JP4081102B2 - Waste complex treatment facility - Google Patents

Waste complex treatment facility Download PDF

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JP4081102B2
JP4081102B2 JP2005119303A JP2005119303A JP4081102B2 JP 4081102 B2 JP4081102 B2 JP 4081102B2 JP 2005119303 A JP2005119303 A JP 2005119303A JP 2005119303 A JP2005119303 A JP 2005119303A JP 4081102 B2 JP4081102 B2 JP 4081102B2
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fermentation
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waste
incinerator
incineration
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絋 磯谷
基明 勝井
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株式会社プランテック
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/40Valorisation of by-products of wastewater, sewage or sludge processing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/20Waste processing or separation

Description

本発明は、廃棄物の焼却処理とメタン発酵処理を融合させた廃棄物の複合処理施設に関する。   The present invention relates to a combined waste treatment facility that combines waste incineration and methane fermentation.
廃棄物を減量・無害化する処理方法として、現在、焼却炉により焼却する方法が一般的であるが、処理対象が食品廃棄物を含む生ごみや下水汚泥等の高含水性の有機性廃棄物の場合には、焼却する際に多大な乾燥エネルギーを必要とするため、焼却炉の熱エネルギー効率を悪化させるだけでなく、助燃装置、または前処理用に設けた乾燥装置に必要な燃料費が嵩み易く、運転経費の増加が避けられなかった。   Currently, incineration using an incinerator is generally used as a treatment method for reducing or detoxifying waste. However, the treatment target is food waste that contains food waste and organic waste with high water content such as sewage sludge. In this case, since a large amount of drying energy is required for incineration, not only the thermal energy efficiency of the incinerator is deteriorated, but also the fuel cost required for the auxiliary combustion device or the drying device provided for pretreatment is increased. It was easily bulky and an increase in operating costs was inevitable.
そのため、この生ごみや下水汚泥、またはその他の有機性廃棄物であって、高含水性で嫌気性微生物による発酵処理に適した廃棄物(以下「発酵適応物」という。)の処理では、廃棄物の減量と回収メタンのエネルギー利用を目的に、メタン発酵施設が利用されることも多かった。   For this reason, in the treatment of this garbage, sewage sludge, or other organic waste that is highly hydrous and suitable for fermentation with anaerobic microorganisms (hereinafter referred to as “fermentation-adapted product”), it is discarded. Methane fermentation facilities were often used for the purpose of reducing waste and using the energy of recovered methane.
ここで、図2は、従来のメタン発酵施設の一例を示す設備フロー図であり、発酵適応物をメタン発酵して、メタンを60%程度含有する消化ガスを生成し、このガスを発電や給熱に利用するエネルギー回収設備の構成を示している。   Here, FIG. 2 is an equipment flow diagram showing an example of a conventional methane fermentation facility, where methane fermentation is performed on the fermentation adaption to produce digestion gas containing about 60% of methane, and this gas is generated and supplied. The structure of the energy recovery equipment used for heat is shown.
図2において、1はメタン発酵施設であって、図示しない破砕装置に供給されて破砕された生ごみを受け入れ、希釈水を注入してスラリー化するスラリーホッパ11と、このスラリーを50〜60℃に温度維持(高温発酵の場合)して貯留・攪拌しながらメタン発酵菌によりメタンを含有する消化ガスを生成するとともに、発酵を終えた発酵残渣が排出される発酵槽12と、前記発酵槽12から送られる消化ガス中に微量含まれる硫黄分を除去する脱硫器13と、脱硫された消化ガスを貯蔵するガスホルダ14から主体が構成されている。   In FIG. 2, 1 is a methane fermentation facility, which receives a crushed garbage supplied to a crushing device (not shown), injects dilution water into a slurry, and slurries 50 to 60 ° C. The fermenter 12 in which the digestion gas containing methane is produced by the methane-fermenting bacteria while maintaining and stirring (in the case of high-temperature fermentation), and the fermentation residue after the fermentation is discharged, and the fermenter 12 The main body is composed of a desulfurizer 13 that removes a trace amount of sulfur contained in the digestion gas sent from and a gas holder 14 that stores the desulfurized digestion gas.
前記ガスホルダ14に一旦貯蔵された消化ガスは、後続のエネルギー回収設備15に送られてエネルギー回収がなされる。エネルギー回収設備15としては、例えば、マイクロガスタービン等の各種発電装置やボイラ等の熱回収設備が挙げられ、これらを単独または複数組み合わせて構成される。さらに、エネルギー回収設備15で発生した熱の一部は、発酵槽12の加温のため、その一部が使用される。   The digestion gas once stored in the gas holder 14 is sent to a subsequent energy recovery facility 15 for energy recovery. Examples of the energy recovery facility 15 include various power generation devices such as a micro gas turbine, and heat recovery facilities such as a boiler, and these are configured singly or in combination. Furthermore, a part of the heat generated in the energy recovery facility 15 is used for heating the fermenter 12.
なお、消化ガス中の二酸化炭素を除去して高発熱量の燃料ガスとし、これを前記エネルギー回収設備15で利用したり、直接売ガス等するために、別途、ガス精製設備が設けられる場合もある。   In addition, in order to remove the carbon dioxide in the digestion gas to obtain a fuel gas with a high calorific value and to use it in the energy recovery facility 15 or to sell it directly, a gas purification facility may be provided separately. is there.
