JP2851794B2 - Combustion air precooling system for gas turbine - Google Patents

Combustion air precooling system for gas turbine

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Publication number
JP2851794B2
JP2851794B2 JP6171400A JP17140094A JP2851794B2 JP 2851794 B2 JP2851794 B2 JP 2851794B2 JP 6171400 A JP6171400 A JP 6171400A JP 17140094 A JP17140094 A JP 17140094A JP 2851794 B2 JP2851794 B2 JP 2851794B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
air
temperature
cooling
gas turbine
coil
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JP6171400A
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JPH07145743A (en
Inventor
ウイリアム・ディー・マクロスキィー
グレン・ダブルュー・スミス
ロバート・イー・ケイツ
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バルチモア・エアコイル・カンパニー・インコーポレイテッド
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Priority to US08/096,744 priority patent/US5390505A/en
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Publication of JPH07145743A publication Critical patent/JPH07145743A/en
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D7/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
    • F28D7/0066Multi-circuit heat-exchangers, e.g. integrating different heat exchange sections in the same unit or heat-exchangers for more than two fluids
    • F28D7/0083Multi-circuit heat-exchangers, e.g. integrating different heat exchange sections in the same unit or heat-exchangers for more than two fluids with units having particular arrangement relative to a supplementary heat exchange medium, e.g. with interleaved units or with adjacent units arranged in common flow of supplementary heat exchange medium
    • F28D7/0091Multi-circuit heat-exchangers, e.g. integrating different heat exchange sections in the same unit or heat-exchangers for more than two fluids with units having particular arrangement relative to a supplementary heat exchange medium, e.g. with interleaved units or with adjacent units arranged in common flow of supplementary heat exchange medium the supplementary medium flowing in series through the units
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/12Cooling of plants
    • F02C7/14Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel
    • F02C7/141Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel of working fluid
    • F02C7/143Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel of working fluid before or between the compressor stages
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D16/00Devices using a combination of a cooling mode associated with refrigerating machinery with a cooling mode not associated with refrigerating machinery
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D5/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, using the cooling effect of natural or forced evaporation
    • F28D5/02Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, using the cooling effect of natural or forced evaporation in which the evaporating medium flows in a continuous film or trickles freely over the conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D7/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
    • F28D7/0066Multi-circuit heat-exchangers, e.g. integrating different heat exchange sections in the same unit or heat-exchangers for more than two fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28CHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT WITHOUT CHEMICAL INTERACTION
    • F28C1/00Direct-contact trickle coolers, e.g. cooling towers
    • F28C2001/006Systems comprising cooling towers, e.g. for recooling a cooling medium
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D21/00Heat-exchange apparatus not covered by any of the groups F28D1/00 - F28D20/00
    • F28D2021/0019Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for
    • Y02T50/675

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an air precooling system, and more particularly to a combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine for precooling gas turbine inlet air. In particular, the present invention operates an air pre-cooling system having a selectable alternate mode to reduce the temperature of air sent to the gas turbine compressor to a temperature less than or equal to the temperature of the surrounding air, thereby reducing air humidity or Related to a combustion air pre-cooling system for a gas turbine that controls and increases the density of air.

[0002]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In a gas turbine having an air inlet, a compressor, a combustion chamber, a turbine, and an exhaust port, incoming air is compressed for mixing with fuel prior to ignition of an air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber, and the hot gas is ignited by ignition. To drive the turbine. Gas turbines are used to generate mechanical power for aircraft and vehicles, and are connected to power industrial generators, especially to generate power during peak loads. Gas turbines used in power generators or gas turbine generators are designed for normal (eg steam or hydro) power generation for peak power demands on hot days during summer months when power demand increases, especially for driving air conditioners. Used to replenish power generation at the site. Gas turbine generators are used for base load systems and co-generation systems in small facilities. However, the power of the gas turbine generator (K
The power rating or thermal efficiency of W) is inversely proportional to the inlet air temperature for the gas turbine generator. In other words, the gas turbine generator is more than 35 ° C. (20 ° F.) air.
Efficiency is low at high temperatures of inlet air, such as 95 ° F., which has long been known in the art.

[0003] Various devices and methods have been used to reduce the temperature of the inlet air to the gas turbine generator with minimal impact or detriment to the output of the gas turbine generator. However, increased demands on the output of the gas turbine generators often consume peak power during cooling, for example during hot summer months, which is disadvantageously consistent with the highest ambient temperature period. Thus, the economic cost of reducing the increased power and inlet air temperature to the compressor of the gas turbine is often higher, since the extra power cost of lowering the air temperature is greater than the potential benefits provided by the power output of the gas turbine. Unfair For this reason, the power generation industry constantly seeks the lowest cost power generation method and power generation device that can lower the inlet air temperature of the gas turbine.

[0004]

One of the air-cooling systems commonly used to reduce the temperature of the inlet air of a gas turbine is provided directly in front of the gas turbine inlet and is a direct evaporative cooling system (DEC system). It is a series-type evaporative cooler acting as a. However, the temperature decrease by the DEC device
This is only possible when the wet bulb temperature difference is about 85%. Furthermore,
The DEC device has an ambient relative humidity of 75% or less, preferably about 2%.
It is important that a clear advantage does not appear unless it is 0 to 60%. For example, if the dry bulb temperature of the surrounding air is about 35 ° C. (95 ° F.) and the wet bulb temperature is 25 ° C. (78 ° F.), the dry bulb temperature will drop to about 27 ° C. (80.5 ° F.). Not just.
The relative humidity of the reduced temperature air is greater than 90% or, in effect, during rapid weather changes, water is saturated with entrained water droplets, which can damage and wear the turbine blades.

[0005] As mentioned above, cold cooled gas turbine inlet air is preferred and is effective in improving gas turbine generator performance, but the selection of a particular cooling temperature affects the output performance of the gas turbine generator. Affect. The temperature of the turbine compressor inlet air must be 0 ° C. (32 ° F.) and the cooled inlet air has 100% relative humidity or carry over of the moisture entrained during the air cooling process Therefore, the formation of ice on the compressor blades must be prevented. The rapid increase in air velocity at the compressor inlet causes a drop in air pressure on the order of 10 cm (4 inches) of water, thereby further reducing temperature and condensing moisture. Thus, about 7 ° C. (45 ° F.) and about 85%
A cold inlet air having a relative humidity of about 0.1 cm is desirable and advantageous, as it readily adapts to variations in air temperature and humidity and maintains good operational integrity of the gas turbine with cold air. The relative choices and benefits of inlet air cooling for use in gas turbines are described in a 1990 paper, "Ga
s Turbine and AeroengineCongress and Exposition in
Brussels, Belgium, "Options in Increasing Gas Turbine Power Using Inlet Air Cooling (Opti
ons in Gas Turbine Power Augmentation Using Inlet
Air Chilling) ".

[0006] Cooling towers, known as cooling devices, include a recirculation device for a fluid (eg, water) that releases heat to the atmosphere.
The cooling tower is typically a device that has a heat exchange device in a fluid circuit that is recirculated to the cooling tower through a heat exchanger by a pump and supplies the fluid by gravity onto the heat exchange medium. The recirculating cooling tower and heat exchanger require a replenishment water system that adds heat and steam to the air moving inside and evaporates large amounts of cooling fluid.

[0007] In a direct evaporative cooling device, which is an air cooling and humidifying device that circulates air over an aqueous medium that directly exchanges heat with air, such as an air washer, cold water in which air is continuously recirculated is used. Cooling and humidification occurs as it passes through the spray. This is a constant enthalpy process, with the recirculating water temperature falling incidentally to the wet-bulb temperature of the incoming air, since it is necessary to extract heat from the air (i.e., temperature drop) in any evaporation. Except for heating due to slight pump energy,
After a period of time, the temperature of the recirculated water reaches approximately the wet-bulb temperature by the pure evaporator. Evaporative coolers are different from cooling towers,
Without the use of a heat exchanger, it vents the air down to dry-bulb temperature, is essentially saturated with moisture, and typically has a relative humidity of 90% or more. However, since the moisture in the cooled air sent from the evaporative cooler to other devices must be kept from freezing when the air temperature drops, the wet bulb temperature of the inflowing air is 0 ° C. (32 ° C.). ° F) or higher, for example at least 4.5 ° C
(40 ° F) or higher. Evaporative coolers can be used on warm days, even if cold air is not exhausted.
The air discharged from the direct evaporative cooling system is cold even on low-temperature open air days.Before sending moisture-saturated air to the inlet of the gas turbine, the humidity is controlled and all the water droplets are further evaporated to freeze water in downstream equipment. The air needs to be reheated to prevent this.

