JP3871851B2 - Write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus and recording medium - Google Patents

Write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus and recording medium Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3871851B2
JP3871851B2 JP2000138346A JP2000138346A JP3871851B2 JP 3871851 B2 JP3871851 B2 JP 3871851B2 JP 2000138346 A JP2000138346 A JP 2000138346A JP 2000138346 A JP2000138346 A JP 2000138346A JP 3871851 B2 JP3871851 B2 JP 3871851B2
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cd
user
data
recording
area
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JP2001319339A (en
Inventor
幸秀 大村
洋信 清水
隆一 砂川
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太陽誘電株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  The present inventionData recording / reproducing apparatus and recording medium for write-once optical discAbout. Specifically, the present invention is applied to a write-once optical disk represented by CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) in which data can be written only once.Data recording / reproducing apparatus and recording mediumAbout.
[0002]
[Prior art]
CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) is widely used as a distribution medium for electronic data such as various contents and computer programs. A CD-ROM is a by-product produced by press molding or the like from a master CD on which electronic data is recorded, and is mainly used for mass-distributed media. For example, a write-once optical disk device, that is, a CD-R is used. CD-R has a structural difference from CD-ROM in that it has a recording layer made of an organic dye between a transparent disk substrate and a reflective layer (detailed structure will be described later). Information can be recorded at the user stage by irradiating the recording layer with a high-power laser using a recording device (CD-R writer) and forming information pits in the recording layer by a thermal reaction. It is.
[0003]
As described above, the CD-R is a write-once type in which information cannot be erased or overwritten (additional writing is possible). That is, once written information cannot be erased or rewritten. Therefore, the storage medium is indispensable for applications such as distribution and storage of electronic data that particularly require maintenance because it has an excellent advantage of reliably preventing erasure and falsification of information by unauthorized persons.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, the conventional write-once type optical disc has an excellent advantage of preventing erasure and alteration of the recorded information, but since the recorded information can be freely read, unauthorized reading or unauthorized copying of the recorded information is prevented. There was an inconvenience that it was not possible.
For this reason, strict management rules must be applied when storing CD-Rs that record confidential information, but such management rules are quite difficult to operate, and in many cases the rules are incomplete. As a result of being unable to prevent the unintentional person from taking out the CD-R and reading the information, the outflow of information to be concealed or the appearance of an illegally copied CD-R is avoided. There was a problem that it was not possible.
[0005]
Such a problem is not limited to the CD-R but can be generally applied to a portable storage device, but the CD-R is particularly serious. In addition to the fact that the CD-R is widely used for distribution and storage of electronic data that requires maintenance by making use of the characteristics of the write-once type, the CD-R that has become unnecessary is physically destroyed (for example, intentional This is because the recorded information can be read illegally even after it has been used unless it is scratched or cut.
[0006]
  Accordingly, the problem to be solved by the present invention is to prevent unauthorized reading of recorded information of a write-once optical disc, and thus is suitable for applications such as distribution and storage of electronic data that particularly require maintenance.Data recording / reproducing apparatus and recording medium for write-once optical discIs to provide.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  Data recording / reproducing for a write-once optical disc according to claim 1apparatusIsA copy of a write-once optical disc in which encrypted data is written in the user area and identification information for user authentication and key information for decrypting the encrypted data are written in a part of the system area A write-once optical disk recording / playback apparatus that performs disk copy to another write-once optical disk as an original disk, and performs user authentication using identification information written in the system area of the copy-source disk And the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk and the identification information written in the system area of the copy source disk when authenticated by the user authentication means by the user authentication means, The key information is output as write data to the copy destination disk, while the user Output means for outputting encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk as write data to the copy destination disk when the authentication means does not authenticate the authorized user. Features.
  In the recording medium according to claim 2, encrypted data is written in the user area, and identification information for user authentication and key information for decrypting the encrypted data are written in a part of the system area. When copying a disc to another write-once optical disc using the write-once optical disc as a copy source disc, user authentication is performed on the computer using the identification information written in the system area of the copy source disc. The user authentication means to be performed, and when authenticated by the user authentication means as an authorized user, the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk and the system area of the copy source disk The identification information and key information are output as write data to the copy destination disk, while the user Output means for outputting the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk as the write data to the copy destination disk when the authentication means does not authenticate the user as the authorized user. The program is stored.
[0015]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. It should be noted that the specific details or examples in the following description and the illustrations of numerical values, character strings, and other symbols are only for reference in order to clarify the idea of the present invention, and the present invention may be used in whole or in part. Obviously, the idea of the invention is not limited. In addition, a well-known technique, a well-known procedure, a well-known architecture, a well-known circuit configuration, and the like (hereinafter, “well-known matter”) are not described in detail, but this is also to simplify the description. Not all or part of the matter is intentionally excluded. Such well-known matters are known to those skilled in the art at the time of filing of the present invention, and are naturally included in the following description.
[0016]
FIG. 1 is an external view (a) of a write-once optical disc (hereinafter referred to as “CD-R”) and an enlarged view (b) thereof. In these drawings, the CD-R 1 has a disk shape with a diameter of 12 cm (some of which have a diameter of 8 cm, hereinafter described with a diameter of 12 cm), and a center hole 1a having a diameter of 15 mm at the center of the disk. Is formed. The distance from the center T0 of the disc to the wall of the center hole 1a (disc inner edge T1) is 7.5 mm, and the distance from T0 to the disc outer edge T7 is 60 mm. A plurality of concentric recording areas between T1 and T7 That is, in order from the inner periphery side of the disk, PCA (Power Calibration Area), PMA (Program Memory Area), lead-in (abbreviated as “RI” in the figure), data area (abbreviated as “UA” in the figure). And lead-out areas (abbreviated as “RO” in the figure).
