JP4927540B2 - Flakes for potential security applications - Google Patents

Flakes for potential security applications Download PDF

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JP4927540B2
JP4927540B2 JP2006523075A JP2006523075A JP4927540B2 JP 4927540 B2 JP4927540 B2 JP 4927540B2 JP 2006523075 A JP2006523075 A JP 2006523075A JP 2006523075 A JP2006523075 A JP 2006523075A JP 4927540 B2 JP4927540 B2 JP 4927540B2
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Prior art keywords
flakes
coating composition
pigment
flake
covert
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JP2007502339A (en
Inventor
アルベルト アルゴイティア,
ポール ジー. クームズ,
ポール ティー. コールマン,
チャールズ ティー. マーカンテス,
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ジェイディーエス ユニフェイズ コーポレーションJDS Uniphase Corporation
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Priority to US10/641,695 priority Critical
Priority to US10/641,695 priority patent/US7258915B2/en
Priority to US10/762,158 priority
Priority to US10/762,158 priority patent/US7241489B2/en
Application filed by ジェイディーエス ユニフェイズ コーポレーションJDS Uniphase Corporation filed Critical ジェイディーエス ユニフェイズ コーポレーションJDS Uniphase Corporation
Priority to PCT/IB2004/002615 priority patent/WO2005017048A2/en
Publication of JP2007502339A publication Critical patent/JP2007502339A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/351Translucent or partly translucent parts, e.g. windows
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/328Diffraction gratings; Holograms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/36Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery comprising special materials
    • B42D25/378Special inks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/0015Pigments exhibiting interference colours, e.g. transparent platelets of appropriate thinness or flaky substrates, e.g. mica, bearing appropriate thin transparent coatings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/0015Pigments exhibiting interference colours, e.g. transparent platelets of appropriate thinness or flaky substrates, e.g. mica, bearing appropriate thin transparent coatings
    • C09C1/0018Pigments exhibiting interference colours, e.g. transparent platelets of appropriate thinness or flaky substrates, e.g. mica, bearing appropriate thin transparent coatings uncoated and unlayered plate-like particles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/0078Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/0081Composite particulate pigments or fillers, i.e. containing at least two solid phases, except those consisting of coated particles of one compound
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/04Compounds of zinc
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/50Sympathetic, colour changing or similar inks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D5/00Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, characterised by their physical nature or the effects produced; Filling pastes
    • C09D5/36Pearl essence, e.g. coatings containing platelet-like pigments for pearl lustre
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F10/00Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure
    • H01F10/08Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure characterised by magnetic layers
    • H01F10/10Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure characterised by magnetic layers characterised by the composition
    • H01F10/12Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure characterised by magnetic layers characterised by the composition being metals or alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/42Magnetic properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/60Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values
    • C01P2006/62L* (lightness axis)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/60Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values
    • C01P2006/63Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values a* (red-green axis)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/60Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values
    • C01P2006/64Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values b* (yellow-blue axis)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/60Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values
    • C01P2006/65Chroma (C*)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/60Optical properties, e.g. expressed in CIELAB-values
    • C01P2006/66Hue (H*)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2200/00Compositional and structural details of pigments exhibiting interference colours
    • C09C2200/30Interference pigments characterised by the thickness of the core or layers thereon or by the total thickness of the final pigment particle
    • C09C2200/301Thickness of the core
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2200/00Compositional and structural details of pigments exhibiting interference colours
    • C09C2200/30Interference pigments characterised by the thickness of the core or layers thereon or by the total thickness of the final pigment particle
    • C09C2200/308Total thickness of the pigment particle
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2210/00Special effects or uses of interference pigments
    • C09C2210/30A layer or the substrate forming a grating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2210/00Special effects or uses of interference pigments
    • C09C2210/40Embossed layers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2210/00Special effects or uses of interference pigments
    • C09C2210/50Fluorescent, luminescent or photoluminescent properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C2220/00Methods of preparing the interference pigments
    • C09C2220/20PVD, CVD methods or coating in a gas-phase using a fluidized bed
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2270/00Substrate bearing the hologram
    • G03H2270/20Shape
    • G03H2270/24Having particular size, e.g. microscopic
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/25Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and including a second component containing structurally defined particles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/25Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and including a second component containing structurally defined particles
    • Y10T428/256Heavy metal or aluminum or compound thereof
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2991Coated
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2991Coated
    • Y10T428/2998Coated including synthetic resin or polymer

Description

(Field of Invention)
The present invention relates generally to pigment flakes, and more particularly to coating compositions (eg, inks or paints), which coating compositions are characterized by covert security features (eg, anti-static properties) on the object to which they are applied. Forgery characteristics).

(Background of the Invention)
Printed for security applications (eg banknotes, packaging of high value items, anti-counterfeiting designs printed against seals on containers, and even for direct use on commercial products Special pigments have been developed for use in anti-counterfeiting designs. For example, the US $ 20 Federal Reserve Bank currently uses optically variable ink. The number “20” printed in the lower right corner of the surface of the banknote changes color as the viewing angle varies. This is a clear, anti-counterfeiting design. This color shift effect is not copyable by ordinary color photographic copiers, and the banknote recipient can determine whether the banknote has color shift security features and determine the reliability of the banknote. .

  Other documents and objects of high value use similar means. For example, iridescent pigments or diffractive pigments are applied directly to articles (eg, stock certificates, passports, original product packaging) or applied to seals applied to articles, Used in ink. As counterfeit goods become more sophisticated, security features that are more difficult to counterfeit become desirable.

  One approach to counterfeiting uses fine symbols on multilayer color-shifting pigment flakes. This symbol is formed on at least one layer of the multilayer color-shifted pigment flake due to a local change in optical properties (eg, reflectance). The multilayer color shifting pigment flake generally comprises a Fabry Perot type structure having an absorbing layer separated from the reflective layer by a spacer layer. The reflective layer is typically a metal layer, which makes the pigment flakes essentially opaque. If the majority of these types of pigment flakes are mixed with other pigments, the resulting color can be significantly different from the above pigments, and if too few pigments are mixed with other pigments, These are hard to find.

  Transparent pigment flakes with halographic information are also used for anti-counterfeiting purposes. A monochromatic volume hologram is formed in a polymer platelet using visible region infrared ("IR") or ultraviolet ("UV") reference laser light. The polymer platelet has no metallic reflective layer, and the polymer platelet can be mixed with other coatings (metallic coatings such as inks and paints) in which the subjective color of the coating The polymer platelet can also be incorporated in the varnish coating, which can be applied over the article without changing its color. The hologram can be deciphered by the information held by the hologram, but the polymer material can be destroyed by sunlight and the hologram is relatively easy to counterfeit because the original hologram "Fingerprint" (template) that facilitates copying Because can provide. Hologram is not a once more potent anti-counterfeiting properties of design.

Another technique is polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") epoxy-encapsulated flakes. The reflective layer is deposited on a roll of PET and the PET is cut into pieces. This flake is coated or encapsulated with epoxy to improve the durability of the reflective layer. These flakes are available in a variety of shapes (eg, square, rectangular, hexagonal, and “apostrophe”), as well as reflective metal (eg, silver, silome, gold and copper) color choices. However, epoxy layers and relatively thick PET substrates (which typically have a minimum thickness of about 13 micrometers (0.5 mil) and are used in vacuum deposition processes) are relatively thick flakes ( Typically greater than 14 micrometers ). Unfortunately, such a thickness of flakes is undesirable for use in potential applications, where the thickness is substantially greater than the base pigment. Similarly, such thick flakes do not flow well in the ink and cause puddles in the paint. If the paint contains thick flakes that provide a rough surface, a relatively thick transparent topcoat is typically applied over the rough surface.

  It is desirable to mark objects with anti-counterfeiting latent designs that overcome the limitations of the technology discussed above.

