JP3886648B2 - Electric brake device using synchronous machine - Google Patents

Electric brake device using synchronous machine Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3886648B2
JP3886648B2 JP20166998A JP20166998A JP3886648B2 JP 3886648 B2 JP3886648 B2 JP 3886648B2 JP 20166998 A JP20166998 A JP 20166998A JP 20166998 A JP20166998 A JP 20166998A JP 3886648 B2 JP3886648 B2 JP 3886648B2
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Prior art keywords
brake
resistor
circuit
synchronous machine
rotational speed
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JP2000037002A (en
Inventor
朝紀 渡邉
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財団法人鉄道総合技術研究所
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L7/00Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
    • B60L7/003Dynamic electric braking by short circuiting the motor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/26Rail vehicles

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  The present invention relates to an electric brake device using a synchronous machine, and in particular, a combination of a resistor and a reactor connected to a synchronous machine coupled to a shaft on which a brake is applied, and a rotational speed of a predetermined braking force without a power converter. The present invention relates to an electric brake device that obtains characteristics.
[0002]
[Prior art]
  In general, an inverter is required to apply an electric brake with an AC rotating machine. Further, if the resistor is used as it is as a load, there is a problem that the braking force is proportional to the rotation speed and can be used only for a very specific purpose.
[0003]
  A conventional electric brake device uses a drive motor or an inverter to change the brake torque by controlling the inverter, and can only be used in an electric vehicle equipped with the drive motor. Also, in accompanying vehicles that are not equipped with a drive motor, mechanical brakes such as disc brakes and tread brakes are used, and wear due to friction is required. Regular maintenance such as inspection and replacement of brake parts is necessary. I was trying.
[0004]
  When a synchronous machine is used as an electric motor and an electric brake is used, an inverter is necessary for supplying electric power to the electric motor, and the electric brake is normally used for the electric brake.
[0005]
  Then, if the synchronized three-phase AC voltage is generated by the inverter with respect to the three-phase AC induced voltage generated by the synchronous machine, it is rotated as an electric motor by adjusting the amplitude and phase of the voltage generated by the inverter. It is also possible to take out electric power as a generator.
[0006]
  FIG. 18 is a circuit diagram of such a conventional power regeneration brake, and FIG. 19 is a circuit diagram of a conventional power generation resistance brake.
[0007]
  In these figures, the induced voltage of the synchronous machine 2 is expressed as ES, The generated voltage of the inverter 1 is ECThen, the current I of the synchronous machine 2sIs expressed as:
[0008]
    IS= (ES-EC) / (RO+ J2πfLO(1)
  Where ROAnd LOIs the internal resistance and inductance of the synchronous machine 2, and f is the rotational frequency.
[0009]
  ESAnd ISThe generated voltage E of the inverter 1 so that the direction ofCIs adjusted, power is supplied from the inverter 1 to the synchronous machine 2, and the synchronous machine 2 generates rotational torque. ESAnd ISThe generated voltage E of the inverter 1 so that the directions of theCIs adjusted, the synchronous machine 2 sends electric power to the inverter 1 as a generator, and simultaneously generates brake torque. By controlling the inverter 1, it is possible to adjust the brake torque over a wide range.
[0010]
  If such a conventional technique is used, the synchronous machine 2 can be operated as both an electric motor and a generator, but a power conversion device such as the inverter 1 is necessary, and the power conversion device is a synchronous machine. 2 must be able to handle the power to and from the power source.
[0011]
  Further, a device for regenerating or consuming electric power is required on the direct current side of the power converter such as the inverter 1.
[0012]
  That is, in the prior art, in order to apply the brake with the synchronous machine 2 and control the brake torque, a power conversion device such as an inverter having a capacity capable of processing the brake output is required.
[0013]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
  Furthermore, in the technology configured as described below, the following problems can be considered.
[0014]
  FIG. 20 is a circuit (estimation circuit) diagram in which a resistor is connected to a synchronous generator. Here, the internal resistance and inductance of the synchronous machine are ignored. FIG. 21 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (R).
[0015]
  (1) Problems when a resistor is connected to the synchronous machine 11 (R circuit)
  As shown in FIG. 20, it is considered that a brake circuit can be configured by connecting a resistor 12 to the synchronous machine 11 via a switch 13.
[0016]
  However, if the magnetic flux φ of the synchronous machine 11 is constant, the induced voltage E of the synchronous machine 11 is proportional to the rotational speed n.
    E = kφn (2)
Assuming that the resistance of the resistor 12 is R, if the internal resistance and inductance of the synchronous machine 11 are ignored, as shown in FIG.
