JP4232449B2 - Exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4232449B2
JP4232449B2 JP2002357956A JP2002357956A JP4232449B2 JP 4232449 B2 JP4232449 B2 JP 4232449B2 JP 2002357956 A JP2002357956 A JP 2002357956A JP 2002357956 A JP2002357956 A JP 2002357956A JP 4232449 B2 JP4232449 B2 JP 4232449B2
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Prior art keywords
substrate
liquid
exposure
projection optical
transparent plate
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JP2004193252A (en
Inventor
清 内川
壮一 大和
康弘 日高
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  The present invention relates to an exposure method for exposing a pattern to a substrate in a state where a liquid is filled between the projection optical system and the substrate., Exposure equipment,And a device manufacturing method.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Semiconductor devices and liquid crystal display devices are manufactured by a so-called photolithography technique in which a pattern formed on a mask is transferred onto a photosensitive substrate. An exposure apparatus used in this photolithography process has a mask stage for supporting a mask and a substrate stage for supporting a substrate, and a mask pattern is transferred via a projection optical system while sequentially moving the mask stage and the substrate stage. It is transferred to the substrate. In recent years, in order to cope with higher integration of device patterns, higher resolution of the projection optical system is desired. The resolution of the projection optical system becomes higher as the exposure wavelength used becomes shorter and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system becomes larger. Therefore, the exposure wavelength used in the exposure apparatus is shortened year by year, and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is also increasing. The mainstream exposure wavelength is 248 nm of the KrF excimer laser, but the 193 nm of the shorter wavelength ArF excimer laser is also being put into practical use. Also, when performing exposure, the depth of focus (DOF) is important as well as the resolution. The resolution R and the depth of focus δ are each expressed by the following equations.
R = k1・ Λ / NA (1)
δ = ± k2・ Λ / NA2     (2)
Where λ is the exposure wavelength, NA is the numerical aperture of the projection optical system, and k1, K2Is the process factor. From the equations (1) and (2), it can be seen that the depth of focus δ becomes narrower when the exposure wavelength λ is shortened and the numerical aperture NA is increased in order to increase the resolution R.
[0003]
If the depth of focus δ becomes too narrow, it becomes difficult to match the substrate surface with the image plane of the projection optical system, and the margin during the exposure operation may be insufficient. Therefore, as a method for substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and increasing the depth of focus, for example, a liquid immersion method disclosed in Patent Document 1 below has been proposed. In this immersion method, the space between the lower surface of the projection optical system and the substrate surface is filled with a liquid such as water or an organic solvent, and the wavelength of the exposure light in the liquid is 1 / n (n is the refractive index of the liquid). The resolution is improved by utilizing the fact that the ratio is usually about 1.2 to 1.6), and the depth of focus is expanded about n times.
[0004]
[Patent Document 1]
International Publication No. 99/49504 Pamphlet
[0005]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
By the way, the above-described prior art has the following problems.
In the above prior art, as shown in the schematic diagram of FIG. 9A, the space between the lower surface on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL and the substrate (wafer) P is locally filled with the liquid 50. The mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL from the illumination optical system IL, and an image of the pattern of the mask M is exposed on the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST. When the shot area is exposed, the liquid 50 does not flow out to the outside of the substrate P. However, as shown in the schematic diagram of FIG. 9B, when the peripheral region (edge region) E of the substrate P is irradiated with the exposure light EL to expose the edge region E of the substrate P, the substrate P and the substrate The surface tension cannot be maintained at the step portion D with respect to the stage PST, and the liquid 50 flows out to the outside of the substrate P and peripheral devices. In this case, without the liquid 50, not only the problem that the image of the pattern of the mask M does not form on the substrate P but also the environment in which the substrate P is placed if the liquid 50 that has flowed out is left unattended. There is a possibility that desired pattern transfer accuracy cannot be obtained, for example, causing a change in humidity (such as humidity) and causing a change in refractive index on the optical path of detection light of various optical detection devices. Furthermore, the outflowed liquid also causes inconveniences such as rusting on machine parts around the substrate stage that supports the substrate P. Although it is conceivable to prevent the liquid from flowing out by not exposing the edge region E of the substrate P, if the edge region E is not subjected to exposure processing to form a pattern, a subsequent process such as CMP ( At the time of chemical mechanical polishing, there is a possibility that the substrate P, which is a wafer, hits the polishing surface of the CMP apparatus and cannot be polished well.
[0006]
  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and in the case of performing exposure processing in a state where the space between the projection optical system and the substrate is filled with a liquid, for example, when exposing the edge region of the substrate, An exposure method capable of performing an exposure process while preventing the outflow of liquid to the outside,Exposure equipment,And this exposure method, Exposure equipmentAn object of the present invention is to provide a device manufacturing method using the device.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  In order to solve the above-described problems, the present invention adopts the following configuration corresponding to FIGS. 1 to 8 shown in the embodiment.
