of the drying container 1 in FIG. 1 so that the central axis thereof extends in the vertical direction.

The piston 42 is attached to the tip of the piston rod 42r. The piston rod 42r is engaged with the telescopic rod 71 of the air cylinder 70 for driving the piston via the connecting member 72.
The air cylinder 70 is mounted above the right wall 1Re of the drying container 1 via an air cylinder mounting bracket 75.
The air cylinder 70 is a double-acting type, and when high-pressure air is supplied through the upper air supply port 70a, the piston 42 moves downward through the connection member 72 and the piston rod 42r. On the other hand, when high-pressure air is supplied to the air supply port 70b below the air cylinder 70, the piston 42 moves upward.

The cylinder 41 has a double wall structure, and has an outer wall 41a and an inner wall 41b.
A steam inlet 41c is provided above the outer wall 41a of the cylinder 41, and a steam outlet 41d is provided below the outer wall 41b. In the space 41s between the outer wall 41a and the inner wall 41b, the compressor 2 It is comprised so that the water vapor | steam discharged under pressure may pass.
The steam inlet 41c is connected to the steam discharge line 11b. On the other hand, the steam discharge port 41d is connected to a hole 32h (FIG. 3) through which water vapor flows in each of the pair of rotating shafts 32SR (FIG. 3) via a water vapor line (not shown).

Even if the material to be dried discharged from the drying container 1 and supplied to the cylinder 41 is a liquid or a viscous material, the water vapor pressurized by the water vapor compressor 2 when the material to be dried moves in the cylinder 41i. The sensible heat and latent heat possessed by is administered to the object to be dried (in the cylinder 41i), and the object to be dried can be further heated and dried.
Therefore, even if the material to be dried is a liquid or a viscous body, it is sufficiently heated and dried during discharge.

A check valve 43 is attached to the cylinder outlet 41o.
As shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, the check valve 43 has elastic bodies 43a and 43b, an inner liner 43c is lined on the inner peripheral side of the elastic bodies 43a and 43b, and a flange 43f is formed on the upper part. Has been.
In the illustrated example, the elastic bodies 43a and 43b and the inner liner 43c have a taper and are integrated. As the check valve 43, for example, a duckbill valve (Duckbill valve) can be employed.
The lower end of the check valve 43 in FIG. 8 corresponds to the discharge port 9 in FIG.

  When the inner peripheral portion of the check valve 43 is not pressed by the material to be dried, as shown in FIG. The urging force Pi acts to close the check valve outlet 43o. In other words, when the inside of the check valve 43 is not pressed by the object to be dried, the elastic repulsive forces of the elastic bodies 43a and 43b act so as to press each other and close the check valve 43. To do. In addition, since the back pressure (atmospheric pressure) is high, the check valve 43 is closed. Therefore, air can be prevented from entering the cylinder 41 from the check valve 43.

When the object to be dried is pushed out to the cylinder outlet 41o by the piston 42 and the inside of the check valve 43 is pressed by the object to be dried (not shown) as shown in FIG. 10, it acts on the object to be dried. The pressing force Po overcomes the urging force Pi pressed against each other by the elastic bodies 43a and 43b, and the check valve outlet 43o is opened. And the to-be-dried object 6 is extruded from the exit 41o.
At that time, the elastic bodies 43a and 43b of the check valve 43 are pressed against the surface of the object to be dried by the elastic repulsive force and back pressure. Therefore, even when an object to be dried is pushed out from the check valve 43, air is prevented from entering the cylinder 41 from the check valve 43.

  In the discharge mechanism 40 shown in FIG. 8, an edge 50 is attached below the outlet 1 o of the drying container 1. By attaching the edge 50 below the outlet 1o of the drying container 1, the object to be dried is cut into an appropriate size when the piston 42 descends.