    I = E / R (3)
Current flows, and the brake is applied as shown in FIG.
[0017]
  The power consumed by the resistor 12 is as shown in FIG.
    P = I2R = E2/ R = (kφn)2/ R (4)
And is proportional to the square of the rotational speed n.
[0018]
  On the other hand, if the loss is ignored, the product of the brake torque and the rotational speed is the brake power, which is equal to the power P consumed by the resistor 12.
[0019]
    TBn = P = (kφn)2/ R (5)
  Therefore, the brake torque TBIs proportional to the rotational speed n.
[0020]
    TB= (Kφ)2・ N / R (6)
  If the resistor 12 is not switched, the brake torque TBIs proportional to the rotational speed n and is difficult to use except for a specific application (decelerated braking on a downward slope).
[0021]
  (2) Problems of field control
  FIG. 22 is a circuit (estimation circuit) diagram in which a resistor is connected to a synchronous generator to which a field current control circuit is added.
[0022]
  In such a case, it is conceivable to adjust the field current of the synchronous machine 11 so that a constant brake torque is obtained.
[0023]
  From the above formula
    φ2= TBR / k2n ... (7)
    ∴φ = (1 / k) √ (TBR / n) (8)
  Therefore, even if the rotational speed n changes, the brake torque TBAs a method of keeping the constant, it is conceivable to change the magnetic flux φ in proportion to 1 / √n.
[0024]
  To obtain a constant brake torque up to 1/10 of the maximum rotation speed, the magnetic flux isminThen, at the rotation speed of 1/10, √10φmin≒ 3φminIt is necessary to.
[0025]
  The field current can be adjusted in this way, but the rotating machine must generate a magnetic flux that is three times the required magnetic flux at the maximum rotational speed, so that the iron core cross-sectional area of the magnetic path is increased accordingly. It must be done and it is disadvantageous.
[0026]
  An object of the present invention is to provide an electric brake device using a synchronous machine that eliminates the above-described problems and can operate an effective brake with a simple configuration.
[0027]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides
  [1] Consists of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit An electric brake device that is connected to a shaft on which a brake is applied, and that the voltage and frequency generated by the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed, and the value of the resistor and the impedance elementOn the basis of theAn electric brake circuit for obtaining a rotational speed characteristic of a required brake torque of the synchronous machineThen, a reactor is used as the impedance element, the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, and the frequency R / (2πL) determined by the resistance R of the resistor and the inductance L of the reactor is adjusted to correspond to the maximum rotation speed. In the circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, a substantially constant brake torque can be obtained in a rotational speed range corresponding to the vicinity of the frequency R / (2πL) as ½ or more of the maximum frequency. A plurality of reactors and reactors can be connected in series or in parallel, and by changing the resistance and inductance of the circuit at the same rate, the brake torque is inversely proportional to the square root of the impedance of the circuit. ChangeIt is what I did.
[0028]
  [2]Electricity consisting of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit A brake device based on the value of a resistor and an impedance element using a synchronous machine connected to a shaft on which a brake is applied, and the generated voltage and frequency of the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed. An electric brake circuit for obtaining a rotational speed characteristic of a required brake torque of the synchronous machine,Using a reactor as the impedance element, connecting the resistor and the reactor in series,Reactor inductance L and resistor R resistanceFrequency R / (2πL) determined byTo a value well below the maximum frequencyAdjustHighRotational speed rangeInRake torqueIn addition to having a characteristic inversely proportional to the rotation speed, a plurality of resistors and reactors are provided in a circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series so that they can be connected in series or in parallel, so that the resistance and inductance of the circuit are equal. By changing the brake torque, the brake torque is changed in inverse proportion to the square root of the magnitude of the impedance of the circuit.It is what I did.
[0029]
  [3]Electricity consisting of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit A brake device based on the value of a resistor and an impedance element using a synchronous machine connected to a shaft on which a brake is applied, and the generated voltage and frequency of the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed. An electric brake circuit for obtaining a rotational speed characteristic of a required brake torque of the synchronous machine, wherein a first circuit including only the resistor and a second circuit including a resistor and a reactor connected in series are connected in parallel; The sum of the rotation speed characteristics of the brake torque of the first circuit and the second circuit is the rotation speed characteristic of a predetermined brake torque, and the resistance The first circuit of only the resistor and the second circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series are connected in parallel, and a plurality of resistors and reactors are provided so that they can be connected in series or in parallel. The resistance of the circuit, and the resistance of the second circuit By changing the ductance at the same rate, the brake torque is changed in inverse proportion to the square root of the impedance as seen from the synchronous machine.It is what I did.