When the cooling fluid in the DEC is lowered to a temperature lower than the wet-bulb temperature of the inflowing air due to ice water or the like in another structure, the temperature of the discharged air is lowered to a temperature lower than the wet-bulb temperature of the surrounding air. When the temperature of the effluent of the indirect contact cooler (ICC) falls below the inflow air dew point, the air temperature falls below the wet bulb temperature and dehumidification occurs. The final temperature of the effluent depends on the external heat removal and the amount of water transferred through the air washer, but as the dry bulb temperature of the air falls below ambient dew point conditions, a certain amount of moisture condenses out of the air. Thus, if the temperature of the coolant (usually water) in the indirect contact cooler drops significantly below the dew point, the wet and dry bulb temperatures of the air passing through the ICC will drop below the dew point. Since ambient air parameters such as wind speed, temperature and humidity fluctuate rapidly with weather conditions, this affects the heat transfer characteristics of the indirect contact cooler,
Excessive cooling of the exhaust air, perhaps 2 ° C. (35 ° F.) or less, results in freeze deposits, for example, in the low pressure area of the turbine inlet cone. Accordingly, auxiliary equipment may be required to supply exhaust air to the inlet of the gas turbine with a certain minimum control temperature and minimum relative humidity.

Although it is known to cool the inlet air used in gas turbines to improve the efficiency and operation of the gas turbine, it is efficient and economical without consuming undesired auxiliary power during peak load operation. Controlled cooling air must be supplied. The preferred "quality" of turbine inlet air depends on the difference between the wet and dry bulb temperatures of the ambient air and the desired relative humidity of the inlet air, the barometric pressure and the overall temperature change of the air density. All of these parameters affect the nature of the reduced temperature air and the impact on gas turbine operation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider all of the above parameters when supplying a reduced temperature air flow to the gas turbine.

The exact properties or desired air humidity and / or humidity or air condition are shown on a dry-wet bulb humidity chart that provides a semi-empirical relationship showing a thermal humidity diagram of the air. A dry and wet bulb hygrometer is a device that measures the temperature of the wet and dry bulbs of air.
The wet and wet bulb humidity chart is a monogram configured to determine properties of the air-steam mixture such as humidity, dew point, enthalpy, specific volume and vapor pressure as a function of barometric pressure and temperature obtained by a wet and dry bulb hygrometer. is there. Therefore, the design inlet air temperature for the gas turbine in the embodiment is 7 ° C. (45 ° C.).
° F) 85% relative humidity has little effect on the prevailing ice formation on turbine blades and gives a reasonable temperature of good humidity to adapt to unexpected weather changes. Since the temperature of the air sent through the cooling tower is reduced to approximately the wet-bulb temperature of the surrounding air, the control of the incoming air mixture cannot always be adapted by the use of indirect contact devices or cooling towers. It is also desirable to control the humidity of the turbine inlet air to minimize the possibility of entrained water droplets being sent to the turbine inlet.

[0011] Raymond Cohen
"Advances in Technology With Potential Fo
During the “Air Conditioning And Refrigeration”, a different type of system is used with a system that uses a closed circuit cooling coil of finned tubes cooled with a glycol / water solution delivered from an off-peak freeze system that uses the same fluid as the off-peak freezing of ice. It is described to obtain a gas turbine air augmentation device. The temperature of the air delivered from the cooling coil is approximately 16 ° C from a nominal reference temperature of 32 ° C (90 ° F).
(60 ° F.) and supplied to a gas turbine connected to a generator that generates power. Ice cooling systems operating off-peak produce and store ice during off-peak hours of power. The stored ice is used to lower the cooling fluid temperature between the cooling coils during use of the turbine to reduce the inlet air temperature sent to the gas turbine.
However, this system does not include a device to control the relative humidity, requires a high external static loss type finned coil heat exchanger and the associated end temperature differential, and the reduction in air temperature is simply a matter of the system. Limited to one-stage operation and not compatible with other modes of operation.

US Pat. No. 4,137,058 (in the name of Schloem et al.) Describes an indirect evaporative heat exchanger with walls having wet and dry sides for cooling air to a turbine compressor. The heat exchanger supplies a cold dry air flow and a cold wet air flow to both sides of the wall to communicate with the inlet of the power turbine compressor and the intercooler. In an alternative embodiment, the indirect evaporative cooling units are connected in series and the cold dry air supplied from the second indirect evaporative cooler is combined with the cold wet air sent from the first evaporative unit to form a two-stage gas compression system. Used for intercoolers. The final cold dry air is used as inlet air for a gas turbine air compressor. In a third embodiment, the dry and moist cold air streams from the indirect evaporative cooler are combined and used as the inlet air stream to the turbine air compressor. The vessel is not supplied with cold air.

In a final embodiment, the dry, cool air stream coming from the indirect evaporative cooler is used as the inlet air stream on the wet side of the indirect evaporative cooler, and the very cold final wet air is probably fed to a turbine air compressor. Used as inlet air.

Known air cooling systems, including mechanical coolers, evaporative air coolers and absorption coolers, provide a cold or cooler ambient inlet air temperature to the gas turbine to improve turbine efficiency and operating performance. However, no consideration is given to the removal of entrained moisture, the density of the air at a specific temperature in the inlet air volume, the ice making and the results due to the relative temperature or off-peak heat storage, and the ice produced is cooled online. Used for on-peak operation without the need for compressor electrical energy. In addition, the higher the initial cost, the less economical it can be to operate, often adding an extra electrical burden to the gas turbine connected to the generator.

The air cooling device of the present invention is an indirect contact cooler that is flexible for alternative operating conditions. The indirect contact cooler can also operate in combination with an auxiliary air treatment device to pre-cool and regulate the exhaust air temperature and humidity. Further, the apparatus is coupled to a gas turbine and can provide low temperature air to the gas turbine at peak load without preparing and operating a full size vapor compression system with an expensive compressor. The gas turbine is connected to a generator.

In ideal conditions, the gas turbine air pre-cooling system allows the inlet air to the gas turbine to have a maximum air density and control the inlet air properties such as temperature and relative humidity. The combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine can be operated in various conditions to control the nature of the inlet air while minimizing operating costs and meeting operating conditions for real weather and resulting load variations. In the case of a gas turbine coupled to a generator, such generators are often used to replenish normal power generation capacity from hydro, nuclear, online fossil fuel combustion or other power generation methods. A regenerator operating in conjunction with an indirect contact cooler, an indirect evaporative cooler and a reheating device can supply cooling air at a low, controlled relative humidity at a small nominal cost through the use of off-peak operation, Generates low temperature mass (cold mass) that lowers the coolant temperature due to reaction with the warm ambient air during any demand period, near peak or high demand periods of the gas turbine generator. Cold masses, such as ice, typically react with the coolant during operation of the pre-cooling system for a short period of time, for example, by one hour.
Because it can be produced for as long as 2 to 16 hours, it can be a system that can incorporate a relatively small system that forms a low-temperature mass. The economics of thermal storage systems are improved by increasing the turbine's kilowatt output and increasing turbine efficiency, mainly when compared to certain customer-motivated usages for commercial air conditioning (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) operation, with higher loads or peaks. Power consumption during the load period is reduced. Extremely high midday temperatures in summer indicate these peak load periods, which in some places result in “power savings”.
In a power-saving state, the local power installation will, if possible, purchase power from other power plants, operate at reduced power output, or rely on other methods to utilize the power available during these high load periods. I do. Thus, it is clear that utilizing the scarce and expensive power to reduce turbine air inlet temperature during periods of high load is not economically feasible.

