JP4742451B2 - Travel control device - Google Patents

Travel control device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4742451B2
JP4742451B2 JP2001185226A JP2001185226A JP4742451B2 JP 4742451 B2 JP4742451 B2 JP 4742451B2 JP 2001185226 A JP2001185226 A JP 2001185226A JP 2001185226 A JP2001185226 A JP 2001185226A JP 4742451 B2 JP4742451 B2 JP 4742451B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
vehicle
speed
travel
vehicle speed
travel control
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JP2001185226A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2002089314A (en
Inventor
克彦 岩▲崎▼
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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Priority to JP2001185226A priority patent/JP4742451B2/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a travel control device enabling a vehicle to automatically travel at a given speed, and to prevent inappropriate travel of the vehicle. SOLUTION: This travel control device is carried on the vehicle capable of automatic travel, and carries out automatic travel control of the vehicle. The travel control device judges whether or not the vehicle is in an automatic travel mode (S10). When the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode, the travel control device increases an engine speed to a given engine speed larger than that during idling (S18). When the vehicle is traveled at the given engine speed, a braking effort of the vehicle is controlled so that an actual speed of the vehicle is a preset target speed (S30).

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a travel control device that controls travel of a vehicle.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, as described in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2-70535, as a travel control device that controls the travel of a vehicle, when a slow travel mode is set, the brake depression amount is detected, and the depression amount is calculated. 2. Description of the Related Art A slow travel control device is known that controls the vehicle speed by changing the throttle opening based on this. This slow speed running control device is intended to run a vehicle at a preset slow vehicle speed, and the vehicle speed is controlled only by a brake operation and does not exceed a predetermined vehicle speed. Therefore, this slow speed running control device is suitable for traffic jams and garage entry. .
[0003]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in this slow travel control device, if the throttle opening is operated by Fordback control in order to cause the vehicle to travel at the target vehicle speed, proper travel may not be performed. For example, in order to run at the target vehicle speed, there is a problem that the vehicle gets over the curb of the parking lot. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to cooperate with an advanced peripheral monitoring system.
[0004]
Accordingly, the present invention has been made to solve such a problem, and provides a travel control device that can prevent an inappropriate travel of a vehicle while allowing the vehicle to travel at a predetermined speed. Objective.
[0005]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
That is, the travel control device according to the present invention is an automatic travel determination means that determines whether or not the vehicle is in an automatic travel mode in a travel control device that is mounted on a vehicle capable of automatic travel and performs automatic travel control thereof, When it is determined by the travel determination means that the vehicle has entered the automatic travel mode, When the vehicle is stopped A rotational speed increasing means for increasing the rotational speed of the engine to a predetermined rotational speed larger than that at idling; While driving the vehicle, maintaining the engine speed at a predetermined speed greater than that during idling, And braking control means for controlling the braking force of the vehicle so that the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle becomes a preset target vehicle speed.
[0006]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention further includes a release unit that cancels the automatic travel mode when the vehicle cannot travel with the driving force at the predetermined rotational speed when the vehicle is about to travel at the predetermined rotational speed. It is characterized by that.
[0007]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized by comprising notifying means for notifying the vehicle driver of the release information when the automatic travel mode is canceled by the above-described release means.
[0008]
According to these inventions, in the state where the engine speed is set to a predetermined speed, the vehicle's braking force is controlled to adjust the traveling speed of the vehicle and the automatic traveling is performed. For this reason, when there is an obstacle on the traveling path of the vehicle, it is possible to prevent inappropriate traveling such as the vehicle overcoming the obstacle and traveling.
[0009]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention further includes vehicle speed detection means for detecting the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle based on rotation of a gear that rotates in proportion to the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle, and the braking control means is detected by the vehicle speed detection means. The deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed is integrated, and the braking force of the vehicle is controlled based on the integration result so that the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle becomes the target vehicle speed. In this case, it is desirable to use forgetting integration as the integration process.
[0010]
According to the present invention, by integrating the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed and controlling the braking force of the vehicle based on the integration result, the vehicle automatically travels at a low speed and the time interval for detecting the vehicle speed becomes longer. Even when the update period of the vehicle speed is long, hunting of the vehicle can be suppressed as compared with the case where the deviation is proportionally processed.
[0011]
In addition, the travel control device according to the present invention is characterized by including vehicle stop means for applying a braking force to the vehicle and stopping the vehicle before the vehicle travels at a predetermined rotational speed.
[0012]
According to the present invention, since the vehicle is stopped by applying the braking force before the vehicle travels, it is possible to accurately follow the travel route set in advance when the vehicle automatically travels. This is particularly useful when employed in an automatic parking device or the like.
[0013]
In addition, the travel control device according to the present invention includes a target vehicle speed changing unit that changes the target vehicle speed in accordance with an acceleration / deceleration operation of a vehicle driver.
[0014]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention is characterized in that the above-described target vehicle speed changing means lowers the target vehicle speed by the driver's operation of the brake pedal.
[0015]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized in that the target vehicle speed changing means sets the target vehicle speed to zero when the driver depresses the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more.
[0016]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention is characterized in that the target vehicle speed changing means increases the target vehicle speed by the driver's accelerator operation.
[0017]
According to these inventions, the vehicle driver can change the target vehicle speed by performing a brake operation or an accelerator operation during automatic traveling. For this reason, automatic driving | running | working is attained at the vehicle speed which reflected the driver | operator's will.
[0018]
In addition, the travel control device according to the present invention is characterized in that the automatic travel mode is canceled when the driver of the vehicle depresses the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more when the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode.
[0019]
According to the present invention, the automatic driving can be forcibly terminated when the driver of the vehicle performs a braking operation of a predetermined amount or more during the automatic driving.
[0020]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized in that, when the vehicle is in an automatic travel mode, the vehicle driver travels after releasing the brake pedal.
[0021]
According to the present invention, automatic traveling can be started through a brake operation of a vehicle driver.
[0022]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized in that, when the above-described braking control means causes the vehicle to travel at a predetermined rotational speed, the braking force of the vehicle is gradually decreased to cause the vehicle to travel.
[0023]
According to the present invention, since the braking force is gradually reduced when the automatic running is started, it is possible to prevent the vehicle from starting suddenly.
[0024]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized in that a braking force is applied to the vehicle through a hydraulic braking mechanism when the vehicle is traveling, and a braking force is applied to the vehicle through a mechanical braking mechanism when the vehicle is stopped traveling.
[0025]
According to the present invention, it is not necessary to generate hydraulic pressure for applying a braking force when the vehicle stops traveling. For this reason, energy consumption for applying braking force can be reduced.
[0026]
The travel control device according to the present invention further includes slope determination means for determining whether or not the travel path of the vehicle is a slope based on the acceleration state of the vehicle when the vehicle travels with the engine running at a predetermined speed. It is characterized by that.
[0027]
In the travel control device according to the present invention, the braking control means described above subtracts the acceleration due to the driving force of the vehicle from the acceleration of the vehicle when the slope determination means determines that the vehicle travel path is a slope. Is added to the control amount as a braking force.
[0028]
Further, the travel control device according to the present invention is based on the overshoot of the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle when the vehicle is traveled at a predetermined rotation speed when the vehicle first exceeds the target vehicle speed from the start of travel. The vehicle is characterized by comprising slope judgment means for judging whether or not the traveling road is a slope.
[0029]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention controls the braking force with a predetermined control amount corresponding to the overshoot when the braking control means determines that the vehicle travel path is a slope by the slope determination means. It is characterized by performing.
[0030]
According to these inventions, it is possible to determine whether or not the travel path on which the vehicle automatically travels is a slope, and appropriate vehicle travel is possible even when the travel path is a slope.
[0031]
The travel control device according to the present invention is characterized by comprising vehicle speed detecting means for detecting the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle based on the wheel speed and the braking control amount output at a cycle corresponding to the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle.
[0032]
According to the present invention, even when the vehicle is traveling at a low speed and the pulse signal cycle corresponding to the actual vehicle speed is long, the calculation accuracy of the actual vehicle speed is improved by complementing the calculation of the actual speed based on the acceleration / deceleration due to braking. Can be achieved.
[0033]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention further includes road surface state detecting means for detecting a road surface state of a traveling road on which the vehicle automatically travels, and target vehicle speed changing means for reducing the target vehicle speed when the traveling road is a low μ road. It is characterized by that.
[0034]
The travel control apparatus according to the present invention is characterized in that antilock control is performed when the slip ratio of the vehicle is larger than a set value.
[0035]
According to these inventions, slip is prevented during automatic traveling, and traveling safety is improved.