[0030]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail.
[0031]
  In the present invention, when an electric brake is applied using a synchronous machine, a brake circuit is constituted only by passive circuit elements such as resistors and reactors and a switch, without using a power conversion device such as an inverter, and is necessary. Thus, an inexpensive electric brake device is provided by constructing a speed characteristic of a simple brake torque by a combination of passive circuit elements.
[0032]
  As a specific application, there can be considered an inexpensive electric brake device that can be used in an accompanying vehicle that is not equipped with a driving motor among electric railway vehicles.
[0033]
  The present invention eliminates the use of a mechanical brake during normal times and eliminates the need for regular maintenance of the mechanical brake device by mounting a minimum amount of electrical equipment on an associated vehicle to obtain an electric braking force. it can.
[0034]
  Further, the present invention is not limited to this, and an electric brake device using the synchronous machine of the present invention can be added as a backup for an electric brake system of a motor vehicle.
[0035]
  Furthermore, the conventional application of the electric brake device using the synchronous machine of the present invention will make it possible to eliminate the conventional mechanical brake.
[0036]
  FIG. 1 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device (RL circuit) using a synchronous machine showing a first embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (RL) (part 1), and FIG. It is a characteristic view (RL) (the 2).
[0037]
  In FIG. 1, 21 is a synchronous machine, 22 is an electric brake circuit, and the electric brake circuit 22 includes a resistor 23, a reactor 24, and a switch 25. The synchronous machine 21 is connected to a shaft 26 (for example, an axle or a drive shaft) on which a brake is to be applied. It is connected.
[0038]
  As shown in this figure, when considering a power generation brake circuit (referred to as an RL circuit) in which a reactor inductance L, which is an element of the electric brake circuit of this embodiment, and a resistor R of resistors are connected in series, the impedance Z has a frequency f. As
    Z = R + j2πfL (9)
It can be expressed as.
[0039]
  Therefore, the current amplitude | I | is as follows.
[0040]
    | I | = E / | Z | = E / √ [R2+ (2πfL)2] (10)
  here
      n = k1If f,
    | I | = kk1φf / √ [R2+ (2πfL)2]
    When f << R / 2πL | I | → kk1φf / R
    When f >> R / 2πL | I | → kk1φ / (2πL) (constant) (11)
  That is, the current is proportional to the rotational speed in the low speed region with the frequency f = R / (2πL) as a boundary, and is substantially constant regardless of the rotational speed in the high speed region. When the brake output is obtained from the equation of current | I |
    P = I2R = R (kk1φf)2/ [R2+ (2πfL)2] (12)
Brake torque TBIs expressed as follows.
[0041]
    TB= P / k1f = (kφ)2k1R · f / [R2+ (2πfL)2] (13)
  Therefore,
    T when f << R / 2πLB→ (kφ)2k1・ F / R
    f >> R / 2πL TB→ (kφ)2k1R / (2πL)2f
  Therefore, when f >> R / (2πL), the brake torque TBIs inversely proportional to the rotational speed.
[0042]
  Here, the relationship between the R and L values, the point at which the brake torque becomes maximum, and the brake torque maximum value will be considered.
[0043]
  When the brake torque is differentiated by the rotation frequency f,
    dTB/ Df
= (Kφ)2k1R ・ [R2− (2πfL)2] / [R2+ (2πfL)2]2
                                                                      ... (14)
Thus, the maximum value is obtained at f = R / (2πL). The brake torque at this time is
    TB= (Kφ)2k1/ (4πL) (15)
And is in inverse proportion to L regardless of the value of R. That is, when R is changed, the rotation frequency (rotation speed) at which the brake torque becomes maximum can be changed without changing the maximum value of the brake torque.
[0044]
  Therefore, the RL circuit can be used when a brake torque inversely proportional to the speed and the rotational speed is required. An example of this is shown in FIG. In this figure, FIG. 2 (a) is a total current (A) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), FIG. 2 (b) is a brake force (kN) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. (C) is the output (kW, kVA) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), the curve a is the apparent output (kVA) of the synchronous machine, and the curve b is the brake output (kW).
[0045]
  If the synchronous machine now transmits brake torque to the wheels via the gear unit, the gear ratio is set to GRWhen the wheel diameter is D, the running speed V is
    V = (n / GR) × πD (16)
The rotational speed n and the traveling speed V are proportional.