(Brief description of the present invention)
The coating composition contains covert flakes with an identification mark made of a single layer of inorganic dielectric material. Examples of identification marks include selected flake shapes and / or symbols. The covert flakes are typically dispersed in a carrier (eg, varnish base, paint vehicle or ink vehicle) to form a coating composition. The covert flakes are dispersed at a sufficiently diluted concentration so that the covert flakes are not readily detectable by light observation in the coating composition and the covert flakes are clear and clear It can be or can be colored and match the color of the base pigment or have distinct optical characteristics (eg, be highly reflective (“bright” or “silver”)).

In certain embodiments, the coating composition contains latent opaque flakes having a thickness of less than about 10 micrometers having an identification mark. Examples of identifying indicia include selected flake shapes and / or compositions. The thickness of a single layer of inorganic dielectric material is selected to provide colored covert flakes that are compatible with mica based pearlescent base pigments.

  In certain embodiments, latent security flakes fluoresce when illuminated with invisible radiation. In embodiments of the invention, the fluorescent latent security flakes comprise less than 1% of the composition.

  In another embodiment, the transparent covert flakes constitute up to 20% of the composition in the varnish composition. In another embodiment, the transparent covert flakes constitute up to 10% by weight of the total pigment weight in a composition having base pigment flakes that can be optically varied.

  In certain embodiments, the covert flake is a single layer of an inorganic dielectric material (eg, ZnS). The thickness of the single layer of inorganic dielectric material is selected to provide colored covert flakes or transparent covert flakes. In a further embodiment, the transparent covert flakes are heat treated to improve transparency (ie, “whiteness”).

  In another embodiment, the coating composition has transparent covert flakes dispersed within the carrier that are not readily detectable by observation under visible light within the coating composition. This transparent latent pigment flake fluoresces when irradiated with UV light and has one or more symbols that are readable under visible light at a magnification of 50X-200X. In certain embodiments, the transparent flakes in the carrier have a transmittance of greater than 70% in the visible region.

  Compositions according to embodiments of the present invention are applied to objects and provide latent security features. The pigmented composition can be used to print a field (eg, an image) on the object, and the varnish composition can be printed with a transparent field on the object or present on the object. Can be used to overprint the image to be printed. In an embodiment of the present invention, the covert flakes are mixed with the base pigment, and the covert security features are displayed in an image printed with the composition (which appears substantially similar to the image printed with the base pigment). ). In one embodiment of the present invention, the covert flakes are mixed with the base pigment and the covert security features are applied to the image printed with the composition (this image is substantially similar to the image printed with the base pigment. To give).

  In the method according to an embodiment of the present invention, the symbols on the covert flakes are not readable when the covert security features are illuminated with invisible illumination (ie, the flakes are fluorescent). The location of covert flakes is identified using invisible illumination, and then the flakes are observed under visible light (typically 50X-200X magnification) to interpret the symbols on the covert flakes.

(Detailed description of the invention)
(I. Introduction)
Flakes for potential security applications are typically not noticed by light observation. Several types of inspection techniques are used to find and / or interpret the flakes, such as inspection under a microscope or a specific type of light illumination. Flakes according to embodiments of the present invention can be colored (“pigment flakes”) or essentially transparent.

  In one embodiment, flakes that include indicia (eg, symbols or specific shapes) substantially match the visual characteristics of the bulk pigment or other material with which they are mixed. In certain embodiments, a single layer of inorganic flakes having a selected shape or symbol is mixed with pearlescent mica-based flakes or other base pigments. In another embodiment, clear flakes with indicia are mixed with the bulk pigment without disturbing the visual characteristics of the resulting mixture. In yet another embodiment, transparent flakes with indicia are mixed in the varnish and applied to one side of the object to provide latent security features without substantially changing the base color. As used herein, a varnish is generally a substantially transparent composition.

  In one embodiment, opaque flakes that include indicia (eg, specific shapes) substantially match the visual characteristics of the bulk pigment or other material with which they are mixed. In certain embodiments, single layer inorganic opaque flakes having a selected shape are mixed with nacreous mica-based flakes or other base pigments. For the purposes of this discussion, a “single layer” of inorganic material includes multiple layers of the same inorganic material formed on top of each other.

Inorganic covert flakes are particularly desirable in applications where heat, solvents, sunlight, or other factors can disrupt organic flakes. For example, inorganic covert flakes used in explosives are detectable even after exposure to high temperatures and / or high pressures and are not degraded in the environment. Flakes according to embodiments of the present invention are also substantially thinner than conventional molded flakes, typically less than about 10 micrometers, without the need to use a transparent topcoat, and in the flake ink. And enables a flat surface finish in paint. Thin, inorganic flakes according to embodiments of the present invention also have a density that is closer to the density of base pigment flakes made using similar techniques. Thick flakes incorporating organic substrates often have a separate density from thin film-based pigment flakes and can separate if the carrier is a fluid either before or during application. Flakes separation is undesirable. This is because flake separation results in uneven ratios of covert flakes to base flakes in the composition, and flake separation is not possible if the separation results in an unduly high concentration of covert flakes. This is because the potential nature of the flakes can be destroyed.

  In certain embodiments, flakes made from a single layer of ZnS are heat treated to whiten or “bleach” the appearance of the flakes and improve the transparency of the resulting composition (ie, the yellow nature) Decrease). For the purposes of this discussion, a “single layer” of inorganic material includes multiple layers of the same inorganic material formed on top of each other.

  In yet another embodiment, covert flakes are mixed with chemicals (eg, explosives, explosive precursors, food, drugs, or controlled substances). The covert flakes include indicia (eg, symbols and / or other patterns (eg, grooves)) that identify the manufacturer or provide other specific information. Inorganic flakes are particularly desirable in applications where heat, solvents, sunlight, or other factors can disrupt organic flakes. For example, inorganic covert flakes used for explosives are detectable even after exposure to high temperatures and / or high pressures and are not degraded in the environment.

II. Exemplary covert flakes
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a portion of a document 10 having a security feature 12 according to an embodiment of the present invention. At least a portion 14 of the security feature 12 contains clear, colored or opaque flakes (hereinafter “latent flakes”) with indicia mixed with bulk pigments (eg, bulk pigment flakes). Printed with ink or paint. In one embodiment, the covert flakes have a specific shape (eg, square, rectangular, trapezoidal, “diamond” shape, or round shape). In another embodiment, the covert flakes include symbols and / or grid patterns, which may or may not have a selected shape. In certain embodiments, the lattice pattern has a lattice spacing that is not optically active in the visible range of the spectrum. That is, these grating patterns do not form a visible diffraction grating. Covert flakes are also sometimes referred to as “taggent” flakes (although not all taggent flakes need to be covert flakes).

  In general, bulk pigment particles (including bulk pigment flakes) have an irregular shape. In one embodiment, the covert flakes are indistinguishable from bulk pigment flakes in shape. Alternatively, the bulk pigment flakes have a first selected shape and the covert flakes have a second selected shape. The production of shaped pigment flakes can be achieved by depositing the flake material on a substrate using various techniques (eg, a patterned substrate, and then separating the flakes from the substrate to obtain a pattern. Or cutting out the patterned flakes from a piece of flake material using a laser or other means. The selected shape of the covert flake may relate to, for example, the manufacturing equipment, the date of manufacture, or other aspects of the document 10, or the ink used in making the document.

  A roll coater is one type of apparatus that can be used to produce covert flakes according to embodiments of the present invention. A roll of a single polymer substrate material (also known as a “web”) passes through the deposition zone and can be coated with one or more thin film layers. A roll of polymer substrate can be passed multiple times back and forth through the deposition zone. This thin film layer can then be separated from the polymer substrate and processed into flakes. Other devices and techniques can be used.