[0017]
To outline each area, the PCA located at T2 to T3 is a test writing area for laser intensity adjustment performed when data is recorded on the CD-R1. This trial writing can generally be performed about 100 times, and an area for one time is consumed by at least one data recording.
The PMA located at T3 to T4 is an area for temporarily storing the track number and the start / end position when there is a track of a session that is not yet closed on the CD-R1.
The lead-in (RI) located at T4 to T5 is an area at the beginning of the session track (on the inner circumference side of the disc), and the TOC (Table Of Contents: number of tracks recorded on the CD, start position, and data) This is an area for storing the total length of the area. When the session is closed, the information temporarily stored in the PMA is written into this lead-in (RI).
[0018]
The data area (UA) located at T5 to T6 is an area where data is actually written at the user stage. The data recording capacity is about 680 Mbytes at maximum (the one with a diameter of 8 cm has a maximum of about 190 Mbytes), and the storage capacity is about 74 minutes at maximum when expressed in recording time (the one with a diameter of 8 cm has a maximum of about 21 minutes). The data area (UA) is managed by logical blocks of a predetermined size (2 Kbytes) continuous immediately after the lead-in (RI), and each logical block has 0 to a maximum of about 330,000. An LBN (Logical Block Number) is assigned.
The lead-out (RO) located at T6 to T7 is an area at the end of the session (on the outer periphery side of the disc) and is an area indicating that the end of the data area (UA) has been reached.
[0019]
The positions of these areas on the disc are standardized except for T2 and T3. That is, T4 is defined to be a position 23 mm away from T0, T5 is a position 25 mm away from T0, and T6 is a position 58 mm away from T0. In the figure, the outer edge of the disc and the end position of the lead-out (RO) are indicated by the same symbol (T7), but this is for convenience of illustration. The actual end position of the lead-out (RO) is 58.5 mm away from T0. Hereinafter, unless otherwise specified, T7 represents the end position of lead-out (RO). The lead-out (RO) start and end positions (T6 and T7) vary depending on the amount of data recorded on the CD-R1. The actual values (T6 = 58 mm, T7 = 58.5 mm) are those when the stored data amount is maximized.
[0020]
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional structure diagram of the CD-R1. CD-R1 is transparent, excellent in heat resistance, moisture resistance and moldability, and organic on a substrate 1b made of a material (for example, plastic) having required optical characteristics (such as refractive index and birefringence). A recording layer 1c made of a dye, a reflective layer 1d made of a metal material such as aluminum, and a protective layer 1e made of a hard material such as resin are laminated, and the thickness of the entire cross section is 1.2 mm.
[0021]
The difference in structure from the CD-ROM is that it has a recording layer 1c and that a spiral guide groove 1f called a wobble groove is formed between the recording layer 1c and the substrate 1b. Data recording on the CD-R1 is performed by irradiating a strong recording laser along the guide groove 1f from the back side of the substrate 1b, and heating the recording layer 1c to modulate information pits (pit: reflected laser light for reproduction). For the purpose of forming a physical deformation alteration part).
[0022]
FIG. 3 is a conceptual diagram of the format of each recording area of the CD-R1. In this figure, PCA, PMA, lead-in (RI), data area (UA), and lead-out (RO) each correspond to the same name portion in FIG. The sizes of PCA and PMA (capable of writing information) vary depending on the manufacturer and are not constant. However, the required amount corresponding to the number of trial writings (generally about 100 times) and the number of temporary storages of session information, for example, PCA The capacity of about 3.5 Mbytes and about 2 Mbytes of PMA are secured. Incidentally, the PCA start position (T2) and PMA start position (T3) are based on the standardized lead-in (RI) start position (T4) based on these exemplary capacities. The position of “second” can be written as the position of “T3 = T4−about 13 seconds”.
[0023]
As described above, PCA is a test writing area for data recording, PMA is an area for temporarily storing unclosed session information, and these two areas (PCA / PMA) are used only for data recording. This is the area to be accessed. On the other hand, the lead-in (RI) is an area for recording closed session information as a TOC, the data area (UA) is an area where data is actually written, and the lead-out (RO) is an area that clearly indicates the end of the data area. These three areas (lead-in / data area / lead-out) are areas used (accessed) both during data recording and during reproduction.
[0024]
On the other hand, when all these areas are viewed from the viewpoint of easy access from the user, that is, the stored contents can be obtained from a user such as a personal computer equipped with a CD-R1 reader with a normal tool (typically If it is evaluated in terms of whether it can be easily accessed using a file system on an operating system mounted on a personal computer or the like, it is natural that the entire contents of the data area (UA) can be grasped. It is impossible to grasp the contents of other areas (PCA, PMA, lead-in and lead-out).
[0025]
Of course, it is possible to use a special tool, but such a tool is difficult to obtain for general users. Therefore, except for the use of such an exceptional tool, an area other than the data area (PCA, PMA, lead-in and lead-out) can be said to be special areas that are only allowed to be accessed from the system. Hereinafter, this special area is referred to as a “system area”, and an area permitted to be accessed by the user is referred to as a “user area”. That is, the data area (UA) is a user area, and the other PCA, PMA, lead-in (RI) and lead-out (RO) are system areas.
