JP4582660B2 - Vibration suppressor for machine tools - Google Patents

Vibration suppressor for machine tools Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4582660B2
JP4582660B2 JP2007138164A JP2007138164A JP4582660B2 JP 4582660 B2 JP4582660 B2 JP 4582660B2 JP 2007138164 A JP2007138164 A JP 2007138164A JP 2007138164 A JP2007138164 A JP 2007138164A JP 4582660 B2 JP4582660 B2 JP 4582660B2
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vibration
value
chatter
rotation speed
calculated
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JP2008290186A (en
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英二 社本
浩 稲垣
教和 鈴木
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オークマ株式会社
国立大学法人名古屋大学
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Priority to JP2007138164A priority Critical patent/JP4582660B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/107,191 external-priority patent/US8256590B2/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/09Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool
    • B23Q17/0952Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool during machining
    • B23Q17/0971Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool during machining by measuring mechanical vibrations of parts of the machine
    • B23Q17/0976Detection or control of chatter

Description

  The present invention relates to a vibration suppressing device for suppressing vibration generated during machining in a machine tool that performs machining while rotating a tool or a workpiece.

  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, for example, there is a machine tool that supports a workpiece on a rotatable main shaft and processes the workpiece while feeding a tool to the workpiece. In the machine tool, if the depth of cut in the cutting process is increased more than necessary, there is a problem that so-called “chatter vibration” occurs during the process, and the finished accuracy of the processed surface is deteriorated. Particularly problematic at this time are “regenerative chatter vibration” that is self-excited vibration generated between the tool and the workpiece, and “forced chatter vibration” in which the machine tool including the tool is a vibration source. Of these, regenerative chatter vibration, as described in Patent Documents 1 and 2, when processing, the natural frequency of the system where chatter vibration such as tools and workpieces occurs, and chatter frequency during processing It is known that the rotation speed may be obtained by multiplying the natural frequency or chatter frequency by 60 and dividing the number by the number of tool blades and a predetermined integer. On the other hand, in the case of forced chatter vibration, it has been found that countermeasures such as shifting the rotation speed, lowering the feed speed, and reducing the cut into the workpiece are effective.

JP 2003-340627 A JP-T-2001-517557

  However, in suppressing forced chatter vibration, the amount of change in rotational speed to be shifted is unknown, and lowering the feed speed leads to a decrease in production efficiency. Even if the cut is made small, the calculation method for specifying the direction becomes complicated, and the forced chatter vibration cannot be quickly suppressed. In addition, since it is difficult to distinguish from regenerative chatter vibration, if the action that was determined to be forced chatter vibration does not function effectively and chatter vibration is not suppressed, a trial to replay regenerative chatter vibration is performed. Repeated mistakes and sometimes it took time to suppress chatter vibration.

  Therefore, the present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and it is possible to determine the optimum rotational speed instantaneously in each case by clearly distinguishing the forced chatter vibration from the regenerative chatter vibration. An object of the present invention is to provide a vibration suppression device for a machine tool that can be effectively suppressed.

In order to achieve the above object, the invention according to claim 1 is characterized in that chatter is based on detection means for detecting vibration in the time domain of a rotating rotating shaft, and vibration in the time domain detected by the detection means. Calculates the vibration in the frequency domain at the vibration frequency and its chatter frequency, and when the calculated vibration in the frequency domain exceeds a predetermined threshold, based on a predetermined parameter, the optimum rotation speed of the rotating shaft that can suppress chatter vibration And a rotation speed control means for rotating the rotation shaft at the optimum rotation speed calculated by the calculation means. The calculation means includes the following calculation formulas (1) to (1) as predetermined parameters: 4), the optimum rotational speed is calculated based on the phase information calculated based on the calculation formula (3), and the type of the generated chatter is specified. Following obtains a k1 value by changing the k value of the arithmetic expression (2) based on any changes formula (1) (2), respectively optimum by computing equation (4) using the k1 value in accordance with The rotational speed is calculated.
k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotational axis rotation speed) (1)
k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
In the case of forced chatter vibration: k1 value = k value + constant + 1 + 1, change formula (1)
In the case of regenerative chatter vibration: k1 value = k value + 1..Change formula (2)
Optimal rotation speed = 60 x chatter frequency / (number of tool blades x k1 value) (4)

