JP4431679B2 - Composite material and method for producing the same - Google Patents

Composite material and method for producing the same Download PDF

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JP4431679B2
JP4431679B2 JP2004005629A JP2004005629A JP4431679B2 JP 4431679 B2 JP4431679 B2 JP 4431679B2 JP 2004005629 A JP2004005629 A JP 2004005629A JP 2004005629 A JP2004005629 A JP 2004005629A JP 4431679 B2 JP4431679 B2 JP 4431679B2
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composite material
direction
fiber axis
carbon
composite
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JP2005200676A (en
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敏之 上野
公紀 佐藤
仁一 小川
聡 小松原
伸明 尾添
守信 遠藤
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島根県
守信 遠藤
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Description

  The present invention relates to a composite material using carbon fibers or carbon nanotubes and a method for producing the same.

  In recent years, semiconductor modules used in personal computers (hereinafter referred to as PCs), game machines, and the like have increased power consumption as the speed and integration have increased, and the heat generated by the semiconductor modules has increased accordingly. ing. For such a semiconductor module such as a PC, aluminum generally used as a heat radiating member has a thermal conductivity of 237 W / mK. It is supported by forced air cooling.

  In recent years, so-called heat pipes have also been adopted in notebook PCs, in which heat exchange fluid is enclosed in a metal tube and circulated using phase change for the purpose of transferring heat to a low temperature part to dissipate heat. Has been.

  However, these methods have limitations in cooling and heat dissipation capabilities, and are expensive. Therefore, development of a heat dissipation member that has higher thermal conductivity and can be manufactured at low cost is required. Therefore, for example, Patent Document 1 is an aluminum-based composite material in which carbon fibers are dispersed, and the carbon fibers that are the dispersion material are oriented in a two-dimensional random state in a direction to suppress the thermal expansion of the composite material, A carbon fiber-dispersed aluminum-based composite material having a layer structure in the thickness direction is shown.

JP 2001-73102 A

  By the way, the carbon fiber-dispersed aluminum-based composite material described in Patent Document 1 has a property of low thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity and does not deteriorate thermal characteristics even when subjected to thermal shock. Is oriented in a two-dimensional random state, the direction of heat flow is not constant, in other words, it is difficult to control the direction of heat flow. It is not used for those with limitations.

  Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to solve the above-described problems, and provide a composite material that can control the direction of heat flow and is easy to manufacture, and a method for manufacturing the same.

  A composite material according to one embodiment of the present invention that achieves the above object is characterized in that at least one of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes is composed of a metal including at least aluminum and aligned in the fiber axis direction. .

  Here, the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes may be arranged at regular intervals or at irregular intervals.

  Further, the carbon fibers or carbon nanotubes may have the same or different thickness.

  The composite material according to another embodiment of the present invention that achieves the above object is composed of at least one of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes, the fiber axis direction of which is aligned, and a metal containing at least aluminum. The fiber axis direction is the same direction, and the layers are laminated.

  The composite material according to still another embodiment of the present invention that achieves the above object is composed of at least one of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes, the fiber axis direction of which is aligned, and a metal containing at least aluminum. It is characterized by being configured by laminating the fiber axis directions alternately.

  Furthermore, in the method for producing a composite material according to one aspect of the present invention for achieving the above object, at least one kind of carbon fiber and carbon nanotube is arranged on a metal layer containing at least aluminum so that the fiber axis direction is aligned. In addition, the method further comprises the step of laminating a metal layer containing at least aluminum thereon in a sandwich shape, and pressing and integrating them at a predetermined pressure while heating at a predetermined temperature.

Here, the predetermined temperature is about 500 to 700 ° C., and the predetermined pressure is preferably about 6.2 Mpa / cm 2 .

  In general, carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (hereinafter referred to as “CF and the like”) have a property that heat is easily transmitted in the fiber axis direction but is not easily transmitted in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis. According to the composite material according to one aspect of the present invention, since at least one of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes is aligned with a metal containing at least aluminum in the fiber axis direction, the heat generating portion of the member is used. By forming a path for quickly transferring heat to a desired portion, it is possible to control the thermal conductivity to a specific surface of the member.

  Here, according to the form in which the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes are arranged at equal intervals or unequal intervals, and the form in which the thicknesses of the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes are equal or different, the thermal conductivity is controlled. It is possible.

  Further, according to the composite material according to another aspect of the present invention, at least one of the carbon fibers and the carbon nanotubes is aligned with the fiber axis direction, and is composed of a metal containing at least aluminum, Since the fiber axis direction is the same direction or is alternately laminated, the fiber axis direction is configured to be laminated, so that it can have a predetermined strength.