[0026]
The feature of CD-R1 in the present embodiment is that unique information (hereinafter referred to as “ID information”) and predetermined encryption key information of CD-R1 are written in a part of the system area at the time of manufacture. It is desirable that the ID information has a unique value (a non-overlapping value) over the entire number of manufactured CD-Rs. However, when the number of manufactured items becomes enormous, there is a concern that information bits may be multi-bited and press the storage capacity of the system area. Therefore, for example, different information may be used for each production lot, each production line, or each production time.
[0027]
As will be described later, this ID information is used for access verification to the CD-R 1 at the user stage. An application for reproducing data requests input of an ID, determines whether the input ID matches an ID written in the system area, and permits access only when the IDs match. Thereby, the reproduction | regeneration and duplication of data by an unauthorized user (user who does not know ID) can be prevented, and the outflow of data and the appearance of an unauthorized product can be avoided.
[0028]
On the other hand, the key information written together in the system area is used to encrypt the raw data written in the data area at the user stage. That is, an encryption key is read by an application for recording data, and the raw data is converted into encrypted data using the encryption key, and then the encrypted data is written in the data area of the CD-R1. This encryption key is also used when decrypting the encrypted data. That is, at the time of data reproduction, an application that reproduces data requests the input of an ID, determines whether the input ID and the ID written in the system area match, and if they match, the encryption key and encryption The encrypted data is read out, the encrypted data is decrypted using the encryption key, converted into raw data, and used for the user.
[0029]
Therefore, since an unauthorized user who does not know the ID is denied access to the data itself, the unauthorized data can be prevented from being read, and even if the access is successful by any means, it is written in the system area. Since access to the encryption key is impossible with ordinary technical knowledge, the encrypted data cannot be decrypted into the raw data, and in this respect, complete security measures can be taken.
[0030]
FIG. 4 is an exemplary structure diagram of a data format including ID information and an encryption key written in the system area at the time of manufacture. In this figure, the first example (a) shows 8-byte ID information, 8-byte DES (Data Encryption Standard) encryption key, 2-byte production year, 1-byte production month, and It has a size of 20 bytes in total composed of information of 1 byte of manufacturing date. In the second example (b), all of the information composed of 8-byte ID information, 24-byte triple DES encryption key, 2-byte production year, 1-byte production month, and 1-byte production date is provided. It has a size of 36 bytes.
[0031]
Which format is adopted depends solely on the importance of the reliability of the encryption key or on avoiding the compression of the storage capacity in the system area. The number of bytes, the type of encryption key, and the format structure shown in the figure are merely examples. In short, information that enables individual identification of the CD-R1 (ID information) and predetermined key information (encryption key) that can convert the raw data into encrypted data and decrypt the encrypted data into the raw data are CDs at the time of manufacture. -Write in the system area of R1.
[0032]
FIG. 5 is a schematic block diagram of a write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus (hereinafter referred to as “CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus”). This CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 carries a CD-R1 clamping area (information non-recording area provided between T1 and T2 in FIG. 1 (a)) and rotates in a predetermined direction. 12, an optical pickup 14 that irradiates the recording layer 1 c with a recording or reproducing laser (generally an infrared laser with a wavelength of 770 to 830 nm) 13 through the substrate 1 b of the CD-R 1, and the inside of the optical pickup 14 A coarse rotation motor 15 that moves the optical pickup 14 in the radial direction of the disk in cooperation with a provided seek motor (not shown), a disk rotation control unit 16 that controls the rotation speed of the spindle motor 12, and a coarse movement A coarse motor controller 17 that controls the rotational speed and direction of the motor 15 and a pickup system that controls the position of the optical pickup 14 and the laser intensity. And a reproduction / recording control unit 19 for controlling the waveform conversion of a read signal from the optical pickup 14 and a write signal to the optical pickup 14, and a controller 20 that supervises each of these control units. Prepare. The controller 20 corresponds to the access means, the authentication means, and the permission means described in the gist of the invention.
[0033]
The CD-R recording / reproducing device 10 is built in (or externally attached) to an expansion slot of a host device 21 such as a personal computer, and a predetermined signal standard (for example, SCSI: Small Computer) is provided between the host device 21 and the controller 20. System Interface) cable 21a is used.
[0034]
The CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 having such a configuration can record information on the CD-R1 and reproduce the recorded information as described below. The CD-R1 is a CD-ROM compatible device, and the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 can reproduce information from the CD-ROM. However, the description is omitted because it is not directly related to the present invention. .
[0035]
<Recording operation of information on CD-R1>
When the host device 21 executes a CD-R recording dedicated application program (hereinafter abbreviated as “AP”), first, a laser intensity calibration command from the AP is transmitted to the controller 20. In response to this command, the controller 20 transmits a required command to each control unit, positions the optical pickup 14 in the PCA empty area (the area where trial writing is not performed) of the CD-R 1, and sets the rotation speed of the spindle motor 12. After control (control so that the relative speed at the current position of the optical pickup 14 becomes a predetermined speed), the recording laser 13 having a temporary intensity (arbitrary power between 5.5 and 8 mW) is transferred from the optical pickup 14 to the PCA empty area. Irradiate and test-write.