According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the present invention, when the phase information obtained by the arithmetic expression (3) is a value close to 0, the calculating means determines that the forced chatter vibration, and the change expression ( The constant in 1) is set to 0.5 or -0.5 to obtain the k1 value, and the optimum rotational speed is calculated from the calculation formula (4).
The term “vibration” as used in claim 1 refers to a physical that can be detected on a rotating shaft indirectly due to vibration, as well as vibration itself, such as vibration acceleration, displacement due to vibration, and sound pressure due to vibration. Change.

According to the present invention, since the optimum rotation speed is calculated based on chatter vibration generated in the rotating shaft that is actually rotating, it is possible to immediately calculate a more accurate optimum rotation speed and to calculate the calculated optimum rotation speed. Immediately, it can be used to rotate the rotating shaft. In particular, the calculation means identifies the type of chatter that occurs based on the phase information, determines the k1 value that has changed the k value according to the type, and determines the optimum rotation speed using a calculation formula that uses the k1 value. Since the calculation is performed, the forced chatter vibration and the regenerative chatter vibration can be clearly distinguished and the optimum rotation speed can be obtained instantaneously in each case, and chatter vibration can be effectively suppressed. Therefore, the finishing accuracy of the machined surface can be maintained at a high quality, and it can be expected to suppress the tool wear and prevent the tool from being lost.

  Hereinafter, a vibration suppression device according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram showing a block configuration of the vibration suppressing device 10. FIG. 2 is an explanatory view showing the rotary shaft housing 1 to be subjected to vibration suppression from the side, and FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the rotary shaft housing 1 from the axial direction.
The vibration suppressing device 10 is for suppressing “chatter vibration” generated in the rotating shaft 3 provided in the rotating shaft housing 1 so as to be rotatable around the C axis, and is a time region generated in the rotating rotating shaft 3. Sensor (detection means) 2a to 2c for detecting the vibration acceleration of the motor, and a control device (calculation means and rotation) for controlling the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 based on the detection values by the vibration sensors 2a to 2c. Speed control means) 5.

  The vibration sensors 2a to 2c are attached to the rotary shaft housing 1 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, and one vibration sensor is a time domain vibration acceleration (on the time axis) in a direction perpendicular to the other vibration sensors. (For example, the vibration sensors 2a to 2c detect vibration accelerations in the time domain in the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis directions orthogonal to each other, respectively). To do).

  On the other hand, the control device 5 is optimal based on the FFT calculation device 6 that performs analysis based on vibration acceleration in the time domain detected from the vibration sensors 2a to 2c, and the value calculated by the FFT calculation device 6. A parameter calculation device 7 for calculating the rotation speed and the like and an NC device 8 for controlling machining in the rotary shaft housing 1 are provided. Analysis as described later in the FFT calculation device 6 and monitoring of the rotation speed of the rotary shaft 3 are provided. It is carried out.

Hereinafter, suppression control of “chatter vibration” in the control device 5 will be described based on the flowchart of FIG. 5.
First, the FFT processing unit 6 performs Fourier analysis of vibration acceleration in the time domain in the vibration sensors 2a to 2c that are constantly detected during rotation (S1), and the maximum acceleration and its frequency (chatter) as shown in 4 of FIG. Frequency) is calculated (S2).
Next, the parameter calculation device 7 compares the maximum acceleration calculated in S2 above with a predetermined threshold value set in advance (S3). Assuming that "vibration" has occurred, in S4, the k value and phase information are calculated from the chatter frequency, the number of tool blades, and the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 by the following arithmetic expressions (1) to (3).

k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotational axis rotation speed) (1)
k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
Here, it is assumed that the “number of tool blades” in the calculation formula (1) is set in the parameter calculation device 7 in advance. Further, the rotation shaft rotation speed in the calculation formula (1) is the current rotation speed (before the optimum rotation speed).