It is generally desirable to limit the total thickness of the thin film layer deposited (and removed) from a roll of polymer film substrate to less than about 10 micrometers . PET is one type of polymer film substrate used in roll coaters, and PET film substrates are usually at least about 13 micrometers thick. Thinner PET films tend to be thermally altered during the vacuum deposition process. As the polymer substrate passes through the deposition zone, both the heat in the deposition zone and the polymerization heat of the deposited thin film layer increase the temperature of the polymer substrate. Thus, the minimum thickness of flakes cut from PET film and incorporating PET is about 13 micrometers .

  As an alternative or in addition to having a selected shape, the covert flakes may include a lattice pattern. This lattice pattern is embossed or otherwise formed on a substrate used in a roll coater prior to depositing a thin film layer that is processed into flakes. In a further embodiment, when the thin film layer is peeled from the deposition substrate and processed into flakes, a selected amount (percentage) of the deposition substrate surface area is embossed in a grid pattern or a molding pattern. And get a selected amount of covert flakes. This technique provides covert flakes with the same optical design (thin film layer composition and thickness) as base flakes. For example, embossing 10% of the deposited substrate surface area with a grid pattern and / or a shaped pattern results in a pigment mixture having about 10% covert flakes. Different rolls of the deposition substrate are produced with different percentages of relief surface area to obtain pigment mixtures with different amounts of covert flakes, or to obtain different shapes and / or grid patterns Embossed with various patterns.

  FIG. 2A is a simplified illustration of a portion of a deposition substrate 11 having a portion 13 that is embossed and a portion 15 that is not embossed. This embossed part has a frame (this frame is highlighted for illustration purposes) or, if necessary, for example with a grid or symbol, and The unfinished part is essentially flat. Alternatively, parts that are not embossed are embossed with different frames, grids or symbols. The ratio of the surface area of the embossed portion 13 to the surface area of the non-embossed portion 15 is the same thin film structure as the base flake (which is produced from the non-embossed portion) Produces a selected amount of taggent flakes, which are produced from the embossed part. The deposition substrate 11 travels from one roll 17 to another roll 19 through a deposition zone (not shown) in a roll coater, although alternative embodiments include various types of substrates and Use a deposition system. FIG. 2B is a simplified view of a portion of another deposition substrate 11 ′ having an embossed portion 13 ′ and an unembossed portion 15 ′.

  As an alternative or in addition to having a selected shape, the covert flakes may include one or more symbols. The symbol can be a letter, a number, or other marking. The symbol may indicate, for example, the manufacturer of the covert flake, the user of the covert flake, or a date code. This symbol can be embossed on a substrate used in a roll coater before depositing a thin film layer that is processed into flakes, or after deposition (e.g. laser ablation, embossing, Or by etching) on a thin film layer.

  Pigment flakes with a selected shape or symbol provide security features even if the selected shape or symbol is easily observable; however, pigment flakes with a selected shape or symbol are easier If it is not observable, the counterfeiter may not even realize that there is a covert flake. One embodiment of the present invention uses latent pigment flakes having the same optical characteristics as the base pigment. The percentage of latent pigment flakes is small enough so that this latent pigment flake is not easily found under microscopic examination. For example, if the ink composition comprises less than 1% of the total weight of pigment (ie, base pigment plus latent pigment), this latent pigment flake is difficult to find.

  The latent pigment flakes are not visible to the naked eye, but are visible under magnifications of about 50X to 300X. Latent pigment flakes having essentially the same visual characteristics can be mixed with the base pigment in a wide range of ratios without significantly affecting the color of the composition. In some embodiments, the latent pigment flakes are compositions of similar appearance (eg, color and / or color migration) having 5-10% by weight latent pigment flakes and 95-90% by weight base pigment flakes. Among them, it can be easily identified. Often, shaped opaque covert flakes are readily identifiable in a field using a handheld microscope (eg, a “shirt-pocket” microscope), and similar sized flakes with symbols are identified. Requires a smaller magnification than identifying.

  Another approach is to use transparent inorganic covert flakes with a selected shape or symbol. In one embodiment, transparent inorganic cover flakes are mixed with base pigment flakes in a carrier (eg, ink vehicle or paint vehicle) to form a composition (eg, ink or paint). In another embodiment, transparent inorganic covert flakes are mixed in a transparent carrier to form a varnish. The index of refraction of the carrier is sufficiently similar to the refractive index of the transparent covert flake so that the covert flake “disappears” in the carrier. Examples of carriers include polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, poly (ethoxyethylene), poly (methoxyethylene), poly (acrylate), poly (acrylamide), poly (oxyethylene), poly (maleic anhydride) , Hydroxyethylcellulose, cellulose acetate, poly (saccharides) (eg gum arabic and pectin), poly (acetals) (eg polyvinyl butyral), poly (vinyl halides) (eg polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylene chloride), polydienes ( For example, polybutadiene), poly (alkene) (eg, polyethylene), poly (acrylic acid) (eg, polymethyl acrylate), poly (methacrylate) (eg, polymethyl methacrylate), poly (carbonate) ) (Eg, poly (oxycarbonyloxyhexamethylene), poly (ester) (eg, polyethylene terephthalate), poly (urethane), poly (siloxane), poly (sulfide), poly (sulfone), poly (sulfone) Vinylnitrile), poly (acrylonitrile), poly (styrene), poly (phenylene) (eg, poly (2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-phenyleneethylene), poly (amide), natural rubber, formaldehyde resin, and others These polymers are mentioned.

  The transparent covert flakes are typically not completely invisible in the carrier and are less visible in the air. If the observer knows where to look, the transparent flakes typically have an ambiguous appearance, similar to symbols formed in or on the transparent flakes. It is. However, if you do not know where and how to find this transparent flake, it usually remains undetected.

  In certain embodiments, the transparent covert flakes are reflective in the visible range of about 30% in air and have a reflectivity of less than 30% in the carrier. Thus, the transparent covert flakes, when dispersed in the carrier, typically have a transmission of greater than 70% and the carrier is a base on which the transparent covert flakes are mixed together. Maintain the visible characteristics of the pigment or base pigment from which the varnish containing this transparent covert flake is derived.

  Transparent, inorganic covert flakes are difficult to detect even if they constitute more than 1% of the total pigment weight of the composition or varnish. In one embodiment, the transparent covert flake is a ZnS heat treated single layer that fluoresces under UV light. The position of the ZnS covert flakes is irradiated with UV light to identify the position, and then the ZnS covert flakes are typically viewed under a microscope at about 20X-200X to observe the mark of the covert flakes. In addition, it is observed using visible light.

Another approach is to use opaque covert flakes with a selected shape of a different color than the base flakes. In one embodiment, the opaque covert flakes are bright metal (“silver”) flakes with a thin film layer of aluminum or other reflective material between layers of dielectric material (eg, MgF 2 ). Bright flakes are generally highly reflective over a wide range of visible wavelengths and often do not have a characteristic color. For example, bright flakes made of gold and copper can appear yellowish and reddish. About 0.25% to about 5% by weight of molded (eg, “diamond” shaped) bright flakes in the colored base pigment were added without causing a noticeable change in color, It is still easily identifiable under irradiation at a magnification of about 50X (ie 50x magnification). At the illuminated magnification, both the shape and the very brightness of the flakes distinguish the flakes from the base flakes. If less than about 0.25% shaped bright flakes are used, the covert flakes are difficult to detect. This is because dilution with the base flakes reduces the number of bright flakes molded in the field of view.

  When the amount of bright flakes exceeds about 5%, the color of a particular type of flake (eg, hue), particularly dark colored flakes, changes. In these examples, too many bright flakes essentially “dilute” the color of the base pigment. However, it is highly desirable to use shaped bright flakes in compositions with color shifting pigments. This is because a single type of molded bright flake is added in small amounts to many different types of pigment flakes (color and / or color travel), while a relatively small amount of molded bright flake is a potential security feature. I will provide a. Similarly, color dilution is critical in application when a composition containing pigments and bright flakes is not intended to be replaced or indistinguishable from a composition containing 100% pigment flakes. Absent.