According to the discharge mechanism 40 as described above, the check valve 43 is disposed so as to press the elastic bodies 43a and 43b against each other. And the to-be-dried material discharged | emitted from the exit 1o of the drying container 1 is extruded by the space part of the cylinder inside 41i interrupted | blocked from external air. And if a to-be-dried material accumulates more than fixed amount in the cylinder 41i, a to-be-dried material will be pressed by the piston 42 to the cylinder exit 41o side.
When the object to be dried is pressed by the piston 42, the object to be dried acts to spread the elastic bodies against the elastic repulsion force and back pressure of the elastic bodies 43a and 43b in the check valve 43, It is discharged out of the cylinder 41.

As the check valve 43, it is possible to use other than the duckbill valve as described above. For example, when the effluent is a concentrated liquid, it is possible to use a so-called cone valve or flapper valve.
However, as described above, when the discharge contains solid matter, if a cone valve or flapper valve is used, the check valve 43 may bite the solid matter. A valve (for example, a duckbill valve) using (for example, rubber) is suitable. In other words, if the valve using an elastic body (for example, rubber) is used as the check valve 43, it is possible to deal with all cases where the discharge is liquid to solid.

  As a valve using an elastic body (for example, rubber), not only the above-mentioned duckbill valve, but also a cross-shaped valve, a star-shaped valve, an anus-shaped valve, or a heart valve In addition, a valve having a circular opening can be used.

In the illustrated embodiment, it is assumed that the liquid material is filled in the drying container 1 at the initial stage of the drying operation. Furthermore, there exists a case where what becomes viscous like sludge should be processed in the stage before drying. For this reason, the discharge mechanism of the VCC evaporative dehydrator (see the above-described conventional technology) is required to have a structure that can reliably discharge liquids, viscous bodies, solids, and the like.
On the other hand, according to the illustrated embodiment, the object to be dried is pressed toward the cylinder outlet 41o by the piston 42 and moved in the cylinder 41i. The material to be dried pushed out from the outlet 1o of the container 1 can be reliably moved to the cylinder outlet 41o side.

In the illustrated embodiment, the cylinder 41 has a double wall structure, and the space 41 s between the outer wall 41 a and the inner wall 41 b of the cylinder 41 is connected via the water vapor line 11 communicating with the discharge port 2 o of the compressor 2. The water vapor that has been pressurized and discharged by the compressor 2 is supplied.
Therefore, when the object to be dried discharged from the drying container 1 to the cylinder 41 through the outlet 1o moves in the cylinder 41i, the sensible heat and latent heat held by the water vapor boosted by the compressor 2 are converted into the cylinder 41i. The water to be dried can be removed by additionally heating and drying the material to be dried. Therefore, the water content of the solid dried product can be further reduced.
In addition, it is possible to prevent water vapor from being condensed by the outside air and adhering to the object to be dried.

  Further, since an edge 50 for cutting the object to be dried is provided at the outlet 1o of the drying container 1, the object to be dried which has been dried and hardened is shredded and easily moved in the cylinder 41i, and a check valve. It is possible to facilitate passage between the 43 elastic bodies.

In the discharge mechanism described with reference to FIG. 8, the cylinder 41 has a double wall structure so that the object to be dried supplied to the cylinder 41 is additionally heated and dried when moving in the cylinder 41i. It is configured.
On the other hand, the modification of the discharge mechanism shown in FIG. 11 has a more basic configuration, and the partition wall 41w of the cylinder 41 is a single wall.
Other configurations and operational effects in the modified example of FIG. 11 are the same as those of the discharging mechanism shown in FIG.

  It should be noted that the illustrated embodiment is merely an example, and is not a description to limit the technical scope of the present invention.

1 is a block diagram showing a first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line XX in FIG. 1. The longitudinal cross-sectional view of a condenser. FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line ZZ in FIG. Sectional drawing of the compressor used by this invention. Sectional drawing of the 1st modification of a condenser. Sectional drawing of the 2nd modification of a condenser. Sectional drawing of a discharge mechanism. The perspective view which shows the closed state of a non-return valve. The perspective view which shows the open state of a non-return valve. Sectional drawing which shows the modification of a discharge mechanism. The block diagram of a prior art.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Drying container 2 ... Steam compressor / compressor 3 ... Steam condenser 3a ... Main condenser 3b ... Subcondenser 4 ... Steam trap 5 ... Non-condensable Gas discharge valve / air vent valve 6 ... Dry material 7 ... Steam boiler 8 ... Dry material inlet / hopper 9 ... Dry material discharge port 10 ... Compressor intake steam pipe / Suction pipe 11 ... Compressor discharge steam pipe / Discharge pipe 40 ... Discharge mechanism 41 ... Cylinder 42 ... Piston 43 ... Check valve