[0046]
  Since the induced voltage E is proportional to the rotational speed n as in the above equation (2), the induced voltage is now E [V], the traveling speed is V [km / h], and E / V is called the induced voltage ratio. I will decide. Similarly, brake torque TBAnd brake force F around the wheelbIf the gear efficiency is neglected, is proportional to the following equation.
[0047]
    Fb= TB× GR/ (D / 2) (17)
  Further, the brake output P [kW] is electrically expressed as a product of current I [A] and voltage / 1000 [V], and brake force FbIt is also expressed as a product of [kN] and traveling speed V [km / h] /3.6.
[0048]
    Fb= (P / V) × 3.6 (18)
  In the figure below, instead of the rotational speed n, the traveling speed V [km / h] is expressed as the brake torque TBInstead of brake force FBWill be described.
[0049]
  Here, the number of poles P of the synchronous machine is 6, the resistance R of the resistor is 1Ω, the inductance L of the reactor is 0.001H (Henry), the induced voltage constant K is 10, and the maximum frequency fmaxIs 600 Hz, maximum induced voltage Emax1000V, maximum braking force FbmaxIs 4.77kN, maximum brake output PmaxIs the apparent output Pv of the synchronous machinemaxIs 256.4 kVA and R / (2πL) is 159.2 Hz. A possible application in this case is the braking force in line with the Shinkansen adhesion plan. this is,
    F = FO[1 / (V + 85)] (19)
  Where F is the tensile force and FOIs constant, V is running speed
In the high speed range, the speed is almost inversely proportional to the speed, and the RL circuit can be used.
[0050]
  3, the resistance value is 2.6 times that of FIG. 2, and the rotation speed at which the brake torque is maximized is 2.6 times that of FIG. 2, which is 69% of the maximum rotation frequency. This is an example. That is, in FIG. 3, FIG. 3A is a total current (A) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. 3B is a brake force (kN) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h). FIG. 3C shows the output (kW, kVA) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), the curve a is the apparent output (kVA) of the synchronous machine, and the curve b is the brake output (kW).
[0051]
  Here, the number of poles of the synchronous machine is 6, the resistance R of the resistor is 2.6Ω, the inductance L of the reactor is 0.001H (Henry), the induced voltage constant K is 10, and the maximum frequency fmaxIs 600 Hz, maximum induced voltage Emax1000V, maximum braking force FbmaxIs 4.77kN, maximum brake output PmaxIs 124.0kW, apparent output Pv of synchronous machinemaxIs 218.4 kVA and R / (2πL) is 413.8 Hz.
[0052]
  In this case, although the brake torque in the low rotational speed range is smaller, a constant braking force can be obtained over a wide rotational speed range in the high rotational speed range.
[0053]
  Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described.
[0054]
  FIG. 4 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device (R-RL circuit) using a synchronous machine showing a second embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 5 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (R-RL). Here, the same parts as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof is omitted.
[0055]
  In FIG. 4, in the electric brake circuit 30 of this embodiment, a first resistor 31, a reactor 32 and a second resistor 33 connected in parallel thereto are connected to the synchronous machine 21 through a switch 34. Has been.
[0056]
  In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, an R circuit and an RL circuit are connected in parallel. In this case, the brake torque is the sum of the brake torques of the respective circuits.
[0057]
  (1) R circuit brake torque TB1Is proportional to the rotational speed or rotational speed,
  (2) f >> R2/ (2πL2) Brake torque T of RL circuitB2Is inversely proportional to the rotation speed, R1, R2, L2By adjusting this value, a substantially constant brake torque can be obtained over a wide rotational speed range. This is shown in FIG. In FIG. 5, FIG. 5 (a) is a total current (A) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), FIG. 5 (b) is a current (A) characteristic diagram with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. (C) is a distribution characteristic diagram of the braking force (kN) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), FIG. 5 (d) is a characteristic diagram of the braking force (kN) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. The output (kW, kVA) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), the curve a is the apparent output (kVA) of the synchronous machine, and the curve b is the brake output (kW).
[0058]
  Here, the number of poles P of the synchronous machine is 6, and the resistance R of the resistor1Is 12Ω, resistor resistance R2Is 1.2Ω, the inductance L of the reactor is 0.001H (Henry), the induced voltage constant K is 10, and the maximum frequency fmaxIs 600 Hz, maximum induced voltage Emax1000V, maximum braking force Fbmax4.29kN, maximum brake output PmaxIs the maximum apparent output PV of the synchronous machinemaxIs 207.0 kVA, and R / (2πL) is 127.3 Hz.