一方、発酵槽12から排出される上述の発酵残渣は、図示しない脱水機により固形物である残渣と廃液に分離され、残渣は別途堆肥化等の処理がなされるとともに、廃液は排水処理設備16に送られて、生物的処理や凝集処理等の工程を経て所定の水質基準を満たすように調整し、放流または再利用される。   On the other hand, the above-mentioned fermentation residue discharged from the fermenter 12 is separated into a solid residue and waste liquid by a dehydrator (not shown), and the residue is separately subjected to composting or the like. And is adjusted to meet a predetermined water quality standard through steps such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment, and is discharged or reused.
ところで、例えば、都市ごみのように、生ごみだけでなく多種多様な廃棄物を同時に含む収集ごみ中には、発酵に適さない廃棄物(以下「発酵不適物」という。)も多く含まれている。このような、発酵適応物と発酵不適物が共に相当量含まれる廃棄物を受入・処理する場合には、処理効率の向上を目的として、メタン発酵施設と焼却施設の両方を備えた廃棄物処理施設が設けられることもあった。   By the way, for example, municipal waste, which includes not only food waste but also various wastes at the same time, a lot of waste that is not suitable for fermentation (hereinafter referred to as “fermentation unsuitable”) is also included. Yes. When receiving and processing such waste that contains a considerable amount of both fermented and unsuitable fermented materials, the waste processing system equipped with both methane fermentation facilities and incineration facilities for the purpose of improving processing efficiency. Facilities were sometimes established.
図3は、このようなメタン発酵施設と焼却施設を併設した廃棄物処理施設の一例を示す設備フロー図であり、図2で示したメタン発酵施設に焼却施設を付加した構成となっている。なお、両施設は同敷地内に配置される場合と近隣に別置して設けられる場合があるが、処理物の移送手段が異なるだけのため、ここでは特に区別しないで説明する。また、図2で説明した物質や装置と同一のものには同一の符号を付し、詳細説明は省略する。   FIG. 3 is an equipment flow diagram showing an example of a waste treatment facility provided with such a methane fermentation facility and an incineration facility, and is configured by adding an incineration facility to the methane fermentation facility shown in FIG. Although both facilities may be provided in the same site or may be provided separately in the vicinity, they are described here without any particular distinction because they differ only in the means for transferring the processed material. Also, the same reference numerals are assigned to the same substances and devices as those described in FIG. 2, and detailed description thereof is omitted.
図3において、2は、廃棄物の前処理設備であって、図示しない受入設備から供給される廃棄物(生ごみ等)を破砕する破砕装置21と、破砕した廃棄物を発酵適応物と発酵不適物に選別する、例えば粒度選別機等の選別装置22から構成されている。この前処理設備2で選別された発酵適応物は、メタン発酵施設1に送られて、上述の如くメタン発酵処理される。   In FIG. 3, reference numeral 2 denotes a waste pretreatment facility, which includes a crushing device 21 for crushing waste (such as garbage) supplied from a receiving facility (not shown), a fermented product and a fermented product. For example, a sorting device 22 such as a grain size sorter is selected. The fermented product selected by the pretreatment facility 2 is sent to the methane fermentation facility 1 and subjected to methane fermentation as described above.
3は、選別された発酵不適物を、別途供給される他の焼却用の廃棄物とともに焼却処理する焼却施設であって、焼却炉31と、廃熱ボイラ32と、減温設備33と、バグフィルタ等の排ガス処理設備34、誘引通風機(IDF)35、煙突36、及びその他の付帯設備から構成されている。   3 is an incineration facility that incinerates the selected unsuitable fermentation material together with other incineration waste that is separately supplied. The incinerator 31, the waste heat boiler 32, the temperature reducing equipment 33, the bug An exhaust gas treatment facility 34 such as a filter, an induction fan (IDF) 35, a chimney 36, and other incidental facilities are included.
前記焼却施設3では、供給された廃棄物を焼却炉31内で焼却して灰化させるとともに、発生したガスは、後続の廃熱ボイラ32で降温されたのち、さらに、水噴射式の調温塔や伝熱管型熱交換器による減温設備33で200℃程度以下まで減温されて、排ガス処理設備34で排ガス中のばいじんや酸性有害物質が捕集・処理されてから、誘引通風機35を介して煙突36から大気中に放出される。   In the incineration facility 3, the supplied waste is incinerated in the incinerator 31 to be incinerated, and the generated gas is cooled in a subsequent waste heat boiler 32 and then further controlled in a water injection type. After the temperature is reduced to about 200 ° C. or less by the temperature reducing equipment 33 using a tower or a heat exchanger tube heat exchanger, the exhaust gas treatment equipment 34 collects and treats dust and acidic harmful substances in the exhaust gas, and then the induction fan 35 Through the chimney 36 to the atmosphere.
また、前記廃熱ボイラ32において、排ガスと予熱後の供給水との熱交換により発生した水蒸気は、蒸気タービン型の発電装置37に送られて発電に利用されるとともに、各種余熱利用がなされる。   In the waste heat boiler 32, steam generated by heat exchange between the exhaust gas and the preheated feed water is sent to the steam turbine power generation device 37 and used for power generation, and various remaining heat is used. .