  In the exposure method of the present invention, at least a part between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P) is filled with the liquid (50), and the pattern is formed via the liquid (50) and the projection optical system (PL). In an exposure method for exposing a substrate (P) by projecting an image onto the substrate (P), the substrate (P) is supported so as to be disposed between the substrate (P) and the projection optical system (PL). Supported by a substrate stage (PST)Larger than the substrate (P)With transparent plate (8)The transparent plate (8), the projection optical system (PL), and the substrate (P) are filled with the liquid (50B), and the liquid (50A) flows along the moving direction of the substrate (P). Between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL) while supplying the liquid (50A) to the space (56) between and the liquid (50A) from the space (56). Filling with liquid (50A);A liquid (50A) filled between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL);A liquid (50B) filled between the transparent plate (8) and the substrate (P);A pattern image onto the substrate (P) viaAnd including.
  The exposure apparatus of the present invention fills at least a part between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P) with the liquid (50), and forms a pattern via the liquid (50) and the projection optical system (PL). In an exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate (P) by projecting an image onto the substrate (P), a substrate stage (PST) that supports the substrate (P), a substrate (P), and a projection optical system (PL) A transparent plate (8) larger than the substrate (P) supported by the substrate stage (PST) so as to be disposed between the transparent plate (8) and the space between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL) ( The first liquid supply device (1) for supplying the liquid (50A) to 56) and the first liquid for recovering the liquid (50A) from the space (56) between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL). A liquid recovery device (2), and a first liquid supply device (1) and a first liquid recovery device (2). The liquid (50A) is allowed to flow along the moving direction of the substrate (P) between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL), and between the transparent plate (8) and the projection optical system (PL). The image of the pattern is projected onto the substrate (P) through the liquid (50A) filled with the liquid (50A) and the liquid (50B) filled between the transparent plate (8) and the substrate (P).
[0008]
According to the present invention, by providing a transparent plate between the substrate and the projection optical system, for example, when the liquid is disposed between the projection optical system and the transparent plate, the size of the transparent plate is sufficiently larger than the substrate. In this case, no step is formed in the portion corresponding to the edge region of the substrate in the space where the liquid is arranged. Therefore, the liquid can be prevented from flowing out of the substrate due to the step even when the edge region of the substrate is exposed.
[0009]
In the exposure method of the present invention, at least a part between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P) is filled with the liquid (50), and the pattern is formed via the liquid (50) and the projection optical system (PL). In an exposure method for exposing a substrate (P) by projecting an image onto the substrate (P), the substrate is more transparent than the substrate (P) disposed between the substrate (P) and the projection optical system (PL). A pattern image is projected onto the substrate (P) through the plates (8, 14, 15) and the liquid (50).
[0010]
According to the present invention, by providing a transparent plate larger than the substrate between the projection optical system and the substrate, no step is formed in the space corresponding to the edge region of the substrate by the transparent plate in the space where the liquid is disposed. Therefore, the liquid can be prevented from flowing out of the substrate due to the step even when the edge region of the substrate is exposed.
[0011]
  In the exposure method of the present invention, at least a part between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P) is filled with the liquid (50), and the pattern is formed via the liquid (50) and the projection optical system (PL). In the exposure method for exposing the substrate (P) by projecting an image onto the substrate (P), the space between the projection optical system (PL) and a part of the upper surface of the substrate (P) is filled with the liquid (50). In addition, at least a part of the periphery of the substrate (P) is covered with the cover member (15), and the outflow of the liquid (50) to the outside of the substrate (P) is suppressed.
  The exposure apparatus of the present invention fills at least a part between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P) with the liquid (50), and forms a pattern via the liquid (50) and the projection optical system (PL). In an exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate (P) by projecting an image onto the substrate (P), a substrate stage (PST) that supports the substrate (P) and a substrate (PST) that is supported by the substrate stage (PST) Cover at least part of the circumference ofTo suppress the outflow of the liquid (50) to the outside of the substrate (P).And a substrate supported by the substrate stage (PST) via a liquid (50) filled between the projection optical system (PL) and a part of the upper surface of the substrate (P). (P) is exposed.
[0012]
According to the present invention, it is possible to prevent the liquid from flowing out to the outside of the substrate by covering the periphery of the substrate with the cover member. Therefore, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of inconvenience such as causing rusting in the peripheral device.
[0013]
  The device manufacturing method of the present invention is characterized by using any of the exposure methods described above.The device manufacturing method of the present invention includes an exposure processing step of exposing the pattern of the mask onto the substrate by any one of the exposure apparatuses described above.According to the present invention, even when the edge region of the substrate is subjected to the exposure process, the exposure process can be performed by the immersion method while suppressing the outflow of the liquid to the outside of the substrate. The pattern can be transferred satisfactorily. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience such as contact between the substrate and the polishing surface of the CMP apparatus in a subsequent process such as CMP processing, and thus a device having desired performance can be manufactured.
[0014]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The exposure method and device manufacturing method of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing an embodiment of an exposure apparatus to which the exposure method of the present invention is applied. In FIG. 1, an exposure apparatus EX includes a mask stage MST that supports a mask M, a substrate stage PST that supports a substrate P, and an illumination optical system IL that illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL. A projection optical system PL that projects and exposes an image of the pattern of the mask M illuminated by the exposure light EL onto the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST, and a control device CONT that controls the overall operation of the exposure apparatus EX. It has. A transparent plate 8 is disposed between the substrate P and the projection optical system PL. The transparent plate 8 is provided on the substrate stage PST via the support member 9.