[0036]
In addition, the travel control device according to the present invention is characterized by comprising output suppression means for suppressing the output of a predetermined electrical device mounted on the vehicle when the vehicle enters the automatic travel mode.
[0037]
According to this invention, it is possible to suppress the deterioration of the power balance during automatic traveling.
[0044]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, various embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. In addition, in each figure, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected to the same element and the overlapping description is abbreviate | omitted. Further, the dimensional ratios in the drawings do not necessarily match those described.
[0045]
(First embodiment)
FIG. 1 shows a configuration diagram of a travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment.
[0046]
As shown in FIG. 1, a travel control device 1 according to the present embodiment is mounted on a vehicle capable of automatic travel and performs automatic travel control, and is applied to an automatic parking device that assists in parking a vehicle. is there. Here, “automatic travel is possible” means that the vehicle can travel at a predetermined speed without acceleration / deceleration operation by the driver of the vehicle. The travel control device 1 includes an ECU 2 that is an electronic control device. The ECU 2 controls the entire apparatus, and includes a CPU, a ROM, a RAM, an input signal circuit, an output signal circuit, a power supply circuit, and the like, and stores various control routines including an automatic travel control routine.
[0047]
A wheel speed sensor 3 is connected to the ECU 2. The wheel speed sensor 3 is a sensor that outputs a signal corresponding to the rotation of the wheel of the vehicle, and functions as a vehicle speed detecting means. The ECU 2 inputs an output signal from the wheel speed sensor 3 and calculates the speed of the vehicle, that is, the vehicle speed based on the output signal.
[0048]
In FIG. 1, only one wheel speed sensor 3 is illustrated, but a plurality of wheel speed sensors installed on each wheel of the vehicle may be provided. As the wheel speed sensor 3, for example, an electromagnetic pickup type sensor installed near a gear-shaped rotor that rotates with the wheel is used. This electromagnetic pickup type sensor detects an electromagnetic field change accompanying the movement of the teeth of the gear member.
[0049]
A brake hydraulic actuator 4 is connected to the ECU 2. The brake hydraulic actuator 4 increases or decreases the brake hydraulic pressure applied to the brake 5 based on the control signal of the ECU 2 that is the target hydraulic pressure, and functions as a braking drive means. A stop lamp switch 15 is connected to the ECU 2.
[0050]
An engine 6 is connected to the ECU 2. The engine 6 is driven at a predetermined rotational speed that is higher than the rotational speed during idling, based on a control signal from the ECU 2 that is an idle-up command.
[0051]
An image processing unit 7 is connected to the ECU 2. In addition, a rear camera 8, a left side camera 9, a right side camera 10, and a display unit 11 are connected to the image processing unit 7. The rear camera 8 is a rear photographing means for photographing the rear of the vehicle. The left side camera 9 is a left side photographing means for photographing the left side of the vehicle. The right side camera 10 is a right side photographing means for photographing the right side of the vehicle. As these rear camera 8, left side camera 9, and right side camera 10, for example, a CCD camera or the like is used.
[0052]
The image processing unit 7 is an image processing device that processes a captured image based on imaging signals output from the rear camera 8, the left side camera 9, and the right side camera 10. The display unit 11 is a display unit that displays an image processed by the image processing unit 7, and displays an image taken by the rear camera 8, the left side camera 9, or the right side camera 10.
[0053]
An automatic travel switch 12 is connected to the ECU 2. The automatic travel switch 12 is a switch for starting automatic travel. When the automatic travel switch 12 is turned on, the vehicle enters an automatic travel mode, and an automatic travel is possible.
[0054]
In addition, a parking position input unit 13 is connected to the ECU 2. The parking position input unit 13 inputs a parking position. A driver of the vehicle selects and inputs a parking position, the target position for automatic driving is determined by the input, and the ECU 2 calculates a driving route. Done. Further, a steering drive unit 14 is connected to the ECU 2. The steering drive unit 14 receives steering control signals from the ECU 2 and steers the steered wheels.
[0055]
Next, the operation of the travel control device according to the present embodiment will be described.
[0056]
FIG. 2 shows a flowchart of the operation of the travel control device 1. As shown in S10 of FIG. 2, it is determined whether or not the automatic travel mode is set. Here, the “automatic travel mode” means a state in which automatic travel is possible, and automatic travel of the vehicle is enabled by entering the automatic travel mode. The automatic travel mode is started when the automatic travel switch 12 is turned on. In addition, an operation other than turning on the automatic travel switch 12 may be set as a start condition for the automatic travel mode.
[0057]
If it is determined in S10 that the automatic travel mode is not set, the control process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined in S10 that the automatic travel mode is set, the process proceeds to S12, and the target position that is the parking position is determined. The determination of the target position is performed, for example, when the driver of the vehicle operates the parking position input unit 13 while confirming the captured image on the display unit 11.
[0058]
And it transfers to S14 and driving | running route calculation is performed. The travel route calculation is a process for calculating the travel route of the vehicle to the target position. And it transfers to S16 and a vehicle stop process is performed. The vehicle stop process is a process in which a drive signal is output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4 to increase the brake hydraulic pressure. This increase in brake hydraulic pressure can reliably stop the vehicle.
[0059]
Then, the process proceeds to S18, and an idle up process is performed. The idle-up process is a process for outputting a control signal from the ECU 2 to the engine 6 and increasing the rotational speed of the engine 6 to a rotational speed larger than the rotational speed at idling. And it transfers to S20 and a driving | running | working start process is performed. The travel start process is a process for automatically starting the vehicle under a predetermined condition. Details of the content of the travel start process will be described later.
[0060]
And it transfers to S30 and a braking control process is performed. The braking control process is a process of controlling the braking force of the vehicle so that the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle becomes a preset target vehicle speed while driving the engine 6 at a predetermined rotational speed to give the vehicle a driving force. Details of the contents of the braking control process will be described later.
[0061]
Then, the process proceeds to S40, where it is determined whether or not the vehicle can travel. This determination process is a process for preventing the vehicle from traveling inappropriately by overcoming obstacles on the road. Whether or not the vehicle is capable of traveling is, for example, whether or not the actual vehicle speed is not zero. Is determined based on
[0062]
When it is determined in S40 that the vehicle is not capable of traveling, the process proceeds to S48 and a notification process is performed. The notification process is a process of notifying the driver that the vehicle cannot travel. For example, a predetermined lamp is turned on to notify that the vehicle cannot travel.
[0063]
On the other hand, when it is determined in S40 that the vehicle is capable of traveling, the process proceeds to S44, and it is determined whether or not the termination condition for the automatic travel mode is satisfied. As the termination condition of the automatic travel mode, for example, it is set that the vehicle has reached the target position. Further, as a condition for terminating the automatic travel mode, it is set that the driver has depressed the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more. Thereby, automatic driving | running | working can be forcedly terminated by a driver | operator's brake operation.
[0064]
When it is determined in S44 that the automatic travel mode end condition is not satisfied, the process returns to S30. On the other hand, when it is determined that the termination condition for the automatic travel mode is satisfied, the automatic travel mode is canceled and the automatic travel control is terminated.
[0065]
FIG. 3 shows an example of the travel start process.
[0066]
FIG. 4 shows a timing chart of brake hydraulic pressure and braking in the automatic travel control. As shown in FIG. 3, in the travel start process, it is set as a travel start condition that the vehicle driver has released the brake pedal. In S50, it is determined whether or not the driver of the vehicle is stepping on the brake pedal. When it is determined that the driver of the vehicle is stepping on the brake pedal, the process returns to S50. On the other hand, when it is determined that the driver of the vehicle has not released the brake pedal and released the brake pedal, the process proceeds to S52.
[0067]
In S52, a control signal is output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4, and the brake hydraulic pressure is reduced (time t2 in FIG. 4). When the brake hydraulic pressure is reduced to a constant value p1, the vehicle starts to travel (time t3 in FIG. 4).
[0068]
At that time, the pressure reduction of the brake hydraulic pressure is gradually performed so as not to be abrupt as shown in the brake hydraulic pressure change after time t2 in FIG. For example, as a control signal output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4, a signal obtained by applying a low-pass filter to the step input is used. After the brake hydraulic pressure is reduced in S52, the travel start process is terminated.
[0069]
FIG. 5 shows an example of the braking control process.
[0070]
As shown in S60 of FIG. 5, in the braking control process, first, the wheel speed is read. The reading of the wheel speed is performed based on the output signal of the wheel speed sensor 3. Then, the process proceeds to S62, and the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle is calculated based on the wheel speed. Then, the process proceeds to S64, and the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the preset target vehicle speed is calculated. Here, the target vehicle speed is set to a speed of 0.25 to 3.0 km, for example.