Further, the heat storage system may be continuously utilized at a controlled rate to reduce turbine inlet air temperature. A surprising advantage resulting from the reduction of the air temperature below the dew point is the recovery of the condensate humidity, which is utilized by introducing it into the gas turbine combustion zone under controlled nitrogen oxide emissions. It is pure water.

Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine capable of supplying air having a lower temperature and humidity and a higher density than the surrounding air to an air inlet of the gas turbine.

[0019]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A combustion air pre-cooling system for a gas turbine according to the present invention cools ambient air to reduce the temperature and absolute humidity of the ambient air to a first temperature and a first absolute humidity and to reduce the ambient air temperature. An indirect evaporative cooler (IEC50) for increasing the density of air to a first air density; and an inlet (1) to the indirect evaporative cooler (IEC50) and turbine (20).
9) side and an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC5
0) for reheating the air passing therethrough. The gas turbine combustion air precooling system has an air inlet side (302a) and an air outlet side (3
02b), cooling fluid inlet (302c), cooling fluid outlet (302d) and air passing between air inlet side (302a) and air outlet side (302b), cooling fluid inlet (302c) and cooling fluid outlet (302d). ) That exchange heat with the first coolant fluid passing therethrough (3).
26) and an indirect contact cooler (IC) disposed between the indirect evaporative cooler (IEC50) and the reheating device (18).
C302) and the temperature of the phase change fluid passing between the cooling fluid inlet (302c) and the cooling fluid outlet (302d) of the indirect contact cooler (ICC302) is reduced below the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air to reduce the phase change fluid. Ice storage unit (T) having an ice making device (304-370) for freezing at least a part of
SU (60), a conduit (40, 72) connecting the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) and the ice heat storage unit (TSU 60) to communicate a phase change fluid, and an ice heat storage unit connected to the conduit (40, 72). The phase change fluid is circulated from the (TSU 60) to the heat exchange device (326) of the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) so that the indirect contact cooler (ICC 30
2) a recirculation means (pump 42) for reducing the first temperature of the air flowing through to a temperature lower than the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air. The reheating device (18) is an indirect contact cooler (ICC30
Receive and reheat the air from 2). Inlet evaporator (IEC50), air inlet side (302a), heat exchanger (326) and air outlet side (302b) of indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) and air inlet (19) through reheater (18). ) To the turbine (20) is lower than the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air, and the outlet density of the combustion air is higher than the density of the surrounding air.

In an embodiment of the present invention, the ice making device (304-370) for reducing the temperature of the phase change fluid includes a condenser (3).
06, 354), a compressor (352), and a second connecting the compressor (352) and the condenser (354).
And a refrigeration system (350) for reducing the temperature of the phase change fluid comprising a pressurized coolant fluid flowing through a second conduit (360) and a second coolant conduit (360), the indirect contact cooler (ICC3).
02) to the conduit (40, 72) leading to the valve device (38).
0, 392). Valve device (380, 392)
Is at least one three-way valve that provides a recirculation pump (42) in conduits (40, 72) between the ice storage unit (TSU 60) and the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302). Ice storage unit (TSU60) and evaporative condenser (30
6) is connected with a compressor (304). A second conduit (344) is provided for connecting the pressurized coolant fluid, which passes through the condenser (354) and the compressor (352) and reduces the temperature of the phase change fluid, to the ice storage unit (TSU 60).

The phase change fluid is one of ice water, glycol and a mixture of glycol and water. Indirect contact cooler (IC
C302) has a coil device (326). Indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) is a finned coil device (326) that enhances heat transfer between air and the phase change fluid. The coil device (326) has a manifold for at least one tube.

Further, a temperature sensor (384, 406) for sensing at least one of temperature, pressure or fluid flow.
And a servo mechanism (38) connected to the recirculation device (42).
8) and a controller (382) for connecting the temperature sensors (384, 406) and the servo mechanism (388). Temperature sensors (384, 406) communicate with the servo mechanism (388) to control the flow of the phase change fluid to the recirculation device (42) and the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302).

An indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) includes a coil device (326) having at least one tube, and a plurality of coils mounted on the tube of the coil device (326) and improving heat transfer between the air and the phase change fluid. And cooling fins. The indirect evaporative cooler (IEC50), the air inlet side (302a), the heat exchanger (326) and the air outlet side (302b) of the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302), and the reheater (18) are vertical axes parallel to the horizontal plane. (320) are arranged in a line. The coil device (326) has an air inlet side (302a), an air outlet side (302b), a cooling fluid inlet (302c) and a cooling fluid outlet (302d). On the side of the air inlet side (302a), the coil device (3
26) A pan (136) is provided for collecting the water condensate on the coil device (326).
Is arranged at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis (320) toward the indirect evaporative cooler (IEC50). The gravity flow of the condensate from the coil device (326) is promoted toward the air inlet side (302a), and the air inlet side (3
02a) to increase the cooling effect due to the contact between the fin surface and the air,
The opportunity for entrainment of condensates in the air sent to 0) is reduced.

[0024]

The gas according to the present invention reduces the temperature of the discharged air below the ambient air temperature, controls the relative humidity of the discharged air, increases the air density concomitantly, and further controls the overall humidity or water droplets. The combustion air precooling system for turbines
It has an alternative air flow path to accommodate changes in ambient air conditions as well as to provide the user with alternative inlet air processing modes or characteristics available. Utilizing the individual cooling and air transfer performance within this gas turbine combustion air precooling system, the desired inlet air characteristics are obtained, and the exhaust air temperature, relative humidity and As a result, the density of air can be changed. Certain embodiments of the present invention allow for the alternate use of a single cooling tower and heat transfer cycle on a daily cycle to minimize the structural requirements of the equipment and to use one or more components. Can be. The combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine can be operated to reduce the temperature and humidity of the air and bring the surrounding air to a relative humidity of less than 100%.

In particular, a daily or weekly combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine cools the phase change fluid, which is the ice water supply heat transfer medium, and freezes the phase change fluid to ice for indirect contact heat-mass exchange. The indirect contact cooler (ICC 302) and the cooling fluid inlet (302) of the indirect contact cooler (ICC 302), where the ice is stored, the ice is reheated, and the phase change fluid is supplied.
c) an ice making device that reduces the temperature of the phase change fluid passing between the cooling fluid outlet (302d) to the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air or less to freeze at least a portion of the phase change fluid.
370) is used. The indirect contact cooler (ICC302) is an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) having a cooling tower and a finned coil device.
16) and the reheating coil (18) can be arranged continuously to achieve a relatively inexpensive reduced temperature and humidity inlet air for air consuming devices such as gas turbines. Ice making refrigeration and refrigeration allows the use of cold coolant fluid or ice water to reduce the temperature of the inlet air to the gas turbine below the temperatures achievable by mere recirculation of the coolant fluid limited by the ambient air temperature. be able to.

[0026]

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS An embodiment of a combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine according to the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS. In these drawings, the same portions are denoted by the same reference numerals.

FIG. 14 is a block diagram of a combustion air precooling system 300 for a gas turbine that supplies low-temperature air to the gas turbine 20. The combustion air pre-cooling system 300 for a gas turbine can operate with an intake engine and devices such as a heat exchanger or a large-capacity air conditioning system, but in the present embodiment, particularly in the context of the gas turbine 20 associated with the generator 21, Combustion air pre-cooling system 3
00 will be described. U.S. Pat.
As disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,352, this combined turbine and generator is not uncommonly used in the power generation industry, and is often used as a rapid generator during peak demand, and at the same time. It represents the only power generation equipment used in a certain facility.