3A is a simplified plan view of a portion 14A of the security feature 14 according to an embodiment of the present invention and illustrated in FIG. The portion 14A of the security feature 14 is typically seen at a magnification of 20X to 200X to see the flake shape, and the flake is typically about 5 micrometers to 100 micrometers in diameter, more representative. the is about 20 micrometers to 40 micrometers in diameter. The security features are printed with ink containing base pigment particles 16 and latent pigment flakes 18 of a selected shape (in this case a “diamond” shape). The base pigment particles are illustrated as irregularly shaped flakes. Alternatively, the base pigment particles are flakes with a selected shape. The optical characteristics and concentration of the latent pigment flakes are selected so as not to disturb the visual appearance of the composition made with the base pigment particles.

  When the latent pigment flake is irradiated with invisible radiation (eg UV light or IR light or electron beam), the latent pigment flake emits light. In certain embodiments, the latent pigment flakes fluoresce under UV light. By illuminating this latent pigment flake with invisible radiation, the observer can identify where the latent pigment flake is located in the security feature, even though the latent pigment flake is present in very small amounts. The observer then examines the latent pigment flake under visible light and looks at the selected shape of the latent pigment flake or sees the symbol on the latent flake.

  The base pigment particles 16 are shown as irregularly shaped flakes. Alternatively, the base pigment flakes have a selected (ie regular) shape. Similarly, the latent pigment flake 18 may have a lattice. The addition of the lattice further increases the difficulty of counterfeiting. In some embodiments, the latent pigment flake 18 generally has the same optical characteristics as the base pigment particle. Alternatively, the latent pigment flake 18 has different optical characteristics than the base pigment particles, but is present in a sufficiently small amount so as not to disturb the visual appearance of the composition made with the base pigment particles.

In certain embodiments, the “diamond-shaped” covert flakes were bright flakes with a diameter of about 25 micrometers to 35 micrometers . The shaped flakes emboss the diamond pattern into a roll of PET-deposited substrate material, and then apply a standard thin film design to bright flakes (eg, about 100-60 nm between layers of MgF 2 each about 400 nm thick). It is made by depositing on Al). The thickness of this bright flake is about 900 nm, which is about 1 micrometer . This embossed pattern is also known as a “frame” (as opposed to a grid intended to produce a pattern in or on the flake) and is positive in some embodiments, And in some embodiments, it is negative.

The combination of the metal layer and one or more dielectric layers facilitates the removal of the flakes from the deposition substrate. Thin laminates with only a dielectric layer are brittle and often have residual stress from this deposition process. Such thin film laminates tend to break more randomly, and form fewer flakes. All metal laminates or single layers are difficult to process into patterned flakes that follow the frame of the deposited substrate. This is because the metal is relatively ductile. In certain embodiments, metal-dielectric flakes and dielectric-metal-dielectric flakes having a total thickness of about 0.5 micrometers to about 3 micrometers are an exquisite combination of ductile and brittle features This combination provides an attractive pattern of flakes when the metal-dielectric flakes and dielectric-metal-dielectric flakes are removed from the substrate and processed. In certain embodiments, molded bright flakes having a ductile metal layer generally about 1 micrometer thick between brittle dielectric layers were about 90% diamond molded from the embossed deposited substrate. Flakes were produced.

The thin film layer was peeled from the deposition substrate and processed into flakes using conventional techniques. The embossed diamond pattern provided a line along which the thin film layer was broken into flakes having a selected diamond shape. In another embodiment, the diamond shaped flakes were about 12 micrometers x 16 micrometers , and this included a grid on the major surface of the flakes. This grating was nominally 2000 lines per mm and when used as a taggent did not produce a significant diffractive effect in the composition. The shape of the 12 × 16 micrometer flakes was easily seen at 100 × magnification; however, the grid was not easily visible at this magnification. This lattice was readily apparent at 400X magnification. In other embodiments, the grid is coarse and is used to identify the shape of taggent flakes and is easily seen at the same magnification (eg, 50X-100X). Thus, the grating used to provide security features to taggent flakes need not be optically active in the visible portion of the spectrum.

FIG. 3B is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature 14 according to another embodiment of the present invention. This security feature is printed with ink containing base pigment particles 16 and latent pigment flakes 18B, said latent pigment flakes 18B having an irregular shape and symbol 17 (in this case the stylized "F ")including. Several different symbols and symbol combinations can be used. The security feature 14B is typically observed on the latent pigment flake 18B to see the symbol at a magnification of about 100X to 200X, which symbol is typically about 0.5 micron in height. Meters to 20 micrometers .

The latent pigment flake 18B deposits one or more thin film layers on a substrate (eg, a plastic film), separates the thin film layer from the substrate, and processes the separated thin film layer ( for example, to draw to a desired flake (milling) and sieving to (sieving), were prepared. the covert pigment flakes are typically about 5 micrometers to 100 micrometers in diameter, And more typically, the diameter is from about 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers , and the symbol 17 is typically about 0.5 micrometers to 20 micrometers in height . the symbol 17 is a height of about 700 nanometers, in another embodiment, the symbol, a height of about 15 my A Rometoru. Adequately have close symbol, as a result, most of the flakes, at least one, in general desirable .1 one embodiment to have an identifiable part of the symbols, the height 8 micrometers Were spaced about 2 micrometers apart, resulting in covert flakes with an average of about 6 symbols per flake, with symmetrical symmetry on the top of the transparent flake It appears that they are the same whether viewed from the bottom or from the bottom, but such subjectivity is not required.In another embodiment, a symbol that is about 15 micrometers in height has a spacing of about It was 4 micrometers apart.

  The symbol is typically embossed on a substrate and the thin film layer is deposited over the embossed substrate. The surface of the substrate, i.e. the symbol, is replicated at least in the first thin film layer, and the first thin film layer is deposited on the substrate, which is either positive or negative. Relief. Thus, when the thin film layer is separated from the embossed substrate and processed into a pigment, at least some flakes contain this symbol. The spacing of the embossed symbols on the flakes can be selected such that essentially all the above-mentioned specific size flakes contain at least one symbol.

  The base pigment particles are illustrated as irregularly shaped flakes. Alternatively, the base pigment particles have a selected shape. Similarly, the latent pigment flake 18B can have a selected shape in addition to the symbol 17 and the superimposed grating (eg, diffraction grating) can be either a whole flake or a selected portion of the flake. May be included in some people, but not in people with symbols. Alternatively, one type of grating is formed in the flake field, and another type of grating (eg, having a separate pitch) is formed in the symbol region. The addition of a lattice makes counterfeiting more difficult. The latent pigment flakes generally have the same optical characteristics as the base pigment particles or are present in a sufficiently small amount so as not to disturb the visual appearance of the composition made with the base pigment particles. .

In a particular embodiment, the base pigment particles are mica flakes coated with a layer of TiO 2 or other dielectric material. The coating material typically has a relatively high refractive index. Mica is a naturally occurring mineral that is relatively inexpensive and easily processed into a flake substrate. If the mica flake substrate is coated with a layer of high refractive index material of selected thickness, pearlescent pigment flakes are obtained. The mica flake substrate can be coated with several alternative materials using various processes. Such pigments are generally known as “mica-based” pigments. Photocopies of images printed with such pearlescent pigment flakes do not look like the original, and therefore mica-based pigment flakes are desirable for use in providing obvious security features. However, it is not practical to mold a mica flake substrate or provide a symbol on a mica flake substrate. Desirably, latent pigment flakes according to embodiments of the present invention are mixed with mica-based pigments, and latent security features are included in images printed with mica-based pigment flakes. A latent pigment flake made of a single layer of an inorganic dielectric material (eg, TiO 2 or ZnS) has a quarter wave optical thickness (at a selected wavelength in the visible spectrum). It may have a similar appearance to a mica-based pigment if it has a thickness about 5 times that of a quarter-wave optical thickness (“QWOT”), typically intended to match the appearance of a mica-based pigment. ZnS single layer latent pigment flakes have a thickness of about 60 nm to about 600 nm.

