JP4433422B2 - Vibration suppression device - Google Patents

Vibration suppression device Download PDF

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JP4433422B2
JP4433422B2 JP2007138166A JP2007138166A JP4433422B2 JP 4433422 B2 JP4433422 B2 JP 4433422B2 JP 2007138166 A JP2007138166 A JP 2007138166A JP 2007138166 A JP2007138166 A JP 2007138166A JP 4433422 B2 JP4433422 B2 JP 4433422B2
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vibration
value
frequency
rotation speed
chatter
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JP2007138166A
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JP2008290188A (en
Inventor
英二 社本
浩 稲垣
教和 鈴木
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オークマ株式会社
国立大学法人名古屋大学
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Priority to JP2007138166A priority Critical patent/JP4433422B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/107,191 external-priority patent/US8256590B2/en
Priority claimed from CN 200810109039 external-priority patent/CN101310921B/en
Publication of JP2008290188A publication Critical patent/JP2008290188A/en
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Description

  The present invention relates to a vibration suppressing device for suppressing vibration generated during machining, particularly regenerative chatter vibration, in a machine tool that performs machining while rotating a tool or a workpiece.

  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, for example, there is a machine tool that supports a workpiece on a rotatable spindle and processes the workpiece while feeding a tool to the workpiece. In the machine tool, if the depth of cut in the cutting process is increased more than necessary, there is a problem that so-called “chatter vibration” occurs during the process, and the finished accuracy of the processed surface is deteriorated. At this time, a particularly problematic problem is “regenerative chatter vibration” which is self-excited vibration. In order to suppress the “regenerative chatter vibration”, as described in Patent Documents 1 and 2, When performing machining, find the natural frequency of the system that generates chatter vibrations such as tools and workpieces, chatter frequency during machining, multiply the natural frequency or chatter frequency by 60, and the number of tool blades and a predetermined integer. It is known that a value obtained by dividing by the rotation speed may be used as a rotation speed (hereinafter, the rotation speed calculated by the method is referred to as a stable rotation speed).

  Then, in order to obtain the natural frequency of a system in which “chatter vibration” occurs, as described in Patent Document 1, a tool or a work is subjected to impulse vibration to measure the vibration frequency. Is known. Further, in order to obtain the chatter frequency during machining, as described in Patent Document 2, a sound sensor is arranged in the vicinity of a rotating tool or workpiece and detected by the sound sensor during machining. There is a method of obtaining “chatter frequency” based on the vibration frequency.

JP 2003-340627 A JP-T-2001-517557

However, when the “natural frequency” is obtained by the method of Patent Document 1, an expensive impulse device is required, which increases the cost. In addition, although the vibration method disclosed in Patent Document 1 requires a high level of technology, the “natural frequency” measured before machining does not necessarily match the “natural frequency” during machining, so that an accurate optimum rotational speed is obtained. There is also a problem that it is inferior in practicality, such as difficult to obtain.
On the other hand, in the method of Patent Document 2 described above, a “chatter frequency” is obtained by analyzing a rotating sound or the like by a sound sensor. Since there is a difference with “chatter frequency”, it is difficult to obtain an accurate optimum rotational speed, as in the method of Patent Document 1. In other words, when calculating the “chatter frequency” from rotating sound, etc., after the vibration frequency corresponding to “chatter vibration” is detected, after further processing and measurement several times, asymptotically, “chatter frequency” Therefore, it takes time until the optimum rotation speed is calculated after the “chatter vibration” is detected, and as a result, there is a problem that marks due to chatter remain on the processed surface.

  Therefore, the present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and is capable of obtaining an accurate optimum rotation speed and suppressing vibrations that can reduce the time from the occurrence of chatter vibration until the optimum rotation speed is calculated. The device is to be provided.

