JP2012165707A - Crude tea producing machine, method for producing crude tea, crude tea, and method for reducing microorganism in crude tea - Google Patents

Crude tea producing machine, method for producing crude tea, crude tea, and method for reducing microorganism in crude tea Download PDF

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JP2012165707A
JP2012165707A JP2011030326A JP2011030326A JP2012165707A JP 2012165707 A JP2012165707 A JP 2012165707A JP 2011030326 A JP2011030326 A JP 2011030326A JP 2011030326 A JP2011030326 A JP 2011030326A JP 2012165707 A JP2012165707 A JP 2012165707A
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tea
crude
crude tea
rough
conveying
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Keiichi Goto
慶一 後藤
Kaoru Mochida
薫 餅田
Rieko Fujita
理英子 藤田
Yuichiro Miyachi
裕一郎 宮地
Yoshikazu Nakamura
義和 中村
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Terada Seisakusho Co Ltd
株式会社寺田製作所
Mitsui Norin Co Ltd
三井農林株式会社
Shizuoka Prefecture
静岡県
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PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a crude tea producing machine which reduces microorganisms in crude tea by a kneading/twisting means and a conveying means without a heating means for heating tea leaves; a method for producing crude tea; the crude tea; and a method for reducing microorganisms in the crude tea.SOLUTION: In the first embodiment, the crude tea producing machine at least includes: a steam-heating means; a rough kneading means; the kneading/twisting means, an intermediate kneading means, and the conveying means. The kneading/twisting means includes a kneading board, a kneading mortar which turns on the kneading board and which has a sweeping brush supported to the hem, and a cone-shaped pressure-kneading board disposed within the kneading mortar for pressing the tea leaves on the kneading board. The kneading board has a low-adherent surface member in a prescribed range close to the outer circumference.

Description

本発明は、荒茶の微生物の数を低減化する荒茶製造機、荒茶の製造方法、その荒茶と荒茶の微生物数低減化方法に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a crude tea production machine for reducing the number of microorganisms in crude tea, a method for producing crude tea, and a method for reducing the number of microorganisms in crude tea and crude tea.
近年、お茶はペットボトル飲料やお菓子、パンなど、これまでになかった食品の用途に使われるようになった。お茶をペットボトル飲料の原料や食品素材として使用する場合には、食品原料として扱われ、受入業者が定めた微生物基準等を準拠する必要が生じ、微生物の数が多いと製造された商品が腐敗するなどのトラブルの原因となることがあるため、菌数の多い荒茶は業者から敬遠される。従って、食品や飲料の原料となる荒茶においては、一般生菌や大腸菌群等の微生物の数を低減化すること、好ましくは陰性化することが望まれている。蒸熱手段、粗揉手段、揉捻手段、中揉手段、精揉手段、乾燥手段等を備えた荒茶製造機において荒茶の微生物の数を低減化する取り組みが行われており、蒸熱手段の蒸機での茶葉の蒸し時間を長くする方法(非特許文献1、非特許文献2)及び、乾燥手段の乾燥機内で処理される茶葉の積算温度(温度×時間)を高くする方法(特許文献1)が知られている。また、特許文献2では、製茶前において、冷却機、葉打ち機、粗揉機に殺菌処理を実施することで大腸菌群数が低減することが開示されている。   In recent years, tea has been used for unprecedented food applications such as plastic bottle drinks, sweets, and bread. When tea is used as a raw material for plastic bottle beverages or as a food material, it is treated as a food raw material, and it is necessary to comply with microbial standards established by the host company. Because it may cause troubles such as rusting, rough tea with a large number of bacteria is avoided from the traders. Therefore, it is desired to reduce the number of microorganisms such as general viable bacteria and coliform bacteria in the crude tea used as a raw material for foods and beverages, preferably to make it negative. Efforts are being made to reduce the number of microorganisms in crude tea in a crude tea production machine equipped with steaming means, rough kneading means, twisting means, medium pouring means, refinement means, drying means, etc. Method for increasing the steaming time of tea leaves in Non-Patent Document 1, Non-Patent Document 2 and a method for increasing the integrated temperature (temperature × time) of tea leaves processed in the dryer of the drying means (Patent Document 1) It has been known. Patent Document 2 discloses that the number of coliforms is reduced by performing sterilization on a cooler, a leaf cutter, and a coarse koji before tea making.
特開2001−128618号公報JP 2001-128618 A 特開2009−278946号公報JP 2009-278946 A
特許文献1、非特許文献1、非特許文献2には、直接茶葉を加熱処理することによる荒茶の一般生菌数の低減化が開示されている。しかしながら、茶葉の加熱処理は、水色、香り、味等茶の品質に影響を与えるため、製造する荒茶によっては十分に加熱処理できないという欠点がある。また、非特許文献2では荒茶製造工程中の製茶機械に残存する微生物の製茶中における茶葉への2次的汚染を示唆しており、荒茶の微生物数の低減化を茶葉の加熱処理だけで対処するのは困難としている。製茶機械を充分掃除すれば、製茶機械からの2次的汚染は軽減できるが、多数の製茶機械が配置されている大規模な製茶工場等では、すべての機械を毎日作業者だけで充分掃除することは重労働となり、現実的に非常に困難である。   Patent Document 1, Non-Patent Document 1, and Non-Patent Document 2 disclose a reduction in the number of viable bacteria in crude tea by directly heat-treating tea leaves. However, the heat treatment of tea leaves affects the tea quality such as light blue color, aroma, and taste, and therefore has a drawback that it cannot be sufficiently heat-treated depending on the crude tea produced. Non-patent document 2 suggests secondary contamination of tea leaves in the tea making process by microorganisms remaining in the tea making machine during the rough tea manufacturing process. It is difficult to deal with. If the tea machine is thoroughly cleaned, secondary contamination from the tea machine can be reduced. However, in a large tea factory where a large number of tea machines are located, all the machines should be cleaned only by workers every day. This is hard work and is very difficult in practice.
特許文献2では、冷却機、葉打ち機、粗揉機を製茶前に加熱処理することで大腸菌群の数が低減することが開示されている。簡単な掃除及び加熱処理をすることで作業者の労力は軽減されるが、これらの処置をした場合にも少なからず微生物が残留しており、更なる微生物数の低減化が望まれた。   Patent Document 2 discloses that the number of coliforms is reduced by heat-treating a cooler, a leaf cutter, and a coarse koji before tea making. By performing simple cleaning and heat treatment, the labor of the worker is reduced, but not a few microorganisms remain even after these treatments, and further reduction of the number of microorganisms has been desired.