[0015]
Here, in the present embodiment, as the exposure apparatus EX, scanning exposure is performed in which the pattern formed on the mask M is exposed to the substrate P while the mask M and the substrate P are synchronously moved in different directions (reverse directions) in the scanning direction. A case where an apparatus (so-called scanning stepper) is used will be described as an example. In the following description, the direction that coincides with the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL is the Z-axis direction, the synchronous movement direction (scanning direction) between the mask M and the substrate P in the plane perpendicular to the Z-axis direction is the X-axis direction, A direction (non-scanning direction) perpendicular to the Z-axis direction and the Y-axis direction is defined as a Y-axis direction. Further, the directions around the X axis, the Y axis, and the Z axis are defined as θX, θY, and θZ directions, respectively. Here, the “substrate” includes a semiconductor wafer coated with a resist, and the “mask” includes a reticle on which a device pattern to be reduced and projected on the substrate is formed.
[0016]
The illumination optical system IL illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with the exposure light EL, and the exposure light source, and an optical integrator and an optical integrator for uniformizing the illuminance of the light beam emitted from the exposure light source A condenser lens that collects the exposure light EL from the light source, a relay lens system, a variable field stop that sets the illumination area on the mask M by the exposure light EL in a slit shape, and the like. A predetermined illumination area on the mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL having a uniform illuminance distribution by the illumination optical system IL. As the exposure light EL emitted from the illumination optical system IL, for example, far ultraviolet light (g-line, h-line, i-line) and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm) emitted from a mercury lamp, DUV light), ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) and F2Vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV light) such as laser light (wavelength 157 nm) is used. In this embodiment, ArF excimer laser light is used.
[0017]
The mask stage MST supports the mask M, and can move two-dimensionally in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL, that is, in the XY plane, and can be slightly rotated in the θZ direction. The mask stage MST is driven by a mask stage driving device MSTD such as a linear motor. The mask stage driving device MSTD is controlled by the control device CONT. The two-dimensional position and rotation angle of the mask M on the mask stage MST are measured in real time by the laser interferometer, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT drives the mask stage driving device MSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer, thereby positioning the mask M supported on the mask stage MST.
[0018]
The projection optical system PL projects and exposes the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P at a predetermined projection magnification β, and is composed of a plurality of optical elements (lenses). These optical elements are mirrors as metal members. It is supported by the cylinder PK. In the present embodiment, the projection optical system PL is a reduction system having a projection magnification β of, for example, 1/4 or 1/5. Note that the projection optical system PL may be either an equal magnification system or an enlargement system. Further, the projection optical system PL has an imaging characteristic adjusting device PLC that corrects optical characteristics (imaging characteristics). The imaging characteristic adjusting device PLC has, for example, a gap adjusting mechanism for some lens groups constituting the projection optical system PL and a gas pressure adjusting mechanism in the lens chamber of some lens groups, and performs these adjustments. Thus, optical characteristics such as the projection magnification and distortion of the projection optical system PL are corrected. The imaging characteristic adjusting device PLC is controlled by the control device CONT.
[0019]
The substrate stage PST supports the substrate P, and includes a Z stage 51 that holds the substrate P via a substrate holder, an XY stage 52 that supports the Z stage 51, and a base 53 that supports the XY stage 52. It has. The substrate stage PST is driven by a substrate stage driving device PSTD such as a linear motor. The substrate stage driving device PSTD is controlled by the control device CONT. By driving the Z stage 51, the position (focus position) of the substrate P held by the Z stage 51 in the Z-axis direction and the positions in the θX and θY directions are controlled. Further, by driving the XY stage 52, the position of the substrate P in the XY direction (position in a direction substantially parallel to the image plane of the projection optical system PL) is controlled. That is, the Z stage 51 controls the focus position and the tilt angle of the substrate P to adjust the surface of the substrate P to the image plane of the projection optical system PL by the autofocus method and the auto leveling method. Is positioned in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. Needless to say, the Z stage and the XY stage may be provided integrally.
[0020]
A movable mirror 54 is provided on the substrate stage PST (Z stage 51). A laser interferometer 55 is provided at a position facing the movable mirror 54. The two-dimensional position and rotation angle of the substrate P on the substrate stage PST are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 55, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT drives the substrate stage driving device PSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 55 to position the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST.
[0021]
A transparent plate 8 is provided between the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST and the lower surface 7 of the projection optical system PL. The transparent plate 8 is supported by the Z stage 51 of the substrate stage PST via the support member 9. The transparent plate 8 is made of a material that can transmit the exposure light EL, and in this embodiment is made of a glass plate. In addition, the transparent plate 8 should just have transparency with respect to exposure light EL, and things other than a glass plate are employable as the transparent plate 8. FIG. The transparent plate 8 is a plane parallel plate, and the upper and lower surfaces are flat surfaces. The transparent plate 8 is provided in a substantially circular shape in plan view and is larger than the substrate (wafer) P that is also formed in a substantially circular shape. That is, the diameter of the transparent plate 8 is set larger than the substrate P (more than the diameter of the substrate P). The support member 9 that supports the transparent plate 8 is formed in a substantially annular shape, and is disposed around the substrate P.