  The process of processing all dielectric flakes from an embossed diamond shaped patterned substrate tends to have a lower yield than the control metal-dielectric flakes.

  FIG. 3C is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature 14C according to yet another embodiment of the present invention. This security feature is printed with an ink containing base pigment particles 16 and transparent covert flakes 19, which have an irregular shape and have the symbol 17 ′ (in this case stylized). "F"). Several different symbols and combinations of symbols are used alternatively. Alternatively, the transparent flakes have a selected shape, some with or without symbols.

  The transparent covert flake is formed from a deposited (ie, synthetic) inorganic thin film layer, and in certain embodiments, the transparent covert flake is a single layer of ZnS about 700 nm thick. . In a further embodiment, the ZnS flakes are treated to enhance fluorescence. Alternatively, other substances that emit visible light when exposed to UV light (e.g., zinc silicate, calcium-tungsten oxide, yttrium phosphate vanadium, to name a few) , Doped yttrium oxide (e.g., eurobium), and alkaline earth aluminates doped with rare earth aluminates) are used in other embodiments. Alternatively, other materials that fluoresce in the long UV range (300 nm to 400 nm) when used with low UV radiation (about 250 nm) are used. Fluorescence is not required for all embodiments of the invention.

  In one embodiment, the transparent covert flake material is selected according to the intended carrier with which the transparent covert flake material is mixed together to determine whether the refractive index of the flake in the carrier is compatible or not compatible. select. For example, when transparent flakes made from a low refractive index material are mixed in a low-index carrier, the transparent flakes are very difficult to see. When transparent flakes of the above refractive index are mixed in a high refractive index carrier, the transparent flakes are easy to see, but generally are not detected by simple observation.

  Single layer flakes made of more than about 10 QWOT thick inorganic materials tend to be transparent and are not dyed or pearlescent. However, even transparent flakes can impart a yellowish hue to the composition (eg, varnish). Heat treatment of some transparent inorganic flakes improves the “whiteness” of the flakes, resulting in a varnish that is excellent for use in potential security applications. In certain embodiments, transparent pigment flakes made from a single layer of ZnS about 700 nm thick were heated in air to 550 ° C. for about 600 minutes to enhance fluorescence under UV light. This heat treatment also improved the whiteness of the ZnS flakes.

  Trace elements remaining from the roll coating process are believed to have contributed to enhanced fluorescence. In particular, NaCl was used as a release layer on the polymer substrate used in this roll coating process. A single layer of ZnS was deposited on the NaCl release layer, which then dissolved in water to facilitate the removal of ZnS from the polymer substrate. It is believed that sodium from the emissive layer doped ZnS or other activated dopants to enhance fluorescence.

FIG. 4A is a simplified cross section of a bright pigment flake 20 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The reflective layer 22 is between the two dielectric thin film layers 24, 26. Because of the dielectric thin film layers 24, 26, the bright pigment flake 20 is cured and facilitates removal of the pigment flake from the roll coater substrate. It would be desirable to provide a composition that maintains the bright pigment flake thickness below 10 micrometers and that dries or cures to a flat surface. In certain embodiments, the flake thickness is from about 1 micrometer to about 3 micrometers . Thinner flakes are more difficult to process and handle. The reason is that the thinner flakes have less weight and are stronger and are less likely to break along the frame pattern.

The reflective layer 22 is typically a thin film of highly reflective metal (eg, aluminum, platinum, gold, silver, or copper), or moderately reflective metal (eg, iron or chrome). Is a layer. The reflective layer 22 is thick enough to be opaque (reflective) in the visible portion of the spectrum, but so as to prevent the thin film layer from separating from the substrate and then being processed into flakes. Not thick. In other words, a metal reflective layer that is too thick tends to provide a ductile layer between the relatively brittle dielectric layers 24, 26 and hinder the processing of this deposited layer into flakes. Examples of the suitable metal dielectric layer, especially, ZnS, MgF 2, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3, TiO 2, Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 and the like. In some embodiments, the dielectric thin film layers 24, 26 also provide environmental protection for the reflective layer 22.

  The bright flakes 20 have a selected shape and optionally or alternatively have other indicia (e.g. surface (grid) pattern or elemental fingerprint). At sufficiently low concentrations, this bright flake 20 is added to colored pigments and colored compositions (eg, inks and paints). Shaped bright flakes can be added as a potential security feature to the base (ie, randomly shaped or alternatively shaped) bright flakes.

  FIG. 4B is a simplified cross-sectional view of a bright flake 20 ′ having an element indicator layer 28. This bright layer 20 'has a reflective layer 22', 22 "between the dielectric layers 24 ', 26' and a layer 28 that provides an elemental indicator. This element indicator layer 28 is a layer of material not found in the base pigments with which this bright flake is used together, and this is an elemental analysis technique (eg, second ion mass spectrometry (“SIMS”), energy This element indicator is present in the covert flakes but not in the base flakes, and is micro- and is easily detectable using divergent X-rays (“EDX” and Auger analysis). SIMS analysis, micro-EDX analysis, or micro-Auger analysis easily detects this difference: adding an indicator element to the pigment mixture (eg, adding a small amount of a compound containing the indicator element to the carrier). If you just do, you can overcome this security feature. There.

  The element indicator layer 28 is not optically active. This is because the element indicator layer 28 is located between the two translucent reflective layers 22 ′ and 22 ″. The reflective layers 22 ', 22 "are selected to be the same material (eg, aluminum) used in the base flake. Substances suitable as elemental indicators include, among others, platinum, iridium, osmium, vanadium, cobalt, and tungsten. One skilled in the art will appreciate that the selected elemental indicator material will depend on the same base pigment used together. In an alternative embodiment, the reflective layer of bright pigment belongs to the element indicator material (see FIG. 3B, reference 22). For example, bright latent pigment flakes or colored pigment flakes using platinum as a reflective layer are mixed with bright base flakes or colored pigment flakes using aluminum as a reflective layer. In further embodiments, the amount of flakes with elemental indicators incorporated into the pigment mixture or composition is selected to provide a selected elemental ratio (eg, aluminum to platinum) in the pigment mixture. In an alternative or further embodiment, the dielectric thin film layer 24 ', 26' material (Fig. 4A, ref. 24, 26) is selected to provide an elemental indicator.

  FIG. 4C is a simplified cross-sectional view of a color-shifting pigment flake 30 according to another embodiment of the present invention. This color-shifting pigment flake 30 is generally known as a symmetrical five-layer Fabry-Perot interference flake. The thin film laminate 32 includes a reflective metal layer 34, two spacer layers 36A, 36B, and two absorption layers 38A, 38B. The absorbing layer is typically a very thin, somewhat opaque layer of chromium, carbon or other material. The reflective layer, spacer layer, and absorbing layer are all optically active, that is, the reflective layer, spacer layer, and absorbing layer contribute to the optical performance of the color shifting pigment flakes. Each face of the flake provides a similar Fabry-Perot interference structure for incident light, and therefore the flake is optically symmetric. Alternatively, the color shifted pigment flakes are all dielectric pigment flakes.

  The color and color travel of the color-shifted pigment flakes depends on the optical design of the flakes, i.e. the material and thickness of the layers of the thin film laminate 32, as is well known in the art of optically variable pigments. It is determined. The optical design of the color shifting pigment flake 30 is typically selected to match the optical properties of the base pigment flakes with which the color shifting pigment flake 30 is mixed together. This color shifting pigment flake 30 is shaped (see FIG. 3A, ref. 18) and optionally or alternatively includes other indicia (eg, surface grid pattern and / or elemental indicator). .