In order to achieve the above object, the invention according to claim 1 of the present invention is a chatter vibration generated when a rotating shaft for rotating a tool or a workpiece is rotated in the machine tool. A vibration suppressing device for suppressing vibration,
Detection means for detecting vibration in the time domain due to the rotating shaft during rotation, and calculation of chatter frequency and frequency domain vibration at the chatter frequency based on the vibration in the time domain detected by the detection means When the calculated vibration in the frequency region exceeds a predetermined threshold, the chatter frequency is multiplied by 60 to obtain a stable rotational speed divided by the number of tool blades and a predetermined integer, and at least the following formula (1) Calculating means for determining a coefficient based on the k value and the phase information calculated by (3), and calculating an optimum rotation speed of the rotating shaft capable of suppressing chatter vibration from the coefficient and the stable rotation speed ; And a rotation speed control means for rotating the rotation shaft at the optimum rotation speed calculated by the calculation means.
k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotating shaft rotation speed) (1)
k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the present invention, the computing means is used according to an arithmetic expression using the k value and phase information calculated by the above formulas (1) to (3). The coefficient is calculated and determined .
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the second aspect of the present invention, a plurality of coefficients are preliminarily associated with the k value and phase information calculated by the above formulas (1) to (3). The calculation unit stores a plurality of coefficients in advance in association with the k value and the phase information calculated by the above formulas (1) to (3), and the calculation unit stores the plurality of coefficients in advance. is convex-out to the calculated k values and phase information, characterized in that determined by selecting the coefficients to be used.
The “vibration” described in claim 1 includes vibration acceleration, displacement due to vibration, sound pressure due to vibration, and the like.

According to the present invention, the detection means for detecting vibration in the time domain due to the rotating rotating shaft, and the chatter frequency and the frequency at the chatter frequency based on the vibration in the time domain detected by the detection means. When the vibration acceleration of the region is calculated, and when the vibration of the calculated frequency region exceeds a predetermined threshold value, the chatter frequency is multiplied by 60 to obtain the stable rotation speed divided by the number of tool blades and a predetermined integer, and at least To determine a coefficient based on the k value and phase information calculated by equations (1) to (3) described later, and to calculate the optimum rotational speed of the rotating shaft capable of suppressing chatter vibration from the coefficient and the stable rotational speed. And a rotation speed control means for rotating the rotation shaft at the optimum rotation speed calculated by the calculation means. Ri for calculating the optimum rotational speed on the basis of the oscillation ", it is possible to immediately calculate a more accurate optimum rotating speed, it is possible to utilize the rotation of the rotating immediately axis the calculated optimum rotational speed. Therefore, “chatter vibration” generated on the rotating shaft can be effectively suppressed, the finishing accuracy of the machined surface can be maintained at a high quality, tool wear can be suppressed, and tool loss can be prevented. it can.

  Hereinafter, a vibration suppressing device according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram showing a block configuration of the vibration suppressing device 10. FIG. 2 is an explanatory view showing the rotary shaft housing 1 to be subjected to vibration suppression from the side, and FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the rotary shaft housing 1 from the axial direction.
The vibration suppressing device 10 is for suppressing “chatter vibration” generated in the rotating shaft 3 provided in the rotating shaft housing 1 so as to be rotatable around the C axis, and is a time region generated in the rotating rotating shaft 3. Sensor (detection means) 2a to 2c for detecting the vibration acceleration of the motor, and a control device (calculation means and rotation) for controlling the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 based on the detection values by the vibration sensors 2a to 2c. Speed control means) 5.

  The vibration sensors 2a to 2c are attached to the rotary shaft housing 1 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, and one vibration sensor is a time domain vibration acceleration (on the time axis) in a direction perpendicular to the other vibration sensors. (For example, the vibration sensors 2a to 2c detect vibration accelerations in the time domain in the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis directions orthogonal to each other, respectively). To do).