  Furthermore, according to the method for manufacturing a composite material according to one embodiment of the present invention, a desired composite material can be obtained with a simple process and low cost.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a composite sheet 10 conceptually showing the basic structure of a composite material according to the present invention. FIG. 1A shows at least one kind of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes in which fiber axis directions are aligned. are arranged at a certain "CF" 11 equals the thickness at equal intervals l 1, shows a state of being sandwiched sandwiched in aluminum layer 12 as a metal layer containing at least aluminum. (B) is an example in which “CF” 11 is arranged with an equal thickness and unequal intervals including different intervals l 1 and l 2 , and (C) is a thickness Φ 1 and Φ 2 with different “CF” 11. examples which are arranged at equal intervals l 3 include, and (D) are arranged at irregular intervals including an interval l 4, l 5 different contain "CF" 11 different thicknesses [Phi 1, [Phi 2 An example is shown. In either case, in order to obtain desired thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient, the fiber density of CF and the like and the arrangement interval (arrangement density) can be adjusted.

  As the metal layer other than aluminum, copper (thermal conductivity 402 W / mK) can be used in consideration of cost, and silver (thermal conductivity 422 W / mK) can be considered if cost is ignored. In addition, considering weight reduction, magnesium (thermal conductivity 156 W / mK) is possible. Further, the carbon fiber used here is a fibrous carbon material having a fine graphite crystal structure, and the graphite crystal structure is a two-dimensional plate-like polymerization structure, which is a multi-layered structure. . The carbon nanotube used here refers to a graphite sheet having a tubular shape, and is enlarged to a required thickness by spinning or the like. It is known that carbon nanotubes include single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Although the two are not greatly different from each other in terms of crystal structure, the diameter of the nanotube is about 1 nanometer, whereas the carbon fiber is several micrometers. For the production of carbon nanotubes having a length of 20 cm and a diameter of 0.3 mm, a growth method by a CVD method has been reported (Zhu et al., Science 296 (2002), 884).

Next, a procedure for creating a block-shaped composite material formed by laminating the composite sheets 10 having the basic structure described above will be described with reference to FIG.
First, FIG. 2 (A) shows the above-mentioned process for producing the above-mentioned composite sheet 10, and CF etc. 11 are arranged on the aluminum layer 12 with the fiber axis direction aligned, and further on the aluminum layer 12 are laminated in a sandwich shape, and a predetermined pressure is applied while heating at a predetermined temperature. And the composite sheet 10 is created by joining and integrating each. In addition, CF or the like prepreg (carbon fiber, glass fiber woven fabric or sheet-like material in which various resins and metals are impregnated in one direction) is used as the material of CF 11 and the like, and the desired thickness is obtained. You may use what was adjusted.

Next, a plurality of the composite sheets 10 are stacked (see FIG. 2B), and further pressed and heated to create a block-shaped composite material (see FIG. 2C). More specifically, as shown in FIG. 6, it is created using a pressurizer 205 built in the vacuum vessel 200. The pressurizer 205 has a stainless steel cylindrical container 210 and a pressurizing piston 230 similar to the pressurizing die 220 provided in the cylindrical container 210. The required number of the composite sheets 10 are stacked between the pressure die 220 and the pressure piston 230, and an inert gas is introduced while evacuating the vacuum vessel 200. Further, the inside of the vacuum vessel 200 is heated to a predetermined temperature (for example, about 700 ° C.), and is held at a predetermined pressure (for example, 6.2 Mpa / cm 2 ) by the pressure die 220 and the pressure piston 230. Pressurize for a time (for example, about 1 hour). Thereafter, it is taken out from the pressurizer 205 or the vacuum vessel 200 to obtain a block-shaped composite material shown in FIG. Since both end faces perpendicular to the fiber direction of this block-shaped composite material are indefinite, both ends are cut at right angles to the fiber direction to form a composite material 20 (see FIG. 2D).

  Since the composite material 20 produced in this way is arranged so that the fiber axis directions of CF and the like 11 are all aligned in the same direction, for example, when the heat source is at the left end, the heat is easily transferred to the right end. , It becomes difficult to be transmitted to the other surfaces (up, down, front and back surfaces). Therefore, if the right end is sufficiently cooled, the amount of heat radiation on the other surfaces is reduced. Therefore, the composite material 20 can easily control the direction of heat flow toward the waste heat section far away from the heat source.

  1 has been described above as a method of manufacturing the composite sheet 10 shown in FIG. 1, but it is needless to say that the composite sheet 10 may be manufactured by other methods such as a molten metal impregnation method and a powder sintering method.