[0022]
The upper surface of the transparent plate 8 and the lower surface 7 of the projection optical system PL are separated from each other, and a space 56 is formed between the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8. The transparent plate 8 supported by the support member 9 and the substrate P are also separated from each other, and a space 57 is formed between the transparent plate 8, the support member 9, and the upper surface of the Z stage 51. The space 57 is a substantially sealed space.
[0023]
In the present embodiment, the immersion method is applied to improve the resolution by substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and to substantially increase the depth of focus. For this reason, at least during the transfer of the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P, there is a predetermined gap between the surface of the substrate P and the tip surface (lower surface) 7 of the optical element on the substrate P side of the projection optical system PL. The liquid 50 (50A, 50B) is filled. In the present embodiment, pure water is used for the liquid 50. Pure water is not only ArF excimer laser light but also far ultraviolet light such as ultraviolet emission lines (g-line, h-line, i-line) and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm) emitted from the mercury lamp as exposure light EL. In the case of light (DUV light), the exposure light EL can be transmitted. In addition, a parallel plane plate capable of transmitting the exposure light EL is provided on the tip surface 7 of the projection optical system PL. This plane parallel plate constitutes a part of the projection optical system PL.
[0024]
The exposure apparatus EX includes a liquid supply apparatus 1 that supplies a predetermined liquid 50A to the space 56 between the front end surface 7 of the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8, and a liquid recovery apparatus 2 that recovers the liquid 50A in the space 56. It has. The liquid supply device 1 includes a tank that stores the liquid 50A, a pressure pump, and a temperature adjustment device that adjusts the liquid 50A supplied to the space 56 to a predetermined temperature. One end of a supply pipe 3 is connected to the liquid supply apparatus 1, and a supply nozzle 4 is connected to the other end of the supply pipe 3. The liquid supply apparatus 1 supplies the liquid 50 </ b> A to the space 56 through the supply pipe 3 and the supply nozzle 4. Here, the temperature adjusting device provided in the liquid supply device 1 sets the temperature of the liquid 50A supplied to the space 56 to, for example, the same temperature as the temperature in the chamber in which the exposure apparatus EX is accommodated.
[0025]
The liquid recovery apparatus 2 includes a suction pump, a tank for storing the recovered liquid 50A, and the like. One end of a recovery pipe 6 is connected to the liquid recovery apparatus 2, and a recovery nozzle 5 is connected to the other end of the recovery pipe 6. The liquid recovery apparatus 2 recovers the liquid 50 </ b> A in the space 56 via the recovery nozzle 5 and the recovery pipe 6. When the space 56 is filled with the liquid 50A, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply device 1 to supply a predetermined amount of liquid 50A per unit time to the space 56 through the supply pipe 3 and the supply nozzle 4, and the liquid The recovery device 2 is driven, and a predetermined amount of liquid 50A per unit time is recovered from the space 56 via the recovery nozzle 5 and the recovery pipe 6. As a result, a predetermined amount of the liquid 50A is disposed in the space 56 between the front end surface 7 of the projection optical system PL and the substrate P.
[0026]
Further, the liquid 50 </ b> B is also filled between the substrate P and the transparent plate 8, that is, the space 57. When the space 57 is filled with the liquid 50B, for example, the liquid 50B is poured into the annular support member 9 on the substrate stage PST (Z stage 51) before the exposure process, and then the upper end of the support member 9 is placed. Is covered with the transparent plate 8 so that the space 57 is filled with the liquid 50B. Here, the space 57 is a substantially sealed space, and the liquid 50B filled in the space 57 does not flow out of the space.
[0027]
Next, a method for exposing the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P using the above-described exposure apparatus EX will be described with reference to FIG.
When the substrate P is loaded on the substrate stage PST, the control device CONT puts the liquid 50B into the ring of the support member 9 that is an annular member, and then covers the upper end of the support member 9 with the transparent plate 8. . Thus, the space 57 between the substrate P and the transparent plate 8 is filled with the liquid 50B. Next, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply device 1 and the liquid recovery device 2 to form a liquid immersion portion of the liquid 50A between the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8. Then, the control device CONT illuminates the mask M with the exposure light EL by the illumination optical system IL, and projects the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P through the projection optical system PL, the transparent plate 8, and the liquids 50A and 50B. To do. Here, as shown in the schematic diagram of FIG. 2A, while the shot region in the vicinity of the center (the central region) of the substrate P is being exposed, the liquid 50 supplied from the liquid supply device 1 is a liquid recovery device. By being collected by 2, it does not flow out of the substrate P.