本発明の課題は、茶葉に加熱処理する手段を備えていない揉捻手段と搬送手段において、荒茶の微生物数を低減化する荒茶製造機、荒茶の製造方法、その荒茶と荒茶の微生物数低減化方法を提供することである。   An object of the present invention is to provide a crude tea production machine, a crude tea production method, and a method for producing crude tea and crude tea that reduce the number of microorganisms of crude tea in a twisting means and a conveying means that do not include means for heat-treating tea leaves. It is to provide a method for reducing the number of microorganisms.
本発明は上記課題を解決するため、第1手段では、少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記揉捻手段は、揉盤と、この揉盤上を旋回移動し裾に掃き込みブラシを支持した揉捻鉢と、前記揉捻鉢内に配設され揉盤上の茶葉を加圧する略円錐形の揉圧盤とを備えており、前記揉盤は外周寄りの所定範囲を低付着性の表面部材にした荒茶製造機である。   In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides the first means, wherein the twisting means is a rough tea making machine comprising at least steaming means, rough kneading means, twisting means, intermediate punching means, and conveying means. , A board, a rice bowl that swivels on the board and sweeps into the bottom and supports the brush, and a substantially conical board that is disposed in the board and presses the tea leaves on the board. The grid is a rough tea making machine in which a predetermined range near the outer periphery is a low adhesion surface member.
第2手段では、少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記搬送手段の搬送面の両側部は10mm以上のコーナーRを有し、更に前記搬送面の表面の一部又は全部にフッ素樹脂処理したトラフ型振動コンベアを、少なくとも蒸熱手段後且つ中揉手段前に一以上備えた荒茶製造機である。   In the second means, in the rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means, rough kneading means, twisting means, intermediate punch means, and conveying means, both sides of the conveying surface of the conveying means are corners of 10 mm or more. A rough tea making machine having at least one trough-type vibratory conveyor having R and treated with a fluororesin on a part or all of the surface of the conveying surface at least after the steaming means and before the intermediate means.
第3手段では、少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記揉捻手段は、揉盤と、この揉盤上を旋回移動し裾に掃き込みブラシを支持した揉捻鉢と、前記揉捻鉢内に配設され揉盤上の茶葉を加圧する略円錐形の揉圧盤とを備えており、前記揉盤は外周寄りの所定範囲を低付着性の表面部材にし、且つ、前記搬送手段の搬送面の両側部は10mm以上のコーナーRを有し、更に前記搬送面の表面の一部又は全部にフッ素樹脂処理したトラフ型振動コンベアを、少なくとも蒸熱手段後且つ中揉手段前に一以上備えた荒茶製造機である。   In the third means, in the rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means, rough kneading means, twisting means, intermediate punching means, and conveying means, the twisting means includes a grilling board and on the grilling board. And a swivel bowl that swivels and supports a brush at the skirt, and a substantially conical crusher that is disposed in the claw bowl and presses the tea leaves on the board, and the board is closer to the outer periphery. A trough type in which a predetermined range is a low adhesion surface member, both side portions of the conveying surface of the conveying means have corners R of 10 mm or more, and a part or all of the surface of the conveying surface is treated with fluororesin This is a crude tea making machine provided with at least one vibrating conveyor at least after steaming means and before the middle bowl means.
第4手段では、前記略円錐形の揉圧盤の中心軸の揉盤上の可動領域よりも外周寄りを低付着性の表面部材にした第1手段又は第3手段の荒茶製造機である。   The fourth means is the rough tea making machine of the first means or the third means in which the outer peripheral side is a surface member having a low adhesion property than the movable region of the central axis of the substantially conical scooping platen.
第5手段では、前記低付着性の表面部材をフッ素樹脂とした第1手段、第3手段又は第4手段の荒茶製造機である。   The fifth means is the rough tea manufacturing machine of the first means, the third means or the fourth means in which the low adhesion surface member is made of fluororesin.
第6手段では、前記掃き込みブラシのブラシ材の線径を0.6mm未満とした第1手段、第3手段、第4手段又は第5手段の荒茶製造機である。   The sixth means is the rough tea making machine of the first means, the third means, the fourth means, or the fifth means, wherein the wire diameter of the brush material of the sweeping brush is less than 0.6 mm.
第7手段は、第1手段乃至第6手段のいずれかの荒茶製造機を用いることによって製造された荒茶である。   The seventh means is crude tea produced by using the crude tea making machine of any one of the first to sixth means.
第8手段は、第1手段乃至第6手段のいずれかの荒茶製造機を用いた荒茶の製造方法である。   The eighth means is a method for producing crude tea using the crude tea production machine according to any one of the first to sixth means.
第9手段は、第1手段乃至第6手段のいずれかの荒茶製造機を用いた荒茶の微生物数低減化方法である。   The ninth means is a method for reducing the number of microorganisms of crude tea using the crude tea production machine of any one of the first to sixth means.
第10手段は、蒸葉処理手段を備えた、第1手段乃至第6手段のいずれかの荒茶製造機において、製造前に少なくとも蒸葉処理手段及び粗揉手段をそれぞれ殺菌処理した荒茶の製造方法である。   The tenth means is a rough tea making machine according to any one of the first to sixth means provided with the steamed leaf processing means, and at least the steamed leaf processing means and the rough koji means are each sterilized before the production. It is a manufacturing method.
第11手段は、第10手段の製造方法を用いることによって製造された荒茶である。   The eleventh means is crude tea produced by using the production method of the tenth means.
第12手段は、第10手段の製造方法を用いた荒茶の微生物数低減化方法である。   The twelfth means is a method for reducing the number of microorganisms of crude tea using the production method of the tenth means.
本発明の荒茶製造機、荒茶製造方法、荒茶の微生物数低減化方法を用いれば、作業者の労力を軽減して、微生物の数が低減化された高品質な荒茶を提供することが可能となる。   By using the rough tea manufacturing machine, the rough tea manufacturing method, and the method for reducing the number of microorganisms in rough tea according to the present invention, it is possible to reduce the labor of workers and provide high-quality rough tea with a reduced number of microorganisms. It becomes possible.