[0071]
Then, the process proceeds to S66, and it is determined whether or not the calculated deviation is larger than a preset set value A. When it is determined that the deviation is not greater than the set value A, the braking control process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined that the deviation is larger than the set value A, the process proceeds to S68, and deviation integration processing is performed.
[0072]
For example, Z / (Z-1) is used as the integrator used for the integration processing. Here, Z is a delay operator. According to this integrator Z / (Z-1), as shown in FIG. 6, a characteristic having a small gain with respect to the high frequency component can be obtained. Further, forgetting integrator Z / (Z−a) may be used as the integrator. However, 0 <a <1. According to the forgetting integrator, as shown in FIG. 7, it is possible to obtain a characteristic in which the gain of the low frequency component is suppressed to be small. FIG. 8 shows a block diagram of a control system in the travel control device 1.
[0073]
Then, the process proceeds to S70 in FIG. 5, and a control signal based on the integrated deviation is output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4, and braking force is applied to the vehicle by the operation of the brake hydraulic actuator 4. Then, the braking control process ends.
[0074]
As described above, according to the travel control device 1 according to the present embodiment, the braking force of the vehicle is increased in a state where the rotational speed of the engine 6 is set to a predetermined rotational speed higher than that during idling and a predetermined driving force is applied to the vehicle. Control is performed to adjust the traveling speed of the vehicle and automatic traveling is performed. For this reason, when there is an obstacle on the traveling path of the vehicle, it is possible to prevent inappropriate traveling such as the vehicle overcoming the obstacle and traveling.
[0075]
In addition, when the automatic travel mode is canceled when the vehicle cannot travel with the driving force at a predetermined rotational speed, the driver notifies the vehicle driver of the cancellation information, so that the driver automatically has an obstacle on the traveling path. You can easily recognize that there is.
[0076]
Also, by integrating the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed and controlling the braking force of the vehicle based on the integration result, the vehicle automatically travels at a low speed and the time interval for detecting the vehicle speed becomes longer, and the vehicle speed update cycle Even when becomes longer, hunting of the vehicle can be suppressed as compared with the case where the deviation is proportionally processed. For example, when the actual vehicle speed detection means is an electromagnetic pickup type wheel speed sensor 3 that detects the actual vehicle speed based on the rotation of a gear that rotates in proportion to the actual vehicle speed, the vehicle is low speed (for example, 0.25-3. When the vehicle automatically travels at 0 km / h), the update cycle of the output signal of the wheel speed sensor 3 input to the ECU 2 becomes longer. When the number of gear teeth is about 50, the update period is 100 ms or more. If a braking force is applied to the vehicle in such a long cycle, the vehicle may cause hunting. As a countermeasure, when the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed is integrated and the braking force of the vehicle is given based on the integration result, the deviation is proportionally processed and the braking force of the vehicle is given based on the result. In comparison, a sudden change in the braking amount is suppressed. For this reason, hunting of the vehicle can be suppressed.
[0077]
In addition, by using forgetting integration as the integration processing, the gain of the low-frequency component is close to 0 dB as shown in FIG. 7, so that the phase delay in the low-frequency component is improved and the driver does not feel uncomfortable. It becomes possible.
[0078]
In addition, by applying braking force to the vehicle and stopping the vehicle before automatically driving the vehicle at a predetermined number of revolutions, it is possible to accurately follow a preset travel route when the vehicle is automatically driven. This is particularly useful when employed in an automatic parking device or the like.
[0079]
In addition, when the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode, the vehicle driver can cancel the automatic travel mode when the vehicle driver depresses the brake pedal for a predetermined amount or more, so that the driver of the vehicle exceeds the predetermined amount during automatic travel. The automatic driving can be forcibly terminated by operating the brake.
[0080]
In addition, when the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode, the vehicle driver can release the brake pedal to cause the vehicle to travel, whereby automatic travel can be started through a brake operation of the vehicle driver.
[0081]
Further, when the vehicle is automatically driven at a predetermined engine speed, it is possible to prevent the vehicle from starting suddenly by gradually reducing the braking force of the vehicle and causing the vehicle to travel.
[0082]
(Second embodiment)
Next, the traveling control apparatus according to the second embodiment will be described.
[0083]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has the same structure as the travel control device 1 according to the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1, but includes target vehicle speed changing means for changing the target vehicle speed in automatic travel. Is different.
[0084]
FIG. 9 shows a flowchart of the operation of the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment.
[0085]
As shown in FIG. 9, it is determined whether or not the automatic travel mode is set in S10, the target position is determined in S12, the travel route is calculated in S14, and the vehicle stop process is performed in S16. , An idle-up process is performed in S18, a travel start process is performed in S20, and a braking control process is performed in S30. Each process of S10 to S30 is performed in the same manner as described in the first embodiment.
[0086]
And after completion | finish of a brake control process in S30, it transfers to S32 and a target vehicle speed change process is performed. The target vehicle speed changing process is a process of changing the target vehicle speed according to the driver's will. Details of the target vehicle speed changing process will be described later.
[0087]
Then, after completion of the target vehicle speed changing process, it is determined whether or not it is possible to travel in S40, and when it is determined that it is possible to travel, it is determined whether or not the condition for ending the automatic travel mode is satisfied (S44). . On the other hand, when it is determined in S40 that traveling is not possible, a notification process is performed (S48). These processes of S40, 44, and 48 are also performed in the same manner as described in the first embodiment. Then, when the termination condition of the automatic travel mode is satisfied in S44 or when the notification process is terminated in S48, the automatic travel control is terminated.
[0088]
FIG. 10 shows a flowchart of the target vehicle speed changing process.
[0089]
As shown in S80 of FIG. 10, it is determined whether or not the stop lamp switch 15 is turned on. Here, that the stop lamp switch 15 is on means that a gentle brake operation has been performed. Further, the gentle brake operation means a brake operation that does not exceed the predetermined stepping amount set as the termination condition of the automatic travel mode in S44 of FIG.
[0090]
If it is determined in S80 that the stop lamp switch 15 is not turned on, the process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined that the stop lamp switch 15 is turned on, the process proceeds to S82 and the target vehicle speed is reduced. For example, while the brake pedal is depressed, the target vehicle speed decreases stepwise at regular time intervals. Then, after reducing the target vehicle speed, the process returns to S80.
[0091]
According to such a target vehicle speed changing process, when the driver feels that the vehicle speed is high during automatic traveling, the vehicle speed can be reduced by the driver's will, and the driver's uncomfortable feeling can be reduced.
[0092]
In the target vehicle speed changing process, the reduced target vehicle speed may be stored in the memory as a set value.
[0093]
For example, as shown in FIG. 11, after the target vehicle speed is reduced (S82), the process proceeds to S84, and the latest target vehicle speed is stored in the memory. By performing such storage processing, automatic traveling suitable for the driver's driving sensation becomes possible.
[0094]
Furthermore, in this target vehicle speed changing process, the speed reduced by braking may be set as the target vehicle speed.
[0095]
For example, as shown in FIG. 12, when the stop lamp switch 15 is turned on, the process proceeds to S86, and the speed at that time, which is decreased by the driver's brake operation, is set as the target vehicle speed.
[0096]
According to such a target vehicle speed changing process, the driver can set the target vehicle speed according to the actual vehicle speed, so that it is possible to easily select the target vehicle speed suitable for his / her driving feeling.
[0097]
By the way, although the case where the target vehicle speed is reduced as the target vehicle speed changing process has been described, the target vehicle speed may be increased.
[0098]
FIG. 13 shows a flowchart of the target vehicle speed changing process when the target vehicle speed is increased.
[0099]
As shown in S90 of FIG. 13, it is determined whether or not an accelerator operation has been performed. The accelerator operation is, for example, depression of an accelerator pedal by the driver. If it is determined in S90 that there is no accelerator operation, the process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined in S90 that the accelerator operation has been performed, the process proceeds to S92 and the target vehicle speed is increased. For example, while the accelerator pedal is depressed, the target vehicle speed increases stepwise at regular time intervals. Then, after increasing the target vehicle speed, the process returns to S90.
[0100]
According to such a target vehicle speed change process, when the driver feels that the vehicle speed is slow during automatic traveling, the vehicle speed can be increased according to the driver's will, and the driver's discomfort can be reduced.
[0101]
In the target vehicle speed changing process, the increased target vehicle speed may be stored in the memory as a set value.
[0102]
For example, as shown in FIG. 14, after the target vehicle speed is increased (S92), the process proceeds to S94, and the latest target vehicle speed is stored in the memory. By performing such storage processing, automatic traveling suitable for the driver's driving sensation becomes possible.