For example, the reflective layer includes an element indicator and includes a reflective metal or additional element indicator layer that is different from the base pigment flake, which may or may not be optically active. (See FIG. 3C, reference 28). Alternatively or additionally, the spacer layers 36A, 36B and / or the absorption layers 38A, 38B include element indicators. For example, if the base pigment flake uses MgF 2 , SiO 2 , or Al 2 O 3 as a spacer layer material, the latent pigment flake 30 uses various spacer layer materials (eg, TiO 2 or ZnS). To do. Spacer and / or absorption indicator materials include elements that are easily detected using elemental analysis.

In some embodiments, a separate spacer material and / or reflector material results in a latent pigment flake 30 having different optical properties than the base flake. For example, the color travel can be different even if the covert flakes and base flakes have similar colors at normal incidence. In general, low index spacer materials (eg, MgF 2 and SiO 2 ) provide more color travel (“quick shift” pigments) than high index spacer materials (eg, ZnS and TiO 2 ). However, even if the color travel does not exactly match the color travel of the base flake, such covert flakes can be added to the base pigment flake at a relatively high concentration. This is because most careless observers cannot detect the difference between a mixture according to an embodiment of the invention and a 100% base pigment.

  FIG. 5 is a cross section of a varnish 40 having covert flakes 42 dispersed in a carrier 44 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The carrier is transparent or colored and the covert flakes 42 are at a concentration selected to avoid light visual detection. A selective color coating or light (eg, “chromated”) coating 46 is applied to the object 48 under the varnish 40. The varnish 40 provides latent security features to this object without disturbing its appearance. In certain embodiments, the optional color coat 46 is an image printed with pearlescent or color shifting pigments to provide obvious security features to the object. This object is, for example, a document, a product, a packaging, or a seal. The varnish 40 provides potential security features to objects that already have potential security features without significantly changing the appearance of the object. For example, if a stock certificate is printed with an obvious security feature and it becomes desirable to provide the latent security feature to the stock certificate, the overt security feature may be varnish 40 or a similar ink composition (ie, a latent security feature). Overprinted with an essentially transparent ink composition containing flakes). In another embodiment, additional potential security features are provided for objects that already have one or more potential security features. In certain embodiments, the covert flakes constitute no more than 2% of the varnish. Further discussion on varnish is provided below in the section on experimental results.

  FIG. 6 is a cross section of a composition 50 (eg, ink or paint) containing base pigment flakes 16 and covert flakes 18 dispersed in a binder or carrier 52 according to another embodiment of the present invention. This covert flake 18 has a selected shape or other indicia (eg, FIG. 3C, reference 20 ') (eg, an element indicator or surface-grid pattern). Alternatively, the composition 50 comprises selectively molded transparent flakes (which may or may not have a symbol) and / or molded latent pigment flakes and / or Includes latent pigment flakes including symbols (eg, FIG. 3A, reference 18, and FIG. 3B, references 18B, 20). In one embodiment, the amount of covert flake 18 in the composition is less than 1% of the total weight of the base pigment flake 16 and covert flake 182 (“total pigment weight”), which is the base pigment flake The transparent latent flakes are sufficiently dispersed in and the surface detection of the latent flakes is difficult. In an alternative embodiment, the amount of clear covert flakes in the composition is greater than 1%. The composition 50 is applied to an object 48 (eg, a label, product wrap, banknote, or consumer product).

  By adding covert flakes to the ink composition or paint composition present, covert security features are provided in the image made from the ink or paint. For example, ink with color shift pigment is used to provide the color shift image as an obvious security feature on banknotes or other objects. Hidden flakes according to embodiments of the invention are added to the ink and the resulting mixture is used to print an image that appears substantially similar to the image printed with the ink. Thus, after the latent security feature is added, the superficial observer of the bank note is unaware of the apparent change in the apparent security feature (ie, color shift image). The covert flake indicia indicates the date of manufacture, the location of printing, and / or the ink source (manufacturer).

(III. Identification of latent flakes)
FIG. 7A is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature 114 printed with a transparent inorganic covert flake 122 according to an embodiment of the present invention when viewed under a microscope with UV illumination. This flake is shown in a single layer for simplicity of illustration (compare with FIG. 4). This transparent covert flake 122 fluoresces (looks bright) and is easily distinguished from the base pigment flake 116, which appears dark and is shown with a dotted line for purposes of illustration. Typically, a larger field of view (ie, lower magnification, typically 20X-50X) is observed. A reduced field of view is shown for simplicity of illustration. Once the location of the fluorescent covert flake is identified, the viewer can “zoom in” on the covert flake.

  FIG. 7B is a simplified plan view of a portion of the security feature 114 of FIG. 7A when viewed under a microscope using visible light for illumination. It has been discovered that the symbols on the transparent covert flakes are difficult to read under UV light. This is because the fluorescence is a bulk phenomenon and obscure symbols. When the UV light was switched off and the transparent covert flake 122 was observed under a microscope with visible light, the faint outline of symbol 120 (and this flake) was observable. Fluorescent covert flakes are particularly desirable when the flake concentration is low. This transparent covert flake 122 and symbol 120 are shown as dotted lines in this view, indicating that they appear as faint outlines under visible light. This base pigment flake 116 is shown as a solid line. This is because these are typically prominent under visible light. In certain embodiments, this transparent covert flake is ZnS in a polished varnish (which has a refractive index of about 2.2), which is first observed under UV light, The symbols on the flakes were then read using visible light at 100X magnification.

  Similar results are expected for latent pigment flakes that fluoresce under UV light or other invisible radiation. When the latent pigment flake is sufficiently diluted, for example, the latent pigment flake dispersed in the base pigment flake has similar visual characteristics and is difficult to detect. In one embodiment, the latent pigment flake has a selected shape that is observable under UV light. In another embodiment, the latent pigment flake is not readily observable under UV light, but is observable under visible light. The position of the latent pigment flake with this symbol is identified using UV light, then the UV light is switched off, and this symbol is read using visible light.

  Alternatively, substances that fluoresce at shorter wavelengths when used with longer wavelength light are used to produce latent flakes or latent pigment flakes. This type of fluorescence is believed to be less easily noticed by counterfeiters and facilitates the use of this type of fluorescence in potential security applications. In one embodiment, near infrared or infrared light is used to illuminate latent flakes or latent pigment flakes and fluoresces in the visible range.

(IV. Experimental results)
Various alternatives were evaluated before developing clear covert flakes or single layer covert pigments. Magenta-green optically variable engraving (“OVI”) 100% pigment flakes were produced and measured. All taggent samples had a lattice pattern of 2000 lines / mm. This lattice pattern makes the taggent flakes more distinguishable (ie, positioned) from the base flakes and more difficult to counterfeit. This grating pattern did not induce diffraction properties in the image printed on the test composition. The combination of the bottom of the taggent flake and not being sufficiently oriented by the observer is thought to have avoided the occurrence of diffraction properties. In certain embodiments of the invention, the lattice pattern was included on taggent flakes with symbols. These symbols can be identified under the microscope at the initial magnification, but this grid pattern was not easily seen at this initial magnification. This lattice pattern was seen at a higher magnification. Inclusion of such a lattice pattern further enhances the potential nature of the taggent flakes. This is because a counterfeiter can see this symbol under a microscopic test, but not a lattice pattern, and as a result, does not include it in the counterfeit article.