Supplying the gas turbine generator with low temperature, increased density, rather than ambient air, typically increases turbine efficiency, output capacity, and power generation. The improvement of the efficiency of the turbine generator will be described with reference to FIG. FIG.
Shows the percent change from design capacity as a function of compressor (turbine) intake temperature for variables such as heat consumption rate, flow rate, and heat consumption. It can be seen that the output of the gas turbine generator increases as the intake air temperature decreases and the heat consumption rate decreases. As an example, about 41 ° C (105 ° F)
A change in intake air temperature from about 40 ° F. to about 4.4 ° C. (40 ° F.) reduces the heat rate by about 9%, but improves power by almost 35%. Whenever the heat consumption rate decreases, and when the power output increases, the efficiency of the gas turbine 20 and the generator 21 is improved under the same operating conditions.

A preferred embodiment of US Pat. No. 5,193,352 is shown in FIG. 1 for a conventional gas turbine cooling system. The air cooling system 10 for a gas turbine shown in FIG. 1 includes a DCC (direct contact cooler) 12, an IEC (indirect evaporative cooler) 16, and a reheating coil 18 for adjusting the blown air humidity supplied to an ice cooling device 14. Having.
The DCC 12 and the IEC 16 can each independently cool the intake air to the gas turbine 20 below ambient air temperature, and the DCC 12, the IEC 16 individually or in combination with each other, enhances humidity regulation and temperature drop in the intake air. It can also work with the ice cooling device 14 and the reheating coil 18 which are used. Some possible operating sequences for the air cooling system 10 are shown in FIG. 3 merely as a description of an embodiment, but do not limit the scope of embodiments of the present invention. In the conventional example shown in FIG. 1, the arrangement, arrangement, and arrangement order of the components are shown on a coaxial straight line, but the physical arrangement of the air flow passing through each component, element, and series of elements is represented by a damper, It may consist of ducts, conduits, shields and other known air transfer devices, and may provide certain operating modes and combinations of components. Similar configurations are possible for the disclosure of the present invention. Reference is made herein to the drawings of U.S. Pat. No. 5,193,352, and the invention will be described with particular reference to FIGS.

As shown diagrammatically in FIG. 14, the first embodiment of the present invention
In the embodiment, the combustion air precooling system 3 for a gas turbine is used.
00 is connected to a gas turbine 20 by an air supply port 19. The combustion air pre-cooling system 300 for a gas turbine includes an ICC (indirect contact cooler) 302 connected to a cooling device 305,
It has an IEC 16 and a reheating coil 18 for adjusting the outlet air humidity. IEC16, reheating coil 18 and IC
Each of the C302s can independently cool the intake air to the gas turbine 20 to a temperature below ambient air, and these components combine with each other and other ICC302s to enhance the humidity regulation and temperature drop of the intake air. , In combination with the reheating coil 18 or alone. 14-21 show various combinations of actions or selections. In each embodiment of these drawings, each component, element,
The physical arrangement for the flow of air through the series of elements may consist of dampers, ducts, conduits, shields, and other known air transfer devices for a particular mode of operation and combination of components.

In FIGS. 14-21, the ICC 302 cools the ambient air leading to the air inlet 19. In one example of an ICC 302 cooling device, ambient air at a first dry bulb temperature and a first absolute humidity is introduced into a finned coil device 326 that constitutes a heat exchange device for the ICC 302, which is a cooling fluid. It is a flow passage. Air is discharged 134
The second through the finned coil device 326 (FIG. 16)
Is transferred to the air supply port 19 at the temperature of the low-temperature dry bulb and the absolute humidity. The coil device 326 has a manifold for at least one tube. Bread 136 shown in FIGS.
Receives the condensed water accumulated in the finned coil device 326 by the dehumidifying action. The condensed water is discharged to a drain, a storage tank, a cooling tower 52 for use as pure water, or discharged to a processing device and a recycling device, but the processing method is not a part of the present invention. A phase change fluid such as a two-phase refrigerant operates in the finned coil device 326 of the ICC 302 in the embodiment of FIG. 14, but in the present embodiment, the ICC 302 operates the ICC 302 in conjunction with the normal refrigeration cooling device 305. Use. In this example, the basic operating steps of the present invention will be described without limiting the scope, but the compressed and condensed refrigerant is sent from evaporative condenser 306 via conduit 308 to a TXV (thermal expansion valve) 310. The operation of V310, which operates automatically, is known. As the compressed and condensed refrigerant, which is a phase change fluid, passes through the finned coil device 326 of the ICC 302, the refrigerant expands, reducing its pressure and increasing its temperature. The expanded refrigerant, usually in gaseous form, is sent from the ICC 302 to the compressor 304 via conduit 312,
The high-pressure refrigerant pressurized by the compressor 304 is supplied to the conduit 31
4, is discharged to the evaporative condenser 306, and in the conduit 314, the high-pressure refrigerant is condensed into a liquid, and is recirculated to the ICC 302. Thus, the compressor 304 also performs a pumping action. Evaporative condenser 306 includes a recirculation pump, sump, and conduit that directs the chiller fluid of the cooling tower that conducts the heat of the compressed refrigerant in a conventional manner, much like a cooling tower.

FIG. 14 shows a gas turbine 20 with various additions.
The operation steps of are described. The content is that nitrogen introduced prior to the combustion zone of the gas turbine 20 further reduces the temperature of the air and increases the density of the air, thereby providing a greater amount of air and being supplied to the compressor of the gas turbine 20. Fuel can be burned more completely. However, the foregoing is irrelevant to the present invention and is generally considered to be an expensive method of increasing the output of a combustion device. Exhaust from the turbine will be described as being discharged from the turbine without special consideration.

The structure and operation of the combustion air precooling system 300 for a gas turbine shown in FIG. 15 are similar to those of the apparatus shown in FIG. 14, but a TSU (heat storage unit) 60 is newly provided in the refrigerating fluid circuit 307. In a typical TSU 60, a large amount of heat storage medium such as water is stored in a tank 61. Tank 61
The coil 66 shown in a snake shape is connected to the TXV 310,
It receives a compressed and condensed refrigerant fluid for freezing or cooling at least a certain amount of water in the tank 61, and recirculates the warmed refrigerant to the compressor 304 and recirculates through the refrigerating liquid circuit 307. The cooled fluid such as water in the tank 61 is circulated to the ICC 302 through the conduit 40 by the pump 42 as a recirculation means, and cools the air of the combustion air precooling system 300 for the gas turbine. The air-warmed fluid returns to the tank 61 via the return conduit 72. In this embodiment, the ice cooling device 14 cools and stores cold or frozen fluid in the tank 61 during periods of low demand, thereby reducing expensive fuel and energy costs for use. Thereafter, the combustion air pre-cooling system 300 for the gas turbine operates the ICC 302 with the cooling or refrigeration fluid medium stored in the tank 61 to utilize the cooling capacity during peak demand and efficiently use the energy during low demand. To cool the air for peak power generation.

Another embodiment shown in FIG. 16 includes an ICC 302 mounted at an acute angle to a longitudinal axis 320. IC
In C302, an optional pre-filter 322 at the air inlet 324 in front of the coil device 50 operates in the manner of US Pat. No. 5,193,352. The cold air is sent from the coil device 50 to the ICC 302 equipped at an acute angle “A” with respect to the longitudinal axis 320. The finned coil device 326 has a first light shaded upstream portion 328 and a dark shaded downstream portion 330. When vertically upright, the upstream portion 328 and the downstream portion 330 are substantially separated by a vertical axis. In the inclined state, the downstream portion 330 is formed by the dehumidifying action.
The water vapor condensed above flows to the upstream section 328, and
6, collected through conduit 137, sump, drain,
Discharged to recycling equipment. This water vapor is upstream 3
28, the coil device 326 of the upstream portion 328
Helps cool and heat transfer the air passing around it. afterwards,
The cooled and dehumidified air is sent to the air supply port 19 of the reheating coil 18.