メタン発酵によるメタン生成技術を開示した先行文献としては、例えば特許文献1がある。また、廃棄物を発酵適応物と発酵不適物に選別して、各々発酵・焼却処理する先行文献の例としては、特許文献2があり、ここでは、発酵により得られた消化ガスを改質してガス精製する技術が合わせて開示されている。
特開2004−237181号公報 特開2003−221204号公報
As a prior art document disclosing a methane production technique by methane fermentation, for example, there is Patent Document 1. Moreover, as an example of the prior literature which sorts waste into a fermentation suitable product and a fermentation unsuitable product and performs fermentation and incineration, respectively, there is Patent Document 2, in which digestion gas obtained by fermentation is modified. A gas purification technique is also disclosed.
JP 2004-237181 A JP 2003-221204 A
しかしながら、図3に示す従来の廃棄物処理施設では、メタン発酵施設1と焼却施設3を併設することにより、受入廃棄物を一括して処理できるとともに、処理方式に適した廃棄物の選別供給によって、高含水性の廃棄物処理時の熱損失が改善されることから、焼却炉単独設置の場合と比べて施設の建設・運営面全般で一定の費用削減効果はあったものの、各施設の設備構成は単独設置の場合と大きく相違しなかった。   However, in the conventional waste treatment facility shown in FIG. 3, the methane fermentation facility 1 and the incineration facility 3 are provided so that the received waste can be treated in a lump, and the waste that is suitable for the treatment method is selected and supplied. Because the heat loss during the treatment of high water content waste is improved, there is a certain cost reduction effect in the overall construction and operation of the facility compared to the case of installing an incinerator alone, but the facilities of each facility The configuration was not significantly different from the case of single installation.
すなわち、従来のメタン発酵施設1は、高含水性の廃棄物の大部分を処理する役割を負っていたものの、発酵で生じた消化ガスと発酵残渣を利用または処理する高価な設備が依然として備えられており、施設全体の経済性を考慮した付帯設備の最適化がなされていないため、施設の建設・運営費用の削減効果が不充分であり、2系統の処理施設を設けた場合のコストメリットが少ないという問題があった。   That is, although the conventional methane fermentation facility 1 was responsible for treating most of the highly water-containing waste, it still has expensive equipment that uses or treats digestion gas and fermentation residue produced by fermentation. In addition, since the incidental equipment has not been optimized in consideration of the economic efficiency of the entire facility, the effect of reducing the construction and operation costs of the facility is insufficient, and there is a cost merit when two treatment facilities are provided. There was a problem of few.
そこで、本発明は、上記従来技術の問題を解決し、メタン発酵施設と焼却施設が単に併設されただけでなく、費用対効果の面から最適化された複合型の廃棄物複合処理施設を提供することを課題とする。   Therefore, the present invention solves the above-described problems of the prior art and provides a combined waste disposal facility that is not only provided with a methane fermentation facility and an incineration facility, but is also optimized for cost effectiveness. The task is to do.
本発明の請求項1に係る廃棄物複合処理施設は、廃棄物の発酵適応物をメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させるメタン発酵施設と、廃棄物の発酵不適物を焼却処理する焼却炉を有する焼却施設とを備え、
上記焼却施設の焼却炉は、上記発酵不適物を燃焼させる燃焼室とその下流に設けられた燃焼ガスの再燃焼室とが連設された構造を有するとともに、
上記メタン発酵施設で生じた消化ガスの全量を上記焼却炉の再燃焼室に供給して燃焼処理させる第1供給ラインと、
上記メタン発酵施設から排出される固形物と液体物とからなる発酵残渣の全量を、固形物と液体物を分離しないまま、上記焼却施設の燃焼室に供給して焼却または蒸発処理させる第2供給ラインとを有することによって特徴付けられる。
The waste combined treatment facility according to claim 1 of the present invention includes a methane fermentation facility for fermenting a fermentation-adapted product of waste to produce digestion gas and a fermentation residue, and an incineration for incinerating a fermentation inappropriate product of waste. An incineration facility with a furnace,
The incinerator of the incineration facility has a structure in which a combustion chamber for burning the unsuitable fermentation material and a combustion gas recombustion chamber provided downstream thereof are connected,
A first supply line for supplying the entire amount of digestion gas generated in the methane fermentation facility to the recombustion chamber of the incinerator for combustion treatment;
A second supply in which the entire amount of the fermentation residue composed of the solid matter and the liquid matter discharged from the methane fermentation facility is supplied to the combustion chamber of the incineration facility without being separated from the solid matter and the liquid matter, and incinerated or evaporated. And having a line.