[0028]
On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 2B, when exposing the edge region (region near the periphery of the substrate P) E of the substrate P, the space between the substrate P and the projection optical system PL is more sufficient than the substrate P. Therefore, the flat portion of the transparent plate 8 is sufficiently secured outside the edge of the substrate P. That is, the space 56 to which the liquid 50 is supplied can be maintained between the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8 in the case of exposing both near the center and near the edge of the substrate P. Accordingly, even when the edge region E of the substrate P is exposed, the liquid 50A does not flow out from between the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8, and is equivalent to the exposure condition for the central region of the substrate P. The edge region E can be exposed.
[0029]
The space 57 is a substantially sealed space, and the liquid 50B inside the space 57 does not flow greatly during the exposure process. Therefore, the influence on the surface of the substrate P due to the flow of the liquid can be suppressed.
[0030]
Note that the exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is a so-called scanning stepper. When scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the −X direction, the control device CONT flows the liquid 50A in the −X direction. On the other hand, when scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the + X direction, the controller CONT causes the liquid 50 to flow in the + X direction. Thus, the control device CONT uses the liquid supply device 1 and the liquid recovery device 2 to flow the liquid 50 along the moving direction of the substrate P. In this case, for example, the liquid 50 supplied from the liquid supply apparatus 1 via the supply nozzle 4 flows so as to be drawn into the space 56 as the substrate P moves in the −X direction. Even if the energy is small, the liquid 50 can be easily supplied to the space 56. Then, by switching the flow direction of the liquid 50 according to the scanning direction, the substrate P is scanned between the front end surface 7 of the lens 60 and the substrate P in either the + X direction or the −X direction. Can be filled with the liquid 50, and high resolution and a wide depth of focus can be obtained.
[0031]
When performing the exposure process, for example, it is conceivable that the temperature of the liquid 50B in the space 57 does not flow (exchange), so that the temperature changes. In this case, the refractive index of the liquid 50A varies due to the temperature change. Then, when the pattern of the mask M is transferred to the substrate P via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 50, an error may occur in the image of the pattern transferred to the substrate P. For example, with the change in the refractive index of the liquid 50, the scaling of the pattern image transferred to the substrate P may change or the position of the image plane may change compared to before the change in the refractive index. The control device CONT does not cause an error in the pattern image transferred to the substrate P based on the temperature change amount (refractive index change amount) of the liquid 50B obtained in advance and the imaging characteristics of the pattern on the substrate P. As described above, the image adjustment of the pattern image is performed using the imaging characteristic adjusting device PLC. For example, when the image plane position of the projection optical system PL is shifted in the Z-axis direction with the change in the refractive index of the liquid 50, the imaging characteristic adjustment device PLC is an optical provided in the projection optical system PL. By driving a part of the element, the position of the image formation plane of the pattern via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 50 can be matched with the surface of the substrate P. Alternatively, as an image adjustment, the mask M is moved in the Z-axis direction or the tilt direction, or the wavelength of the exposure light EL is adjusted so that an error is not caused in the pattern image due to the change in the refractive index of the liquid 50. Adjustments can be made.
[0032]
As described above, since the transparent plate 8 larger than the substrate P is provided between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, the outflow of the liquid 50A to the outside is suppressed even when the edge region E of the substrate P is exposed. In the immersion exposure, the central region and the edge region of the substrate P can be exposed under the same conditions regarding the liquid arrangement.
[0033]
As described above, the liquid 50 in the present embodiment is composed of pure water. Pure water has an advantage that it can be easily obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing factory or the like, and has no adverse effect on the photoresist, optical element (lens), etc. on the substrate P. In addition, pure water has no adverse effects on the environment, and since the impurity content is extremely low, it can be expected to clean the surface of the substrate P and the surface of the optical element provided on the front end surface of the projection optical system PL. .
[0034]
Since the refractive index n of pure water (water) with respect to the exposure light EL having a wavelength of about 193 nm is approximately 1.47, when ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) is used as the light source of the exposure light EL, In the above, the wavelength is shortened to 1 / n, that is, about 131 nm, and high resolution is obtained. Furthermore, since the depth of focus is expanded by about n times, that is, about 1.47 times compared with that in the air, the projection optical system PL can be used when it is sufficient to ensure the same depth of focus as that used in the air. The numerical aperture can be further increased, and the resolution is improved in this respect as well.
[0035]
In the present embodiment, a parallel plane plate capable of transmitting the exposure light EL is provided on the tip surface 7 of the projection optical system PL. This plane-parallel plate is detachably attached to the front end surface of the projection optical system PL. By making the optical element in contact with the liquid 50 into a plane parallel plate that is cheaper than the lens, the transmittance of the projection optical system PL and the exposure light EL on the substrate P during transportation, assembly, adjustment, etc. of the exposure apparatus EX. Even if a substance that reduces the illuminance and the uniformity of the illuminance distribution (for example, silicon-based organic matter) adheres to the plane-parallel plate, the plane-parallel plate may be replaced just before the liquid 50 is supplied. There is an advantage that the replacement cost is lower than in the case where the optical element in contact with the lens is a lens. That is, the surface of the optical element that comes into contact with the liquid 50 is contaminated due to scattering particles generated from the resist by exposure to the exposure light EL, or adhesion of impurities in the liquid 50, and the optical element is periodically replaced. Although it is necessary, by making this optical element an inexpensive parallel flat plate, the cost of replacement parts is lower than that of lenses and the time required for replacement can be shortened, resulting in an increase in maintenance costs (running costs). And a decrease in throughput. Of course, the optical element attached to the front end surface of the projection optical system PL may be a lens. The optical element attached to the front end surface of the projection optical system PL may be an optical plate used for adjusting optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL, for example, aberration (spherical aberration, coma aberration, etc.). Further, at the tip of the projection optical system PL, only the optical element (parallel plane plate or lens) is brought into contact with the liquid 50 and the lens barrel PK is not brought into contact, so that the lens barrel PK made of metal is corroded. Is prevented.