[0103]
Further, in this target vehicle speed changing process, the speed that is accelerated by the accelerator operation may be set as the target vehicle speed.
[0104]
For example, as shown in FIG. 15, when the accelerator operation is performed, the process proceeds to S96, and the speed at that time increased by the driver's accelerator operation is set as the target vehicle speed.
[0105]
According to such a target vehicle speed changing process, the driver can set the target vehicle speed according to the actual vehicle speed, so that it is possible to easily select the target vehicle speed suitable for his / her driving feeling.
[0106]
As described above, according to the travel control device according to the present embodiment, the target vehicle speed can be changed by the driver of the vehicle performing a brake operation or an accelerator operation during automatic travel. For this reason, automatic driving | running | working is attained at the vehicle speed which reflected the driver | operator's will.
[0107]
(Third embodiment)
Next, the traveling control apparatus according to the third embodiment will be described.
[0108]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has the same structure as the travel control device 1 according to the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1, but performs a slope determination of a travel path for automatic travel and is a slope. The difference is that braking is performed according to the slope in the braking process.
[0109]
FIG. 16 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment.
[0110]
As shown in FIG. 16, it is determined whether or not the automatic travel mode is set in S10, the target position is determined in S12, the travel route calculation is performed in S14, and the vehicle stop process is performed in S16. , An idle-up process is performed in S18, and a travel start process is performed in S20. Each process of S10 to S20 is performed in the same manner as described in the first embodiment.
[0111]
And after completion | finish of a travel start process in S20, it transfers to S22 and a slope determination process is performed. The slope determination process is a process for determining whether the traveling road on which the vehicle travels is a slope. Details of the slope determination process will be described later.
[0112]
After the slope determination process is performed in S22, the process proceeds to S30, and the brake control process is performed. This braking control process is performed in substantially the same manner as the braking control process of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 5, but in the braking process of S70, when the vehicle traveling road is a slope, braking is performed in consideration thereof. Done. Details of this braking process will be described later.
[0113]
Then, after the braking control process is completed in S30, a target vehicle speed changing process is performed in S32, and it is determined whether or not it is possible to travel in S40. Whether or not is established is determined (S44). On the other hand, when it is determined in S40 that traveling is not possible, a notification process is performed (S48). The target vehicle speed changing process in S32 is performed in the same manner as described in the second embodiment. Moreover, each process of S40, S44, and S48 is performed similarly to what was demonstrated in 1st embodiment. Then, when the automatic travel mode end condition is satisfied in S44 or when the notification process is completed in S48, the automatic travel control is terminated.
[0114]
FIG. 17 shows a flowchart of the slope determination process.
[0115]
As shown in S100 of FIG. 17, in the slope determination process, first, acceleration detection of the vehicle is performed. This acceleration may be calculated by differentiating the vehicle speed obtained based on the output signal of the wheel speed sensor 3. Alternatively, an acceleration sensor may be attached to the vehicle and detected from the output of the acceleration sensor.
[0116]
Then, the process proceeds to S102, where it is determined whether or not the acceleration of the vehicle is greater than a preset set value B. When it is determined that the acceleration of the vehicle is not greater than the set value B, the slope determination process ends. On the other hand, when it is determined that the acceleration of the vehicle is larger than the set value B, the process proceeds to S104, where it is determined that the traveling path of the vehicle is a downhill slope, and the slope flag is set. Then, the slope determination process ends.
[0117]
According to such a slope determination process, it is possible to determine whether or not the traveling road is a downhill slope based on the acceleration state of the vehicle.
[0118]
In the travel control device according to the present embodiment, the slope determination process may be a process as shown in FIGS. 18 and 19 below in addition to the process shown in FIG.
[0119]
18 and 19 show flowcharts of other slope determination processing.
[0120]
As shown in S110 of FIG. 18, in the slope determination process, first, a vehicle speed deviation is calculated. The vehicle speed deviation is calculated by subtracting the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle from a preset target vehicle speed.
[0121]
Then, the process proceeds to S112, where it is determined whether or not the actual vehicle speed is higher than the target vehicle speed. When it is determined that the actual vehicle speed is not greater than the target vehicle speed, the slope determination process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined that the actual vehicle speed is greater than the target vehicle speed, the process proceeds to S114, where it is determined whether or not the vehicle speed deviation at that time is greater than the set value C.
[0122]
When it is determined in S114 that the vehicle speed deviation is not greater than the set value C, the slope determination process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined that the vehicle speed deviation is larger than the set value C, it is determined that the road is downhill because the overshoot of the actual vehicle speed is large when the target vehicle speed is first exceeded after the start of traveling, and the process proceeds to S116. Transition and set the slope flag. Then, the slope determination process ends.
[0123]
According to the slope determination process shown in FIG. 18 as described above, the slope determination can be reliably performed even when the vehicle speed is low (for example, 0.25 to 3.0 km / h). It is.
[0124]
By the way, in the slope determination process of FIG. 19, first, a timer is started (S120). Then, the process proceeds to S122, in which it is determined whether or not the actual vehicle speed is smaller than a preset set value D. When it is determined that the actual vehicle speed is smaller than the set value D, the process proceeds to S124 and time measurement is performed in the timer. Then, the process returns to S122.
[0125]
On the other hand, when it is determined in S122 that the actual vehicle speed is not smaller than the set value D, the process proceeds to S126, and it is determined whether or not the elapsed time of the timer is shorter than the preset time T. When it is determined that the elapsed time of the timer is not shorter than the set time T, the slope determination process ends.
[0126]
On the other hand, when it is determined in S126 that the elapsed time of the timer is shorter than the set time T, it is determined that the road is downhill because the speed has increased rapidly, and the process proceeds to S128 and the slope flag is set. . Then, the slope determination process ends.
[0127]
According to the slope determination process shown in FIG. 19 as described above, the slope determination is reliably performed even when the vehicle speed is low (for example, 0.25 to 3.0 km / h), similarly to the slope determination process shown in FIG. Since it can be performed, it is effective for determining the slope when traveling at a low speed.
[0128]
In the slope determination processing in FIGS. 17 to 19, the processing for determining whether or not the road is a downhill has been described. However, these processes are for determining whether or not the road is an uphill slope. Is also applicable. For example, it is possible to determine whether or not the traveling road of the vehicle is an uphill by performing processing with acceleration as deceleration in the slope determination processing in FIGS. 17 to 19.
[0129]
FIG. 20 shows a flowchart of the braking process.
[0130]
In the braking process, as shown in S150 of FIG. 20, the brake hydraulic pressure for automatic control is calculated. The brake hydraulic pressure for automatic control is calculated based on the integral of the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed (see S68 in FIG. 5).
[0131]
Then, the process proceeds to S152, where it is determined whether or not the vehicle traveling path is a downhill slope. This determination is made based on whether or not the slope flag is set. When it is determined in S152 that the vehicle traveling path is not a downhill slope, the automatic control brake hydraulic pressure is set as the target brake hydraulic pressure. Then, the process proceeds to S160.
[0132]
On the other hand, when it is determined in S152 that the vehicle traveling path is a downhill slope, the process proceeds to S156, and the corrected brake hydraulic pressure is calculated. The corrected brake hydraulic pressure is calculated by subtracting a default acceleration, which is a default value, from the vehicle acceleration and multiplying by a predetermined coefficient. Here, the predetermined coefficient is a coefficient for converting acceleration into hydraulic pressure.
[0133]
Then, the flow shifts to S158, and the sum of the automatic control brake hydraulic pressure and the corrected brake hydraulic pressure is set as the target brake hydraulic pressure. Then, the process proceeds to S160, and a control signal corresponding to the target brake hydraulic pressure is output to the brake hydraulic actuator 4. As a result, the brake hydraulic actuator 4 operates according to the control signal, and braking force is applied to the vehicle. Then, the braking process is terminated.
[0134]
FIG. 21 shows a block diagram of an automatic travel control system in the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment.
[0135]
As shown in FIG. 21, in the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment, braking is controlled by applying the target brake hydraulic pressure obtained by differentiating the actual vehicle speed to detect the acceleration and correcting the slope to the brake hydraulic actuator 4. For this reason, compared with the case where no slope correction is performed, the braking controllability of a traveling road that is not a slope is excellent. For example, when the slope is downhill and the vehicle is given a normal braking force when it is not a slope, the vehicle is greatly accelerated and sufficient braking force cannot be secured, and the target vehicle speed may be greatly exceeded temporarily. . On the other hand, by performing slope correction, the vehicle can be controlled near the target vehicle speed without greatly exceeding the target vehicle speed on the slope, and stable automatic travel is possible.