  In addition, based on the composite material 20 in which the fiber axis directions of CF and the like 11 are all aligned in the same direction, various forms are obtained in order to obtain desired thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient according to the application. A composite material can be obtained. For example, as shown in FIG. 2 (E), the composite 20 is sliced in a parallel direction with respect to the CF etc. 11 and 20H, and as shown in FIG. A composite material 30 is prepared by preparing 20V sliced in the vertical direction, and alternately superposing them and applying pressure and heating. Similarly, as shown in FIG. 2 (E), the composite material 20 is sliced in parallel with the CF etc. 11 and 20H is superposed with the fiber axis directions of the CF etc. 11 being alternately changed. The composite material 40 can also be created by applying pressure and heating.

  Here, the heat flow characteristics in each of the composite materials 20, 30 and 40 will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 3, the arrow indicates the direction of heat flow and the size thereof indicates the ease of heat flow. The composite material 20 shown in FIG. 3A becomes a composite material that conducts heat well in the left-right direction when a heat source is present on the bottom surface, and the composite material 30 shown in FIG. When a heat source is present, the composite material conducts heat well in the top, front, back, left and right directions. Furthermore, the composite material 40 shown in FIG. It turns out that it becomes the composite material which conveys heat. In other words, the composite material 20 in which the carbon fibers are arranged in one direction can increase the thermal conductivity only in the fiber direction, whereas the composite material 30 can increase the thermal conductivity on any surface of the material. Moreover, it is possible to control the thermal conductivity to a specific surface (one direction, two-dimensional plane, three-dimensional direction) by adjusting the density of the fibers.

  Next, an example in which such a composite material is used in a notebook PC is shown in FIG. In FIG. 4, reference numeral 100 denotes a mother board on which the semiconductor 110 or the like is disposed, 120 denotes a heat spreader made of a metal plate used in contact with the upper surface in order to efficiently release the heat generated by the semiconductor 110 or the like, 130 denotes a heat sink and 140 Is a cooling fan. Therefore, in the present embodiment, the composite material 20 is provided in a cross-linked state by bringing the end portions into contact with each other between the heat spreaders 120, and the end portions are also in contact with each other between the heat spreader 120 and the heat sink 130. The material 20 is provided in a crosslinked state.

  In the composite material 20 provided in a bridged state between the heat spreaders 120 and between the heat spreader 120 and the heat sink 130, heat is easily transmitted between members in contact with each other, but the other surfaces (up, down, It is difficult to convey to the front and rear surfaces). Therefore, if the heat sink 130 is sufficiently cooled, the heat is guided from the heat generating portion such as the semiconductor 110 through the composite material 20 to the heat sink 130, but the heat dissipation amount on the other surfaces is small. Therefore, heat can be efficiently flowed to the heat sink 130 normally disposed on the back surface without causing overheating due to radiant heat from the heat generating portion such as the semiconductor 110 to the keyboard portion.

  As for the heat sink 130, as shown in FIG. 5, a plurality of composite materials 20 as heat radiating fins are provided in parallel with a predetermined interval on an aluminum base 131. In general, a conventional heat sink is made of a highly heat conductive material such as aluminum or steel, and includes a large number of heat radiation fins in order to increase the heat radiation area. In order to increase the heat dissipation efficiency by efficiently utilizing the increased area, it is necessary to transport the heat to the surface away from the heat source by giving the heat dissipation fins a certain thickness. However, although the conventional method of increasing the surface area by thinning the heat radiating fin made of the metal material has a limit in strength, the heat radiating fin of the composite material 20 according to the present embodiment has high thermal conductivity. Since the weight can be reduced and the thickness can be reduced, heat can be efficiently transported to the surface away from the base 131, and a heat sink with high heat dissipation efficiency can be obtained.

  Moreover, in the composite materials 20, 30, and 40 formed in order to obtain a desired thermal conductivity and a thermal expansion coefficient according to a use, it is used according to the thermal expansion coefficient with the above-mentioned heat spreader 120 or the heat sink 130. Is possible. For example, when it is assumed that heating-cooling is repeated on the contact surface, cracks may occur on the joint surface due to thermal fatigue due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient, but the thermal expansion coefficient of CF or the like is almost zero, and CF Etc. can be used as the skeleton of the heat sink 130 to adjust the coefficient of thermal expansion. Therefore, when the thermal expansion coefficient of the composite material 20, 30, 40 is adjusted to the same thermal expansion coefficient as that of the mating member, cracks due to thermal fatigue as described above do not occur. In addition, when laminated in different directions, heat is evenly transmitted to any surface, but the heat transfer is better than existing materials, so when used as a heat dissipation member, its weight is reduced. The thin film can be fully utilized. Further, CF and the like have a small coefficient of thermal expansion, so that when they are combined, thermal expansion can be suppressed as compared with a single metal. As a result, thermal fatigue at the interface between the semiconductor and the heat dissipation member can be suppressed, and a longer life of both can be expected.