荒茶製造機の一例の図Illustration of an example of crude tea making machine 本発明の荒茶製造機の揉捻機正面図Front view of twister of rough tea making machine of the present invention 本発明の荒茶製造機の揉捻機側面図Side view of twister of rough tea making machine of the present invention 本発明の荒茶製造機の揉捻機の揉盤の図Drawing of the board of the twister of the rough tea making machine of the present invention 本発明の荒茶製造機の揉捻機の掃き込みブラシの図Figure of sweeping brush of twister of rough tea making machine of the present invention トラフ型振動コンベアの側面図Side view of trough-type vibratory conveyor 本発明のトラフ型振動コンベアのトラフの形状の一例の図The figure of an example of the shape of the trough of the trough type vibration conveyor of the present invention 本発明の実施例の荒茶製造機のレイアウトの図Figure of layout of rough tea making machine of the embodiment of the present invention 荒茶製造機おける、生葉、蒸熱手段、蒸葉処理手段、粗揉手段、揉捻手段、中揉手段、精揉手段の各手段終了後の茶葉の水分活性グラフの図A graph of the water activity graph of tea leaves after each of the fresh leaves, steaming means, steamed leaf processing means, rough koji means, twisting means, middle koji means, and koji means in the crude tea making machine
以下、本発明の実施形態について図面を参照しながら具体的に説明する。荒茶製造機は、茶園で摘採した生葉を最初に加工する製造機であり、主に生葉に含まれる酸化酵素を不活性化する工程と、酸化酵素を不活性化した茶葉に含まれる水分を段階的に除き、乾かしながら加工する工程とからなる。荒茶製造機の一様態として、図1のように蒸熱手段2と、蒸葉処理手段3と、粗揉手段4と、揉捻手段5と、中揉手段6と、精揉手段7と、乾燥手段8と、それぞれの手段を接続する搬送手段1とから構成され、生葉から荒茶が製造される。蒸製玉緑茶の荒茶の製造では精揉手段7を除くこともあり、目的とする荒茶により荒茶製造機は異なる。本発明では少なくとも蒸熱手段2と、粗揉手段4と、揉捻手段5と、中揉手段6と、搬送手段1とを備える荒茶製造機とする。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be specifically described with reference to the drawings. The crude tea making machine is the first machine that processes fresh leaves picked from the tea plantation, and mainly inactivates the oxidase contained in the fresh leaves and the water contained in the tea leaves inactivated oxidase. It consists of a step of removing it stepwise and processing it while drying. As an embodiment of the crude tea making machine, as shown in FIG. 1, steaming means 2, steamed leaf processing means 3, rough kneading means 4, twisting means 5, intermediate punching means 6, refined kneading means 7, drying It comprises means 8 and conveying means 1 for connecting the respective means, and crude tea is produced from fresh leaves. In the production of the crude tea of the steamed ball green tea, the brewing means 7 may be omitted, and the crude tea production machine differs depending on the intended crude tea. In this invention, it is set as the rough tea manufacturing machine provided with the at least steaming means 2, the rough koji means 4, the twisting means 5, the middle potting means 6, and the conveyance means 1.
蒸熱手段2は、生葉に蒸気を適度な時間(例えば90秒)あてて、生葉に含まれる酸化酵素を蒸気の熱により不活性化する工程が行われ、蒸機がある。蒸機は送帯式や回転撹拌式があるが、これらには限らない。蒸熱は緑茶の色と品質に大きな影響を与える。   The steaming means 2 includes a steamer in which steam is applied to the fresh leaves for an appropriate time (for example, 90 seconds), and the oxidase contained in the fresh leaves is inactivated by the heat of the steam. The steamer has a zoning type and a rotary stirring type, but is not limited to these. Steaming heat has a great impact on the color and quality of green tea.
粗揉手段4は、熱風を送り込みながら茶葉を均一に乾燥する工程が行われ、粗揉機41や、構造は粗揉機41と類似した葉打ち機42がある。例えば、葉打ち機42と粗揉機41や、葉打ち機42と第一粗揉機と第二粗揉機のように複数の粗揉手段4の機械を連結してもよい。火炉からの熱風が送風される粗揉機41の固定胴内で、茶葉を、さらい手がかきあげ、揉底に落下した後に揉み手が加圧する。粗揉手段4には、洗浄処理手段が備えていることが好ましく、洗浄処理手段は高圧洗浄装置であることが好ましい。さらに粗揉手段4に殺菌処理手段を備えていることが好ましく、粗揉手段4の火炉を殺菌処理手段とすることもできる。   The rough culling means 4 includes a step of uniformly drying tea leaves while feeding hot air, and includes a rough culm 41 and a leaf cutter 42 similar in structure to the rough culm 41. For example, you may connect the machine of the some roughing means 4 like the leaf punching machine 42 and the rough roughing machine 41, or the leaf punching machine 42, the first roughing roughing machine, and the second roughing roughing machine. In the fixed drum of the roughing machine 41 to which the hot air from the furnace is blown, the tea leaves are scooped up by the wiper, and after being dropped on the bottom of the bowl, the grinders pressurize. It is preferable that the roughing means 4 is provided with a cleaning processing means, and the cleaning processing means is preferably a high-pressure cleaning device. Furthermore, it is preferable that the rough slag means 4 is provided with a sterilization process means, and the furnace of the rough slag means 4 can be used as a sterilization process means.
本発明の中核の手段の揉捻手段5について説明する。揉捻手段5は茶葉中の水分を揉み出し、茶葉の水分を均一にする工程が行われ、揉捻機51がある。揉捻機51は、適宜のフレーム52のほぼ上面に台板状に設けられた揉盤53と、この揉盤53上を円旋回しながら移動する揉捻鉢54と、この揉捻鉢54に支持されながら揉盤53上に供給される茶葉を揉圧する揉圧盤装置55とを主要な部材として構成している。揉捻鉢54は円筒状であり、その周囲を3箇所のクランク式のアーム56により支持されており、前記アーム56の回転をうけて揉捻鉢54は揉盤53上を偏心的に旋回運動する。アーム56は回転して危険なためアームカバー57を備えており、揉捻鉢54の裾周囲には囲むように掃き込みブラシ72が設けられている。   The twisting means 5 as the core means of the present invention will be described. The twisting means 5 squeezes out the water in the tea leaves and makes the water in the tea leaves uniform, and there is a twisting machine 51. The twisting machine 51 includes a checkerboard 53 provided in the form of a base plate on a substantially upper surface of an appropriate frame 52, a checkered bowl 54 that moves while circularly turning on the checkerboard 53, and being supported by the twister bowl 54. A crushing platen device 55 that crushes the tea leaves supplied on the crib 53 is configured as a main member. The pestle mortar 54 has a cylindrical shape and is supported by three crank-type arms 56 around the periphery thereof. The rotator mortar 54 rotates eccentrically on the basin 53 as the arm 56 rotates. Since the arm 56 is dangerous due to rotation, an arm cover 57 is provided, and a sweeping brush 72 is provided around the skirt of the mortar and screw bowl 54 so as to surround the arm 56.