Next, in S5, the phase information obtained by the arithmetic expression (3) is compared with the constants 1 and 2. Here, if the phase information is larger than the constant 1 and smaller than the constant 2, the k1 value is calculated based on the change equation (1) in S6, assuming that forced chatter vibration has occurred. On the other hand, if the phase information is outside this range, it is determined that regenerative chatter vibration has occurred, and in step S7, the k1 value is calculated based on the change equation (2). This discrimination is a predetermined condition for specifying chatter vibration.
k1 value = k value + constant 3 + 1... change formula (1)
k1 value = k value + 1... change formula (2)
If constant 1 is 0 and constant 2 is 0.1, forced chatter vibration can be selected and distinguished from regenerative chatter vibration. Further, if the constant 3 is normally set to 0.5 or -0.5, forced chatter vibration can be most suppressed. Selection of ± corresponds to selection of rotation speed increase / decrease.

Next, in S8, the optimum rotational speed is calculated from the chatter frequency, the number of tool blades, and the k1 value obtained in S6 and 7, based on the following calculation formula (4).
Optimal rotation speed = 60 x chatter frequency / (number of tool blades x k1 value) (4)
Then, in S9, the rotation speed of the rotary shaft 3 is changed by the NC device 8 so that the calculated optimum rotation speed is obtained, so that the “chatter vibration” is prevented from being amplified, that is, suppressed.
As described above, the suppression control of “chatter vibration” in the control device 5 is performed.

  As described above, according to the vibration control device 10 of the above embodiment, the chatter vibration generated during the rotation of the rotary shaft 3 is monitored in real time by the vibration sensors 2a to 2c, the FFT calculation device 6, and the parameter calculation device 7. When the occurrence of “chatter vibration” is detected, the optimum rotational speed is immediately calculated by the arithmetic expressions (1) to (4) and the modified expressions (1) and (2), and the rotational speed of the rotary shaft 3 is calculated. As the optimum rotation speed, amplification of “chatter vibration” is suppressed. That is, since the optimum rotation speed is calculated based on “chatter vibration” generated in the rotating shaft 3 that is actually rotating, a more accurate optimum rotation speed can be immediately calculated. In particular, the parameter calculation device 7 identifies the type of chatter that has occurred and calculates the optimum rotational speed using parameters that are changed according to the type, so that the forced chatter vibration and the regenerative chatter vibration are clearly distinguished from each other. In this case, the optimum rotation speed can be obtained instantaneously, and chatter vibration can be effectively suppressed. Therefore, the finishing accuracy of the machined surface can be maintained at a high quality, and it can be expected to suppress the tool wear and prevent the tool from being lost.

  The configuration related to the vibration suppression device of the present invention is not limited to the mode described in the above embodiment, and the configuration related to vibration suppression control in the detection means, the control device, and the control device, The present invention can be changed as appropriate without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

For example, the phase information, the k value, the constant, etc. as shown in the arithmetic expressions (1) to (4) and the changing expressions (1) and (2) and the relationship thereof are appropriately investigated and determined according to the type of machine tool. By doing so, the accuracy can be further improved.
Further, in the above embodiment, when Fourier analysis of the vibration acceleration in the time domain detected by the detection means is performed, the waveform having the maximum vibration acceleration in the frequency domain is used to suppress “chatter vibration”. Although such control is performed, the optimum rotational speed is calculated using a plurality of waveforms (for example, three) having higher values of vibration acceleration in the frequency domain, so that the effect of suppressing “chatter vibration” can be reduced. Further improvements may be made.