As shown in FIG. 16, the TSU 60 connected to the ICC 302 is connected to a glycol cooling device 340 for cooling the cooling medium of the TSU 60. In FIG.
The glycol cooler 342 is connected to the tank 6 by a conduit 344 for supplying a cooling liquid for cooling and freezing the medium in the tank 61.
Connected to one coil 66. Glycol cooler 342
It is itself connected to the refrigeration unit 350 and
0 includes a compressor 352 for supplying a refrigerant to the glycol cooler 342, a condenser 354, and a TXV (thermal expansion valve) 356. In the refrigeration system 350, the warmed refrigerant from the glycol cooler 342 passes through a conduit 358.
, And is compressed and transferred to the condenser 354 through the conduit 360. The condensed refrigerant is sent to the TXV 356 through the conduit 362 and further sent to the glycol cooler 342. As shown, the condenser 3
54 is connected to the cooling tower 364 by conduits 366 and 368, and a recirculation pump 370 for supplying a cooling liquid such as water to the condenser 354 is provided in the conduit 368. As before, the condenser 354 is connected to the cooling tower 52 via conduits 372 and 374, and the conduit 372 is connected to the conduit 54 via a third three-way valve 376, and the condenser 354 is connected to the cooling tower 52 by a coil. The cooled fluid is passed directly to either of the devices 50. In the condenser 354, the cooling tower 3 is used only when the compressor 352 is used while the combustion air precooling system 300 for a gas turbine is operating at a peak demand.
64 are required.

In the gas turbine combustion air precooling system of FIG. 16, the cooling or refrigeration medium from tank 61 and TSU 60 is sent to ICC 302 through conduit 40 and back to tank 61 through conduit 72. However,
In this embodiment, a first three-way valve 380 as a valve device connected between the tank 61 and the pump 42 includes an I-type valve.
First temperature sensor 38 provided downstream of CC 302
Acting to send the chilled fluid to pump 42 in response to the signal from 4, ICC 302 sends a signal to controller 382 via line 386 and activates servo mechanism 388 via line 390, Activate the first three-way valve 380. Reflux conduit 72
Three-way valve 392 as a valve device mounted on
Is connected by a conduit 394 to the tank 61 and the first three-way valve 380. The servo mechanism 396 of the second three-way valve 392 is connected to the controller 3 by a line 398.
82 to control the flow in response to a signal from the first temperature sensor 384.

Supply conduit 54 and reheating coil supply conduit 40
2 is connected to a second temperature sensor 406 provided downstream of the reheating coil 18.
The second temperature sensor 406 is operable to supply a cooling fluid to the reheating coil 18 in response to a signal from the controller 382 via a line 408 to the controller 382. The servo mechanism 4 from the controller 382 by the line 412
The signal is applied to 10 and the servo mechanism 410 is operated to supply the fluid to the reheating coil 18. Reheating coil 18
Is returned to cooling tower 52 through conduits 404 and 58.

FIG. 17 shows another embodiment in which the evaporative condenser 306 is used instead of the condenser 354 and the cooling tower 364 of FIG. In the embodiment of FIG. 17, the use of evaporative condenser 306 specifically illustrates that compressor 352 is not operated to send fluid to cooling tower 52 during peak demand. In this embodiment, the condensing tower 432 is connected through a conduit 434.
A pump 430 is coupled to recirculate cooling fluid from the bottom sump to the top. Pump 430 to fifth
I to communicate with the three-way valve 438 or coil device 50 of
A fourth three-way valve 436 is provided in conduit 434 for switching fluid flow to any of EC supply conduits 440. Fifth three-way valve 438 receives fluid from pump 430 and fourth three-way valve 436, as well as warmed fluid from coil device 50, and passes through coil 442 in evaporative condenser 306. Let it. The fourth three-way valve 436 and the fifth three-way valve 438 are both operated by a servo mechanism, but the state coupled to the controller 382 is not shown. The choice of operation, operation and connection is a design choice. In operation, the cooling circuit shown in FIG. 17 acts as a cooling tower during periods when the glycol cooler 342 is inactive. Therefore, the cooling tower 52 may be omitted, but is shown as an emergency cooling tower 52 that can be used when the evaporative condenser 306 fails.

FIG. 18 shows another embodiment having a different refrigerant supply circuit for supplying a cooling or freezing refrigerant to the coil 66 and the TSU 60. In this embodiment, the condenser 354
Is connected to a cooling tower 364, a conduit 454, a pump 45
Through conduit 452 to supply coil 66 through 6 and conduit 465, condenser 354 communicates liquid refrigerant to receiver 450, and pump 456 is operatively connected to controller 382 through line 458. The warmed, almost gaseous refrigerant is transferred from the coil 66 to the receiver 450 via the return conduit 460. To pass the condensed refrigerant to the low pressure receiver 450, the condenser 354
Float 462 with collation function and decompression function switch
Is provided before the conduit 452. In this embodiment, the cooling tower 52 is used in place of the cooling tower 364 to remove waste heat from the condenser 354 during a period in which the compressor 352 is not operating. However, the choice of an alternative cooling tower is a matter of design choice and the compressor 352
It depends on the operation cycle of.

In FIG. 19, the general configuration according to the embodiment described with reference to FIG. 16 is expanded to use a glycol refrigerant as a coolant in the ICC 302. In this embodiment, the transfer of cold glycol to coil
The supply conduit 344 is provided with a sixth three-way valve 470, which is connected to the conduit 72 for receiving the warmed reflux fluid from the ICC 302. A second three-way valve 476 that controls the flow of fluid to the glycol cooler 342 is connected to the reflux conduit 472 and the pump 474, and the second three-way valve 476
The U60 cooled glycol is connected to a supply conduit 40 to the ICC 302 for delivery to the ICC 302. IC
Reflux conduit 7 connecting C302 and three-way valve 470
2 is connected to a conduit 480, and reflux glycol is supplied to the ICC3.
A second two-way valve 478 is connected to a conduit 480 for delivery from 02 to a pump 474. Two-way valve 478
The servo mechanism of FIG.
2 and is activated in response to a signal from the temperature sensor 384.

FIG. 2 utilizing the basic configuration described in FIG.
In another embodiment, shown in FIG.
The combination with zero and the evaporative condenser 306 are utilized instead of the cooling tower 364. In this case, the refrigerant is the compressor 352
From the evaporating condenser 306. In the embodiment of FIG. 20, pump 456 directs liquid refrigerant from receiver 450 to coil 66 and passes refrigerant vapor and all entrained liquid refrigerant through conduit 482 to receiver 450.
Return to

FIG. 21 shows a further embodiment of the present invention.
17 and 19 for supplying glycol directly to CC302
An example of a combination with the above will be described. Evaporative condenser 306 is used instead of a combined condenser and cooling tower configuration. Also,
The evaporative condenser 306 has an advantage that the glycol can be used directly for cooling the glycol from the glycol cooler 342, and at the same time, the glycol can be used as a coolant as a heat storage medium in the TSU 60. Sixth three-way valve 470 and TS
The glycol returned to the glycol cooler 342 for supply to the U60 is continuously returned to the glycol cooler 342 during the cooling and freezing of the heat storage medium. However, during the non-operation period of the compressor 352, the spray in the steam condenser 306 can be used for cooling the coolant of the coil device 50, so that the cooling tower 52 becomes unnecessary. The need for cooling tower 52 is indicated by dashed lines 372 and 373 and transfers fluid between coil device 50 and the spray of evaporative condenser 306 through three-way valves 436, 438 and pump 430.

In the preferred embodiment, the indirect steam cooling device 16 that significantly cools the passing air includes a cooling tower 52 and a coil device 50 as heat transfer devices. Coil device 5
0 is connected to the first cooling tower 52 by a conduit 54 and a second series pump (in-line pump) 56,
6 transfers the second coolant such as water to the coil device 50 and the conduit 54.
Circulate through. The coil device 50 cooled by the coolant from the cooling tower 52 cools the air passing through the coil device 50 without adding humidity to the air flow.

FIG. 1 shows a conduit 54 that connects to and passes through an IMP (ice making device) 62. However, in the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 14, the coil arrangement 50 is directly connected to the cooling tower 52 by a conduit 54 and a pump 56. The cooling tower 52 may also operate with the IMP 62 to reduce and cool the required components of the air cooling system 10 during ice making, as shown in US Pat. No. 5,193,352.