揉圧盤装置55は、主に揉盤53上の茶葉に揉圧作用を与える略円錐形の揉圧盤58、該揉圧盤58を吊持状態に支持し揉捻鉢54の上方を横切るように配置された分銅レール59及び分銅レール59上を摺動しながら揉圧状態を加減する作用を担う分銅60から構成される。分銅レール59は、アーム56の1本から垂直に立ち上がり、揉捻鉢54の側面とも接しているレール支持板61に対して揺動自在に配置される。揉捻鉢54内で茶葉が一塊にならず分散するように、揉圧盤58の底面は、揉圧盤58と分銅レール59との支持部62の垂直方向にのびる中心軸63上の揉圧盤底面中心部64が下方に突出した形状となっている。分銅レール59上に配置された分銅60は、手動もしくは分銅モーター65の動力によって分銅レール59上を適宜な位置に移動できるようになっている。分銅60が分銅レール59の自由端に行くに従い、揉圧盤58の揉圧作用が強まる。   The crushed platen device 55 is arranged so as to cross the upper side of the pestle bowl 54 while supporting the crushed platen 58 in a suspended state mainly with a substantially conical crushed platen 58 that exerts a crushed pressure action on the tea leaves on the platen 53. Further, the weight rail 59 and the weight 60 having the function of adjusting the pressure state while sliding on the weight rail 59 are configured. The weight rail 59 rises vertically from one of the arms 56 and is swingably disposed with respect to the rail support plate 61 that is also in contact with the side surface of the mortar bowl 54. The bottom surface of the scooping platen 58 is centered on the bottom surface of the scooping platen on the central axis 63 that extends in the vertical direction of the support 62 between the scooping platen 58 and the weight rail 59 so that the tea leaves are dispersed in the crucible 54. 64 has a shape protruding downward. The weight 60 arranged on the weight rail 59 can be moved to an appropriate position on the weight rail 59 manually or by the power of the weight motor 65. As the weight 60 goes to the free end of the weight rail 59, the pressure action of the pressure board 58 increases.
金属製(ステンレス等)もしくは木製の揉盤53は、揉捻工程が終了した際に茶葉を取り出すため、下方に開放する取出盤66とその外周部67と接する固定揉盤68とからなる。また揉盤53には凸状の揉捻ヒル69が中心から円弧上に複数本配設されている。本発明では、前記固定揉盤68の外周寄りにはフッ素樹脂が塗布されたフッ素樹脂鋼板70(例えば厚さ0.45mm)が環状に貼設されている。貼設範囲は固定揉盤68の外周寄りの任意とするが、茶葉中の水分を効果的に揉み出し、更に揉まれた茶葉が揉盤53の外周寄りに残留しないよう揉圧盤58の中心軸63の揉盤53上の可動領域71となる図4の斜線部分より外側であることが好ましい。また前記固定揉盤68の外周寄りに貼設する低付着性の表面部材は、本実施例ではフッ素樹脂を用いたが、揉盤53で使用されている金属製(ステンレス等)もしくは木製と比較して摩擦係数が低く茶葉が付着しにくい材質であればよい。フッ素樹脂鋼板70の貼設の他にも、フッ素樹脂の揉盤53表面への貼設、フッ素樹脂塗料の揉盤53表面への吹付け、被覆等のフッ素樹脂処理加工又はポリエチレン樹脂の貼設等がある。   The metal (stainless steel, etc.) or wooden board 53 includes a take-out board 66 that opens downward and a fixed board 68 that contacts the outer periphery 67 in order to take out tea leaves when the twisting process is completed. A plurality of convex twisting hills 69 are arranged on the arc 53 from the center on the arc. In the present invention, a fluororesin steel plate 70 (for example, thickness 0.45 mm) coated with fluororesin is affixed in an annular shape near the outer periphery of the fixed grid 68. The attachment range is arbitrary near the outer periphery of the fixed platen 68, but the center axis of the pressure platen 58 is designed to effectively squeeze out the moisture in the tea leaves and prevent the tea leaves that have been squeezed from remaining near the outer periphery of the platen 53. It is preferable to be outside the hatched portion of FIG. Further, the low adhesion surface member to be attached near the outer periphery of the fixed board 68 is made of fluororesin in this embodiment, but it is compared with a metal (such as stainless steel) or wood used in the board 53. Any material that has a low coefficient of friction and does not easily adhere to tea leaves may be used. In addition to attaching the fluororesin steel plate 70, attaching fluororesin to the surface of the grid 53, spraying fluororesin paint onto the surface of the grid 53, coating fluororesin treatment such as coating, or pasting polyethylene resin Etc.
掃き込みブラシ72は図5のように、複数のブラシ材73を2つ折りにして、その2つ折り部分73aに芯線74を挟み、ブラシ材73の芯線74を挟んだ部分を断面コ字状のチャンネル75が挟持しブラシ体76を形成している。ブラシ体76は取り付け輪77と取り付け金具78で挟まれるようにねじ79で固定される。取り付け輪77は、ブラシ材73の端部73bが揉盤53と略接するように揉捻鉢54の裾で支持される。また図5のブラシ体76の2つ折りされたブラシ材73の左右の長さは均等であるが、左右の長さが異なるブラシ体76でもよい。ブラシ材73の線径は0.6mm未満が好ましく、揉盤53上の可動領域71に掃き込むために適度な強度もある0.2〜0.4mmが特に好ましい。   As shown in FIG. 5, the sweeping brush 72 is formed by folding a plurality of brush members 73 in half, sandwiching the core wire 74 between the two folded portions 73a, and forming a portion of the brush member 73 sandwiching the core wire 74 in a channel having a U-shaped cross section. 75 sandwiches and forms a brush body 76. The brush body 76 is fixed with screws 79 so as to be sandwiched between the mounting ring 77 and the mounting bracket 78. The mounting ring 77 is supported by the hem of the mortar and screw bowl 54 so that the end 73 b of the brush material 73 is substantially in contact with the grid 53. Further, although the left and right lengths of the folded brush material 73 of the brush body 76 of FIG. 5 are equal, brush bodies 76 having different left and right lengths may be used. The wire diameter of the brush material 73 is preferably less than 0.6 mm, and particularly preferably 0.2 to 0.4 mm, which has an appropriate strength for sweeping into the movable region 71 on the grid 53.