[0059]
  In this way, it was possible to show that a constant brake torque can be obtained over a wide rotational speed range without using a power converter such as an inverter, simply by keeping the magnetic flux of the synchronous machine 21 constant.
[0060]
  As in the second embodiment of the present invention, there are many applications where it is desired to maintain a constant brake torque even when the rotational speed changes. For example, a railway vehicle having a maximum speed of about 120 km / h is designed to have a substantially constant braking force with respect to the brake notch even if the speed changes.
[0061]
  As an application of the first and second embodiments of the present invention, it is conceivable that a resistor or a reactor is provided with a tap and switched according to a brake command to change the brake torque.
[0062]
  If two sets of resistors of the first embodiment of the present invention are provided and the resistors can be switched according to the rotation speed, for example, the resistance value is increased in the high rotation speed region, and in the low rotation speed region. If the resistance value is reduced, a higher brake torque can be obtained in a wider rotational speed range than when the resistor is not switched.
[0063]
  FIG. 6 is a configuration diagram of the electric brake device when the resistance can be further switched in the first embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 7 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram thereof. Here, the same parts as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof is omitted.
[0064]
  In FIG. 6A, 40 is an electric brake circuit, 41 is a reactor, 42 is a first resistor connected in series to the reactor 41, and 43 is a first resistor connected in series to the first resistor 42. The first resistor 42 is connected to the first switch 44 so as to be short-circuited. The reactor 41, the first resistor 42, and the second resistor 43 are connected to each other. It can be connected to the synchronous machine 21 through the two switches 45.
[0065]
  In FIG. 6B, 50 is an electric brake circuit, 51 is a reactor, 52 is a first resistor connected in series to the reactor 51, and 53 is a first resistor connected in parallel to the first resistor 52. A first switch 54 is connected to the first resistor 52, and a second switch 55 is connected to the second resistor 53 in series.
[0066]
  In FIG. 6A, the resistance R of the second resistor 43twenty oneIs the same as the resistance R of the resistor 23 in the case of FIG. 2, and the resistance R of the first resistor 42 istwenty twoAnd the resistance R of the second resistor 43twenty oneIs the same as the value of the resistance R of the resistor 23 in the case of FIG. 3, and as a resistor, in the high rotational speed range up to 43% of the maximum rotational speed, the second resistor 43 and the first resistance Resistance R of the vessel 42twenty oneAnd Rtwenty twoAt a lower speed, the resistance R of the first resistor 42twenty twoAnd the resistance R of the second resistor 43twenty one7 is obtained, the brake torque characteristic of FIG. 7 can be obtained, and a substantially constant brake torque can be obtained in a wider rotational speed range.
[0067]
  In the circuit configuration of FIG. 6B, the resistance R of the first resistor 52twenty oneIs the same as the value of the resistance R of the resistor 23 in the case of FIG. 3, and the resistance R of the first resistor 52 and the second resistor 53 istwenty oneAnd Rtwenty twoThe resistance of the first resistor 52 in the high rotational speed region is set so that the combined resistance at the time of parallel connection is the same as the value of the resistance R of the resistor 23 in the case of FIG.twenty oneResistance R of the first resistor 52 and the second resistor 53 in the low rotational speed range.twenty oneAnd Rtwenty twoSimilarly, the brake torque characteristics shown in FIG. 7 can be obtained.
[0068]
  It is also possible to adjust the brake torque by switching the resistance and inductance values.
[0069]
  FIG. 8 shows a resistor R according to the second embodiment of the present invention.1R2And inductance L2FIG. 9 is a diagram of the power generation brake characteristics of the electric brake device when switching is possible. Here, the same parts as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof is omitted.
[0070]
  In FIG. 8, reference numeral 60 denotes an electric brake circuit. A first resistor 61 and a second resistor 62 are connected in series, and the first resistor 61 and the second resistor 62 connected in series are connected to each other. In parallel, a first reactor 63, a second reactor 64, a third resistor 65, and a fourth resistor 66 are connected in series, and the first resistor 61 is connected by a first switch 67. The series circuit of the second reactor 64 and the third resistor 65 is connected by a second switch 68 so that it can be short-circuited, and a third switch 69 is connected to the synchronous machine 21.
[0071]
  As described above, FIG. 8 shows two sets of resistors and reactors (inductances) in the case shown in FIG. Now R11, Rtwenty one, Ltwenty oneR in FIG.1, R2, L2And a value equal to R12, Rtwenty two, Ltwenty twoR in FIG.1, R2, L2When the value is (√2-1) times the value of11+ R12, Rtwenty one+ Rtwenty two, Ltwenty one+ Ltwenty twoThe value of R in FIG.1, R2, L2√2 times that of the brake torque in the case of FIG. 5 can be obtained. Moreover, R11, Rtwenty one, Ltwenty oneIf only is used, the brake torque in the case of FIG. 5 can be obtained. This is shown in FIG.