  As a metal layer containing at least aluminum, aluminum foil (for kitchen) having a thickness of 15 μm and carbon fiber having a diameter of 10 μm were used. Their thermal conductivities are 237 W / mK for aluminum and 500 W / mK for carbon fiber. Then, the carbon fibers are arranged so that the fiber axis directions are all aligned in the same direction by the above preparation method, sandwiched between aluminum foils in a sandwich shape, and heated to about 500 ° C. while being pressurized in an inert atmosphere. Aluminum foil was joined to obtain a composite sheet.

  The amount of this carbon fiber can be several to about 80 vol%, and the thermal conductivity at this time is (the thermal conductivity of the member) = (aluminum content ratio) × 237 + (carbon fiber Content ratio) × 500, for example, when aluminum: carbon fiber = 50%: 50%, it becomes 0.5 × 237 + 0.5 × 500 = 368.5 W / mK according to the above formula. In comparison, the thermal conductivity is considerably high.

Next, after cutting the composite sheet prepared above to a suitable size, a plurality of layers are laminated and heated to about 700 ° C. in an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen atmosphere as described above, and a pressurizing machine For about 1 hour at a pressure of 6.2 Mpa / cm 2 . And the block-shaped composite material of the form shown in FIG.2 (C) etc. of length x width x thickness = 20mmx20mmx1mm was able to be obtained.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a composite sheet conceptually showing the basic structure of a composite material according to the present invention. FIG. Example of sandwiched layers, (B) is an example in which “CF” is arranged with an equal thickness and unequal intervals including different intervals, (C) is an example in which “CF” includes different thicknesses, etc. In the example arranged at intervals, and (D) shows an example in which “CF” is arranged at unequal intervals including different intervals including different thicknesses. It is process drawing which shows the preparation procedure of the block-shaped composite material formed by laminating | stacking the composite sheet which has a basic structure. It is a perspective view which shows the heat flow characteristic in each composite material 20, 30 and 40, (A) is the composite material 20, (B) which conducts heat well in the left-right direction when a heat source exists on the bottom surface thereof. When there is a heat source on the bottom surface, the composite material 30 that conducts heat well in the front, back, and left and right directions, and (C) shows a composite material 40 that conducts heat well in the front and back and left and right directions when the heat source exists on the bottom surface. Show. It is a disassembled perspective view which shows embodiment which used the composite material which concerns on this invention for notebook type PC. It is a perspective view which shows an example of the heat sink which used the composite material which concerns on this invention as a radiation fin. It is a cross-sectional schematic diagram which shows an example of the apparatus used for producing the composite material which concerns on this invention.

Explanation of symbols

10 Composite sheet 11 “CF”
12 Aluminum layer 20, 30, 40 Composite material

Claims (7)

  1. Arrange at least one kind of carbon fiber and carbon nanotube aligned in the fiber axis direction, laminate a metal layer containing at least aluminum in a sandwich shape to create a composite sheet,
      A plurality of the composite sheets are aligned and laminated so that the fiber axis directions are all in the same direction, and a block-shaped composite material is created,
      Slicing the block composite in a direction parallel to the fiber axis direction,
      Slicing the block-shaped composite material in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis direction,
      A composite material formed by alternately laminating the fiber axis directions in the front-rear direction, the up-down direction, and the left-right direction.
  2.   The composite material according to claim 1, wherein the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes are arranged at equal intervals.
  3.   The composite material according to claim 1, wherein the carbon fibers or carbon nanotubes are arranged at unequal intervals.
  4.   The composite material according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes have the same thickness.
  5.   The composite material according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the carbon fibers or the carbon nanotubes have different thicknesses.
  6. On the metal layer containing at least aluminum, at least one kind of carbon fiber and carbon nanotube is arranged with its fiber axis direction aligned,
      Furthermore, a metal layer containing at least aluminum is laminated on it in a sandwich shape, heated at a predetermined temperature, and pressed and integrated with a predetermined pressure to create a composite sheet,
      A plurality of the composite sheets are aligned and laminated so that the fiber axis directions are all in the same direction, and a block-shaped composite material is created by pressing and heating,
      Slicing the block composite in a direction parallel to the fiber axis direction,
      Slicing the block-shaped composite material in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis direction,
      A method for producing a composite material comprising a step of alternately laminating, pressing and heating the fiber axis direction in the front-rear direction, the up-down direction, and the left-right direction.
  7. The said predetermined temperature is 500-700 degreeC, and the said predetermined pressure is 6.2 Mpa / cm < 2 >, The manufacturing method of the composite material of Claim 6 characterized by the above-mentioned.
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