搬送手段1は、荒茶製造機内でのそれぞれの手段での工程を終了後、次の手段に茶葉を搬送する工程が行われ、トラフ型振動コンベア11、バケットコンベア12、ベルトコンベア13等がある。トラフ型振動コンベア11は、トラフ14が、板ばね15を介して架台16に支持され、振動駆動部17のクランク18によりトラフ14は水平方向に振動する。図7のようにトラフ14の茶葉を搬送する搬送面19は、搬送面底面20の側部20a、20bから円弧状に曲面を有するよう立ち上がり搬送面側面21を形成する。円弧の半径となるコーナーR22は10mm以上とする。円弧の半径は20mm以上が好ましく、更には50mm以上が好ましい。また、トラフ14全体、もしくは、少なくとも搬送面19の全部又は一部にフッ素樹脂製テープの貼着や、フッ素樹脂鋼板の貼設、フッ素塗料の吹付け、被服加工等フッ素樹脂処理加工することが好ましい。   Conveying means 1 performs the process of conveying tea leaves to the next means after finishing the process in each means in the crude tea making machine, and includes trough-type vibrating conveyor 11, bucket conveyor 12, belt conveyor 13 and the like. . In the trough type vibration conveyor 11, the trough 14 is supported by the gantry 16 via the leaf spring 15, and the trough 14 vibrates in the horizontal direction by the crank 18 of the vibration driving unit 17. As shown in FIG. 7, the transport surface 19 that transports the tea leaves of the trough 14 rises from the side portions 20 a and 20 b of the transport surface bottom surface 20 to form a curved transport surface side surface 21 so as to have a curved surface in an arc shape. The corner R22 serving as the radius of the arc is 10 mm or more. The radius of the arc is preferably 20 mm or more, and more preferably 50 mm or more. Further, the entire trough 14 or at least all or a part of the conveying surface 19 may be subjected to fluororesin processing such as sticking of a fluororesin tape, sticking of a fluororesin steel plate, spraying of a fluoropaint, and clothing processing. preferable.
中揉手段6は、主に揉捻手段5の後に設けられ、茶葉の塊をほぐしながら、均一に乾燥させる工程が行われ、中揉機がある。中揉機は、回転胴型中揉機や粗揉機と構造が略同一の固定胴型中揉機があり、固定胴型中揉機と回転胴型中揉機を組み合わせて中揉手段6としてもよい。   The middle punch means 6 is mainly provided after the twisting means 5, and a step of drying uniformly is performed while loosening the lump of tea leaves. The intermediate machine includes a fixed cylinder type intermediate machine having a structure substantially the same as that of a rotary cylinder type intermediate machine and a rough type machine, and the intermediate means 6 may be formed by combining the fixed cylinder type intermediate machine and the rotary cylinder type intermediate machine.
本発明の荒茶製造機は少なくとも蒸熱手段2と、粗揉手段4と、揉捻手段5と、中揉手段6と、搬送手段1とを備えた荒茶製造機であるが、所望の荒茶、品質のよい荒茶の製造のために、蒸葉処理手段3、精揉手段7、乾燥手段8等、別の手段を加えてもよい。また手段の順序も限定しない。例えば、蒸葉処理手段3は、蒸熱手段2後の茶葉を粗揉手段4の前に処理する工程が行われ、茶葉を冷却する冷却機や、丸胴内の茶葉を回転により打圧を与えて軟化させる機械等がある。冷却機は温風や冷風等の風が流れる機械内に蒸熱手段2後の茶葉を通過させることにより、茶葉に付着した水分を取り除き、高温になった茶葉を冷ます(例えば室温位まで冷ます)ものであり、急激に品温を下げることで、茶葉の色がよくなり品質の高い茶葉とすることができる。また、蒸葉処理手段3に殺菌処理手段を備えていることが好ましい。   The rough tea making machine of the present invention is a rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means 2, rough kneading means 4, twisting means 5, middle roasting means 6, and conveying means 1. In order to produce high-quality crude tea, other means such as steamed leaf processing means 3, sperm kneading means 7, and drying means 8 may be added. The order of means is not limited. For example, the steaming processing means 3 performs a process of processing the tea leaves after the steaming means 2 before the rough kneading means 4, and applies a pressure by rotating the cooler for cooling the tea leaves or the tea leaves in the round cylinder. And softening machines. The cooler removes moisture adhering to the tea leaves by passing the tea leaves after the steaming means 2 through a machine in which wind such as warm air or cold air flows, and cools the tea leaves that have become hot (for example, cools to room temperature) ), And by drastically lowering the product temperature, the color of the tea leaves can be improved and high quality tea leaves can be obtained. Moreover, it is preferable that the steamed leaf processing means 3 includes a sterilization processing means.
殺菌処理手段は、微生物数の低減化又は陰性化処理を意味し、例えば加熱(例えば熱風)による殺菌処理や薬剤による殺菌処理手段がある。殺菌処理手段は茶葉が各手段に投入される前までに実施されればよい。   The sterilization treatment means means a reduction or negativeization treatment of the number of microorganisms, and includes, for example, sterilization treatment by heating (for example, hot air) and sterilization treatment means by chemicals. The sterilization treatment means may be carried out before the tea leaves are put into each means.