[0072]
  When the brake is applied in this way, it is conceivable to switch the values of the resistance and the inductance as described above according to the required braking force.
[0073]
  FIG. 9 is a diagram of the power generation brake characteristics (two sets of R-RL), FIG. 9A is a characteristic diagram of the total current (A) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. 9B is the rotational speed. FIG. 9 (c) shows a distribution characteristic diagram of the braking force (kN) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), and FIG. 9 (d) shows the rotational speed (km / h). FIG. 9E is an output (kW, kVA) with respect to the rotational speed (km / h), a curve a is an apparent output (kVA) of the synchronous machine, and a curve b is a brake output (kN). kW).
[0074]
  Here, the number of poles P of the synchronous machine is 6, and the resistance R of the resistor1Is 12Ω, resistor resistance R2Is 1.2Ω, the inductance L of the reactor is 0.0015H (Henry), the induced voltage constant K is 10, and the maximum frequency fmaxIs 600 Hz, maximum induced voltage Emax1000V, maximum braking force Fbmax4.29kN, maximum brake output PmaxIs 119.2kW, the maximum apparent output Pv of the synchronous machinemaxIs 207.0 kVA, and R / (2πL) is 127.3 Hz.
[0075]
  FIG. 10 is a block diagram of an electric brake device when the voltage generated by the synchronous machine according to the third embodiment of the present invention is variable, FIG. 11 is a diagram of its power generation brake characteristics (part 1), and FIG. It is a figure (the 2). Here, the same parts as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof is omitted.
[0076]
  By controlling the field current of the synchronous machine, the induced voltage E can be changed, and the brake torque can be changed in a wide range. That is, for example, by combining the first embodiment of the present invention and the control of the field current, the magnitude of the magnetic flux is (1/2) in the case of FIG.1/2The brake torque when the field current is changed so as to become ½ of the brake torque in FIG. This is shown in FIG.
[0077]
  Next, the magnetic flux is kept constant below a certain rotational speed, and when the rotational speed is exceeded, the magnetic flux is made inversely proportional to the rotational speed so that the induced voltage remains constant even if the rotational speed changes. As in the first embodiment of the invention, the brake torque can be made inversely proportional to the rotational speed.
[0078]
  FIG. 12 shows a case where the speed range up to 70% of the maximum rotation speed is exactly the same as that in FIG. 3, and in the speed range higher than that, the field current is adjusted to make the induced voltage constant. Brake torque inversely proportional to the speed is obtained in the high speed range.
[0079]
  Further, when the field current, that is, the magnetic flux is changed by the brake notch command, the induced voltage at the same rotational speed can be changed, and the brake torque can be changed. For example, FIG. 13 shows a case where the highest brake notch is 7 notches and the magnitude of the magnetic flux is proportional to the square root of the notch value (fourth embodiment) based on the second embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 14, a brake torque proportional to the value of the notch is obtained.
[0080]
  FIG. 15 is a schematic view of a permanent magnet type synchronous machine suitable for the present invention.
[0081]
  As shown in this figure, the rotor 71 is made of a permanent magnet, and the stator has three field coils 72, 73, 74 arranged to have a phase of 120 ° in electrical angle. .
[0082]
  By using the rotor 71 made of such a permanent magnet, the structure is simplified, and parts such as a circuit, a brush and a slip ring for supplying power to the rotor 71 are not required, and maintenance thereof is free. Can be.
[0083]
  16A and 16B are schematic views showing an example of mounting the synchronous machine on the vehicle according to the embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 16A is a mounting example of a hollow shaft parallel cardan type, and FIG. 16B is a parallel cardan type. An example of attachment, FIG. 16 (c) shows an example of attachment of a right-angle cardan type.
[0084]
  In these figures, 81, 86, 91 are synchronous machines, 82, 87, 92 are electric brake circuits, 83, 88, 94 are gear units, 84, 89, 95 are axles, 85, 90, 96 are wheels, 93 Is a drive shaft.
[0085]
  Thus, the above-described electric brake circuits 82, 87, 92 are connected to the synchronous machines 81, 86, 91, and the synchronous machines 81, 86, 91 are connected to the axles 84, 89, 95 as the shafts on which the brakes are to be applied. As a result, the brake device can be simplified and maintenance can be facilitated.