[0136]
Further, as the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 22, the actual vehicle speed is differentiated to detect the acceleration, and the slope is determined based on the acceleration. May be added to the automatic control brake hydraulic pressure to follow the target vehicle speed.
[0137]
Further, as shown in FIG. 23, as the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment, it is determined whether or not the road is a slope based on the vehicle speed deviation, and the output of the controller having an integrator and a gain is determined according to the determination result. The target vehicle speed may be obtained by adding correction.
[0138]
Even with the travel control device having the control system shown in FIGS. 22 and 23, the same effects as the travel control device having the control system shown in FIG. 21 can be obtained.
[0139]
As described above, according to the travel control device according to the present embodiment, it is possible to determine whether or not the travel path on which the vehicle automatically travels is a slope, and even when the travel path is a slope, appropriate vehicle travel is possible. It becomes possible.
[0140]
(Fourth embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to a fourth embodiment will be described.
[0141]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has substantially the same configuration as the travel control device according to the first embodiment, but the wheel speed is detected by the electromagnetic pickup type wheel speed sensor 3 and even at a low speed. The difference is that the vehicle speed can be accurately detected.
[0142]
FIG. 24 shows a flowchart of the braking control process in the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment. The automatic travel control in the travel control device according to the present embodiment is performed in the same manner as the travel control device according to the first embodiment shown in FIG.
[0143]
As shown in FIG. 24, in the braking control process in the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment, first, the wheel speed is read in S60. The wheel speed is read based on the output of the electromagnetic pickup type wheel speed sensor 3. Then, the process proceeds to S61, where the brake hydraulic pressure is read. The reading of the brake hydraulic pressure is performed based on the output of the hydraulic pressure sensor, for example.
[0144]
Then, the process proceeds to S63, and the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle is calculated based on the wheel speed and the brake hydraulic pressure. For example, when the actual vehicle speed is V, the actual vehicle speed V is calculated by the following equation (1).
V = Vw + a · t (1)
[0145]
Here, Vw is wheel speed reading data, a is acceleration (including deceleration) based on the brake hydraulic pressure reading data, and t is the time from the reading of the wheel speed Vw.
[0146]
Then, the process proceeds to S64, and the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the preset target vehicle speed is calculated. Then, the process proceeds to S66, and it is determined whether or not the calculated deviation is larger than a preset set value A. When it is determined that the deviation is not greater than the set value A, the braking control process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined that the deviation is larger than the set value A, the process proceeds to S68, and deviation integration processing is performed.
[0147]
Then, the process proceeds to S70, where a control signal based on the integrated deviation is output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4, and braking force is applied to the vehicle by the operation of the brake hydraulic actuator 4. Then, the braking control process ends.
[0148]
According to such a braking control process, since the actual vehicle speed can be calculated at a constant calculation period t in S63, even when the wheel speed is detected using the electromagnetic pickup type wheel speed sensor 3, the vehicle runs at a low speed. Sometimes the actual vehicle speed can be calculated accurately.
[0149]
For example, as shown in FIG. 25, when the wheel speed is detected using the electromagnetic pickup type wheel speed sensor 3 when the horizontal axis is time and the vertical axis is the vehicle speed, the gear speed decreases as the vehicle speed decreases. The rotation of the rotor of the shape is also slowed, and the reading interval tw of the wheel speed Vw is lengthened. For this reason, if the actual vehicle speed is calculated based only on the wheel speed Vw, the update cycle becomes longer at a very low speed, and the accuracy of the actual vehicle speed decreases.
[0150]
Therefore, in the travel control device according to the present embodiment, the value (at) obtained by multiplying the elapsed time t from the reading of the wheel speed Vw by the acceleration a based on the read data of the brake hydraulic pressure is added to the wheel speed Vw. Thus, the actual vehicle speed can be calculated at an interval shorter than the reading interval tw of the wheel speed Vw. Therefore, the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle can be calculated with high accuracy.
[0151]
As described above, according to the travel control device of the present embodiment, the actual vehicle speed is determined based on the wheel speed Vw of the wheel speed sensor 3 output corresponding to the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle and the brake hydraulic pressure that is the braking control amount. By detecting, the detection accuracy of the actual vehicle speed can be improved.
[0152]
(Fifth embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to a fifth embodiment will be described.
[0153]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has substantially the same configuration as the travel control device according to the first embodiment, but determines whether or not the travel path of the vehicle is a low μ road and the determination. The difference is that the target vehicle speed is changed or antilock control is performed according to the result.
[0154]
FIG. 26 shows a flowchart of automatic travel control in the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 26, it is determined whether or not the automatic travel mode is set in S10, the target position is determined in S12, the travel route is calculated in S14, and the vehicle stop process is performed in S16. , An idle-up process is performed in S18, and a travel start process is performed in S20. Each process of S10 to S20 is performed in the same manner as described in the first embodiment.
[0155]
And after completion | finish of a driving | running | working start process in S20, it transfers to S24 and a low micro road process is performed. The low μ road process is a process of determining whether or not the vehicle travel path is a low μ road and changing the target vehicle speed according to the determination result. Details of the low μ road processing will be described later.
[0156]
After the low μ road process is performed in S24, the process proceeds to S30 and a brake control process is performed. This braking control process is performed similarly to the braking control process of the first embodiment shown in FIG. Then, a target vehicle speed change process is performed in S32, and it is determined whether or not it is possible to travel in S40. When it is determined that the vehicle is capable of traveling, it is determined whether or not an automatic travel mode end condition is satisfied. (S44). On the other hand, when it is determined in S40 that traveling is not possible, a notification process is performed (S48). The target vehicle speed changing process in S32 is performed in the same manner as described in the second embodiment. Moreover, each process of S40, S44, and S48 is performed similarly to what was demonstrated in 1st embodiment. Then, when the automatic travel mode end condition is satisfied in S44 or when the notification process is completed in S48, the automatic travel control is terminated.
[0157]
FIG. 27 shows a flowchart of the low μ road process.
[0158]
In the low μ road process, as shown in FIG. 27, first, in S180, it is determined whether or not the traveling road of the vehicle is a low μ road. The determination as to whether or not the road is a low μ road is made based on the wheel speed by the wheel speed sensor 3 or the like. If it is determined in S180 that the vehicle traveling path is not a low μ road, the process is terminated.
[0159]
On the other hand, when it is determined in S180 that the vehicle traveling path is a low μ road, the process proceeds to S182, and the target vehicle speed is changed to be low. For example, the target vehicle speed is set by multiplying the current target vehicle speed by a coefficient α larger than zero and smaller than 1. Then, the process ends.
[0160]
According to such a low μ road process, even when the vehicle traveling path is a low μ road and the braking performance of the vehicle is lowered, the target vehicle speed is set low, so that safe traveling can be ensured. .
[0161]
In the travel control device according to the present embodiment, it is desirable to perform antilock control under a certain condition when the travel path is a low μ road.
[0162]
FIG. 28 shows a flowchart of the braking process.
[0163]
As shown in S200 of FIG. 28, in the braking process, first, the wheel speed is calculated. Then, the process proceeds to S202, and the vehicle body speed is calculated. The vehicle body speed is calculated by estimating based on the wheel speed.
[0164]
Then, the process proceeds to S204, where it is determined whether or not the vehicle traveling path is not a low μ road. When it is determined that the vehicle traveling path is a low μ road, the process proceeds to S206, and the slip ratio is calculated. Then, it is determined whether or not the slip rate is smaller than the set value β (S208). The set value β is set to 0 <β <1.
[0165]
When it is determined in S208 that the slip ratio is not smaller than the set value β, the process proceeds to S214, and antilock control is performed. On the other hand, when it is determined in S208 that the slip ratio is smaller than the set value β, the yaw rate is detected (S210). Then, the process proceeds to S212, where it is determined whether the wheel speed is zero and the yaw rate is smaller than the set value γ.
[0166]
When it is determined in S212 that the wheel speed is zero and the yaw rate is smaller than the set value γ, the process proceeds to S216. On the other hand, when it is determined in S212 that the wheel speed is not zero or the yaw rate is not smaller than the set value γ, the process proceeds to S214.
[0167]
By the way, when it is determined in S204 that the traveling road of the vehicle is not a low μ road, the process proceeds to S216 and 218, and a normal braking process is performed. That is, automatic control brake hydraulic pressure calculation is performed, and a control signal corresponding to the calculated automatic control brake hydraulic pressure is output to the brake hydraulic actuator 4. As a result, the brake hydraulic actuator 4 operates according to the control signal, and braking force is applied to the vehicle. Then, the braking process is terminated.
[0168]
As described above, according to the travel control device of the present embodiment, slippage during automatic travel is prevented by detecting the road surface condition of the travel path and reducing the target vehicle speed when the travel path is a low μ road. Thus, the safety of automatic driving can be ensured.