In the arrangement of US Pat. No. 5,193,352, all the air passing through the coil device 50 does not contact the cooling coil. However, in practice, the amount of intake air passing through the coil device 50 contacts the coil device 50, and the air that does not directly contact the coil is mixed with the air that directly contacts, thereby forming an average exhaust temperature. Calculation and adjustment of the flow rate for the relative amount of the appropriate contact and non-contact portions to the coil can be defined by mathematical functions such as bypass factors. In a commercial environment, the appropriate amount of non-contact air mixed with the contacting air will result in a generally uniform temperature of the air exiting coil device 50. The cooling air from the coil device 50 is sent directly to the gas turbine 20 through a conduit, but when the series pump 56 or the compressor 304 is not operating, the air is sent through the ICC 302, and a TSU 306 provided in a fluid circuit that further reduces the air temperature. When the compressor 304 operates with or alone,
Air is sent through CC 302 and further through reheat coil 18. The operator manually
The passage form of each air flow can be automatically selected by the shielding device and the deflector device or by another method in the combustion air precooling system 300 for the gas turbine.

A reheat coil 18 for slightly increasing the temperature of the exhaust air is located between the exhaust 134 and the air inlet 19 of the ICC 302 and regulates the relative temperature of the exhaust air to the gas turbine 20. The reheating coil 18 is a finned tube to which a cooling fluid supplied to the IEC 16 is supplied. Although the temperature of the cooling fluid is low but not necessarily the cooling temperature, heat transfer of air passing through the reheating coil 18 is performed. The required fluid pressure to the reheating coil 18 is applied to the cooling fluid. Reheating the cooled exhaust air slightly is not counterproductive, but rather regulates the temperature and humidity of the exhaust air. In the embodiment of FIG. 16, the coolant flowing through the coil device 50 and the conduit 54 is sent through the two-way valve 400 to the reheating coil 18 and the coil device 50 for heating the exhaust air and adjusting the relative temperature. In particular,
Conduit 54 routes coolant from coil device 50 to two-way valve 400. This coolant is supplied to the sensor 406 or 384
Controlled by a two-way valve 400 and a servomechanism in response to signals from
8 or selectively to conduit 54 and coil arrangement 50. Coolant from reheat coil 18 is recycled to cooling tower 52 through conduits 404 and 58. The flow rate of the coolant flowing through the reheating coil 18 is changed to control and regulate the temperature of the exhaust air, and the first temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406 is controlled depending on the environment or the operating parameter to be measured. The output of the first temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406 is connected to the two-way valve 400 via the controller 382 and the lines 386 and 412 and passes through the reheating coil 18. The condition of the two-way valve 400, which supplies the partial flow, is adjusted to divert the remainder of the fluid flowing through the conduit 54 to the coil arrangement 50.

A combustion air precooling system 30 for a gas turbine
The various components at zero, ie, the servo mechanisms 410 and 388 of the two-way valve 400 and the three-way valve 380, and the pump 42, the series pump 56, and the recirculation pump 370
It can be manually operated or preset. These devices can be combined with and controlled by a controller 382 known in the art. The controller 382 may, based on the perceivable signal,
A first temperature sensor 384 or a second temperature sensor 4 for providing a signal for controlling a servo valve, a pump or other control mechanism;
06, measurement parameter signals relating to air temperature, coolant temperature, flow rate, relative humidity, pressure and other physical conditions. Describing the control operation, the first temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406 is disposed upstream and downstream of the reheating coil 18, respectively. For example, the first
The temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406 provides a temperature signal to the comparator of the controller 382 via lines 386, 408 and generates a control signal on line 412 to the servo mechanism 410. A similar connection and control signal is applied to the first temperature sensor 3 on a line (not shown).
84 or the second temperature sensor 406 supplies the pump 42 and the series pump 56, respectively. In each figure, the first temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406
Controller 3 by lines 386 and 408 respectively
82 and provides a sensing signal to the controller 382. A similar control signal output can be supplied from the controller 382 to the servo mechanism of each valve. Specific operating conditions or physical parameters such as humidity and temperature sensed by the first temperature sensor 384 or the second temperature sensor 406, the selection of the connection of the sensor to the pump or servo mechanism or the number and arrangement of sensors There are no restrictions depending on design choices. Specific operating conditions, physical parameters to be monitored or sensing devices
At the option of the owner or operator of the combustion air precooling system 300 for the gas turbine.

The cooling air pre-cooling system 300 for the gas turbine is designed for cooling the air flow sent to the gas turbine 20, collecting the water vapor in the air, and adjusting the humidity. The outside air can be transmitted to the gas turbine 20 without changing the physical configuration of the combustion air precooling system 300 for use. However, since the gas turbine 20 for power generation is often used as an auxiliary power generator during peak demand, the temperature of the turbine intake air is reduced by at least ambient air passing through either the IEC 16 or the ICC 302 to increase the output of the gas turbine. It is also desirable to reduce fuel consumption per unit power output. FIG. 10 is a graph showing how the energy utilization and the efficiency are improved when the surroundings are warm.

The achievement of low temperature intake, as well as the adjustment of relative humidity, is achieved by the versatility of the operating path of the combustion air precooling system 300 for a gas turbine. Detailed water supply and drainage networks, conduit works, shielding plates, and other devices for directing airflow along the selected flow path are not shown in the figures, but are known in the art. Evaporative cooler for intake air 1
The prior art mode of operation shown in FIG. 2 as the sole use of 30 only provides for temperature changes in the low relative humidity environment. This change in dry-bulb temperature is expected to have a difference of about 90% between the wet-bulb temperature and the dry-bulb temperature of the surrounding air. The exhaust air from the evaporative cooler transferred to the gas turbine 20 is probably saturated with steam in this mode of operation, but no special measures are taken for adjusting the relative humidity. Therefore, there is a possibility of entrainment of floating water droplets, which may be harmful to the blades of the gas turbine 20.

The selection of the air flow and the flow of the coolant in the conventional air cooling system 10 and the selection of the path depend on the combination of various system components for supplying exhaust air to the gas turbine 20 as a flowchart. 3 is shown. The particular flow path of the intake air and the coolant depends on the choice of the operator and is a function of the temperature and the relative humidity of the surrounding air, as well as of the required exhaust air and load characteristics. In the present invention, the ICC 302 and the TSU 60 that can lower the coolant temperature to the ICC 302 can be used to obtain more cooled exhaust air from the IEC 16, which is near the freezing point of water. The temperature of the cooled coolant can be expected to be well below the wet-bulb temperature of the intake air, which further reduces the exhaust air temperature. The coolant temperature of the ice water is dehumidified because it is sufficiently lower than the dew point of the intake air.
The condensed vapor collects in the pan 136 and is used for other purposes or discarded. ICC302 which is a standard of air cooling
Back to line 72 and the final warmed coolant temperature depends on the total heat transfer and the amount of coolant, but the ICC3
The temperature of the air discharged from 02 is sufficiently lower than the temperature of the air evaporated and cooled by the water at the ambient air temperature. Further, the density of the cooled air is greater than the density of the surrounding air.

The various modes of operation listed in FIG.
The diagrams of FIGS. 8 and 12 will be described. In FIG.
The ambient air passes through the coil device 50, the DCC unit 30, and the reheating coil 18. The coolant cooled in the cooling tower 52 is recirculated to the coil device 50 through the conduit 54,
The surrounding air passing through the coil leading to the DCC 12 is cooled. Although the coolant is described as passing through the IMP 62, with no operation of the condenser and compressor, there is no effect on the fluid flow passages and a similar bypass can occur with an array of deflector valves and conduits. The coolant fluid in conduit 58 is diverted to conduit 100 and conduit 102 by a three-way valve 92, which directs the warmed fluid to cooling tower 52 for cooling and recirculation through coil arrangement 50. As shown in FIG. 3, the surrounding air is always cooled down to a certain absolute humidity and transmitted to the DCC unit 30. In particular, in the configuration of FIG.
It brings considerable benefits to users. In particular, utilizing the coil device 50 to lower the initial air temperature,
The air required for cooling the DCC unit 30 may be small,
This extends the use time of the cooled coolant in the TSU chamber 65 and reduces the need for coolant flowing through the DCC unit 30, thus allowing for greater airflow and air treatment with the same pump capacity, in other words This is a means for increasing the operation capacity of the air cooling system 10.