[0036]
Next, the controller 20 reads the data written on the PCA through the reproduction / recording control unit 19 and returns the data to the AP of the host device 21. The AP compares the test writing data with the expected value to determine the suitability of the laser intensity. If the determination result is “No”, the AP adjusts the laser intensity and issues the laser intensity calibration command again. If the result is “appropriate”, the recording operation of information on the CD-R 1 is started.
[0037]
In this recording operation, necessary recording data appropriately selected by the user is transmitted from the AP to the controller 20, and under the control of the controller 20, the rotation control of the spindle motor 12 and the position of the optical pickup 14 are performed via each control unit. While performing the control, recording is performed on the data area of the CD-R 1 while modulating the recording laser 13 from the optical pickup 14 with the recording data. When the recording is completed, all sessions are closed, and the TOC of the session information is written in the lead-in (RI), and a lead-out (RO) is formed after the final session.
[0038]
<Reproduction operation of recorded information of CD-R1>
The AP (CD-R recording dedicated application program) is not required when reproducing the recording information of the CD-R1. However, driver software for performing mutual conversion between the file system of the CD-R1 and the file system of the host device 21 is essential. By using the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 through this driver software, the user can use the CD-R1 file system without being aware of the distinction from other storage devices such as a hard disk installed in the host apparatus 21. Can be accessed. That is, since the user can see the file structure recognized by the file system of the operating system, the user selects the target file in the CD-R 1 in the same procedure as the file stored in the other storage device, The file can be copied and pasted to another storage device, or in the case of an executable file such as EXE format, the file can be opened and executed.
[0039]
When this file access is performed, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 reads the TOC information in the lead-in (RI) and provides it to the driver software of the host apparatus 21 and receives a specific file read command from the driver software. Refers to the TOC information in the lead-in (RI), identifies the track in the data area (UA) in which the data of the file is written, positions the optical pickup 14 at the start position of the track, and also uses the spindle motor 12 is controlled, and a reproduction laser (same as a recording laser except that the power is suppressed to about 0.2 mW) 13 is applied to the CD-R 1 from the optical pickup 14 to irradiate the file data. A series of operations of reading and transferring the read data to the host device 21 is performed. To.
[0040]
As described above, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 according to the present embodiment can write information on the CD-R1 and can also reproduce information written on the CD-R1. The CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is an indispensable component when information is written on the CD-R1 at the user stage. However, the information written on the CD-R1 is reproduced at the user stage. In some cases, it is also a required component. The CD-R1 is a CD-ROM compatible device, and most modern personal computers and the like are equipped with a CD-ROM playback device, and the CD-R1 is used to play back information on the CD-R1. However, since this CD-ROM playback apparatus cannot access the ID information and the encryption key written in advance in the system area of the CD-R1, it also plays back the information written in the CD-R1. Even in this case, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is an indispensable component.
[0041]
Further, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is an apparatus used exclusively at the user stage, but focusing on the information writing function to the CD-R1, its basic operation is an ID performed at the manufacturing stage of the CD-R1. Since the present invention can also be applied to writing of information and encryption keys, the following description will be made assuming that the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is used at both the user stage and the manufacturing stage.
[0042]
<Shipping information recording process>
FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing an ID information and encryption key writing operation (hereinafter referred to as “shipment time information recording process”) when the CD-R 1 is manufactured. Since only the recording function of the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is used at the time of manufacture, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 is abbreviated as “recorder” for convenience in the illustrated flowchart. However, this term (recorder) includes not only the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 but also the intention that it may be a “recorder” dedicated to the manufacturing stage.
[0043]
In the figure, when the shipment time information recording process is started, first, an unrecorded CD-R1 (referred to as “disc” in the flow) is prepared, and this CD-R1 is loaded into the recorder (step S11). Next, the host device 21 is operated to manually input or automatically generate information recorded on the CD-R1 (step S12). The recorded information includes CD-R1 ID information, a predetermined secret key, the date of the day (creation date), and the like, and its format is as shown in FIG. 4 (a) or (b).
[0044]
Next, when an information recording command is issued from the host device 21 to the recorder (step S13), the recorder executes a laser intensity calibration process in response to this command, and sets the recording laser 13 to an appropriate power. After that, the optical pickup 14 is controlled to move to the “specific position” in the recording area of the CD-R 1 (step S 14). This specific position is in principle an arbitrary position on an unused area in an area where direct access from the user is not permitted, that is, a system area (PCA, PMA, lead-in or lead-out). Particularly preferred is an arbitrary position on the PCA or PMA (on an unused area) that is widely recognized by those skilled in the art as an area whose presence is ignored during data reproduction. Hereinafter, for convenience of explanation, the “specific position” is an arbitrary position on an unused area of the PCA.
[0045]
Next, the recording device receives the recording information (information generated in step S12) from the host device 21, modulates the recording laser 13 using the recording information, and converts the recording laser 13 into the transparent substrate of the CD-R1. The recording groove 1f of the recording layer 1c is irradiated through 1b, information pits are formed in the recording layer 1c immediately below the guiding groove 1f, and the recording information is written to the CD-R1 (step S15). The recording information writing start position is the moving position of the optical pickup 14 executed in step S14, that is, an arbitrary position on the unused area of the PCA, and the recording information writing end position is the size of the recording information from the position. (For example, 20 bytes or 36 bytes according to the format of FIG. 4).