加熱による蒸葉処理手段3の殺菌処理手段は、蒸葉処理手段3(例えば温風冷却装置)に存在する微生物数が低減化又は陰性化する程度に加熱すればよく、例えば2700℃・分以上、好ましくは3000〜6000℃・分、さらに好ましくは4500〜6000℃・分の積算温度(温度×時間(分))で加熱することができ、熱風は少なくとも80℃以上、好ましくは100〜120℃であり、処理時間は30分以上、好ましくは45〜90分、さらに好ましくは60〜90分程度である。また殺菌処理をする前に洗浄処理をすることが好ましい。洗浄処理とは蒸葉処理手段3を洗うことであるが、洗浄時間及び洗浄方法等は制限されない。蒸葉処理手段3の洗浄処理、殺菌処理により、微生物数の低減化が促進又は陰性化される。   The sterilization processing means of the steamed leaf processing means 3 by heating may be heated to such an extent that the number of microorganisms present in the steamed leaf processing means 3 (for example, a hot air cooling device) is reduced or negated, for example, 2700 ° C./min or more. , Preferably 3000 to 6000 ° C./minute, more preferably 4500 to 6000 ° C./minute, and the hot air is at least 80 ° C., preferably 100 to 120 ° C. The treatment time is 30 minutes or more, preferably 45 to 90 minutes, more preferably about 60 to 90 minutes. Moreover, it is preferable to wash before sterilizing. The cleaning process is to wash the steamed leaf processing means 3, but the cleaning time and the cleaning method are not limited. Reduction of the number of microorganisms is promoted or made negative by the washing treatment and sterilization treatment of the steamed leaf treatment means 3.
粗揉手段4の加熱殺菌処理は、特に熱風処理であることが好ましく、熱風は80〜120℃、好ましくは90〜120℃、さらに好ましくは100〜120℃であり、その処理時間は10分以上、好ましくは30〜90分、さらに好ましくは45〜90分であり、粗揉手段4の葉打ち機42、粗揉機41の固定胴内の温度が60℃を超えた後の処理時間が30分以上、好ましくは45〜90分、さらに好ましくは60〜90分である。加熱殺菌処理は、少なくとも1000℃・分以上、好ましくは2000〜6000℃・分、さらに好ましくは3000〜6000℃・分の積算温度で実施することにより、揉捻手段5の前の茶葉に含まれる微生物の増殖を抑制し低減化を実現することができる。   The heat sterilization treatment of the coarse koji means 4 is particularly preferably a hot air treatment, and the hot air is 80 to 120 ° C., preferably 90 to 120 ° C., more preferably 100 to 120 ° C., and the treatment time is 10 minutes or more. , Preferably 30 to 90 minutes, more preferably 45 to 90 minutes, and the treatment time after the temperature in the fixing cylinder of the rough culling means 4 and the rough culling machine 41 exceeds 60 ° C. is 30 minutes. As mentioned above, Preferably it is 45 to 90 minutes, More preferably, it is 60 to 90 minutes. Microorganisms contained in tea leaves in front of the twisting means 5 by performing the heat sterilization treatment at an accumulated temperature of at least 1000 ° C. · min., Preferably 2000 to 6000 ° C. · min, more preferably 3000 to 6000 ° C. · min. It is possible to achieve a reduction by suppressing the growth of
本発明の荒茶の微生物数低減化方法とは、少なくとも蒸熱手段2と、粗揉手段4と、揉捻手段5と、中揉手段6と、搬送手段1とを備えた荒茶製造機において、本発明の揉捻手段5と本発明の搬送手段1の両方もしくはいずれかの手段を備えて荒茶を製造する荒茶の微生物数低減化方法である。更に、本発明の揉捻手段5、搬送手段1を備えることに加え、荒茶製造前に蒸葉処理手段3、粗揉手段4を殺菌処理する荒茶の微生物数低減化方法である。   The method for reducing the number of microorganisms of crude tea according to the present invention is a crude tea production machine comprising at least steaming means 2, rough kneading means 4, twisting means 5, middle straw means 6, and conveying means 1. This is a method for reducing the number of microorganisms in crude tea, which comprises both the twisting means 5 of the present invention and the conveying means 1 of the present invention, or any means, to produce crude tea. Furthermore, in addition to providing the twisting means 5 and the conveying means 1 of the present invention, it is a method for reducing the number of microorganisms of crude tea by sterilizing the steamed leaf processing means 3 and the coarse straw means 4 before producing crude tea.
本発明の荒茶と荒茶の製造方法とは、少なくとも蒸熱手段2、粗揉手段4、揉捻手段5、中揉手段6及び搬送手段1を備えた荒茶製造機において、本発明の揉捻手段5と本発明の搬送手段1の両方もしくはいずれかの手段を備えた荒茶製造機を用いて製造する荒茶と荒茶の製造方法である。更に、本発明の揉捻手段5と本発明の搬送手段1の両方もしくはいずれかの手段を備えることに加え、荒茶製造前に蒸葉処理手段3及び粗揉手段4を殺菌処理した荒茶製造機を用いて製造する荒茶と荒茶の製造方法である。   The rough tea and the rough tea production method of the present invention include at least a steaming means 2, a rough koji means 4, a koji twisting means 5, a middle koji means 6 and a conveying means 1, and the kneading means of the present invention. 5 and crude tea and a method for producing crude tea, which are produced using a crude tea production machine provided with both or any one of the conveying means 1 of the present invention. Furthermore, in addition to providing both or any one of the twisting means 5 of the present invention and the conveying means 1 of the present invention, the crude tea production in which the steamed leaf treatment means 3 and the coarse koji means 4 are sterilized before the crude tea production. It is the manufacturing method of rough tea and rough tea manufactured using a machine.
次に実施例について説明する。蒸熱手段2、蒸葉処理手段3、粗揉手段4、揉捻手段5、中揉手段6、精揉手段7、乾燥手段8、合組手段9、搬送手段1を備えた図8に示すレイアウトで、表1に示すような処理を実施した荒茶製造機100、150、200、250、300、350、400で荒茶を製造する。生葉コンテナ81に保管された茶園で摘採した茶葉は、蒸熱手段2へ投入され、蒸葉処理手段3、粗揉手段4、揉捻手段5、中揉手段6、精揉手段7、乾燥手段8、合組手段9へと搬送手段111、112、113、114、115、116、117、118を介して順次搬送され、荒茶が製造される。
Next, examples will be described. In the layout shown in FIG. The crude tea is produced by the crude tea production machines 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 that have performed the processing shown in Table 1. The tea leaves plucked in the tea plantation stored in the fresh leaf container 81 are put into the steaming means 2, and the steamed leaf processing means 3, the rough kneading means 4, the twisting means 5, the middle punching means 6, the koji means 7, the drying means 8, The tea is sequentially transported to the assembling means 9 through the transporting means 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, and rough tea is produced.