本発明の請求項2に係る廃棄物複合処理施設は、廃棄物の発酵適応物をメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させるメタン発酵施設と、廃棄物の発酵不適物を焼却処理する焼却炉を有する焼却施設とを備え、上記メタン発酵施設で生じた消化ガスの全量を上記焼却炉に供給して燃焼処理させる第1供給ラインと、上記メタン発酵施設から排出される固形物と液体物とからなる発酵残渣の全量を、上記焼却施設に供給して焼却または蒸発処理させる第2供給ラインとを有しており、上記メタン発酵施設は、上記発酵適応物をスラリー化するスラリーホッパと、スラリー化した発行適応物を貯留・攪拌してメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させる発酵槽と、その発酵槽から排出される発酵残渣を移送するために固形物と液体物に分離する固液分離手段とを備え、上記焼却施設は、上記発酵不適物を燃焼させる燃焼室と、その下流に設けられた燃焼ガスの再燃焼室とが、連設された構造を有する焼却炉と、その焼却炉から出た排ガスの顕熱を回収して蒸気を発生させる廃熱ボイラと、廃熱ボイラからの排ガスの温度をさらに降温させる水噴射式の調温塔と、排ガスを浄化する排ガス処理設備とを備えるとともに、上記第1供給ラインは、上記焼却炉の再燃焼室に接続され、上記第2供給ラインは、上記固液分離手段によって分離された固形物の移送手段及び液体物の移送手段とから構成されており、上記固形物の移送手段は上記燃焼室に接続されているとともに、上記液体物の移送手段は上記調温塔に接続されていることによって特徴付けられる。The waste combined treatment facility according to claim 2 of the present invention includes a methane fermentation facility for fermenting waste fermentation-adapted material to produce digestion gas and fermentation residues, and incineration for incinerating waste unsuitable fermentation materials. A first supply line that is provided with an incineration facility having a furnace and supplies the entire amount of digestion gas generated in the methane fermentation facility to the incinerator for combustion treatment, and solids and liquids discharged from the methane fermentation facility A second supply line that supplies the entire amount of fermentation residue consisting of the following to the incineration facility for incineration or evaporation, and the methane fermentation facility includes a slurry hopper that slurries the fermentation adaption, In order to transfer the fermentation residue discharged from the fermentor, which stores and agitates the slurry-issued issuance product, ferments methane, and produces digestion gas and fermentation residue. An incinerator having a structure in which a combustion chamber for combusting the unsuitable fermentation material and a combustion gas recombustion chamber provided downstream thereof are connected to each other. And a waste heat boiler that recovers the sensible heat of the exhaust gas from the incinerator to generate steam, a water injection temperature control tower that further lowers the temperature of the exhaust gas from the waste heat boiler, and purifies the exhaust gas The first supply line is connected to a recombustion chamber of the incinerator, and the second supply line is a solid material transfer means and a liquid material separated by the solid-liquid separation means. The solid material transfer means is connected to the combustion chamber, and the liquid material transfer means is connected to the temperature control tower.
本発明に係る廃棄物複合処理施設によれば、廃棄物のメタン発酵施設と焼却施設を併設し、施設毎に処理に適した廃棄物を選択的に供給することにより、高含水性の廃棄物の焼却が不要となるために、エネルギー回収効率を向上できるとともに燃料費を節減できる。   According to the waste combined treatment facility according to the present invention, a waste methane fermentation facility and an incineration facility are provided, and by selectively supplying waste suitable for treatment for each facility, a highly hydrous waste Since no incineration is required, energy recovery efficiency can be improved and fuel costs can be reduced.
また、メタン発酵施設の発酵槽で生じた消化ガスを焼却炉に供給する第1供給ラインを設け、焼却炉内でそのまま燃焼させることにより、メタン発酵施設にエネルギー回収設備を設ける必要がなく、設備費が低減できる。加えて、消化ガスを第1供給ラインを通じて再燃焼室内に供給した場合には、補助燃料を利用しなくても安定して再燃焼室内を高温に保持でき、ダイオキシン類の再合成を確実に防止できるだけでなく、後続の廃熱ボイラに送られる排ガスが高発熱量化されることから、蒸気発生量を増加させ、エネルギー回収量を増大させることができる。   In addition, there is no need to provide energy recovery equipment in the methane fermentation facility by providing a first supply line that supplies the digestion gas generated in the fermentor of the methane fermentation facility to the incinerator and burning it as it is in the incinerator. Cost can be reduced. In addition, when digestion gas is supplied to the recombustion chamber through the first supply line, the recombustion chamber can be stably maintained at a high temperature without using auxiliary fuel, and dioxins can be reliably prevented from being re-synthesized. In addition, since the exhaust gas sent to the subsequent waste heat boiler has a high calorific value, the amount of steam generated can be increased and the amount of energy recovered can be increased.
さらに、発酵槽から排出される発酵残渣を、焼却炉の燃焼室で焼却または蒸発させる第2供給ラインを設けたことにより、メタン発酵施設には高価な排水処理設備が不要となって、設備費を削減できるなど、最適化された設備構成により施設の建設・運営費用の優れた低減効果を達成できる。   Furthermore, by providing a second supply line that incinerates or evaporates the fermentation residue discharged from the fermenter in the combustion chamber of the incinerator, methane fermentation facilities do not require expensive wastewater treatment equipment, and equipment costs With the optimized equipment configuration, it is possible to achieve an excellent reduction effect on the construction and operation costs of the facility.
以下、本発明の廃棄物複合処理施設の実施形態について詳細に説明する。   Hereinafter, an embodiment of the waste combined treatment facility of the present invention will be described in detail.
図1は、本発明の廃棄物複合処理施設の一実施形態を示す設備フロー図である。なお、図2及び図3で説明した物質や装置と同一のものには同一の符号を付し、詳細説明は省略する。   FIG. 1 is an equipment flow diagram showing an embodiment of a combined waste treatment facility of the present invention. In addition, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected to the same thing as the substance and apparatus demonstrated in FIG.2 and FIG.3, and detailed description is abbreviate | omitted.
図1において、廃棄物複合処理施設の一方の主要施設であるメタン発酵施設1は、従来技術で述べた図3と同様に、スラリーホッパ11、発酵槽12、脱硫器13及びガスホルダ14を備えているが、メタン発酵で生じる消化ガスのエネルギー回収設備や発酵残渣の排水処理設備を設けずに構成されている。   In FIG. 1, a methane fermentation facility 1 which is one main facility of the combined waste treatment facility includes a slurry hopper 11, a fermenter 12, a desulfurizer 13 and a gas holder 14 as in FIG. 3 described in the prior art. However, it is configured without providing energy recovery equipment for digestion gas produced by methane fermentation and wastewater treatment equipment for fermentation residues.