[0046]
Next, the recorder moves the optical pickup 14 to the specific position, that is, an arbitrary position on the unused area of the PCA, and moves the position away from the position corresponding to the reproduction start position and the size of the recording information. As the reproduction end position, the recorded information written in the system area is reproduced, and this reproduction information is transferred to the host device 21. The host device 21 compares the reproduction data transferred from the recording device with the recorded information and performs a verification check (step S16). If the two match, the host device 21 determines that the writing has been performed normally, and accordingly. Is notified to the operator, otherwise, it is determined that the writing has failed, and the operator is notified accordingly (step S17). The operator moves the CD-R1 to the shipping shelf in the case of normal writing notification (step S18), and moves the CD-R1 to the defective product shelf in the case of writing failure notification (step S19). Then, the above processing is repeated until there is no CD-R1 prepared (step S20).
[0047]
Therefore, according to this “shipment information recording process”, hidden information such as ID information, encryption key, and creation date can be written in the system area of an unrecorded CD-R1, shipped to the market, and delivered to the user. . Then, at the user stage, when performing a data writing process, a data reproducing process, or a disk copy process described below, a process specific to this embodiment using the hidden information can be executed.
[0048]
<Data writing process by user>
FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing a data writing operation (hereinafter referred to as “data writing process by the user”) executed at the user stage. In this process, the user obtains the CD-R1 in which the hidden information is written by the above-described shipping time information recording process in the market, sets the CD-R1 in the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10, and the required user Data is recorded on the CD-R1. The most important point about this user data is that it is non-public data that permits reproduction only to a specific person, that is, data that requires confidentiality. Conventionally, when this kind of confidential data is recorded on a CD-R, for example, the data is encrypted with a predetermined encryption key and recorded on the CD-R, and the encrypted data is recorded together with the CD-R. A storage medium such as a floppy disk containing a decryption key was distributed. However, such simultaneous distribution of a plurality of media is time consuming and may be lost at the distribution destination.
[0049]
The CD-R1 of the present embodiment stores the encrypted data and the decryption key of the encrypted data in one storage medium and distributes it. Therefore, the CD-R1 can be managed easily without being lost at the distribution destination. There is a merit that inconvenience can be solved.
[0050]
In FIG. 7, when the data writing process by the user is started, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 determines the presence / absence of a writing command from the host apparatus 21 (step S31). If there is a write command, an ID input request is issued to the host device 21 (step S32), and the host device 21 displays a predetermined GUI (Graphical User Interface) to prompt ID input on the screen. The received ID input from the keyboard or the like by the user is received (step S33), and the input ID information is transferred to the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10.
[0051]
The CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 reads the ID information written in the system area of the CD-R 1 to determine whether it matches the ID information transferred from the host apparatus 21 (step S34). On the other hand, if they match, the encryption key written in the system area of the CD-R1 is read out and transferred to the host device 21 (step S35). The host device 21 converts the user data into encrypted data using the encryption key (step S36), and transfers the encrypted data to the CD-R recording / reproducing device 10. The CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 records the transferred encrypted data in the data area of the CD-R1 (step S37), and then ends the process.
[0052]
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a time run of the “data writing process by the user”, in which the personal computer 31 corresponds to the host device 21 described above, and the CD-R writer 32 records the CD-R recording described above. The CD-R 33 corresponding to the playback device 10 corresponds to the above-described CD-R 1.
[0053]
In this figure, the user loads the CD-R 33 into the CD-R writer 32 and operates the personal computer 31 to issue a required write command to the CD-R writer 32. In response to this write command, the CD-R writer 32 returns an ID request to the personal computer 31, and the personal computer 31 displays a GUI for prompting ID input on the screen. The user inputs predetermined ID information (ID information notified from a salesperson or the like when purchasing the CD-R 33) according to the GUI, and the personal computer 31 transfers the input ID information to the CD-R writer 32.
[0054]
The CD-R writer 32 reads the ID information written in advance in the system area of the CD-R 33, determines the coincidence with the ID information transferred from the personal computer 31, and stops the process if there is a mismatch. While writing is rejected, if they match, the encryption key previously written in the system area of the CD-R 33 is read and transferred to the personal computer 31. The personal computer 31 encrypts user data using the encryption key, and transfers the encrypted data to the CD-R writer 32. After recording the encrypted data in the data area of the CD-R 33, the CD-R writer 32 notifies the personal computer 31 of the completion of the recording operation, and the series of “data writing process by the user” is completed.
[0055]
Therefore, according to the “data writing process by the user”, user authentication can be performed using ID information previously written in the system area of the CD-R, and data writing performed by an authenticated user (regular user) In this case, user data can be encrypted using an encryption key previously written in the system area of the CD-R, and the encrypted data can be written into the CD-R.
[0056]
As a result, the user only has to specify the user data to be written and input the ID information by operating the host device. The user data is encrypted and the encrypted data is written to the CD-R. It can be automated to improve workability.
[0057]
<Data playback processing by user>
FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing a data reproduction operation (hereinafter referred to as “data reproduction process by the user”) executed at the user stage. In this process, the user obtains the CD-R1 on which the encrypted data has been written by the above-described data writing process by the user, sets the CD-R1 in the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10, and the CD-R1. A series of processes are executed in which the encryption key and the encrypted data are read out from the data and the encrypted data is decrypted using the encryption key. In this series of processes, the most important point is that there are two types of users. The first user is a user who knows valid ID information (hereinafter referred to as “regular user”), and the second user is a user who does not know valid ID information (hereinafter referred to as “illegal user”). .