前記荒茶製造機200において、生葉と、蒸熱手段2、蒸葉処理手段3、粗揉手段4、揉捻手段5、中揉手段6、精揉手段7の各手段終了後の茶葉の水分活性を測定した。   In the crude tea manufacturing machine 200, the water activity of fresh leaves and tea leaves after completion of each means of steaming means 2, steamed leaf processing means 3, coarse koji means 4, twisting means 5, middle koji means 6 and refined koji means 7 is measured. It was measured.
図9で示すように、生葉(水分活性0.99)から蒸熱手段2(水分活性0.99)、蒸葉処理手段3(水分活性0.99)、粗揉手段4(水分活性0.98)、揉捻手段5(水分活性0.98)までの水分活性は0.98以上であるのに対し、中揉手段6(水分活性0.91)と精揉手段7(水分活性0.68)で大きく低下する結果となった。一般に水分活性が0.91以下では食品衛生の指標となる多くの微生物の発育が抑制されるといわれている。荒茶製造機において、中揉手段6より前の手段(蒸葉処理手段3、粗揉手段4、揉捻手段5等)で微生物が増殖する可能性が高く、荒茶の微生物の2次汚染を防御するには中揉手段6より前、特に蒸気で生葉の加熱処理される蒸葉処理手段3後から中揉手段6の前で防御することが好ましいことが示された。   As shown in FIG. 9, from raw leaves (water activity 0.99) to steaming means 2 (water activity 0.99), steamed leaf treatment means 3 (water activity 0.99), and rough straw means 4 (water activity 0.98). ), While the water activity up to the twisting means 5 (water activity 0.98) is 0.98 or more, the meandering means 6 (water activity 0.91) and the vagina means 7 (water activity 0.68) As a result, the result decreased significantly. In general, when the water activity is 0.91 or less, it is said that the growth of many microorganisms serving as food hygiene indicators is suppressed. In the crude tea production machine, there is a high possibility that microorganisms will grow in the means (steamed leaf processing means 3, rough koji means 4, twisting means 5, etc.) prior to the medium rice cake means 6, and the secondary contamination of the microorganisms in the rough tea is prevented. In order to protect, it was shown that it is preferable to protect before the middle rod means 6 before the middle rod means 6, particularly after the steamed leaf treatment means 3 where the raw leaves are heated with steam.
前記揉捻手段5を、木製の揉盤53の外周寄りにフッ素樹脂鋼板70を貼設した揉捻機51とした本発明の荒茶製造機300で荒茶を製造した。又、揉盤53の外周寄りのフッ素樹脂鋼板70が未貼設の揉捻機51を備え、それ以外は本発明と略同一の荒茶製造機200を対照とした。   Crude tea was produced by the rough tea making machine 300 of the present invention, in which the twisting means 5 was a twisting machine 51 in which a fluororesin steel plate 70 was attached to the outer periphery of a wooden board 53. Moreover, the fluororesin steel plate 70 near the outer periphery of the grid 53 is provided with an unattached twisting machine 51, and the rough tea manufacturing machine 200 that is substantially the same as that of the present invention is used as a control.
粗揉手段4の粗揉機41の工程を終えた茶葉は、トラフ型振動コンベア115aとバケットコンベア115b等の搬送手段1を介して揉捻手段5の揉捻機51に移送され、シュート80から揉捻手段5の揉捻機51の揉捻鉢54の中へ投入される。茶葉が投入された揉捻鉢54は、クランク式のアーム56の水平運動により旋回しながら揉盤53上を移動する。揉捻鉢54内での茶葉は、揉捻鉢54の上方を横切るように配置された分銅レール59に軸支された揉圧盤58と揉盤53とに挟まれながら揉盤53上を移動すると同時に、揉捻鉢54内で回動する揉捻盤58の自重により揉捻が行われる。揉捻手段5の工程中は、茶葉内部の水分が表面へにじみ出て、茶葉全体の水分が均一になるよう、茶葉の様子を見ながら、手動もしくは電動により分銅60を移動して揉圧力を制御する。茶葉の水分が均一になり揉捻機51での揉捻が完了すると、茶葉に揉圧がかからないように分銅60が移動し、取出盤66が下方に開放されて、茶葉はトラフ型振動コンベア115a上に落下し、バケットコンベア115b等を介して次の中揉手段6に搬送される。   The tea leaves that have finished the process of the roughing machine 41 of the roughing means 4 are transferred to the twisting machine 51 of the twisting means 5 through the conveying means 1 such as the trough-type vibrating conveyor 115a and the bucket conveyor 115b, and the twisting means 5 from the chute 80. Is put into the mortar and mortar 54 of the mortar 51. The mortar and screw bowl 54 in which the tea leaves are introduced moves on the grid 53 while turning by the horizontal movement of the crank-type arm 56. At the same time as the tea leaves in the pestle mortar 54 move on the basin 53 while being sandwiched between the cradle 58 and the basin 53 supported by the weight rail 59 arranged so as to cross the upper part of the mortar 54, The twisting is performed by the weight of the twisting plate 58 rotating in the twisting bowl 54. During the process of the twisting means 5, the weight 60 is controlled by moving the weight 60 manually or electrically while watching the state of the tea leaf so that the moisture inside the tea leaf oozes out to the surface and the moisture of the whole tea leaf becomes uniform. . When the moisture of the tea leaves becomes uniform and the twisting by the twisting machine 51 is completed, the weight 60 is moved so that no pressure is applied to the tea leaves, the take-out board 66 is opened downward, and the tea leaves are placed on the trough vibration conveyor 115a. It is dropped and transported to the next intermediate means 6 via the bucket conveyor 115b and the like.
揉捻鉢54内の茶葉は、塊にならず分散するように揉捻され、一部の茶葉は揉盤53と揉捻鉢54の隙間より揉盤53の外周寄りに排出される。排出された茶葉は旋回する揉捻鉢54の裾にとりつけられた掃き込みブラシ72により、フッ素樹脂鋼板70が貼設されていない取出盤66と固定揉盤68からなる揉盤53中央部に戻される。   The tea leaves in the twister bowl 54 are twisted so as to be dispersed without being clumped, and some of the tea leaves are discharged toward the outer periphery of the holder 53 through the gap between the anchorboard 53 and the twister bowl 54. The discharged tea leaves are returned to the central part of the grid 53 composed of the take-out board 66 and the fixed board 68 on which the fluororesin steel plate 70 is not pasted by the sweeping brush 72 attached to the skirt of the swirling bowl screw bowl 54. .