他方、焼却施設3は、図3と同様に、焼却炉31、廃熱ボイラ32、減温設備33、排ガス処理設備34、誘引通風機(IDF)35、及び煙突36を備えてなり、さらに発電装置37が付設されている。この焼却炉31の内部は、炉内に投入された廃棄物を燃焼させる燃焼室31aと、その下流に設けられ、燃焼により生じた燃焼ガスを概ね850℃以上で完全燃焼させる再燃焼室31bとが連設された構造となっており、前記焼却室31aの壁面には、炉の立上げ・立下げ等に使用する助燃バーナ(図示せず)が、前記再燃焼室31bの壁面には、温度維持用の再燃バーナ(図示せず)が各々備えられている。   On the other hand, the incineration facility 3 includes an incinerator 31, a waste heat boiler 32, a temperature reduction facility 33, an exhaust gas treatment facility 34, an induction fan (IDF) 35, and a chimney 36, as in FIG. A device 37 is attached. The interior of the incinerator 31 includes a combustion chamber 31a for burning the waste charged in the furnace, and a recombustion chamber 31b provided downstream thereof for completely burning the combustion gas generated by the combustion at approximately 850 ° C. or more. Are provided on the wall surface of the incineration chamber 31a, and an auxiliary combustion burner (not shown) used for starting up and down the furnace is provided on the wall surface of the recombustion chamber 31b. A reburn burner (not shown) for maintaining the temperature is provided.
さらに、前記燃焼室31aの出口付近には、前記燃焼ガス中に含まれる未燃ガスを燃焼させるための2次空気を送入する2次空気送入管31cが、1基または複数基(図示は1基)配置されている。   Further, near the outlet of the combustion chamber 31a, one or a plurality of secondary air inlet pipes 31c for feeding secondary air for burning unburned gas contained in the combustion gas (illustrated) 1) are arranged.
メタン発酵施設1と焼却施設3の間には、後述の第1供給ライン41と第2供給ライン42からなる2系統の移送路が設けられており、メタン発酵施設1の生成物(消化ガス及び発酵残渣)を焼却施設3側に移送して処理できるように構成されている。   Between the methane fermentation facility 1 and the incineration facility 3, there are provided two systems of transfer paths composed of a first supply line 41 and a second supply line 42, which will be described later. Fermentation residue) can be transferred to the incineration facility 3 for processing.
前記第1供給ライン41は、メタン発酵施設1の発酵槽12で生成された消化ガスを脱硫後に貯蔵するガスホルダ14と、焼却施設3側の前記再燃焼室31bの壁面とを接続する移送管であり、図示しない流量調節弁が備えられている。   The first supply line 41 is a transfer pipe that connects the gas holder 14 that stores the digested gas generated in the fermenter 12 of the methane fermentation facility 1 after desulfurization and the wall surface of the recombustion chamber 31b on the incineration facility 3 side. There is a flow control valve (not shown).
また、前記第2供給ライン42は、メタン発酵施設1の発酵槽12と、焼却施設3側の前記燃焼室31aの間に配設され、発酵槽12から排出される発酵残渣を移送する移送路であり、例えば、汚泥ポンプと開閉弁を備えた配管が燃焼室31aの図示しない投入口に接続されて構成されている。   The second supply line 42 is disposed between the fermentation tank 12 of the methane fermentation facility 1 and the combustion chamber 31a on the incineration facility 3 side, and is a transfer path for transferring the fermentation residue discharged from the fermentation tank 12. For example, a pipe provided with a sludge pump and an on-off valve is connected to a charging port (not shown) of the combustion chamber 31a.
なお、焼却炉31の形式は、特に限定されるものでなく、ストーカ式、流動床式、回転式等の代表的な炉形式の他、竪型の固定床式、あるいは回転炉とストーカ等の組合わせ形式であってもよく、ガス化炉あるいは溶融炉を用いた処理方式によるものであってもよい。   The type of the incinerator 31 is not particularly limited. In addition to typical furnace types such as a stoker type, a fluidized bed type, and a rotary type, a vertical type fixed bed type, a rotary furnace and a stoker, etc. A combination type may be used, or a treatment method using a gasification furnace or a melting furnace may be used.
次に、以上のように構成された廃棄物複合処理施設における廃棄物の処理方法について、図1を参照して説明する。   Next, a waste processing method in the composite waste processing facility configured as described above will be described with reference to FIG.
廃棄物複合処理施設に持ち込まれた収集廃棄物のうち、分別収集された生ごみ等は、図示しない受入供給設備から前処理設備2に供給され、破砕装置21で破袋・破砕されて、混入していた樹脂や金属類等の発酵不適物が選別装置22で取り除かれたのち、メタン発酵施設1のスラリーホッパ11に送られ、希釈水の注入により固形分濃度が調整されたスラリーとなる。   Of the collected waste brought to the waste combined treatment facility, the separated garbage is supplied to the pretreatment facility 2 from the receiving supply facility (not shown), broken and crushed by the crushing device 21, and mixed. After the unsuitable fermentation materials such as resin and metals are removed by the sorting device 22, they are sent to the slurry hopper 11 of the methane fermentation facility 1 and become a slurry whose solid content concentration is adjusted by injecting dilution water.