[0169]
Further, by performing anti-lock control when the slip ratio of the vehicle becomes larger than the set value, slip during automatic traveling is prevented, and safety of automatic traveling can be ensured.
[0170]
(Sixth embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to a sixth embodiment will be described.
[0171]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has substantially the same configuration as the travel control device according to the first embodiment, but differs in that a braking force is applied to the vehicle using a parking brake when the vehicle is stopped. .
[0172]
FIG. 29 shows a flowchart of a vehicle stop process in the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 29, in the vehicle stop process, in S300, a brake motor (not shown) is driven, a brake system pump (not shown) is operated, and the brake hydraulic pressure is increased.
[0173]
Then, the process proceeds to S302, the electric parking brake (electric PKB) is activated, and a braking force is applied to the vehicle. And it transfers to S304 and a brake motor is stopped. And a vehicle stop process is complete | finished.
[0174]
According to this vehicle stop process, it is not necessary to continue driving the brake motor in order to ensure the brake hydraulic pressure. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the motor current from being consumed for a long time, thereby improving the durability of the motor and reducing the current consumption of the battery.
[0175]
If the vehicle is not equipped with an electric parking brake and is equipped with a manual parking brake, when the brake hydraulic pressure is increased during the vehicle stop process, the motor is turned on when the parking brake is pulled. By stopping the motor, the motor current can be prevented from being consumed for a long time in the same manner as described above, and the durability of the motor can be improved and the current consumption of the battery can be reduced.
[0176]
(Seventh embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to a seventh embodiment will be described.
[0177]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has substantially the same configuration as the travel control device according to the first embodiment, but suppresses the output of a predetermined electrical device mounted on the vehicle during the automatic travel mode. The difference is that an output suppression means is provided.
[0178]
FIG. 30 shows a flowchart of the operation of the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment. As shown in FIG. 30, in the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment, the output suppression process is performed before the braking control process (S30) (S26).
[0179]
The output suppression process is a process for suppressing the output of an air conditioner or audio amplifier, which is a high-load electrical component, so that the driving force of the vehicle does not fluctuate. For example, during automatic driving, the output of electric components such as an air conditioner and an audio amplifier is reduced. Thereby, a constant driving force of the vehicle can be ensured.
[0180]
As described above, according to the travel control device according to the present embodiment, it is possible to suppress the deterioration of the power balance during automatic travel.
[0181]
(Eighth embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to an eighth embodiment will be described.
[0182]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment has substantially the same configuration as the travel control device according to the first embodiment, but according to the output of a predetermined electric device mounted on the vehicle during the automatic travel mode. The difference is that an engine rotation control means for increasing the engine speed is provided.
[0183]
FIG. 31 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to this embodiment. As shown in FIG. 31, in the travel control device according to the present embodiment, the engine rotation control process is performed before the brake control process (S30) (S28).
[0184]
The engine rotation control process is a process for increasing the engine speed in accordance with an increase in the electric load so that the travel driving force of the vehicle does not fluctuate. For example, when the electric load increases due to the operation of an air conditioner, a gear drive generator, or the like, the engine speed is increased in accordance with the increase in the electric load. Thereby, even if the output of the electric equipment increases, it is possible to ensure a constant driving force of the vehicle.
[0185]
As described above, according to the travel control device according to the present embodiment, it is possible to suppress the deterioration of the power balance during automatic travel.
[0186]
In the first embodiment to the eighth embodiment described above, the automatic parking apparatus has been described as an example. However, the travel control apparatus according to the present invention is not limited to these embodiments. The present invention may be applied to a parking assist system in which a driver performs a parking operation while receiving a guide such as a target trajectory and a rudder angle, and low-speed traveling such as traffic traveling. In this way, even during low-speed traveling with frequent acceleration / deceleration, low-speed traveling below the target vehicle speed can be easily performed by operating only the brake pedal.
[0187]
(Ninth embodiment)
Next, a travel control device according to a ninth embodiment will be described.
[0188]
The travel control device according to the present embodiment adjusts the vehicle speed of the vehicle by a driver's brake operation, and from the first embodiment, the vehicle speed is automatically accelerated / decelerated so that the vehicle speed becomes the target vehicle speed. This is different from the travel control device according to the eighth embodiment.
[0189]
FIG. 32 is a schematic configuration diagram of the travel control device according to the present embodiment. As shown in the figure, the traveling control device 1 is provided with a slow traveling mode switch 12a. The slow travel mode switch 12a is a switch for setting a slow travel mode in which the vehicle travels at a slow speed.
[0190]
Here, the “slow driving mode” means a mode in which the vehicle can travel at a slow speed without an accelerator operation by a predetermined driving force that is somewhat higher than the driving torque (creep torque) during idling. The slow speed here means a vehicle speed when traveling on a flat road by operating the brake pedal without operating the accelerator pedal under the predetermined driving force, for example, under the predetermined driving force. If the vehicle speed is 20 km / h when the vehicle travels on a flat road without depressing the brake, it means a vehicle speed region of about 20 km / h or less.
[0191]
When the slow running mode switch 12a is turned on, the vehicle enters the slow running mode and the slow running is performed.
[0192]
Next, the operation of the travel control device according to this embodiment will be described.
[0193]
FIG. 33 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment. As shown in S400 of this figure, it is determined whether or not the slow running mode has been entered.
[0194]
The slow travel mode is started when the slow travel switch 12a is turned on and the actual vehicle speed V of the vehicle is equal to or lower than a predetermined speed V1. The predetermined speed V1 is a preset speed preset in the ECU 2, and is a speed equal to or lower than the vehicle speed when the vehicle travels on a flat road without operating the accelerator and the brake under the predetermined driving force described above, that is, the slow traveling. It is set to a value within the speed range when traveling on a flat road in the mode.
[0195]
In the present embodiment, the predetermined drive force in the reverse direction is set to be smaller than the forward direction, and in a state where the brake is not stepped on, when traveling on a flat road under the predetermined drive force in the forward direction, it is about 20 km. The vehicle speed is about 10 km / h when traveling on a flat road under a predetermined driving force in the reverse direction. For this reason, the predetermined speed V1 in the forward direction is set to 10 km / h as a value of 20 km / h or less, and the predetermined speed V1 in the reverse direction is set to 5 km / h as a value of 10 km / h or less.
[0196]
At this time, instead of turning on the slow travel switch 12a, other operations may be set as one of the conditions for starting the slow travel mode. For example, the start condition of the slow running mode may be that the brake pedal is depressed, the vehicle speed is substantially zero, and the transmission is switched from the forward state to the reverse state or from the reverse state to the forward state. It is.
[0197]
When it is determined in S400 that the vehicle is not in the slow running mode, the control process is terminated. On the other hand, when it is determined in S400 that the vehicle is in the slow running mode, the process proceeds to S402 and an idle up process is performed. The idle-up process is a process of outputting a control signal from the ECU 2 to the engine 6 and increasing the rotational speed of the engine 6 to a rotational speed larger than the rotational speed at idling so as to generate a predetermined driving force somewhat higher than the creep torque. It is.
[0198]
By performing this idle-up, the rotational speed of the engine 6 increases from the idling time, and a predetermined traveling driving force is continuously applied to the vehicle, so that the vehicle can travel at a slow speed. When the vehicle is traveling at a slow speed, the driver can operate the brake to adjust the traveling speed of the vehicle within a predetermined driving force range. When the driver is stepping on the brake pedal and the vehicle is stopped at the time of idling up, the vehicle starts to run at a low speed by releasing the brake pedal.
[0199]
Then, the process proceeds to S404, and it is determined whether or not the actual vehicle speed V is equal to or higher than the set speed V2. The set speed V2 is a speed set in advance in the ECU 2, and is set as a value obtained by adding a predetermined hysteresis to the vehicle speed when traveling on a flat road without stepping on the brake in the slow travel mode as the upper limit speed in the slow travel mode. Is done. In this embodiment, when traveling on a flat road with the brakes turned off under a predetermined driving force in the forward direction, the vehicle speed is about 20 km / h, and about 10 km traveling on the flat road under a predetermined driving force in the reverse direction. / H vehicle speed. For this reason, the set speed V2 in the forward direction is set to 22 km / h, which is 10% as a predetermined hysteresis with respect to 20 km / h, and the set speed V2 in the reverse direction is set to 10 as a predetermined hysteresis with respect to 10 km / h. % Is set to 11 km / h.
[0200]
When it is determined that the actual vehicle speed V is not equal to or higher than the set speed V2, the process proceeds to S410. On the other hand, when it is determined that the actual vehicle speed V is equal to or higher than the set speed V2, the process proceeds to S406 and a braking control process is performed.