In one example of a generator coupled to a turbine,
Intake air temperature is raised from 39 ° C (101.6 ° F) to 5.6 ° C (42
° F), and as a result, the power is 52,
It increases from 600 KW to 66,630 KW, which results in a gain of about 14,030 KW, or about 27%, without increasing unnecessary heat dissipation. No extra power is required besides pumps to achieve increased power generation. This is because a large amount of the refrigeration coolant generated in the TSU 60 during the period of the minimum load can be used at the peak load. TS
FIG. 11 shows a block diagram for generating a cooling mass in U60.
Then, the coolant fluid from the cooling tower 52 is sent to the condenser of the IMP 62, and the refrigerant from the IMP 62 is sent to the TUS chamber 65 via the coil 66 by the pump 68,
60 freezes or cools the first cooling fluid. The second fluid is I
It recirculates through the fluid circuit of the EC 16 and returns to the cooling tower 52 via the reheating coil 18 without turning. TSU60
In the recirculation cycle of FIG.
It is not transmitted through the U chamber 65. However, in operation, it is observed that the formation of the cooling mass and the flow of the first coolant through the TSU 60 occur simultaneously, but at a reduced flow rate. The motive power of any system requires a determination of coolant flow, ambient air temperature, system element capacity and demand. The particular mode of operation depends on the choice of the user.

The IEC 16 in FIG. 5 is the only air cooling element, and during continuous operation the coolant fluid is at approximately ambient air temperature. The fluid flow in the DCC 12 is reduced by stopping the pump 42 and the three-way valve 92 controls the reheating coil 1.
No fluid flows to 8. The flow of air from the coil device 50 passes through the DDC unit 30 and the reheating coil 18 and is sent to the air supply port 19 without further lowering the temperature. FIG. 9, which shows the effect of IEC cooling on changes in air characteristics in all ranges, shows that the dry-bulb temperature decreases but the relative humidity increases with the total amount of water vapor contained in the air unchanged. The air does not dehumidify because the dew point is not reached. In the combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine according to the present invention, the same effect can be obtained if the ICC 302 and the reheating coil 18 do not operate.

The only DCC that lowers the ambient air temperature
FIG. The series pump 56
The surrounding air is not affected by passing through the coil device 50 because the second coolant flowing through the C16 fluid circuit is not circulated. Further, no fluid is transmitted to the reheating coil 18. D
In the CC unit 30, the ambient air comes into direct contact with the coolant fluid, the air temperature drops to the dew point, condensation begins, and further drops to about the coolant temperature. The outlet air at outlet 34 will be at the dew point just or near the coolant fluid temperature. The transmission of the exhaust air to the air inlet 19 is not affected by passing through the reheating coil 18. In the combustion air pre-cooling system for a gas turbine according to the present invention, a similar effect can occur when only the ICC 302 is used.

All of the above discussion assumes that there is a proper presence of air at each component and at a suitable operating temperature.

A combustion air pre-cooling system 30 for a gas turbine
With 0, the humidity can be adjusted by lowering the temperature of the surrounding air taken into the device consuming the air. Gas turbine combustion air pre-cooling system 300 gives the operator a great deal of freedom in selecting components to obtain a constant temperature and humidity level. The arrangements shown in FIGS. 14 to 21 provide an apparatus that enables the following points. That is, indirect steam cooling of the surrounding air, indirect contact cooling that lowers the temperature and absolute humidity of the air, and slight heating of the cooled air to lower the relative humidity and minimize the entrained water droplets. Of the gas turbine combustion air precooling system.

Further, the components of the IEC 50, the ICC 302, and the reheating device 18 are activated by the selection of an operator who handles air. The choice of component operation is a function of exhaust air temperature, absolute or relative humidity, intake air condition, and other operating parameters.

In the preferred embodiment of FIG. 17, a combustion air pre-cooling system 300 for a gas turbine is coupled to the gas turbine 20 and supplies the gas turbine 20 with reduced temperature air. Ambient air is transmitted through the coil device 50, which comprises a cooling tower 52, a conduit 54 and a coil device 5.
Activated by the passage of coolant fluid through zero, the temperature of the air is constantly reduced under a constant absolute humidity as shown in the psychrometric chart of FIG.

An ICC 302 including a coil device 326 for receiving an air flow is provided downstream of the IEC 16. The coil device 326 operates as an indirect contact cooler, reducing the temperature of the air and simultaneously dehumidifying. The ice cooling device 14 cools the coolant fluid circulating through the coil device 326 to a temperature equal to or lower than the dew point of the air. In operation of the coil device 326, the cooled coolant acts on the air cooled by the coil device 50 or the surrounding air to lower the air temperature below the dew point of the air flowing into the coil device 326, resulting in air The temperature drops and the humidity drops. The choice of the ice cooling device 14 and the TSU 60 is a user choice and depends on the required characteristics of the air to be supplied to the gas turbine 20. In a system that operates every day, cooling lumps such as ice are generated and accumulated during one cycle,
This cooling mass is used to lower the temperature of the coolant in contact. During low demand periods, such as at night, coolant in typical generators is generated, and the cost of commercial power during low demand periods is generally low, thus reducing the cost of producing cooling lumps (ice). T
The cooling mass in SU 60 is dormant until coolant flows through TSU 60. Incorporating this method, which is readily available from the examples of FIGS. 16-21, into the fluid circuit of the coil arrangement 326 requires minimal effort and can reduce the temperature of the coolant and the temperature of the air transmitted to the coil arrangement 326. Three-way valves 392 and 380 are positioned for flow regulation in TSU 60 to regulate coolant temperature, ice melting rate, and other items.

The air flow after this is controlled by the coil device 326
Pass through a reheat coil 18 which heats the air from the air. Actually raising the air temperature is usually considered in the case of cold air containing water vapor at or near the dew point. The coolant supplied to the coil device 50 acts on the reheating coil 18 by branching off from the conduit 54. This coolant is passed by a two-way valve 400 via a first conduit 402 to the reheating coil 18 and then back to the conduit 404 to return the coil device 50
And recirculate to the cooling tower 52. The reheating coil 18
The discharge temperature from the CC 302 is raised slightly to reduce the relative temperature of the air to approximately 85% and minimize entrainment water vapor. The choice of components and the degree of temperature suppression and dehumidification at each processing stage depends on the user's choice, and its flexibility and selectivity minimize the cost of system operation, and all these components are required. And provide a selective system configuration that does not.

Having described several embodiments of the present invention,
Various alternatives and modifications are possible. It is, therefore, intended to cover such modifications and alterations as fall within the true scope and spirit of the invention.

[0062]

According to the present invention, it is possible to increase the air density by pre-cooling the combustion air for the gas turbine, thereby improving the efficiency and the operating performance of the gas turbine.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing a preferred embodiment of a pre-cooling system connected to a gas turbine.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a known evaporative cooling device for transferring evaporative cooling air to an air inlet of a gas turbine compressor.

FIG. 3 is a flowchart illustrating a plurality of alternative cooling channels for ambient air through the multi-component system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing a first operation state of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a second operation state of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a third operation state of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing a fourth operation state of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 8 is a block diagram showing a fifth operating state of the system of FIG. 1 showing the use of the prior art of FIG. 2;

FIG. 9: Relationship between dry bulb air temperature as a function of water vapor content per pound of dry air,
Temperature diagram showing the relationship between wet bulb temperature, enthalpy, dew point, relative humidity and specific volume

FIG. 10 is a graph showing the KW output performance of a gas turbine and the rate of heat consumption as a function of compressor inlet air temperature.

11 is a block diagram illustrating fluid and air flow paths of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 12 is a block diagram illustrating fluid and air flow paths during operation of the system of FIG. 1;

FIG. 13 is a block diagram illustrating another embodiment for providing continuous, supplemental, and simultaneous cooling of air to a heat storage unit and a gas turbine compressor.