続いて、このスラリーを調整槽12に送り、高温(約55℃)または中温(約35℃)で所定期間(高温発酵の場合で10〜15日程度)攪拌しながらメタン発酵させる。   Subsequently, this slurry is sent to the adjustment tank 12 and subjected to methane fermentation while stirring at a high temperature (about 55 ° C.) or a medium temperature (about 35 ° C.) for a predetermined period (about 10 to 15 days in the case of high temperature fermentation).
メタン発酵により発生する消化ガスは、通常、メタンを60%、二酸化炭素を40%程度含有し、微量の硫化水素が含まれた可燃性の合成ガスであり、後続の脱硫器13で脱硫されてから、ガスホルダ14に貯蔵される。   Digestion gas generated by methane fermentation is usually a combustible synthesis gas containing about 60% methane and about 40% carbon dioxide and containing a small amount of hydrogen sulfide, and is desulfurized by the subsequent desulfurizer 13. To be stored in the gas holder 14.
一方、生ごみ以外の収集廃棄物は、上述の選別装置22で選別された発酵不適物とともに、焼却施設3の焼却炉31に供給され、図示しない投入口から焼却炉31の燃焼室31a内に投入される。   On the other hand, the collected waste other than the garbage is supplied to the incinerator 31 of the incineration facility 3 together with the unsuitable fermented material sorted by the above-described sorting device 22, and enters the combustion chamber 31a of the incinerator 31 from the inlet not shown. It is thrown.
この投入ごみは、燃焼室31a内の熱と1次空気の供給により、着火・燃焼されて燃焼ガスが発生するとともに、この燃焼ガス中に含まれる未燃ガスは、燃焼室31a上部に設けられた2次空気送入管31cから送入される2次空気によって2次燃焼される。前記2次空気送入管31cには、図示しない給気ラインが押込送風機及びダンパ類を備えて接続されており、受入供給設備等の臭気対策が必要な設備箇所から吸気できるようになっており、2次空気として炉内送入された臭気は、高温で熱分解脱臭される。   This waste is ignited and combusted by the supply of heat and primary air in the combustion chamber 31a to generate combustion gas, and unburned gas contained in the combustion gas is provided in the upper portion of the combustion chamber 31a. Further, secondary combustion is performed by the secondary air fed from the secondary air feed pipe 31c. An air supply line (not shown) is connected to the secondary air inlet pipe 31c with a pusher blower and dampers, so that intake air can be sucked in from a facility where odor countermeasures are required. The odor sent into the furnace as secondary air is pyrolyzed and deodorized at high temperature.
燃焼室31aで2次燃焼された燃焼ガスは、次段の再燃焼室31bにおいて、850℃程度以上の高温下で2秒以上滞留されることで、ダイオキシン類が完全分解された排ガスとなるが、別途、第1供給ライン41を通じてガスホルダ14に貯蔵された消化ガスを流量調節しながら供給して再燃焼室31b内で燃焼させる。この操作によって、容易に再燃焼室31b内を高温に保持できるとともに、排ガスの保有熱量を増大させることができる。   The combustion gas secondary-combusted in the combustion chamber 31a remains in the next-stage re-combustion chamber 31b at a high temperature of about 850 ° C. or more for 2 seconds or more, so that dioxins are completely decomposed into exhaust gas. Separately, the digestion gas stored in the gas holder 14 is supplied through the first supply line 41 while adjusting the flow rate, and burned in the recombustion chamber 31b. By this operation, the inside of the recombustion chamber 31b can be easily maintained at a high temperature and the amount of heat retained in the exhaust gas can be increased.
なお、再燃焼室31bに供給する消化ガスの送入方法は特に限定されないが、例えば内壁に沿って旋回流を形成するよう吹き込むことで、局所高温域の発生を抑制でき有利である。   In addition, although the method of feeding the digestion gas supplied to the recombustion chamber 31b is not particularly limited, for example, by blowing so as to form a swirling flow along the inner wall, it is advantageous because generation of a local high temperature region can be suppressed.
再燃焼室31bを出た排ガスは、後続の廃熱ボイラ32に送られてボイラ水との熱交換により蒸気を発生させる。この蒸気を用いて、併置した蒸気タービン式の発電装置37による発電と、燃焼用1次空気や発酵槽12の加温を行うとともに、各種の熱利用設備に供給される。なお、発酵槽12の加温には廃熱ボイラ32からの蒸気を利用せず、発電装置37のタービン廃熱や他の廃熱を利用してもよい。   The exhaust gas leaving the recombustion chamber 31b is sent to the subsequent waste heat boiler 32 to generate steam by heat exchange with the boiler water. Using this steam, power is generated by the steam turbine type power generation device 37 juxtaposed, the primary air for combustion and the fermenter 12 are heated, and supplied to various heat utilization facilities. Note that the steam from the waste heat boiler 32 may not be used for heating the fermenter 12, and the turbine waste heat or other waste heat of the power generation device 37 may be used.