[0201]
The braking control process is a process for forcibly applying the brake so that the vehicle speed of the vehicle becomes slower than the set speed V2. That is, a control signal is output from the ECU 2 to the brake hydraulic actuator 4, the brake hydraulic actuator 4 is operated, and the vehicle is braked so that the actual vehicle speed V of the vehicle is slower than the set speed V2.
[0202]
Then, the process proceeds to S408, and a warning process is performed. The warning process is a process for notifying the driver that forced braking is being performed, and is performed through, for example, display on an instrument panel, generation of a signal sound or sound, and the like. Then, the process proceeds to S410, and it is determined whether or not a condition for canceling the slow travel mode is satisfied. As a condition for canceling the slow travel mode, for example, the slow travel mode switch 12a is turned off.
[0203]
If it is determined in S410 that the condition for canceling the slow travel mode is not satisfied, the process returns to S404. On the other hand, when it is determined that the condition for canceling the slow travel mode is satisfied, the control process is terminated.
[0204]
FIG. 34 is a timing chart in the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment.
[0205]
By continuing the idle-up state, a predetermined driving force is continuously applied to the vehicle. In this state, as shown in FIG. 34, when the driver gradually releases the brake pedal, the brake hydraulic pressure gradually decreases, and the vehicle speed V gradually increases accordingly.
[0206]
At that time, the actual vehicle speed V of the vehicle becomes faster than the predetermined speed V2, for example, when the traveling road surface of the vehicle is downhill. At this time, the braking control is forcibly performed without the driver's braking operation, and the vehicle speed is adjusted so that the actual vehicle speed V of the vehicle becomes slower than the predetermined speed V2. Further, during the braking control, the driver is warned to that effect. Therefore, even if a predetermined driving force is continuously applied to the vehicle, it is possible to prevent the vehicle speed from becoming too fast due to the traveling road surface condition or the like.
[0207]
As described above, according to the traveling control apparatus according to the present embodiment, when the vehicle enters the slow traveling mode, the rotational speed of the engine 6 is increased from the idling time so that the driving force of the vehicle is maintained at a predetermined driving force. Thus, when the vehicle travels, the driving force of the vehicle does not increase even if the travel resistance increases depending on the condition of the travel path. For this reason, when there is an obstacle such as a curb on the travel route, it is possible to prevent inappropriate travel such as the vehicle traveling over the obstacle. Further, when there is an obstacle on the travel route, the vehicle speed decreases, so that the driver of the vehicle can sense the travel abnormality, and improper travel can be prevented beforehand by the brake operation.
[0208]
In addition, by performing the braking control so that the actual vehicle speed V of the vehicle does not exceed the predetermined set speed V2, it is possible to prevent the vehicle speed from becoming excessively high due to the state of the traveling road surface such as when the traveling road is downhill. .
[0209]
In the braking control, the vehicle is braked by using the brake 5, so that the vehicle speed can be adjusted with high accuracy, unlike the case of controlling the driving force of the vehicle by reducing the engine output. In particular, the vehicle speed can be adjusted with high accuracy during slow running.
[0210]
In the travel control apparatus according to the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 32, the image processing unit 7, the rear camera 8, the side cameras 9, 10, the display unit 11, the parking position input unit 13, and the steering drive unit 14 are provided. Although not provided, they may be provided as in the travel control apparatus shown in FIG. 1 to perform target position determination, travel route calculation, and the like (see FIG. 2).
[0211]
In the present embodiment, in the braking control process in S406 of FIG. 33, when the actual vehicle speed V becomes equal to or higher than the set speed V2, the brake is forcibly applied so that the actual vehicle speed V becomes slower than the set speed V2. Although braking is being performed, it is desirable to set a lower set speed V3 based on the set speed V2 and set the actual vehicle speed V to be lower than the set speed V3 as a condition for terminating the brake control.
[0212]
For example, as shown in FIG. 35, a lower set speed V3 is set in advance by the set speed V2, the start condition of the braking control is that the actual vehicle speed V exceeds the set speed V2, and the actual vehicle speed V sets the set speed V3. Lowering is set as a condition for terminating the braking control. By setting the conditions in this way, it is possible to reduce the on / off feeling of the braking control and to improve the riding comfort during slow running.
[0213]
In the present embodiment, the vehicle speed when traveling on a flat road without stepping on the brake in the slow travel mode, that is, 20 km / h for the forward direction and 10 km / h for the reverse direction is set as the set speed V3. By setting in this way, it is possible to smoothly connect the braking control state on the downhill and the slow mode running on the flat road.
[0214]
In addition, braking control based on exceeding the set speed V2 may be prohibited when the accelerator is depressed so that the driver can accelerate when the accelerator is intentionally depressed. In this case as well, when the depression of the accelerator is released, the braking control is executed until the vehicle speed decreases to the set speed V3, so that the vehicle can travel in the slow travel mode. However, when the driver accelerates to a vehicle speed substantially exceeding the set speed V2, it is considered that the need for slow running has already been reduced, so a preset speed V4 higher than the set speed V2 is set in advance. In addition, when the actual vehicle speed exceeds the set speed V4 due to the driver's accelerator depression, the low-speed travel mode may be automatically canceled and the driver may be informed accordingly. For example, it is desirable to set 40 km / h as the set speed V4 only in the forward direction so that the vehicle can automatically shift to normal driving when traffic congestion is resolved.
[0215]
In the braking control process (S406 in FIG. 33) in the present embodiment, a future actual vehicle speed is predicted based on the change in the actual vehicle speed V, and the vehicle is forcibly braked when the actual vehicle speed exceeds the set speed V2. Also good. For example, by adding a value obtained by multiplying the current vehicle speed V by the current acceleration by τ, the vehicle speed Vτ after τ seconds is calculated, and when the vehicle speed Vτ becomes the set speed V2, braking is forcibly performed in advance. . In this way, since the vehicle speed can be lowered in advance, a sudden change in the behavior of the vehicle due to braking control can be prevented.
[0216]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the present invention, in the state where the engine rotational speed is set to a predetermined rotational speed, the vehicle's braking force is controlled to adjust the traveling speed of the vehicle to perform automatic traveling, thereby obstructing the traveling path. In the case where there is a vehicle, it is possible to prevent inappropriate driving such as driving the vehicle over the obstacle.
[0217]
Also, by integrating the deviation between the actual vehicle speed and the target vehicle speed and controlling the braking force of the vehicle based on the integration result, the vehicle automatically travels at a low speed and the time interval for detecting the vehicle speed becomes longer, and the vehicle speed update cycle Even when becomes longer, hunting of the vehicle can be suppressed as compared with the case where the deviation is proportionally processed.
[0218]
Further, by stopping the vehicle by applying a braking force before the vehicle travels, it is possible to accurately follow a travel route set in advance when the vehicle is automatically traveled. This is particularly useful when employed in an automatic parking device or the like.
[0219]
Further, by changing the target vehicle speed in accordance with the acceleration / deceleration operation of the driver of the vehicle, it is possible to automatically run at a vehicle speed that reflects the driver's will.
[0220]
Further, by canceling the automatic travel mode when the driver depresses the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more during automatic traveling, the automatic traveling can be forcibly terminated through a brake operation of the driver by a predetermined amount or more.
[0221]
In addition, after the driver releases the brake pedal when the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode, the vehicle is allowed to travel, whereby automatic travel can be started through the driver's brake operation.
[0222]
Further, when the vehicle is automatically driven, the vehicle can be prevented from suddenly starting by gradually reducing the braking force and causing the vehicle to travel.
[0223]
In addition, a braking force is applied to the vehicle through a hydraulic braking mechanism when the vehicle is traveling, and a braking force is applied to the vehicle through a mechanical braking mechanism when the vehicle is stopped. There is no need to generate hydraulic pressure. For this reason, energy consumption for applying braking force can be reduced.
[0224]
In addition, the vehicle includes a slope judging means for judging whether or not the vehicle travel path is a slope, and when the vehicle travel path is a slope, the vehicle automatically travels by controlling the braking. It is possible to determine whether or not the travel path is a slope, and even when the travel path is a slope, appropriate vehicle travel can be performed by braking control according to the travel path.
[0225]
In addition, by providing vehicle speed detecting means for detecting the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle based on the wheel speed and the braking control amount output at a cycle corresponding to the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle, the vehicle is traveling at a low speed and corresponds to the actual vehicle speed. Even when the pulse signal period becomes long, the calculation of the actual speed can be complemented based on the acceleration / deceleration due to braking, and the detection accuracy of the actual vehicle speed can be improved.