  The first test sample (“Sample 1”) is a conventional magenta to green pigment flake mixed with 10% of magenta to green OVI pigment flakes (including symbols) (“taggent flakes”). 90% (weight) was contained. The taggent flakes were easy to detect by routine microscopy, and the color performance of the mixture was identical to the test standard. This is because the color of the taggent flake matches the color of the base flake sufficiently. However, similar color matching requires careful monitoring of the production of the taggent flakes. Similarly, a new optical design for each color of taggent flakes is used to match each color of base flakes. Therefore, this approach does not provide comprehensive taggent flakes that can be mixed with various colored base pigments.

A simpler approach can be used with many different colors of standard taggent flake designs. Single layer MgF 2 taggent flakes were mixed with the magenta-green OVI base pigment, which constituted 10% of the total pigment weight (“Sample 2”). For color-matched OVI, the color performance is essentially the same as the sample produced with 100% base OVI pigment flakes. However, this MgF 2 flake was difficult to detect even at a concentration of 10% under routine microscopic examination.

  “Silver” (aluminum) taggent flakes were also evaluated. The counterfeiting of silver flakes is relatively simple and these flakes are very easy to detect at a concentration of 5%. It was desired that silver taggent flakes could be mixed with many color base pigments. However, the color performance of the intaglio blend containing only 5% of the silver taggent flake mixed with the magenta-green OVI base pigment ("Sample 3") was poor. Thus, silver taggent flakes may be useful in certain compositions, but appear to disrupt the color performance of at least some base pigments.

  Another approach is to use a standard taggent flake design that can be used with many different colors of base flakes. Bright taggent flakes using an aluminum reflective layer (giving this flake a “silver” look) were also evaluated. When mixed with colored base pigment flakes, the production of bright flakes is relatively simple and these flakes are very easy to detect at a concentration of 5%. Bright taggent flakes are used with many color base pigments to provide covert security features. The amount of bright taggent flakes in the composition depends on the desired result. For example, the color performance of a sculpture blend containing 5% bright taggent flakes mixed with the magenta-green OVI base is shown in a side-by-side comparison in magenta-green OVI. Distinguishable from 100% flake composition. Compositions that are essentially indistinguishable from 100% red-purple to green OVI flakes have a concentration of less than 5% bright flakes (eg, a concentration of about 0.25% to 3% by weight in red-purple to green OVI flakes). Use bright taggent flakes). It is believed that bright flakes with a concentration greater than 5% are added to the pigment flakes to provide a lighter or less saturated color without significantly changing the appearance of the composition. Bright taggent flakes are detected under moderate magnification due to the combination of having a selected shape and a different color (eg, “silver” instead of magenta), even at concentrations below 1%. Cheap.

Finally, transparent taggent flakes were made from a single layer of ZnS. The production of this flake is relatively easy. And the detectability at a concentration of 10% was easy. This is more difficult than detecting the OVI taggent flakes, it is to say that it is much easier than detecting the MgF 2 taggent flakes. Engraved blends with 10% ZnS flakes and 90% magenta-green OVI flakes ("Sample 4") were compared against test standards. The performance of this color was almost equal to a slight (about 3%) reduction in chrome. Persons involved in this subjective comparison were very experienced in assessing the color performance of optically variable pigments and used parallel comparisons against the standard. It is believed that 10% of this flake added to the ink composition or paint composition present preserves this color performance well so that the average observer will not notice the change. . This ZnS transparent taggent flake is added to many colored pigments (pigments that can be optically changed without cautionably changing the appearance of the compositions made with the colored pigments), and as a result, It is believed that comprehensive taggent flakes can be enabled.

  The measured optical performance of the samples described above is shown in Table 1:

It is described in.

  Transparent ZnS flakes used as taggents or latent taggents were also evaluated in varnish compositions. In some instances, it is contemplated that approximately one third of the varnish composition may be transparent with almost no change in the perceived appearance of the varnish composition. A glazed varnish base can be used to produce the varnish composition, and the varnish composition is applied to a type of white card stock commonly used for ink and paint color evaluation. It was done. All varnish compositions were compared against varnish-based test standards without clear flakes.

  For the first varnish composition, 3% as-deposited (ie not heat treated for clarity) single layer ZnS appeared essentially identical to the test standard. . The second varnish composition with as-deposited ZnS flakes with a 5% single layer was slightly significantly different when compared to the test standard, but the inadvertent observer Then, it is thought that a small amount of yellowing will not be noticed. A third varnish sample with 10% single layer as-deposited ZnS flakes showed a noticeable change in appearance when compared against the test standard, and some inadvertent observers It is believed that a field printed with this composition will be noticed in a very bright background. However, this composition may be useful for printing on non-white substrates (eg, banknotes or grayish stocks), but here it is less likely that the slight yellowing will be noticed. . Alternatively, when used as a potential security feature, a non-glossy varnish base is used, further reducing the likelihood of detection. A fourth varnish sample with 15% single layer as-deposited ZnS showed significant yellowing even without parallel comparison with the test standard.

  Single layer ZnS flakes were heat treated to make the flakes transparent ("bleach"). The flakes were heated at 200 ° C. for 2 hours in air. Heat treated ZnS flakes to enhance fluorescence (10 hours at 550 ° C. in air) also breach the flakes, but breaching can be accomplished with a shorter heat treatment. The varnish composition using 20% single layer bleached ZnS showed that the color change was almost unrecognizable. Thus, it is believed that at least 10% unbleached single layer ZnS flakes and at least 20% bleached single layer ZnS flakes can be added to the glazing varnish base as latent taggents.

  ZnS is more desirable as a taggent flake. This is because, unlike some flakes that contain a metal (eg, aluminum) layer, ZnS is durable in the presence of water, acid, base, and bleach. Unlike some organic flakes, ZnS is also durable in the presence of organic solvents and sunlight.

FIG. 8 shows the color travel for a test sample prepared with ink and a test sample prepared with ink in combination with latent pigment flakes according to an embodiment of the present invention. This color plot follows the CIELa * b * convention. The angle of illumination and observation was 10 ° away from the reflection angle, avoiding the intense fluorescent component associated with transparent coating samples. This sample was characterized with 11 illumination / viewing angles increasing in 5 ° increments from 15 ° / 5 ° to 65 ° / 55 °. The first point of this curve (ie, the upper left point) corresponds to 15 ° / 5 ° data, and the last point (ie, the 11th point) corresponds to 65 ° / 55 ° data. It corresponds.

The first curve 600 shows the measured color travel for a test sample prepared with blue to green optically variable pigment flakes. The second curve 602 shows the measured color for 95 wt.% Blue-green optically variable pigment flakes and 5 wt.% Single layer ZnS flakes with an average particle size of about 20 micrometers at a thickness of about 700 nm. Show travel. Symbols on the flake is about 8 × 6 microns, were separated by approximately 2 micrometers of the field of view (field). % By weight is the percentage of the total weight of the flakes used to prepare the ink composition, relative to the sample. The third curve 604 is for a sample prepared with 90 wt% blue-green optically variable pigment flakes and 10 wt% identical ZnS flakes used in the sample associated with the second curve. Indicates the measured color travel. These curves illustrate that very similar optical performance can be obtained for ink compositions having up to 10% by weight latent flakes. In particular, this color travel is almost identical for all three samples and the chrome is only slightly less than the sample made with 10% clear covert flakes. Thus, covert flakes according to embodiments of the present invention are added to the optically variable ink present to form a composition and covert security features without significantly altering the appearance of images printed with this composition. I will provide a.

(V. Exemplary Method)
FIG. 9 is a simplified flowchart of a method 700, which provides covert flakes to an object according to an embodiment of the present invention. Latent flakes that fluoresce under invisible illumination are mixed in a carrier (step 702) to provide a composition (eg, ink or paint), which is observed under visible light. Some are not easily detectable. In one embodiment, the covert flake is a transparent covert flake having a symbol and / or a selected shape. In a further embodiment, the composition contains base pigment flakes or particles. In another embodiment, the covert flake is a covert pigment flake having a symbol and / or a selected shape. This composition is applied to the object (step 704) to provide latent security features. In one embodiment, the composition is applied using a printing process (eg, a gravure printing process, flexographic printing process, offset printing process, letterpress printing process, intaglio printing process, or screen printing process). In another embodiment, the composition is applied using a painting process (eg, a rolling process, a dipping process, a brushing process, a spray coating process).