廃熱ボイラ32で熱回収されて300℃前後まで降温された排ガスは、水噴射式の調温塔や伝熱管型の熱交換器等による減温設備33で、さらに200℃程度以下まで温度低下されてから、バグフィルタ等の排ガス処理設備34でばいじんや有害ガス等の除去がなされたのち、誘引通風機35を介して煙突36から大気放出される。   The exhaust gas recovered by the waste heat boiler 32 and cooled down to about 300 ° C. is further lowered to about 200 ° C. or less by a temperature reducing facility 33 such as a water injection type temperature control tower or a heat exchanger type heat exchanger. After that, dust and harmful gases are removed by the exhaust gas treatment facility 34 such as a bag filter, and then released from the chimney 36 through the induction fan 35.
ここで、発酵槽12で生じた発酵残渣は、上述の如く第2供給ライン42を通じて燃焼室31aの投入口(図示せず)に供給されて、投入ごみと一緒に焼却処理されるが、発酵残渣中の固形物(残渣)と液体物(廃液)を分離して移送し、別々に処理することもできる。この場合、第2供給ライン42には、固液分離して移送する構成を採用できる。例えば、第2供給ライン42には、汚泥濃縮槽等の固液分離手段と、コンベア等の残渣の移送手段と、ポンプを備えた配管等の廃液移送手段を組合わせて用い、残渣は燃焼室31aの投入口から供給して焼却させ、廃液は燃焼室31aの壁面に設けられた図示しない廃液送入口から噴霧して蒸発させて処理することができる。なお、固液分離された廃液は、調温塔の減温水に用いて処理してもよい。   Here, the fermentation residue generated in the fermenter 12 is supplied to the input port (not shown) of the combustion chamber 31a through the second supply line 42 as described above, and is incinerated together with the input waste. The solid (residue) and liquid (waste liquid) in the residue can be separated and transferred and processed separately. In this case, the second supply line 42 can employ a configuration in which the liquid is separated and transferred. For example, the second supply line 42 uses a combination of solid-liquid separation means such as a sludge concentrating tank, residue transfer means such as a conveyor, and waste liquid transfer means such as piping equipped with a pump, and the residue is in the combustion chamber. The waste liquid can be supplied from the inlet 31a and incinerated, and the waste liquid can be sprayed and evaporated from a waste liquid inlet (not shown) provided on the wall surface of the combustion chamber 31a. In addition, you may process the waste liquid isolate | separated into solid-liquid using the temperature-reduction water of a temperature control tower.
さらに、本発明の実施の形態では、収集廃棄物のうち、分別収集された生ごみだけを前処理装置2に供給して発酵不適物を取り除くと説明しているが、収集廃棄物が分別されておらず困難な場合等では、選別装置22の設備費用が増すものの、焼却対象の収集廃棄物全量を前処理装置2に投入して選別することもできる。また、メタン発酵の主体は生ごみでなく、汚泥や家畜残渣等の他の発酵適応物であってもよく、収集廃棄物の分別状態が良好な場合には、選別装置22を設けずにそのまま各施設にごみ供給してもよい。   Further, in the embodiment of the present invention, it is described that only the collected garbage is supplied to the pretreatment device 2 from the collected waste to remove unsuitable fermentation, but the collected waste is separated. In the case where it is difficult to do so, the equipment cost of the sorting device 22 increases, but the entire collection waste to be incinerated can be put into the pretreatment device 2 for sorting. In addition, the main subject of methane fermentation may be other fermented products such as sludge and livestock residues, not garbage, and if the collected waste is in a good separation state, it is not provided with a sorting device 22 as it is. Garbage may be supplied to each facility.
次に、本発明の実施の形態で説明した廃棄物複合処理施設を、従来の処理施設と比較した場合の費用低減効果を検討した積算結果について説明する。   Next, an accumulation result obtained by examining the cost reduction effect when the waste combined treatment facility described in the embodiment of the present invention is compared with a conventional treatment facility will be described.
表1は、本発明に係る廃棄物複合処理施設と従来の処理施設とをそれぞれ新設した場合に、20年間でどの程度の費用が必要か比較した積算結果の一例を示したものである。比較対象として廃棄物の処理方式を、1)全量焼却(A方式:焼却型)、2)焼却+メタン発酵(B方式:併設型、図3参照)、3)本発明の方式(C方式:複合型、図1参照)に分けて表してある。   Table 1 shows an example of an integration result comparing how much cost is required in 20 years when a waste combined treatment facility according to the present invention and a conventional treatment facility are newly established. As a comparison object, waste treatment methods are as follows: 1) Incineration of all amount (A method: incineration type), 2) Incineration + methane fermentation (B method: side-by-side type, see Fig. 3), 3) Method of the present invention (C method: It is divided into a composite type (see FIG. 1).
表1によれば、本発明に準拠したC方式では、発生した消化ガスをそのまま燃焼させて処理し、エネルギー回収設備を設けないことから、B方式に比べてエネルギー収入は少なくなるものの、他の建設・維持関係費用は全て低減されており、A・B方式等の従来の技術に比べコストメリットの高い処理方式であることが分かる。 According to Table 1, in the C method according to the present invention, the generated digestion gas is burned as it is, and no energy recovery equipment is provided. All construction and maintenance related costs have been reduced, and it can be seen that this is a processing method with a high cost merit compared to conventional technologies such as the A / B method.