[0226]
Also, equipped with a target vehicle speed changing means that lowers the target vehicle speed when the road is a low μ road, and anti-lock control is performed when the vehicle slip rate is greater than the set value, preventing slippage during automatic driving Thus, the safety of automatic driving can be ensured.
[0227]
Moreover, the deterioration of the electric power balance at the time of automatic driving | running | working can be suppressed by providing the output suppression means which suppresses the output of the predetermined | prescribed electric equipment mounted in a vehicle when a vehicle will be in automatic driving mode.
[0228]
In addition, when the vehicle travels by maintaining the driving force of the vehicle at a predetermined driving force when the vehicle enters the slow driving mode, even if the traveling resistance increases due to the condition of the traveling road, the vehicle Does not increase the driving force. For this reason, even when there is an obstacle on the travel path, it is possible to prevent inappropriate traveling such as the vehicle traveling over the obstacle forcibly. In addition, since the vehicle speed decreases when the vehicle tries to get on an obstacle on the travel path, the vehicle driver can detect a travel abnormality and prevent inappropriate travel by a brake operation.
[0229]
In addition, by performing the braking control so that the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle does not exceed the predetermined set speed, it is possible to prevent the vehicle speed from becoming excessively high due to the state of the traveling road such as when the traveling road is downhill.
[0230]
Furthermore, the future actual vehicle speed is predicted based on the change in the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle, and the vehicle speed is reduced by controlling the vehicle so that the future actual vehicle speed does not exceed the predetermined set speed. Thus, it is possible to prevent the vehicle behavior from changing suddenly by the braking control.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram of a travel control device according to a first embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control device of FIG.
FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing an example of a travel start process in the travel control device of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a timing chart of brake hydraulic pressure and braking in the travel control device of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a flowchart showing an example of a braking control process in the travel control device of FIG. 1;
6 is an explanatory diagram of an integrator in the travel control device of FIG. 1. FIG.
7 is an explanatory diagram of an integrator in the travel control device of FIG. 1. FIG.
FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a control system in the travel control device of FIG. 1;
FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the second embodiment.
10 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9. FIG.
11 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9;
12 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9;
13 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9. FIG.
14 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9. FIG.
15 is a flowchart showing an example of a target vehicle speed changing process in the travel control device of FIG. 9;
FIG. 16 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the third embodiment.
FIG. 17 is a flowchart illustrating an example of a slope determination process in the travel control device of FIG. 16;
18 is a flowchart showing an example of a slope determination process in the travel control device of FIG.
FIG. 19 is a flowchart showing an example of a slope determination process in the travel control device of FIG. 16;
20 is a flowchart showing an example of a braking process in the travel control device of FIG.
FIG. 21 is a block diagram of a control system in the travel control device of FIG. 16;
22 is a block diagram of a control system in the travel control device of FIG. 16;
23 is a block diagram of a control system in the travel control device of FIG. 16. FIG.
FIG. 24 is a flowchart of a braking control process in the travel control apparatus according to the fourth embodiment.
25 is an explanatory diagram of actual vehicle speed detection in the travel control device of FIG. 24. FIG.
FIG. 26 is a flowchart of a braking control process in the travel control apparatus according to the fifth embodiment.
FIG. 27 is a flowchart of low μ road processing in the travel control device of FIG. 26;
FIG. 28 is a flowchart of a braking process in the travel control device of FIG.
FIG. 29 is a flowchart of a vehicle stop process in the travel control apparatus according to the sixth embodiment.
FIG. 30 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the seventh embodiment.
FIG. 31 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the eighth embodiment.
FIG. 32 is an explanatory diagram of a travel control device according to a ninth embodiment.
FIG. 33 is a flowchart showing the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the ninth embodiment.
FIG. 34 is a timing chart in the operation of the travel control apparatus according to the ninth embodiment.
FIG. 35 is an explanatory diagram of a modified example of the travel control device according to the ninth embodiment.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Traveling control apparatus, 2 ... ECU, 3 ... Wheel speed sensor, 4 ... Brake hydraulic actuator, 6 ... Engine.

Claims (21)

  1. In a travel control device that is mounted on a vehicle capable of automatic travel and performs automatic travel control,
    Automatic traveling determination means for determining whether or not the vehicle is in an automatic traveling mode;
    A speed increasing means for increasing the engine speed to a predetermined speed greater than that at idling when the vehicle is determined to be in the automatic travel mode by the automatic travel determination means; ,
    When driving the vehicle, the braking force of the vehicle is controlled so that the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle becomes a preset target vehicle speed while maintaining the rotational speed of the engine at a predetermined rotational speed higher than that at idling. Braking control means for
    A travel control device comprising:
  2.   When the vehicle is caused to travel at the predetermined rotational speed, the vehicle is provided with release means for canceling the automatic travel mode when the vehicle cannot travel with the driving force at the predetermined rotational speed. The travel control device according to claim 1.
  3.   The travel control apparatus according to claim 2, further comprising a notification unit that notifies the driver of the vehicle of the cancellation information when the automatic travel mode is canceled by the cancellation unit.
  4.   Vehicle speed detection means for detecting an actual vehicle speed of the vehicle is provided, and the braking control means integrates a deviation between the actual vehicle speed detected by the vehicle speed detection means and the target vehicle speed, and based on the integration result, the vehicle The travel control device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the braking force of the vehicle is controlled so that the actual vehicle speed becomes the target vehicle speed.
  5.   5. The vehicle stopping device according to claim 1, further comprising: a vehicle stopping unit that applies a braking force to the vehicle to stop the vehicle before the vehicle is driven at the predetermined rotation speed. Travel control device.
  6.   The travel control apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising target vehicle speed changing means for changing the target vehicle speed in accordance with an acceleration / deceleration operation of a driver of the vehicle.
  7.   The travel control apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the target vehicle speed changing unit decreases the target vehicle speed by operating the brake pedal of the driver.
  8.   The travel control device according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the target vehicle speed changing means sets the target vehicle speed to zero when the driver depresses the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more.
  9.   The travel control device according to claim 6, wherein the target vehicle speed changing means increases the target vehicle speed by an accelerator operation of the driver.
  10.   8. The automatic travel mode is canceled when a driver of the vehicle depresses the brake pedal by a predetermined amount or more when the vehicle is in the automatic travel mode. The travel control device according to claim 1.
  11.   The travel control according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein when the vehicle enters the automatic travel mode, the vehicle driver travels after releasing a brake pedal. apparatus.
  12.   12. The vehicle according to claim 1, wherein when the vehicle is driven at the predetermined number of revolutions, the braking control means gradually reduces the braking force of the vehicle to drive the vehicle. The travel control device described.
  13.   The braking force is applied to the vehicle through a hydraulic braking mechanism when the vehicle travels, and the braking force is applied to the vehicle through a mechanical braking mechanism when the vehicle stops traveling. The travel control device according to claim 1.
  14.   Characterized in that it comprises slope judging means for judging whether or not the traveling path of the vehicle is a slope based on the acceleration state of the vehicle when the engine is driven at the predetermined rotational speed. The travel control device according to any one of claims 1 to 13.
  15.   The braking control means controls, as a braking force, a value obtained by subtracting an acceleration component due to the driving force of the vehicle from the acceleration of the vehicle when the traveling road of the vehicle is determined to be the slope by the slope determining means. The travel control device according to claim 14, wherein the travel control device is added to the quantity.
  16.   When the vehicle is traveled at the predetermined rotational speed, the travel path of the vehicle is a slope based on the overshoot of the actual vehicle speed when the vehicle first exceeds the target vehicle speed from the start of travel. The travel control apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a slope determination unit that determines whether or not
  17.   The braking control means controls the braking force by a predetermined control amount corresponding to the overshoot when the slope judgment means judges that the traveling road of the vehicle is the slope. The travel control device according to claim 16.
  18.   18. The vehicle speed detection means for detecting the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle based on a wheel speed output at a cycle corresponding to the actual vehicle speed of the vehicle and a braking control amount. The travel control device according to claim 1.
  19.   The road surface state detecting means for detecting the road surface state of the traveling road on which the vehicle automatically travels, and the target vehicle speed changing means for reducing the target vehicle speed when the traveling road is a low μ road. The travel control device according to any one of 1 to 18.
  20.   The travel control device according to claim 19, wherein anti-lock control is performed when a slip ratio of the vehicle is larger than a set value.
  21.   21. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an output suppression unit that suppresses an output of a predetermined electric device mounted on the vehicle when the vehicle enters the automatic travel mode. Travel control device.
JP2001185226A 2000-07-11 2001-06-19 Travel control device Expired - Fee Related JP4742451B2 (en)

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