  On the other hand, the control device 5 is optimal based on the FFT calculation device 6 that performs analysis based on vibration acceleration in the time domain detected from the vibration sensors 2a to 2c, and the value calculated by the FFT calculation device 6. A parameter calculation device 7 for calculating the rotation speed and the like and an NC device 8 for controlling machining in the rotary shaft housing 1 are provided. Analysis as described later in the FFT calculation device 6 and monitoring of the rotation speed of the rotary shaft 3 are provided. It is carried out.

Here, suppression control of “chatter vibration” in the control device 5 will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing an example of the Fourier analysis result of vibration acceleration in the time domain, and FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram showing an example of the relationship between the coefficient necessary for calculating the optimum rotational speed, the k value, and the phase. It is. FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing the control for suppressing “chatter vibration”.
First, the FFT processing unit 6 performs Fourier analysis of vibration acceleration in the time domain in the vibration sensors 2a to 2c that are constantly detected during rotation (S1), and the frequency (chatter) of the rotating shaft 3 as shown in FIG. Frequency) and vibration acceleration in the frequency domain of the rotating shaft 3 at the frequency (meaning vibration acceleration on the frequency axis) are calculated (S2). When Fourier analysis of the vibration acceleration in the time domain is performed, a plurality of waveforms as shown in FIG. 4 showing the relationship between the frequency and the vibration acceleration in the frequency domain are acquired. Therefore, in the present embodiment, the following control is performed using a waveform that maximizes the vibration acceleration value in the frequency domain.
Next, the parameter computing device 7 compares the vibration acceleration in the frequency domain calculated in the FFT computing device 6 with a predetermined threshold value set in advance (S3), and the calculated vibration acceleration in the frequency domain is obtained. When a predetermined threshold value is exceeded (for example, when the vibration acceleration value 4 in the frequency domain in FIG. 4 is detected), it is assumed that “chatter vibration” to be suppressed occurs on the rotating shaft 3 and the following arithmetic expression The optimum rotational speed is calculated according to (1) to (5) (S4). Then, the rotation speed of the rotary shaft 3 is controlled by the NC device 8 so as to obtain the calculated optimum rotation speed (S5), and amplification of “chatter vibration” is prevented, that is, suppressed.
As described above, the suppression control of “chatter vibration” in the control device 5 is performed.

k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotating shaft rotation speed) (1)
k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
Coefficient = a−b × k value + c × phase information (4)
Optimal rotation speed = coefficient x stable rotation speed (5)
Here, it is assumed that the “number of tool blades” in Equation (1) is set in the parameter calculation device 7 in advance. Further, the rotation shaft rotation speed in the equation (1) is the current rotation speed (before the optimum rotation speed). Further, the stable rotational speed in the equation (5) is a rotational speed calculated by the method described in the background art, and the “chatter frequency” uses a value obtained by Fourier analysis in the calculation. To do.

The determination of the constants a, b, and c in the equation (4) will be described.
The constants a, b, and c are determined from a stability limit diagram created based on various conditions such as the relationship between the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 and “chatter frequency”. For example, test machining is performed at various rotational speeds, Fourier analysis of vibration acceleration in the time domain detected during machining is performed, and the frequency of the rotation axis (chatter frequency) and vibration acceleration in the frequency domain at the frequency are determined. Is calculated. Here, the vibration acceleration in the frequency domain during machining is periodically increased or decreased according to the change in the rotation speed, and the rotation speed at which the vibration acceleration in the frequency domain is the minimum value is the optimum rotation speed to be obtained. . Therefore, the phase information, k value, stable rotation speed, etc. at each rotation speed are obtained by the above formula, and each element (phase information and k value) and the rotation speed at which the vibration acceleration in the frequency domain is the minimum value are stabilized. The relationship with the value divided by the rotational speed (that is, the coefficient) is obtained as shown in FIG. Then, from the relationship shown in FIG. 5, the constants a, b, and c of the above-described coefficient arithmetic expression (formula (4)) are determined using various analysis techniques (for example, a = 0.971, b = 0. 003, c = 0.045, etc.).