本発明の廃棄物複合処理施設の一実施形態を示す設備フロー図である。It is an equipment flow figure showing one embodiment of a waste combined treatment facility of the present invention. 従来のメタン発酵施設の一例を示す設備フロー図である。It is an equipment flow figure showing an example of the conventional methane fermentation facility. 従来のメタン発酵施設と焼却施設を併設した廃棄物処理施設の一例を示す設備フロー図である。It is an equipment flow figure showing an example of a waste disposal facility with a conventional methane fermentation facility and an incineration facility.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 メタン発酵施設
2 前処理設備
21 破砕装置
22 選別装置
3 焼却施設
31 焼却炉
31a 燃焼室
31b 再燃焼室
41 第1供給ライン
42 第2供給ライン
1 Methane Fermentation Facility 2 Pretreatment Facility 21 Crushing Device 22 Sorting Device 3 Incineration Facility 31 Incinerator 31a Combustion Chamber 31b Recombustion Chamber 41 First Supply Line 42 Second Supply Line

Claims (2)

  1. 廃棄物の発酵適応物をメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させるメタン発酵施設と、廃棄物の発酵不適物を焼却処理する焼却炉を有する焼却施設とを備え、
    上記焼却施設の焼却炉は、上記発酵不適物を燃焼させる燃焼室とその下流に設けられた燃焼ガスの再燃焼室とが連設された構造を有するとともに、
    上記メタン発酵施設で生じた消化ガスの全量を上記焼却炉の再燃焼室に供給して燃焼処理させる第1供給ラインと、
    上記メタン発酵施設から排出される固形物と液体物とからなる発酵残渣の全量を、固形物と液体物を分離しないまま、上記焼却施設の燃焼室に供給して焼却または蒸発処理させる第2供給ラインとを有することを特徴とする廃棄物複合処理施設。
    A methane fermentation facility for producing a digestion gas and a fermentation residue by methane fermentation of a fermentation fermentation product of waste, and an incineration facility having an incinerator for incinerating waste unsuitable for fermentation,
    The incinerator of the incineration facility has a structure in which a combustion chamber for burning the unsuitable fermentation material and a combustion gas recombustion chamber provided downstream thereof are connected,
    A first supply line for supplying the entire amount of digestion gas generated in the methane fermentation facility to the recombustion chamber of the incinerator for combustion treatment;
    A second supply in which the entire amount of the fermentation residue composed of the solid matter and the liquid matter discharged from the methane fermentation facility is supplied to the combustion chamber of the incineration facility without being separated from the solid matter and the liquid matter, and incinerated or evaporated. A combined waste treatment facility characterized by comprising a line.
  2. 廃棄物の発酵適応物をメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させるメタン発酵施設と、廃棄物の発酵不適物を焼却処理する焼却炉を有する焼却施設とを備え、
    上記メタン発酵施設で生じた消化ガスの全量を上記焼却炉に供給して燃焼処理させる第1供給ラインと、
    上記メタン発酵施設から排出される固形物と液体物とからなる発酵残渣の全量を、上記焼却施設に供給して焼却または蒸発処理させる第2供給ラインとを有しており、
    上記メタン発酵施設は、上記発酵適応物をスラリー化するスラリーホッパと、スラリー化した発行適応物を貯留・攪拌してメタン発酵させ、消化ガスと発酵残渣を生成させる発酵槽と、その発酵槽から排出される発酵残渣を移送するために固形物と液体物に分離する固液分離手段とを備え、
    上記焼却施設は、上記発酵不適物を燃焼させる燃焼室と、その下流に設けられた燃焼ガスの再燃焼室とが、連設された構造を有する焼却炉と、その焼却炉から出た排ガスの顕熱を回収して蒸気を発生させる廃熱ボイラと、廃熱ボイラからの排ガスの温度をさらに降温させる水噴射式の調温塔と、排ガスを浄化する排ガス処理設備とを備えるとともに、
    上記第1供給ラインは、上記焼却炉の再燃焼室に接続され、
    上記第2供給ラインは、上記固液分離手段によって分離された固形物の移送手段及び液体物の移送手段とから構成されており、
    上記固形物の移送手段は上記燃焼室に接続されているとともに、上記液体物の移送手段は上記調温塔に接続されていることを特徴とする廃棄物複合処理施設。
    A methane fermentation facility for producing a digestion gas and a fermentation residue by methane fermentation of a fermentation fermentation product of waste, and an incineration facility having an incinerator for incinerating waste unsuitable for fermentation,
    A first supply line for supplying the entire amount of digestion gas generated in the methane fermentation facility to the incinerator for combustion treatment;
    A second supply line for supplying the entire amount of fermentation residue consisting of solid matter and liquid matter discharged from the methane fermentation facility to the incineration facility for incineration or evaporation treatment;
    The methane fermentation facility comprises a slurry hopper that slurries the fermentation adaption, a fermenter that stores and agitate the slurry issuance adaption to ferment methane, and generates digestion gas and fermentation residue, and the fermenter In order to transfer the discharged fermentation residue, solid-liquid separation means for separating into solid and liquid,
    The incineration facility includes an incinerator having a structure in which a combustion chamber for burning the unsuitable fermentation material and a combustion gas recombustion chamber provided downstream thereof, and an exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator. A waste heat boiler that recovers sensible heat to generate steam, a water injection temperature control tower that further lowers the temperature of exhaust gas from the waste heat boiler, and an exhaust gas treatment facility that purifies the exhaust gas,
    The first supply line is connected to a recombustion chamber of the incinerator;
    The second supply line is composed of a solid material transfer means and a liquid material transfer means separated by the solid-liquid separation means,
    The waste combined treatment facility, wherein the solid material transfer means is connected to the combustion chamber, and the liquid material transfer means is connected to the temperature control tower .
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