[0086]
  FIG. 17 is a schematic diagram showing an application example to a motor vehicle showing an embodiment of the present invention.
[0087]
  In this figure, 101 is a synchronous machine, 102 is an inverter, 103 is a charger, 104 is a DC power source, and 110 is an electric brake circuit according to the present invention, and includes a reactor 111, a resistor 112, and a switch 113. 121 is a shaft (drive shaft) to which the synchronous machine 101 is connected, 122 is an axle, and 123 is a wheel (tire).
[0088]
  As described above, the electric brake device using the synchronous machine of the present invention can be used as a backup for driving, charging, and electric brake system of an automobile.
[0089]
  By installing such a backup electric brake device, the mechanical brake for backup can be abolished in the near future, simplifying the structure, reducing the required space, facilitating maintenance, and reducing the cost. Reduction can be achieved.
[0090]
  In the above-described embodiments, application to railway vehicles and automobiles has been described. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and can be applied as, for example, an electric brake device for a hoisting device, an elevator, or a rolling mill. Yes.
[0091]
  The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and various modifications are possible based on the spirit of the present invention, and these are not excluded from the scope of the present invention.
[0092]
【The invention's effect】
  As described above in detail, according to the present invention, the following effects can be obtained.
[0093]
  It is possible to provide a more practical electric brake device with a simple configuration, and its practical effect is remarkable. In particular, when applied as a backup electric brake device, the structure can be simplified, the required space can be reduced, the maintenance can be facilitated, and the cost can be reduced.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device (RL circuit) using a synchronous machine according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (RL) (part 1) of the electric brake device using the synchronous machine according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (RL) (part 2) of the electric brake device using the synchronous machine according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device (R-RL circuit) using a synchronous machine showing a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (R-RL) of an electric brake device using a synchronous machine showing a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device when resistance can be switched in the first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram of the electric brake device when resistance can be switched in the first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 8 shows a resistor R according to the second embodiment of the present invention.1R2And inductance L2It is a block diagram of an electric brake device when the switch is made possible.
FIG. 9 shows a resistor R according to the second embodiment of the present invention.1R2And inductance L2FIG. 6 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram of the electric brake device when switching is possible.
FIG. 10 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device when a voltage generated by a synchronous machine according to a third embodiment of the present invention is variable.
FIG. 11 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (part 1) of the electric brake device when the voltage generated by the synchronous machine according to the third embodiment of the present invention is variable.
FIG. 12 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (part 2) of the electric brake device when the generated voltage of the synchronous machine according to the third embodiment of the present invention is variable.
FIG. 13 is a configuration diagram of an electric brake device when a voltage generated by a synchronous machine according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention is variable.
FIG. 14 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram of the electric brake device when the voltage generated by the synchronous machine according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention is variable.
FIG. 15 is a schematic view of a permanent magnet type synchronous machine suitable for the present invention.
FIG. 16 is a schematic view showing an example of attachment of the synchronous machine to the vehicle according to the embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 17 is a schematic diagram showing an application example to a motor vehicle showing an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 18 is a circuit diagram of a conventional power regenerative brake.
FIG. 19 is a circuit diagram of a conventional power generation resistance brake.
FIG. 20 is a circuit (estimation circuit) diagram in which a resistor is connected to a synchronous generator.
FIG. 21 is a power generation brake characteristic diagram (R) of a circuit in which a resistor is connected to a synchronous generator.
FIG. 22 is a circuit (estimating circuit) diagram in which a resistor is connected to a synchronous generator to which a field current control circuit is added.
[Explanation of symbols]
  1,102 Inverter
  11, 21, 81, 86, 91, 101 Synchronous machine
  12, 23, 112 resistors
  13, 25, 34, 113 Switch
  22, 30, 40, 50, 60, 82, 87, 92, 110 Electric brake circuit
  24, 32, 41, 51, 111 reactor
  26 Axis on which brake should be applied
  27 Device to actuate the brake
  31, 42, 52, 61 First resistor
  33, 43, 53, 62 Second resistor
  44, 54, 67 First switch
  45, 55, 68 Second switch
  63 First reactor
  64 Second reactor
  65 third resistor
  66 Fourth resistor
  69 Third switch
  71 Rotor (permanent magnet)
  72, 73, 74 Field coils
  83, 88, 94 gearing
  84, 89, 95, 122 axle
  85, 90, 96, 123 wheels
  93, 121 Drive shaft
  103 charger
  104 DC power supply

Claims (3)

  1. Electricity consisting of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit Brake device,
    (A) a synchronous machine coupled to a shaft for operating a brake;
    (B) Using the fact that the generated voltage and frequency of the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed, the electric speed to obtain the rotational speed characteristic of the required brake torque of the synchronous machine based on the value of the resistor and the impedance element Equipped with a brake circuit ,
    (C) A reactor is used as the impedance element, the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, and the frequency R / (2πL) determined by the resistance R of the resistor and the inductance L of the reactor is adjusted to correspond to the maximum rotation speed. As a result, it is possible to obtain a substantially constant brake torque in a rotational speed range corresponding to the vicinity of the frequency R / (2πL) as 1/2 or more of the maximum frequency to be
    (D) In the circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, a plurality of resistors and reactors are provided, these can be connected in series or in parallel, and the resistance and inductance of the circuit are changed at the same ratio, thereby the circuit An electric brake device using a synchronous machine, wherein the brake torque is changed in inverse proportion to the square root of the magnitude of the impedance .