[0058]
In FIG. 9, when the data reproduction process by the user is started, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 determines the presence / absence of a reproduction instruction from the host apparatus 21 (step S41). When there is a reproduction command, an ID input request is issued to the host device 21 (step S42), and the host device 21 displays a predetermined GUI for prompting ID input on the screen and is displayed by the user. An ID input from a keyboard or the like is accepted (step S43), and the input ID information is transferred to the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10.
[0059]
The CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 reads the ID information written in the system area of the CD-R 1 to determine whether it matches the ID information transferred from the host apparatus 21 (step S44). While determining that the user is an unauthorized user, the process is terminated as is, and if they match, it is determined that the user is an authorized user, and the encryption key written in the system area of the CD-R1 and the encrypted data written in the data area are The data is read and transferred to the host device 21 (step S45). The host device 21 decrypts the encrypted data using the encryption key, allows the authorized user access to the decrypted data, and ends the process.
[0060]
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a time run of the “data reproduction processing by the user”, in which the personal computer 31 corresponds to the host device 21 described above, and the CD-R writer 32 records the CD-R recording described above. The CD-R 33 corresponding to the playback device 10 corresponds to the above-described CD-R 1.
[0061]
In this figure, the user loads a CD-R 33 into the CD-R writer 32 and operates the personal computer 31 to issue a required reproduction command to the CD-R writer 32. The CD-R writer 32 returns an ID request to the personal computer 31 in response to the reproduction command, and the personal computer 31 displays a GUI for prompting ID input on the screen. The user inputs predetermined ID information (ID information legitimately notified from the distribution destination of the CD-R 33) according to the GUI, and the personal computer 31 transfers the input ID information to the CD-R writer 32.
[0062]
The CD-R writer 32 reads the ID information written in advance in the system area of the CD-R 33, determines a match with the ID information transferred from the personal computer 31, and if it does not match, determines that the user is an unauthorized user. The processing is canceled and the reproduction is rejected. On the other hand, if they match, it is determined that the user is an authorized user, and the encryption key written in the system area of the CD-R 33 and the encrypted data written in the data area are obtained. Read out and transfer to personal computer 31. The personal computer 31 decrypts the encrypted data using the encryption key and allows access from the authorized user, and then ends the series of “data reproduction processing by the user”.
[0063]
Therefore, according to the “data reproduction process by the user”, the regular user and the unauthorized user can be identified using the ID information previously written in the system area of the CD-R, and the data reproduction process by the regular user. Only when the encryption key written in the system area of the CD-R and the encrypted data written in the data area are transferred to the host device, and the host device decrypts the encrypted data, Access to the decrypted raw data (for example, browsing or execution of data) can be permitted.
[0064]
As a result, unauthorized users can be excluded and data can be reproduced, and unauthorized viewing and execution of data can be prevented, thereby improving the security of the CD-R.
[0065]
<Disk copy processing by user>
FIG. 11 is a flowchart showing a disk copy operation (hereinafter referred to as “disk copy process by the user”) executed at the user stage. In this process, the user obtains the CD-R1 on which the encrypted data has been written by the above-described data writing process by the user, sets the CD-R1 in the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10, and the CD-R1. Read the encryption key and the encrypted data from the disk, decrypts the encrypted data using the encryption key, and writes the decrypted data to an unused CD-R set in another CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 (copy) A series of processing is executed. Even in this series of processing, there are two types of users: a regular user who knows valid ID information and an unauthorized user who does not know valid ID information.
[0066]
In FIG. 11, when the disk copy process by the user is started, the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 (hereinafter referred to as “copy source CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus”) 10 loaded with the copy source CD-R 1 is connected from the host device 21. Whether or not there is a copy instruction is determined (step S51). If there is a copy command, the host device 21 issues an ID input request to the host device 21 (step S52), and the host device 21 displays a predetermined GUI for prompting ID input on the screen and is displayed by the user. An ID input from a keyboard or the like is accepted (step S53), and the input ID information is transferred to the copy source CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10.
[0067]
The copy source CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 reads the ID information written in the system area of the CD-R 1 and determines whether or not it matches the ID information transferred from the host apparatus 21 (step S54). If there is, the encrypted data written in the data area of the CD-R1 is read and transferred to the host device 21 (step S55). The ID information and encryption key written in the system area and the encrypted data written in the data area are read out and transferred to the host device 21 (step S56).
[0068]
The host device 21 determines whether or not the ID information and the encryption key are included in the transfer data. If the ID information and the encryption key are included, the ID information, the encryption key, and the encrypted data are sequentially copied. Transfer to the previous CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 (hereinafter referred to as “copy destination CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus”) 10, or transfer data (encrypted data) if ID information and encryption key are not included It transfers itself to the copy destination CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10.
[0069]
When the transferred data includes ID information and key information, the copy destination CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 performs the ID in the same procedure as the “shipment information recording process” (see FIG. 6) described above. After the information and key information are recorded on the copy destination CD-R, the encrypted data is recorded on the data area of the copy destination CD-R, or the transferred data does not include ID information and key information. In this case, after the encrypted data is recorded in the data area of the copy destination CD-R, the recording completion is notified to the host device 21 and a series of disk copy processing is completed.