  After providing the latent security feature, the latent security feature is observed by illuminating the object with invisible radiation (step 706), causing the latent flake to fluoresce and identifying the potential flake ( Step 708). If the composition has base pigment flakes or particles that also fluoresce, the covert flakes fluoresce significantly or significantly less, or fluoresce in a different color than the base pigment flakes or particles. As a result, it is understood that the covert flakes stand out in the composition and are easily identified. This identified covert flake is observed for security marking (step 710). In one embodiment, the covert flake has a selected shape and is observed while the object is illuminated with invisible radiation. In another embodiment, the covert flake includes a symbol, and the covert flake is observed using visible light after the step of identifying the covert flake using invisible radiation. In certain embodiments, the step of observing one or more symbols on the covert flake is performed under a magnification of 50X to 200X.

(IV. Exemplary Method)
FIG. 10 is a flow chart of a method 600 that creates pigment flakes according to an embodiment of the present invention. A roll substrate having an unembossed ("flat") portion and an embossed portion of a selected ratio of the deposited surface area of the roll substrate is provided (step 602). In one embodiment, the embossed portion is embossed with a frame for producing flakes having a selected shape. In an alternative embodiment, the embossed portion is embossed with a grid pattern or symbol. In an alternative embodiment, the substrate is patterned using a process other than a relief process (eg, laser ablation). At least one thin film layer is deposited on the roll substrate (step 604), and the deposited thin film layer is processed into flakes (step 606) to produce a selected amount of taggent flakes. Resulting in a flake mixture having. The yield of taggent flakes depends on factors such as the type of thin film layer being processed, the nature of the frame, grid pattern or symbol, and processing parameters.

  For example, referring to FIGS. 2A and 2B, if 10% of the surface of the roll substrate is embossed with a grid or symbol, a yield of about 10% taggent flakes with a grid pattern is expected. . If 10% of the surface of the roll substrate is embossed with a diamond-shaped frame due to a 10% yield loss of processing of the patterned portion of thin film deposition on the molded flakes, about A yield of 9% is expected for dielectric-metal-dielectric flakes. Similarly, a yield of about 5% is expected for molded total dielectric flakes due to a 50% yield loss of processing of the patterned portion of thin film deposition on the molded flakes. The

  The invention has been described above in terms of various specific embodiments. The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit of the invention. Accordingly, the embodiments described above illustrate the invention but do not limit the invention as set forth in the claims below. All changes and equivalents occurring within the meaning and scope of the claims are encompassed within the scope of the present invention.

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a portion of a document having security features according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2A is a simplified diagram of a portion of a deposition substrate having an embossed portion and an unembossed portion. FIG. 2B is a simplified view of a portion of another deposition substrate 11 'having a raised portion 13' and an unrelieved portion 15 '. FIG. 3A is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3B is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3C is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature according to yet another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4A is a simplified cross-sectional view of a bright pigment flake 20 according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4B is a simplified cross-sectional view of a bright flake 20 'providing an elemental fingerprint. FIG. 4C is a simplified cross-sectional view of a color shifted pigment flake 30 according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a varnish having transparent shifted covert flakes or opaque covert flakes dispersed in a carrier according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of base flakes and covert flakes dispersed in a binder according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7A is a simplified plan view of a portion of a security feature printed with transparent inorganic covert flakes when viewed under a microscope using UV radiation, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7B is a simplified plan view of a portion of the security feature of FIG. 7A when viewed under a microscope using visible light for illumination. FIG. 8 shows the color travel for a test sample prepared with ink and a test sample prepared with ink in combination with latent pigment flakes according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 9 shows a chart of a method for observing covert flakes according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 10 is a flowchart of a method of making covert flakes in one embodiment of the present invention.

Claims (24)

  1. A coating composition for providing latent security features, comprising:
    Carrier: and a coating composition comprising a plurality of single layer inorganic dielectric shaped covert flakes dispersed in the carrier, each of the flakes having a selected shape and a thickness of less than 10 micrometers.
  2.   The coating composition according to claim 1, wherein the molded covert flake is a transparent covert flake.
  3.   3. A coating composition according to claim 2, wherein the transparent covert flakes comprise a lattice pattern.
  4.   The coating composition of claim 2, wherein the transparent covert flake comprises at least one selected symbol.
  5.   The coating composition of claim 2, further comprising a base pigment dispersed in the carrier, wherein the amount of clear covert flakes in the coating composition is selected, As a result, a coating composition in which the color of the coating composition appears to be the same color as the second coating composition comprising the base pigment dispersed in the carrier.
  6. 6. The coating composition of claim 5 , wherein the base pigment is an optically variable pigment flake, and the transparent covert flake is a ZnS flake, the ZnS flake being A coating composition that is not more than 10% by weight of the total flake weight.
  7. 6. A coating composition according to claim 5 , wherein the transparent covert flakes fluoresce when illuminated with invisible radiation.
  8. 8. The coating composition of claim 7 , wherein the base pigment fluoresces when irradiated with invisible radiation, and the transparent covert flakes fluoresce unlike the base pigment. Composition.
  9.   The coating composition according to claim 2, wherein the transparent covert flakes have a transmission of greater than 70% in the visible region of light in the carrier.
  10.   The coating composition according to claim 1, wherein the coating composition further comprises a colored base pigment, wherein the shaped latent flakes are colored latent pigment flakes.
  11. 11. A coating composition according to claim 10 , wherein the latent pigment flake has a lattice pattern.
  12. 11. A coating composition according to claim 10 , wherein the latent pigment flake comprises at least one selected symbol.
  13. 11. A coating composition according to claim 10 , wherein the latent pigment flakes fluoresce when irradiated with invisible radiation.
  14. 14. The coating composition of claim 13 , wherein the base pigment fluoresces when irradiated with the invisible radiation, and the latent pigment flakes fluoresce unlike the base pigment. Coating composition.
  15. 11. A coating composition according to claim 10 , wherein the latent pigment flake is a ZnS latent pigment flake.
  16. 16. The coating composition of claim 15 , wherein the base pigment contains nacreous mineral-based flakes, and the ZnS latent pigment flake comprises the nacreous mineral-based flakes. A coating composition having a thickness selected to be compatible with
  17. 17. A coating composition according to claim 16 , wherein the latent pigment flakes fluoresce when illuminated with invisible radiation.
  18. 18. A coating composition according to claim 17 , wherein the latent pigment flake contains less than 1% by weight of the total pigment weight.
  19.   The coating composition of claim 1, wherein the shaped covert flake has a thickness between 0.5 micrometers and 3 micrometers.
  20.   The coating composition of claim 1, wherein the coating composition further comprises a second plurality of shaped opaque flakes having a second selected shape.
  21. 21. The coating composition of claim 20 , wherein the shaped opaque covert flakes have a lattice pattern and the selected shape is visible at a first magnification, A coating composition wherein the lattice pattern is not visible at a first magnification, wherein the lattice pattern is visible at a second magnification, and the second magnification is greater than the first magnification.
  22. 6. The coating composition according to claim 5 , wherein the base pigment contains a mica-based pigment.
  23. 6. The coating composition according to claim 5 , wherein the base pigment contains a color shift pigment.
  24.   The coating composition according to claim 1, wherein the carrier is a varnish.
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US10/641,695 US7258915B2 (en) 2003-08-14 2003-08-14 Flake for covert security applications
US10/762,158 2004-01-20
US10/762,158 US7241489B2 (en) 2002-09-13 2004-01-20 Opaque flake for covert security applications
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