[0036]
In the case where a large pressure is generated between the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the substrate P generated by the flow of the liquid 50A, the optical element is not exchangeable, but the optical element is caused by the pressure. It may be fixed firmly so as not to move.
[0037]
In addition, although the liquid 50 of this embodiment is water, liquids other than water may be sufficient, for example, the light source of exposure light EL is F.2If it is a laser, this F2Since the laser beam does not transmit water, the liquid 50 is F in this case.2For example, fluorine oil that can transmit laser light may be used. In addition, as the liquid 50, the liquid 50 is transmissive to the exposure light EL, has a refractive index as high as possible, and is stable with respect to the photoresist applied to the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P (for example, Cedar). Oil) can also be used.
[0038]
Further, in the above-described embodiment, it has been described that the space 56 and the space 57 are filled with the same type of liquid, but the space between the projection optical system PL and the transparent plate 8 is filled with the first liquid, and the substrate The space between P and the transparent plate 8 can be filled with a second liquid different from the first liquid.
[0039]
In the above embodiment, the space 57 is a substantially sealed space, and the liquid 50B in the space 57 has been described so as not to substantially flow. However, as shown in FIG. The supply nozzle 10 that constitutes a part of the second liquid recovery apparatus is supported by the other part of the support member 9, and the recovery nozzle 11 that constitutes a part of the second liquid recovery apparatus is supported. May be connected to the space 57 to perform the supply and recovery operations of the liquid 50B to the space 57 during the exposure process. Thereby, the liquid 50B in the space 57 is always exchanged and the temperature-adjusted liquid 50B is supplied, so that the temperature change of the liquid 50B in the space 57 can be suppressed.
[0040]
In the above-described embodiment, after the substrate P is arranged on the substrate stage PST, the liquid 50B is filled into the support member 9 around the substrate P and then covered with the transparent plate 8 to fill the liquid 50B. However, as shown in FIG. 4, a container 12 having an internal space 12A is prepared, and a liquid 50B and a substrate P are arranged in advance in the internal space 12A of the container 12, and exposure processing is performed. In doing so, the substrate P may be loaded together with the container 12 onto the substrate stage PST by the transfer device H. The container 12 is formed of a transparent member such as glass, and the internal space 12A is a substantially sealed space. During the exposure process, the liquid 50A is supplied from the liquid supply apparatus 1 between the projection optical system PL and the upper surface 12B of the container 12.
[0041]
Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the transparent plate 8 is supported by the support member 9, you may make it make the transparent plate 8 and the board | substrate P contact | adhere through the liquid 50B without the support member 9. FIG. That is, after the substrate P is disposed on the substrate stage PST, a liquid 50B having a thickness of 1 to 2 mm and covering the entire surface of the substrate P is supplied onto the substrate P. Then, the transparent plate 8 is placed thereon, and the liquid 50B is held between the transparent plate 8 and the substrate P by surface tension. In this case, if the transparent plate 8 may move due to the movement of the substrate stage PST, the transparent plate 8 may be fixed after the transparent plate 8 is placed.
[0042]
Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the following description, the same or equivalent components as those of the above-described embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description thereof is simplified or omitted.
A characteristic part of this embodiment is that a parallel flat plate 14 which is a large optical element provided on the front end surface of the projection optical system PL is used as a transparent plate disposed between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. This is the point. In the present embodiment, the size of the plane parallel plate (transparent plate) 14 is set larger than that of the substrate P. Further, as described above, the plane-parallel plate 14 is detachable from the projection optical system PL (lens barrel PK). The plane parallel plate 14 is in close contact with or slightly separated from the lower surface of the projection optical system PL, and is provided so as to be movable (slidable) in the horizontal direction. A part of the plane parallel plate 14 is connected to the upper surface of the substrate stage PST (Z stage 51) via the support member 13. Here, the support member 13 is composed of a bar member that connects a plurality of predetermined positions of the plane parallel plate 14 and the substrate stage PST. As shown in FIG. 5A, when exposing the substrate P, the control device CONT uses a liquid between the plane-parallel plate 14 and the substrate P from the supply nozzle 4 connected to the first supply device 1. While supplying 50 and recovering the liquid 50 from the recovery nozzle 5 connected to the second recovery device 2, the image of the pattern of the mask M is exposed to the substrate P through the parallel flat plate 14 and the liquid 50. When the pattern image is exposed to the edge region E of the substrate P as shown in FIG. 5B, the plane parallel plate 14 larger than the substrate P is interposed between the substrate P and the projection optical system PL. Therefore, the edge region E can be exposed in a state where the liquid 50 is filled between the substrate P and the plane parallel plate 14.