Furthermore, in the above-described embodiment, the configuration is such that the vibration acceleration of the rotating shaft is detected by the detection means, and the optimum rotation speed is calculated based on the detected vibration acceleration. It may be configured to detect and calculate the optimum rotational speed based on the detected displacement and sound pressure.
In addition, in the above-described embodiment, the vibration is detected in the rotating shaft of a machine tool such as a so-called machining center that rotates the tool. However, the vibration on the non-rotating side (fixed side) or the vicinity thereof is detected. Anyway. Furthermore, it can also be applied to a machine tool that rotates a workpiece such as a lathe. In that case, it detects vibrations on the spindle side that holds the workpiece that is the rotation axis, or detects vibrations on the tool that is on the fixed side. can do. Needless to say, the installation position, the number of installations, and the like of the detection means may be appropriately changed according to the type and size of the machine tool.

It is explanatory drawing which showed the block structure of the vibration suppression apparatus. It is explanatory drawing which showed the rotating shaft housing used as the object of vibration suppression from the side surface. It is explanatory drawing which showed the rotating shaft housing from the axial direction. It is explanatory drawing which showed an example of the Fourier-analysis result of the vibration acceleration of a time domain. It is a flowchart which concerns on suppression control of chatter vibration.

Explanation of symbols

  1 ··· Rotating shaft housing, 2a, 2b, 2c ·· Vibration sensor, 3 ··· Rotating shaft, 5 ·· Control device, 6 ·· FFT computing device, 7 ·· Parameter computing device, 8 ·· NC device, 10 ..Vibration suppression devices

Claims (2)

  1. In a machine tool provided with a rotating shaft for rotating a tool or a workpiece, a vibration suppressing device for suppressing chatter vibration generated when the rotating shaft is rotated,
    Based on the detection means for detecting the vibration in the time domain of the rotating shaft during rotation and the vibration in the time domain detected by the detection means, the vibration frequency and the vibration in the frequency domain at the chatter frequency are calculated. When the calculated vibration in the frequency domain exceeds a predetermined threshold, based on a predetermined parameter, calculating means for calculating the optimum rotational speed of the rotating shaft capable of suppressing chatter vibration, and the calculating means Rotation speed control means for rotating the rotation shaft at an optimum rotation speed, and
    The calculation means calculates the optimum rotation speed based on the following calculation formulas (1) to (4) serving as the predetermined parameters. At that time, the calculation means is calculated based on the calculation formula (3). The type of chatter generated from the phase information is specified, and the k value of the calculation formula (2) is changed based on one of the following change formulas (1) and (2) according to the specified type of chatter to change k1 A vibration suppression device for a machine tool, characterized in that an optimum rotation speed is calculated by an arithmetic expression (4) using the k1 value.
    k ′ value = 60 × chat vibration frequency / (number of tool blades × rotational axis rotation speed) (1)
    k value = integer part of k ′ value (2)
    Phase information = k ′ value−k value (3)
    In the case of forced chatter vibration: k1 value = k value + constant + 1 + 1, change formula (1)
    In the case of regenerative chatter vibration: k1 value = k value + 1..Change formula (2)
    Optimal rotation speed = 60 x chatter frequency / (number of tool blades x k1 value) (4)
  2. If the phase information obtained by the calculation formula (3) is a value close to 0, the calculation means determines that it is forced chatter vibration , sets the constant in the change formula (1) to 0.5 or -0.5, and sets k1. The vibration suppression device for a machine tool according to claim 1, wherein a value is obtained and the optimum rotational speed is calculated from the calculation formula (4).
JP2007138164A 2007-05-24 2007-05-24 Vibration suppressor for machine tools Active JP4582660B2 (en)

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JP2007138164A JP4582660B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2007-05-24 Vibration suppressor for machine tools
US12/107,191 US8256590B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-04-22 Vibration suppressing device and vibration suppressing method for machine tool
ITMI20080871 ITMI20080871A1 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-14 Device and method for elimination of vibration of the machine tool
CN 200810109039 CN101310921B (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-23 Vibration suppressing device and vibration suppressing method for machine tool
DE200810024773 DE102008024773A1 (en) 2007-05-24 2008-05-23 Vibration suppression device and vibration suppression method for a machine tool

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