FIG. 14 is a block diagram schematically illustrating the basic configuration of the present invention utilizing an indirect contact cooler that reduces inlet air density to a turbine generator.

FIG. 15 is a block diagram showing a modification of the configuration of FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is a simplified block diagram of a modified embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 17 is a block diagram showing a modified embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention.

FIG. 18 is a block diagram showing another embodiment of the configuration of the device of the present invention.

FIG. 19 is a block diagram showing still another embodiment of the present invention.

20 is a block diagram showing a modified configuration of the device and components of FIG. 18;

FIG. 21 is a block diagram showing a modified embodiment of the device and components of FIG. 17;

[Explanation of symbols]

10. . 11. cooling system; . Direct contact cooler (D
CC), 14. . Ice cooling device, 16. . 17. indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) . Reheating coil, 19. . Air supply port, 20. . Gas turbine, 21. . Generator,
40. . Conduit, 42. . Pump, 50. . Coil device, 52. . Cooling tower, 54. . Supply conduit, 5
6. . Series pump, 60. . Heat storage unit (TS
U), 61. . Tank, 66. . Coil, 7
2. . Reflux conduit, 300. . 302. Combustion air pre-cooling system for gas turbine . Indirect contact cooler (IC
C), 304. . Compressor, 305. . Cooling device, 306. . Evaporative condenser, 308, 312, 31
4. . Conduit, 310. . Thermal expansion valve (TXV),
322. . 326. pre-filter; . Finned coil device, 342. . Glycol coolers, 350. .
Refrigeration equipment, 352. . Compressor, 354. . Condenser, 370. . Recirculation pump, 380, 43
8. . Three-way valve, 382. . Controller, 3
84, 406. . Temperature sensor, 388, 410. . Servo mechanism, 400. . Two-way valve, 430. . Pump, 434. . conduit,

Continuation of the front page (72) Inventor Robert E. Cates North Baygreen Drive, Arnold, Maryland 21012, USA 657 (56) References JP-A-5-133244 (JP, A) JP-A-3 −63429 (JP, A) Japanese Utility Model Application Hei 5-27247 (JP, U) Japanese Utility Model Application 63-109875 (JP, U) Japanese Utility Model Application 62-72513 (JP, U) (58) Field surveyed (Int. . 6 , DB name) F02C 7/143

Claims (11)

    (57) [Claims]
  1. An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling ambient air to reduce ambient air temperature and absolute humidity to a first temperature and first absolute humidity and to increase ambient air density to a first air density. And a reheating device disposed between the indirect evaporative cooler and the air supply port side of the turbine and for reheating the air passing through the indirect evaporative cooler. Between the side, the air outlet side, the cooling fluid inlet, the cooling fluid outlet and the air passing between the air inlet side and the air outlet side and the first coolant fluid passing between the cooling fluid inlet and the cooling fluid outlet. A heat exchange device that performs heat exchange with the indirect contact cooler disposed between the indirect evaporative cooler and the reheating device, and passing between the cooling fluid inlet and the cooling fluid outlet of the indirect contact cooler Keep the temperature of the phase change fluid below the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air. An ice storage unit having an ice making device for freezing at least a portion of the phase change fluid to reduce the temperature of the phase change fluid; a conduit connecting the indirect contact cooler and the ice storage unit to communicate the phase change fluid; and Recirculation means for circulating the phase change fluid from the ice heat storage unit to the heat exchange device of the indirect contact cooler to reduce the first temperature of the air flowing through the indirect contact cooler to a temperature not more than the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air, The reheating device receives air from the indirect contact cooler and reheats it.The indirect evaporative cooler, the air inlet side of the indirect contact cooler, the heat exchange device and the air outlet side, and the turbine from the air inlet through the reheating device Wherein the temperature of the combustion air supplied to the combustion air is lower than the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air, and the exit density of the combustion air is higher than the density of the surrounding air.
  2. 2. An ice making device for reducing the temperature of a phase change fluid comprising a condenser, a compressor, a second conduit connecting the compressor and the condenser, and a pressurized coolant fluid flowing through the second conduit. The system for pre-cooling combustion air for a gas turbine according to claim 1, further comprising a refrigerating device for reducing the temperature of the phase change fluid, wherein a valve device is provided in a conduit communicating with the indirect contact cooler.
  3. 3. The pre-cooled combustion air system for a gas turbine according to claim 2, wherein the valve device is at least one three-way valve, and a recirculation pump is provided in a conduit between the ice heat storage unit and the indirect contact cooler. .
  4. 4. The combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine according to claim 3, wherein a compressor is connected between the ice heat storage unit and the evaporative condenser.
  5. 5. The combustion air for a gas turbine according to claim 1, further comprising a second conduit connecting the pressurized coolant fluid passing through the condenser and the compressor and reducing the temperature of the phase change fluid to the ice heat storage unit. Pre-cooling system.
  6. 6. The combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine according to claim 1, wherein the phase change fluid is one of ice water, glycol and a mixture of glycol and water.
  7. 7. The combustion air pre-cooling system for a gas turbine according to claim 1, wherein the indirect contact cooler has a coil device.
  8. 8. The system of claim 1, wherein the indirect contact cooler is a finned coil device that enhances heat transfer between the air and the phase change fluid.
  9. 9. The pre-cooling system of claim 8, wherein the coil system has a manifold for at least one tube.
  10. 10. A temperature sensor for sensing at least one of temperature, pressure, and fluid flow, a servo mechanism connected to the recirculation device, and a controller connecting the temperature sensor and the servo mechanism. The system for pre-cooling combustion air for a gas turbine according to claim 9, wherein the sensor communicates with a servo mechanism to control a flow of the phase change fluid to the recirculation device and the indirect contact cooler.
  11. 11. An indirect contact cooler comprising: a coil device having at least one tube; and a plurality of cooling fins mounted on the tube of the coil device for improving heat transfer between air and a phase change fluid. The indirect evaporative cooler, the air inlet side of the indirect contact cooler, the heat exchange device and the air outlet side and the reheating device are arranged on a vertical axis parallel to the horizontal plane, and the coil device is the air inlet side, air An outlet side, a cooling fluid inlet, and a cooling fluid outlet, a pan is provided on the air inlet side to collect moisture condensate on the coil device, and the upper end of the coil device faces the indirect evaporative cooler. Is arranged at an acute angle to the vertical axis, and promotes the flow of the condensate from the coil device by gravity toward the air inlet side, wets the fins on the air inlet side,
    Increases the cooling effect due to the contact between the fin surface and air,
    The combustion air precooling system for a gas turbine according to claim 1, wherein the chance of entrainment of condensate in the air sent to the gas turbine is reduced.
JP6171400A 1993-07-23 1994-07-22 Combustion air precooling system for gas turbine Expired - Lifetime JP2851794B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US096744 1993-07-23
US08/096,744 US5390505A (en) 1993-07-23 1993-07-23 Indirect contact chiller air-precooler method and apparatus

Publications (2)

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JPH07145743A JPH07145743A (en) 1995-06-06
JP2851794B2 true JP2851794B2 (en) 1999-01-27

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JP6171400A Expired - Lifetime JP2851794B2 (en) 1993-07-23 1994-07-22 Combustion air precooling system for gas turbine

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US (1) US5390505A (en)
JP (1) JP2851794B2 (en)
KR (1) KR960010276B1 (en)
AU (1) AU661434B2 (en)
BE (1) BE1009557A5 (en)
CA (1) CA2127772C (en)
ES (1) ES2112726B1 (en)

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KR960010276B1 (en) 1996-07-27
AU6757494A (en) 1995-02-16
CA2127772A1 (en) 1995-01-24
AU661434B2 (en) 1995-07-20
CA2127772C (en) 1999-11-23
ES2112726A1 (en) 1998-04-01
BE1009557A5 (en) 1997-05-06
JPH07145743A (en) 1995-06-06
US5390505A (en) 1995-02-21
ES2112726B1 (en) 1998-12-01

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