[0043]
Next, a third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. A characteristic part of this embodiment is that a cover member 15 that suppresses the outflow of the liquid 50 to the outside of the substrate P is provided around the substrate P.
In FIG. 6, a support member 9 is provided around the substrate P, and a cover member 15 is connected to the upper end of the support member 9. The cover member 15 is formed in an annular shape having a predetermined width 15D as shown in the plan view of FIG. The width 15D of the cover member 15 is set to be equal to or greater than the radius of the lower surface 7 of the projection optical system PL, for example. The cover member 15 is formed of a transparent member such as glass. As shown in FIG. 6A, the upper surface of the cover member 15 is set higher than the upper surface of the substrate P, and the cover member 15 and the substrate P are separated from each other. Further, the inner region 15A of the cover member 15 and the edge region E of the substrate P are set so as to overlap in the horizontal direction. That is, the inner diameter of the cover member 15 is set smaller than the outer diameter of the substrate P. On the other hand, the outer diameter of the cover member 15 is set sufficiently larger than the substrate P.
[0044]
When exposing the shot region near the center of the substrate P, the liquid 50 is filled between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P as shown in FIG. On the other hand, when the edge region E of the substrate P is exposed, the liquid 50 is prevented from flowing out to the outside by the cover member 15 and the support member 9 that supports the cover member 50 as shown in FIG. In particular, since the outer diameter of the cover member 15 is set larger than the substrate P, and the upper surface of the cover member 15 is set higher than the upper surface of the substrate P, the liquid 50 is surely discharged when the edge region E is exposed. Can be suppressed.
[0045]
The substrate P of the present embodiment is not limited to a semiconductor wafer for manufacturing a semiconductor device, but also a glass substrate for a display device, a ceramic wafer for a thin film magnetic head, or an original mask or reticle used in an exposure apparatus ( Synthetic quartz, silicon wafer) or the like is applied.
[0046]
As the exposure apparatus EX, in addition to the step-and-scan type scanning exposure apparatus (scanning stepper) that scans and exposes the pattern of the mask M by moving the mask M and the substrate P synchronously, the mask M and the substrate P Can be applied to a step-and-repeat type projection exposure apparatus (stepper) in which the pattern of the mask M is collectively exposed while the substrate P is stationary and the substrate P is sequentially moved stepwise. The present invention can also be applied to a step-and-stitch type exposure apparatus that partially transfers at least two patterns on the substrate P.
[0047]
The type of the exposure apparatus EX is not limited to an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a semiconductor element that exposes a semiconductor element pattern on the substrate P, but an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a liquid crystal display element or a display, a thin film magnetic head, an image sensor (CCD). ) Or an exposure apparatus for manufacturing reticles or masks.
[0048]
The present invention can also be applied to a twin stage type exposure apparatus disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 10-163099, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 10-214783, and Japanese Translation of PCT International Publication No. 2000-505958.
[0049]
When using a linear motor (see USP5,623,853 or USP5,528,118) for the substrate stage PST and mask stage MST, use either an air levitation type using air bearings or a magnetic levitation type using Lorentz force or reactance force. Also good. Each stage PST, MST may be a type that moves along a guide, or may be a guideless type that does not have a guide.
[0050]
As a driving mechanism for each stage PST, MST, a planar motor that drives each stage PST, MST by electromagnetic force with a magnet unit having a two-dimensionally arranged magnet and an armature unit having a two-dimensionally arranged coil facing each other is provided. It may be used. In this case, either one of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be connected to the stages PST and MST, and the other of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be provided on the moving surface side of the stages PST and MST.
[0051]
As described in JP-A-8-166475 (USP 5,528,118), the reaction force generated by the movement of the substrate stage PST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL, but mechanically using a frame member. You may escape to the floor (ground).
As described in JP-A-8-330224 (US S / N 08 / 416,558), a frame member is used so that the reaction force generated by the movement of the mask stage MST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL. May be mechanically released to the floor (ground).
[0052]
As described above, the exposure apparatus EX according to the present embodiment maintains various mechanical subsystems including the respective constituent elements recited in the claims of the present application so as to maintain predetermined mechanical accuracy, electrical accuracy, and optical accuracy. Manufactured by assembling. In order to ensure these various accuracies, before and after assembly, various optical systems are adjusted to achieve optical accuracy, various mechanical systems are adjusted to achieve mechanical accuracy, and various electrical systems are Adjustments are made to achieve electrical accuracy. The assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus includes mechanical connection, electrical circuit wiring connection, pneumatic circuit piping connection and the like between the various subsystems. Needless to say, there is an assembly process for each subsystem before the assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus. When the assembly process of the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus is completed, comprehensive adjustment is performed to ensure various accuracies as the entire exposure apparatus. The exposure apparatus is preferably manufactured in a clean room where the temperature, cleanliness, etc. are controlled.