  According to the vibration control device 10 that performs the control related to vibration suppression as described above, “vibration vibration” generated during the rotation of the rotary shaft 3 by the vibration sensors 2a to 2c, the FFT calculation device 6, and the parameter calculation device 7 is detected in real time. When the occurrence of “chatter vibration” is detected, the optimum rotational speed is immediately calculated by the above arithmetic expressions (1) to (5), and the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 is set as the optimum rotational speed. Suppresses “chatter vibration” amplification. That is, since the optimum rotation speed is calculated based on “chatter vibration” generated in the rotating shaft 3 that is actually rotating, a more accurate optimum rotation speed can be immediately calculated. Therefore, the “chatter vibration” can be effectively suppressed, the finishing accuracy of the machined surface can be kept high, and effects such as suppression of tool wear and prevention of tool chipping can be achieved.

  The configuration related to the vibration suppression device of the present invention is not limited to the mode described in the above embodiment, and the configuration related to vibration suppression control in the detection means, the control device, and the control device, The present invention can be changed as needed without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

For example, the accuracy of the relationship between the phase information, the k value, and the coefficient as shown in Expression (4) and FIG. 5 is further improved by appropriately investigating and determining according to the type of machine tool. Can do. That is, the calculation of the coefficient is not limited to the equation (4) described in the above embodiment.
In the above-described embodiment, the coefficient is calculated and calculated by Expression (4). However, a plurality of coefficient values are stored in the control device in advance in a state corresponding to the k value and the phase information, and the calculation is performed. It is also possible to adopt a configuration in which a coefficient is selected and determined in accordance with the k value and phase information (the expression (4) is omitted).
Furthermore, when Fourier analysis of the vibration acceleration in the time domain detected by the detection means is performed, in the above embodiment, the waveform having the maximum vibration acceleration in the frequency domain is used to suppress “chatter vibration”. Although such control is performed, the optimum rotational speed is calculated using a plurality of waveforms (for example, three) having higher values of vibration acceleration in the frequency domain, so that the effect of suppressing “chatter vibration” can be reduced. Further improvements may be made.

Furthermore, in the above embodiment, the detection means detects the vibration acceleration of the rotating shaft, and calculates the optimum rotation speed based on the detected vibration acceleration. However, the detection means detects the displacement and sound pressure due to vibration. It may be configured to detect and calculate the optimum rotational speed based on the detected displacement and sound pressure.
In addition, in the above-described embodiment, the vibration is detected in the rotating shaft of a machine tool such as a so-called machining center that rotates the tool. However, the vibration on the non-rotating side (fixed side) or the vicinity thereof is detected. Anyway. Furthermore, it can also be applied to a machine tool that rotates a workpiece such as a lathe. In that case, it detects vibrations on the spindle side that holds the workpiece that is the rotation axis, or detects vibrations on the tool that is on the fixed side. can do. Needless to say, the installation position, the number of installations, and the like of the detection means may be appropriately changed according to the type and size of the machine tool.

It is explanatory drawing which showed the block structure of the vibration suppression apparatus. It is explanatory drawing which showed the rotating shaft housing used as the object of vibration suppression from the side surface. It is explanatory drawing which showed the rotating shaft housing from the axial direction. It is explanatory drawing which showed an example of the Fourier-analysis result of the vibration acceleration of a time domain. It is explanatory drawing which showed an example of the relationship between the coefficient required for the calculation of the optimum rotation speed, the k value, and the phase. It is the flowchart figure shown about suppression control of "chatter vibration".