Claims (5)

  1.   The drying container (1), the steam compressor (2), the steam condenser (3) for exchanging heat with the contents of the drying container (1), and these devices (1, 2, 3) are communicated with each other. It has a steam line (La, 10, 11) and a discharge mechanism (40) that discharges the contents of the drying container (1). The steam is boosted by the steam compressor (2) to increase the saturation temperature, and the pressure is increased. In the evaporating and dehydrating apparatus (100) that exchanges the latent heat of condensation of the water vapor with the object to be dried in the drying container (1) and uses it for the evaporation and dehydration of the object to be dried, the discharge mechanism (40) ) Communicating with the cylinder (41), and a piston (42) for pressing the material to be dried, which has moved from the inside of the drying container (1) to the inside of the cylinder (41i) via the outlet (1o), toward the cylinder outlet (41o) And a check valve (43) provided at the cylinder outlet (41o). Evaporative dewatering apparatus according to claim Rukoto.
  2.   The cylinder (41) has a double wall structure, and an outer wall (41a) and an inner wall of the cylinder (41) via a water vapor line (11) communicating with the discharge port (2o) of the water vapor compressor (2). The evaporative dehydration apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the water vapor pressured by the water vapor compressor (2) is supplied to a space (41 s) between the water vapor (41 b).
  3.   The evaporating and dehydrating apparatus according to any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the discharge mechanism (40) is provided with a cutting means (50) for an object to be dried at an outlet (1o) of the drying container (1).
  4.   The steam condenser (3) is configured by arranging a plurality of rotors (3au) in parallel, and the rotor (3au) is configured by a hollow tube, and the rotors do not interfere with each other in parallel. The rotor (3au) is composed of a plurality of linear hollow tubes (31a), and the linear hollow tubes (31a) Are arranged parallel to the rotating shaft (32S), arranged radially outward of the rotating shaft (32S) and at equal intervals in the circumferential direction, and the linear hollow tube (31a) The evaporative dehydration apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein each is communicated with a passage (32eh) provided in the rotating shaft by a hollow communication pipe (33).
  5.   The evaporative dehydration apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the check valve (43) includes an elastic body (43a, 43b) and is normally closed.
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US9002549B2 (en) 1997-01-28 2015-04-07 Talking Quick Tips, Inc. Multimedia information and control system for automobiles

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JP5591030B2 (en) * 2010-08-25 2014-09-17 株式会社大川原製作所 Horizontal continuous heat transfer dryer
JP5652309B2 (en) * 2011-04-14 2015-01-14 株式会社村田製作所 Spray drying granulator and method for producing ceramic granule using the same
KR101177671B1 (en) * 2011-12-07 2012-08-27 엄태경 Low energy consumption dryer
JP5148006B1 (en) * 2012-06-08 2013-02-20 太平工業株式会社 Dryer
EP2781865A1 (en) * 2013-03-21 2014-09-24 Siffert S.p.a. Apparatus and method for the pelletisation of powdered or granular material

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JPS58158485A (en) * 1982-03-16 1983-09-20 Buradoshiyoo Uiriamu Improved drying method and drier
JPH10103861A (en) * 1996-09-30 1998-04-24 Kajima Corp Steam recompression type vacuum drier
JP3681049B2 (en) * 1999-10-14 2005-08-10 鹿島建設株式会社 Rotation of the dryer stirred steam condenser
JP2002303488A (en) * 2001-03-30 2002-10-18 Yashio:Kk Drying equipment
JP4901321B2 (en) * 2006-06-14 2012-03-21 鹿島建設株式会社 Evaporator

Cited By (1)

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US9002549B2 (en) 1997-01-28 2015-04-07 Talking Quick Tips, Inc. Multimedia information and control system for automobiles

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