[0053]
As shown in FIG. 8, a microdevice such as a semiconductor device includes a step 201 for performing a function / performance design of the microdevice, a step 202 for manufacturing a mask (reticle) based on the design step, and a substrate as a base material of the device. Manufacturing step 203, exposure processing step 204 for exposing the mask pattern onto the substrate by the exposure apparatus EX of the above-described embodiment, device assembly step (including dicing process, bonding process, packaging process) 205, inspection step 206, etc. It is manufactured after.
[0054]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, when the substrate is exposed by the liquid immersion method, the outflow of the liquid to the outside of the substrate can be suppressed even when the edge region of the substrate is exposed. Accordingly, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of inconveniences such as the occurrence of rusting of peripheral devices due to the spilled liquid and changes in the exposure processing environment. In addition, since the pattern can be satisfactorily transferred to both the central region and the edge region of the substrate, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience such as contact between the substrate and the polishing surface of the CMP apparatus in the subsequent CMP process. Can do. Therefore, a device having a desired performance can be manufactured.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing an embodiment of an exposure apparatus used in an exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram for explaining a first embodiment of an exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram for explaining a modification of the exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram for explaining a modification of the exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic view for explaining a second embodiment of the exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram for explaining a third embodiment of the exposure method of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a plan view showing a cover member.
FIG. 8 is a flowchart showing an example of a semiconductor device manufacturing process.
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram for explaining a conventional problem.
[Explanation of symbols]
8 ... Transparent plate, 14 ... Parallel plane plate (transparent plate, optical element), 15 ... Cover member,
50 (50A, 50B) ... liquid, EX ... exposure apparatus, M ... mask, P ... substrate,
PL ... Projection optical system

Claims (11)

  1. In an exposure method for exposing the substrate by filling at least a part between the projection optical system and the substrate with a liquid and projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate via the liquid and the projection optical system.
    Filling a space between the substrate and a transparent plate larger than the substrate supported by a substrate stage that supports the substrate so as to be disposed between the substrate and the projection optical system; and
    Supply of liquid to the space between the transparent plate and the projection optical system and liquid from the space so that the liquid flows along the moving direction of the substrate between the transparent plate and the projection optical system. Filling the space between the transparent plate and the projection optical system with a liquid,
    Projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate via a liquid filled between the transparent plate and the projection optical system and a liquid filled between the transparent plate and the substrate; Including an exposure method.
  2.   During the exposure processing of the substrate, the liquid is filled between the transparent plate and the transparent plate by supplying the liquid to the space between the transparent plate and the substrate and recovering the liquid from the space. The exposure method according to claim 1.
  3. In an exposure method for exposing the substrate by filling at least a part between the projection optical system and the substrate with a liquid and projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate via the liquid and the projection optical system.
    Filling a space between the projection optical system and a part of the upper surface of the substrate;
    An exposure method in which at least a part of the periphery of the substrate is covered with a cover member, and the outflow of the liquid to the outside of the substrate is suppressed.
  4.   The exposure method according to claim 3, wherein the cover member has an inner diameter smaller than an outer diameter of the substrate and larger than the outer diameter of the substrate.
  5.   The exposure method according to claim 3, wherein the cover member is formed in a ring shape having a predetermined width.
  6.   The device manufacturing method using the exposure method as described in any one of Claims 1-5.
  7. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by filling at least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate with a liquid and projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate through the liquid and the projection optical system.
    A substrate stage for supporting the substrate;
    A transparent plate larger than the substrate, supported by the substrate stage so as to be disposed between the substrate and the projection optical system;
    A first liquid supply device for supplying a liquid to a space between the transparent plate and the projection optical system;
    A first liquid recovery device for recovering a liquid from a space between the transparent plate and the projection optical system;
    The first liquid supply device and the first liquid recovery device allow a liquid to flow between the transparent plate and the projection optical system along the moving direction of the substrate, and between the transparent plate and the projection optical system. An exposure apparatus that projects an image of a pattern onto the substrate via a liquid filled in between and a liquid filled between the transparent plate and the substrate.
  8. A second liquid supply device for supplying a liquid to the space between the transparent plate and the substrate;
    The exposure apparatus according to claim 7, further comprising a second liquid recovery apparatus that recovers a liquid from a space between the transparent plate and the substrate.
  9. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by filling at least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate with a liquid and projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate through the liquid and the projection optical system.
    A substrate stage for supporting the substrate;
    And a cover member to suppress the outflow of the liquid to the outside of the substrate I covering at least a part of the periphery of the substrate supported by the substrate stage,
    An exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate supported by the substrate stage via a liquid filled between the projection optical system and a part of the upper surface of the substrate.
  10.   The exposure apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the cover member has an inner diameter smaller than an outer diameter of the substrate and larger than the outer diameter of the substrate.
  11.   A device manufacturing method including an exposure processing step of exposing a pattern of a mask onto a substrate by the exposure apparatus according to claim 7.
JP2002357956A 2002-12-10 2002-12-10 Exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method Expired - Fee Related JP4232449B2 (en)

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