Explanation of symbols

  1 ··· Rotating shaft housing, 2a, 2b, 2c ·· Vibration sensor, 3 ··· Rotating shaft, 5 ·· Control device, 6 ·· FFT computing device, 7 ·· Parameter computing device, 8 ·· NC device, 10 ..Vibration suppression devices

Claims (3)

  1. In a machine tool provided with a rotating shaft for rotating a tool or a workpiece, a vibration suppressing device for suppressing chatter vibration generated when the rotating shaft is rotated,
    Detection means for detecting vibration in the time domain due to the rotating shaft during rotation, and calculation of vibration frequency and vibration in the frequency domain at the chatter frequency based on the vibration in the time domain detected by the detection means When the calculated vibration in the frequency region exceeds a predetermined threshold, the chatter frequency is multiplied by 60 to obtain a stable rotational speed divided by the number of tool blades and a predetermined integer, and at least the following formula (1) Calculating means for determining a coefficient based on the k value and the phase information calculated by (3), and calculating an optimum rotation speed of the rotating shaft capable of suppressing chatter vibration from the coefficient and the stable rotation speed ; And a rotation speed control means for rotating the rotation shaft at the optimum rotation speed calculated by the calculation means.
    k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotating shaft rotation speed) (1)
    k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
    Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
  2. 2. The vibration according to claim 1, wherein the calculation means calculates and determines a coefficient to be used by an arithmetic expression using the k value and the phase information calculated by the expressions (1) to (3). Suppression device.
  3. The computing means stores a plurality of coefficients in advance in association with the k value and phase information calculated by the above formulas (1) to (3), and the computing means calculates the calculated k value and phase information. even-out convex, the vibration suppression apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that determined by selecting the coefficients to be used.
JP2007138166A 2007-05-24 2007-05-24 Vibration suppression device Expired - Fee Related JP4433422B2 (en)

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JP2007138166A JP4433422B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2007-05-24 Vibration suppression device

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2007138166A JP4433422B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2007-05-24 Vibration suppression device
US12/107,191 US8256590B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-04-22 Vibration suppressing device and vibration suppressing method for machine tool
ITMI20080871 ITMI20080871A1 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-14 Device and method for elimination of vibration of the machine tool
DE200810024773 DE102008024773A1 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-23 Vibration suppression device and vibration suppression method for a machine tool
CN 200810109039 CN101310921B (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-23 Vibration suppressing device and vibration suppressing method for machine tool

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JP4433422B2 true JP4433422B2 (en) 2010-03-17

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US9221143B2 (en) 2012-05-17 2015-12-29 Okuma Corporation Machining vibration suppressing method and machining vibration suppressing apparatus for machine tool

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US8229598B2 (en) * 2007-09-06 2012-07-24 Okuma Corporation Vibration suppressing device for machine tool
JP5160980B2 (en) * 2008-07-08 2013-03-13 オークマ株式会社 Vibration suppression method and apparatus
JP5301926B2 (en) * 2008-08-27 2013-09-25 旭化成ケミカルズ株式会社 Polyoxymethylene resin composition and molded article thereof
JP2010257010A (en) * 2009-04-22 2010-11-11 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Machine tool control device
JP5368232B2 (en) 2009-09-24 2013-12-18 オークマ株式会社 Vibration suppression device
JP5683234B2 (en) * 2010-11-26 2015-03-11 オークマ株式会社 Vibration suppression apparatus and method for machine tool
JP5674491B2 (en) * 2011-01-24 2015-02-25 オークマ株式会社 Vibration determination device
JP5631779B2 (en) * 2011-03-03 2014-11-26 オークマ株式会社 Vibration suppression method and apparatus for machine tool
JP5631792B2 (en) * 2011-03-28 2014-11-26 オークマ株式会社 Machine tool monitoring device
JP5734131B2 (en) * 2011-08-18 2015-06-10 オークマ株式会社 Rotational speed display device
TWI472402B (en) * 2012-02-10 2015-02-11 中原大學 Tool flutter monitoring method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9221143B2 (en) 2012-05-17 2015-12-29 Okuma Corporation Machining vibration suppressing method and machining vibration suppressing apparatus for machine tool

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