[0070]
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a time run of the “disc copy process by the user”, in which the personal computer 31 corresponds to the host device 21 described above, and the CD-R 33a on the left side is the copy source CD-R1. The left CD-R writer 32a corresponds to the above-described copy source CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10, and the right CD-R writer 32b corresponds to the above-described copy destination CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10. The right CD-R 33b corresponds to the copy destination CD-R. That is, in this example, the recorded information of the left CD-R 33a is copied to the right CD-R 33b.
[0071]
In this figure, the user loads the copy source and copy destination CD-Rs 33a and 33b into the CD-R writers 32a and 32b, respectively, and operates the personal computer 31 to issue a required copy command to the copy source CD-R writer. Issued to 32a. In response to this copy command, the copy source CD-R writer 32a returns an ID request to the personal computer 31, and the personal computer 31 displays a GUI for prompting ID input on the screen. The user inputs predetermined ID information (ID information legitimately notified from the distribution destination of the CD-R 33a) according to the GUI, and the personal computer 31 transfers the input ID information to the copy source CD-R writer 32a. .
[0072]
The copy source CD-R writer 32a reads the ID information written in advance in the system area of the CD-R 33a, determines a match with the ID information transferred from the personal computer 31, and if it does not match, identifies the unauthorized user. Judgment is made, and limited copying of only the encrypted data is allowed, but if they match, it is determined that the user is an authorized user, and the ID information and the encryption key written in the system area of the CD-R 33a are written in the data area. The encrypted data being read is read out and transferred to the personal computer 31.
[0073]
The personal computer 31 issues a write command to the copy destination CD-R writer 32b and transfers the ID information, the encryption key, and the encrypted data read from the copy source CD-R 33a to the copy destination CD-R writer 32b. The copy destination CD-R writer 32b writes the ID information and encryption key in the system area of the CD-R 33b, writes the encrypted data in the data area of the CD-R 33b, and notifies the host device 21 of the completion of the writing. The series of “disc copy processing by the user” is completed.
[0074]
Therefore, according to the “disc copy process by the user”, the regular user and the unauthorized user can be identified using the ID information written in advance in the system area of the copy source CD-R, and the discre Only when the copy process is being performed, the ID information and the encryption key written in the system area of the copy source CD-R and the encrypted data written in the data area are transferred to the host device, and the copy destination is transferred from the host device. It can be transferred to a CD-R writer and written (copied) to a copy destination CD-R.
[0075]
As a result, it is possible to allow only authorized users to copy the disc and produce a complete by-product of the source CD-R, while allowing unauthorized users to make limited copies of only the encrypted data. Can produce unfinished by-products that cannot be reused (data cannot be used unless the code is decrypted), prevent the appearance of unauthorized copies such as pirated CDs, and improve the security of CD-Rs Can be planned.
[0076]
<Summary>
As described above, the CD-R1 of this embodiment is shipped by writing hidden information such as ID information and encryption key in a specific area (system area) where direct access by the user is not permitted. A CD-R writer (CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10) used for data writing and data reproduction at the user stage is provided with a security function using the hidden information to access the CD-R1. Authority authentication can be performed, and data writing and data reproduction can be permitted only to authorized users.
[0077]
Therefore, in addition to the write-once characteristics (data cannot be erased or tampered with), it is possible to provide the CD-R1 with aggressive security to the market. It is possible to achieve a social benefit that a highly preferred write-once optical disc can be realized by applying it to the field of storage and distribution.
[0078]
In the above description, hidden information such as ID information and an encryption key is written in the system area. This system area is an area where direct access by the user is permitted (typically a data area). In addition to the above-mentioned PCA and PMA, it may be lead-in, lead-out, or if there is any other area, There may be.
[0079]
The encryption key is not particularly described, but various commonly known encryption methods (for example, there are methods such as FEAL: Fast Encipherment Algorithm other than the DES method described above). Either of these may be adopted. An appropriate method may be adopted in consideration of difficulty of decryption, overhead of encryption processing and decryption processing, volume of encrypted data, and the like.
[0080]
The security function using the ID information and the encryption key described above is exclusively a hardware asset including a microcomputer and various peripheral devices mounted on the controller 20 of the CD-R recording / reproducing apparatus 10 and the main board of the host apparatus 21. Are functionally realized by organic coupling with software assets such as an operating system and various programs (including driver software). However, since hardware assets and operating systems can use general-purpose ones, Essential items indispensable for the security function using the described ID information and encryption key are substantially the above-mentioned “data writing process by the user” (see FIG. 7) and “data reproducing process by the user” (see FIG. 9) and “Disk copy by user” Processing "it can be said that are aggregated into a program such as (see Figure 11).
[0081]
Therefore, the security function using the ID information and the encryption key according to the present invention is a recording medium such as a floppy disk, an optical disk, a compact disk, a magnetic tape, a hard disk, or a semiconductor memory that stores all or a part of the program. Alternatively, it includes components (unit products, finished products, or semi-finished products) including these recording media. Note that the recording medium or component includes not only the recording medium itself on the distribution channel but also the one on the network that provides only the recorded contents.