  2. Electricity consisting of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit Brake device,
    (A) a synchronous machine coupled to a shaft for operating a brake;
    (B) Using the fact that the generated voltage and frequency of the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed, the electric speed to obtain the rotational speed characteristic of the required brake torque of the synchronous machine based on the value of the resistor and the impedance element Equipped with a brake circuit,
    (C) A reactor is used as the impedance element, the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, and the frequency R / (2πL) determined by the inductance L of the reactor and the resistance R of the resistor is a value sufficiently lower than the maximum frequency. was adjusted to, and has a characteristic that the high speed range Deb Rekitoruku inversely proportional to the rotational speed,
    (D) In the circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series, a plurality of resistors and reactors are provided, these can be connected in series or in parallel, and the resistance and inductance of the circuit are changed at the same ratio, thereby the circuit An electric brake device using a synchronous machine, wherein the brake torque is changed in inverse proportion to the square root of the magnitude of the impedance .
  3. Electricity consisting of a resistor that consumes brake energy generated by the synchronous machine, an impedance element for maintaining the rotational speed characteristics of the brake torque properly, and a switch that connects them to create an electric brake circuit Brake device,
    (A) a synchronous machine coupled to a shaft for operating a brake;
    (B) Using the fact that the generated voltage and frequency of the synchronous machine are proportional to the rotational speed, the electric speed to obtain the rotational speed characteristic of the required brake torque of the synchronous machine based on the value of the resistor and the impedance element Equipped with a brake circuit,
    (C) A first circuit of only the resistor and a second circuit in which a resistor and a reactor are connected in series are connected in parallel, and the rotational speed of the brake torque of the first circuit and the second circuit While the sum of the characteristics becomes the rotational speed characteristics of a predetermined brake torque,
    (D) The first circuit including only the resistor and the second circuit in which the resistor and the reactor are connected in series are connected in parallel, and a plurality of resistors and reactors are provided so that they can be connected in series or in parallel. By changing the resistance of the first circuit and the resistance and inductance of the second circuit at the same ratio, the brake torque is changed in inverse proportion to the square root of the magnitude of the impedance viewed from the synchronous machine. An electric brake device using the characteristic synchronous machine.
JP20166998A 1998-07-16 1998-07-16 Electric brake device using synchronous machine Expired - Fee Related JP3886648B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP20166998A JP3886648B2 (en) 1998-07-16 1998-07-16 Electric brake device using synchronous machine

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP20166998A JP3886648B2 (en) 1998-07-16 1998-07-16 Electric brake device using synchronous machine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3366899B2 (en) * 2000-06-13 2003-01-14 東海旅客鉄道株式会社 Regenerative brake
JP4828042B2 (en) * 2001-05-17 2011-11-30 三菱電機株式会社 Electric brake device for permanent magnet type wind power generator
JP2002369309A (en) * 2001-06-12 2002-12-20 Railway Technical Res Inst Electric rolling stock system
AT504808B1 (en) * 2003-11-14 2009-08-15 Bernecker & Rainer Ind Elektro Synchronous machine
JP2014135876A (en) * 2013-01-11 2014-07-24 Tohoku Univ Controller for motor, motor with control function, motor system, and pump system

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5029051Y1 (en) * 1969-10-30 1975-08-27
JPH048185A (en) * 1990-04-25 1992-01-13 Nec Corp Emergency stop circuit for synchronous motor
JPH05161208A (en) * 1991-12-06 1993-06-25 Toyota Motor Corp Regenerative brake force regulator for electric automobile
JPH08126364A (en) * 1994-10-27 1996-05-17 Toshiba Corp Electric brake for synchronous machine

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