[0082]
In the above description, an example of a CD-R is shown as a write-once optical disc, but the present invention is not limited to this. For example, a DVD (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) -R can be written only once, and is of course a member of a write-once optical disc. When the above description is applied to DVD-R, CD-R is read as DVD-R, and CD-R recording / playback device and CD-R writer are read as DVD-R recording / playback device and DVD-R writer, respectively. That's fine.
[0083]
【The invention's effect】
  According to the present invention, when the disc copy process is performed by the authorized user, the identification information and key information written in the system area of the copy source disk and the encrypted data written in the user area are copied to the copy destination. Output to disk and allow creation of complete copies.
  On the other hand, when the disk copy process is performed by an unauthorized user, only the encrypted data written in the user area is output to the copy destination disk, and the creation of an incomplete copy is permitted.
  Therefore, even if an illegally copied product (incompletely duplicated product) is put on the market, the encrypted data cannot be restored unless the identification information and the key information are obtained.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an external view of a write-once optical disc and an enlarged view of a main part thereof.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional structure diagram of a CD-R.
FIG. 3 is a conceptual diagram of a format of each recording area of a CD-R.
FIG. 4 is an exemplary structure diagram of a data format including ID information and an encryption key written in a system area at the time of manufacture.
FIG. 5 is a schematic block diagram of a write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus.
FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing an ID information and encryption key writing operation (shipment information recording process) at the time of manufacturing a CD-R.
FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing a data write operation (data write process by a user) executed at the user stage.
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a time run of data write processing by a user.
FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing a data reproduction operation (data reproduction process by a user) executed at the user stage.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a time run of data reproduction processing by a user.
FIG. 11 is a flowchart showing a disk copy operation (disk copy process by a user) executed in a user stage.
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a time run of disk copy processing by a user.
[Explanation of symbols]
PCA Power Calibration Area (system area, laser intensity calibration area)
PMA Program Memory Area (system area, session information temporary storage area)
RI lead-in (session information storage area)
RO lead-out (area to specify the end position of the user area)
UA user area (user area)
1 CD-R (write-once type optical disc)
10 CD-R recording / reproducing device (recording / reproducing device for write-once type optical disc)
20 Controller (access means, authentication means, permission means)

Claims (2)

  1. A copy of a write-once optical disc in which encrypted data is written in the user area and identification information for user authentication and key information for decrypting the encrypted data are written in a part of the system area A write-once optical disk recording / playback device that performs disk copy to another write-once optical disk as an original disk,
    User authentication means for performing user authentication using identification information written in the system area of the copy source disk;
    When the user authentication unit authenticates the user, the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk, the identification information and the key information written in the system area of the copy source disk, Is output as write data to the copy destination disk, but if the user authentication means does not authenticate the user, the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk is transferred to the copy destination disk. Output means for outputting as write data
    A write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus comprising:
  2. A copy of a write-once optical disc in which encrypted data is written in the user area and identification information for user authentication and key information for decrypting the encrypted data are written in a part of the system area When copying a disc to another write-once optical disc as the original disc,
    On the computer,
    User authentication means for performing user authentication using identification information written in the system area of the copy source disk;
    When the user authentication unit authenticates the user, the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk, the identification information and the key information written in the system area of the copy source disk, Is output as write data to the copy destination disk, but if the user authentication means does not authenticate the user, the encrypted data written in the user area of the copy source disk is transferred to the copy destination disk. Output means for outputting as write data
    A recording medium storing a program for realizing the above.
JP2000138346A 2000-05-11 2000-05-11 Write-once optical disc recording / reproducing apparatus and recording medium Expired - Fee Related JP3871851B2 (en)

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AU2002219608A1 (en) * 2002-01-11 2003-07-30 Fujitsu Limited Security system using optical information recording medium
JP2003281821A (en) 2002-03-22 2003-10-03 Sony Corp Writable recording medium, method for recording identification information, information recorder, method for reproducing identification information and information reproducing device
US7233550B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2007-06-19 Lg Electronics Inc. Write-once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recording management information on write-once optical disc
KR20040028469A (en) 2002-09-30 2004-04-03 엘지전자 주식회사 Method for managing a defect area on optical disc write once
US7355934B2 (en) 2003-01-27 2008-04-08 Lg Electronics Inc. Optical disc of write once type, method, and apparatus for managing defect information on the optical disc
TWI334595B (en) 2003-01-27 2010-12-11 Lg Electronics Inc Optical disc, method and apparatus for managing a defective area on an optical disc
MXPA05012044A (en) 2003-05-09 2006-02-03 Lg Electronics Inc Write once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recovering disc management information from the write once optical disc.
KR101024923B1 (en) 2003-05-09 2011-03-31 엘지전자 주식회사 Write once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recovering disc management information from the write once optical disc
KR20050009031A (en) 2003-07-15 2005-01-24 엘지전자 주식회사 Method for recording management information on optical disc write once
US7313065B2 (en) 2003-08-05 2007-12-25 Lg Electronics Inc. Write-once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recording/reproducing management information on/from optical disc
JP2007505432A (en) 2003-09-08 2007-03-08 エルジー エレクトロニクス インコーポレーテッド Write-once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recording management information on the optical disc
WO2005024793A2 (en) 2003-09-08 2005-03-17 Lg Electronics Inc. Write-once optical disc, and method and apparatus for recording management information thereon
RU2352000C2 (en) 2003-09-08 2009-04-10 ЭлДжи ЭЛЕКТРОНИКС ИНК. Single record optical disk, and method and device for information control on it
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