製茶終了から約6時間以上経過した揉盤53上の微生物の数(一般生菌数)を、一般生菌のふき取り検査で確認した(表2)。一般生菌数とは、標準寒天を用いて30〜37℃・48時間・有酸素環境(好気性)にて培養して得られる微生物の数である。確認は一番茶、二番茶で行なった。
The number of microorganisms (general viable count) on the grid 53 after about 6 hours or more from the end of tea making was confirmed by wiping inspection of general viable bacteria (Table 2). The general viable count is the number of microorganisms obtained by culturing in standard agar at 30 to 37 ° C. for 48 hours in an aerobic environment (aerobic). The confirmation was done for Ichibancha and Nibancha.
表2に示すように、一般生菌数は、本発明の荒茶製造機300で低減し、揉盤53の外周寄りにフッ素樹脂鋼板70を貼設することによる菌の低減化効果が確認された。本発明の揉捻機51の揉盤53の外周寄りのフッ素樹脂鋼板70上に排出された茶葉は、フッ素樹脂鋼板70上に残留することなく掃き込みブラシ72が滑らかに回動して揉盤53中央部に掃き込まれる一方、揉圧盤58から所望の揉圧がかかる金属製もしくは木製の揉盤53中央部で揉み込みが充分行われ、茎や茶葉内部に残留する水分が揉み出される。また、本発明品は揉盤53の外周寄りの茶葉を効率よく取出盤66と固定揉盤68からなる揉盤53中央部側に掃き込むことで、ブラシの変形が抑制され、しいては掃き込み機能の低下の抑制効果が確認された。また、荒茶においても荒茶製造機200と比べて荒茶製造機300で製造した方が一般生菌数が少なかった(表5)。   As shown in Table 2, the general viable cell count is reduced by the rough tea making machine 300 of the present invention, and the effect of reducing the bacteria by attaching the fluororesin steel plate 70 near the outer periphery of the grid 53 is confirmed. It was. The tea leaves discharged on the fluororesin steel plate 70 near the outer periphery of the ladle 53 of the twisting machine 51 of the present invention do not remain on the fluororesin steel plate 70 and the sweep brush 72 rotates smoothly so that the ladle 53 While being swept into the central part, the metal or wooden cradle 53 is subjected to sufficient squeezing in the central part of the metal or wooden cradle 53 to which a desired squeezing pressure is applied, and moisture remaining in the stem or tea leaves is squeezed out. Further, in the present invention, the tea leaves near the outer periphery of the grid 53 are efficiently swept into the central side of the grid 53 composed of the take-out board 66 and the fixed grid 68, so that the deformation of the brush is suppressed, and therefore the sweep is performed. The effect of suppressing the decrease in the embedding function was confirmed. In addition, the number of general viable bacteria produced in the crude tea with the crude tea production machine 300 was smaller than that in the crude tea production machine 200 (Table 5).
前記揉捻手段5を掃き込みブラシ72のブラシ材73の線径を0.3mmとした揉捻機51を備えた本発明の荒茶製造機250で荒茶を製造した。荒茶製造終了から6時間以上経過したブラシ材73の一般生菌数検査の結果を表3に示す。ブラシ材73の線径を0.6mmとした揉捻機51を備えた荒茶製造機200を対照とした。
Crude tea was produced with the rough tea making machine 250 of the present invention equipped with the twisting machine 51 that swept the twisting means 5 and made the wire diameter of the brush material 73 of the brush 72 0.3 mm. Table 3 shows the results of the general viable count test of the brush material 73 that has passed 6 hours or more after the production of crude tea. A rough tea making machine 200 provided with a twisting machine 51 in which the wire diameter of the brush material 73 was 0.6 mm was used as a control.
表3に示すように、本発明の荒茶製造機250の揉捻機51のブラシ材73の線径(0.3mm)では一般生菌数が低減した。また、荒茶においても荒茶製造機200と比べて荒茶製造機250で製造した方が一般生菌数が少なかった(表5)。   As shown in Table 3, the number of viable bacteria was reduced at the wire diameter (0.3 mm) of the brush material 73 of the twisting machine 51 of the rough tea manufacturing machine 250 of the present invention. In addition, the number of general viable bacteria in the crude tea was less when the crude tea was produced with the crude tea production machine 250 than with the crude tea production machine 200 (Table 5).
前記粗揉手段4の粗揉機41の下部に設けられたトラフ型振動コンベア114a、揉捻機51の下部に設けられたトラフ型振動コンベア115aの搬送面19の全部にフッ素樹脂製テープを貼設し、トラフ14のコーナーR22が10mmの搬送手段114、115を備えた荒茶製造機350で荒茶を製造した。粗揉機41、揉捻機51の工程が終了すると茶葉は、トラフ型振動コンベア114a、115aの搬送面19上に排出され、トラフ14の振動により、バケットコンベア114b、115bに向かって移送され、次の工程の揉捻手段5、中揉手段6に搬送される。製茶終了から約12時間経過後の搬送面19のふき取り検査の一般生菌の数を表4に示す。一番茶時期及び二番茶時期に確認した。対照として、茶葉を移送する搬送手段1に搬送面側面の立ち上がりを略直角の角を有したステンレス製トラフ(フッ素樹脂製テープ未貼設)のトラフ型振動コンベアを粗揉機41及び揉捻機51の下部に備えた荒茶製造機200を用いた。
A fluororesin tape is attached to the entire conveying surface 19 of the trough-type vibrating conveyor 114a provided at the lower part of the roughing machine 41 of the roughing means 4 and the trough-type vibrating conveyor 115a provided at the lower part of the twisting machine 51. The crude tea was produced with the crude tea production machine 350 provided with the conveying means 114, 115 in which the corner R22 of the trough 14 was 10 mm. When the processes of the roughing machine 41 and the twisting machine 51 are finished, the tea leaves are discharged onto the conveying surface 19 of the trough-type vibrating conveyors 114a and 115a, and transferred to the bucket conveyors 114b and 115b by the vibration of the trough 14, It is conveyed to the twisting means 5 and the intermediate punching means 6 in the process. Table 4 shows the number of general viable bacteria in the wiping inspection of the conveying surface 19 after about 12 hours have passed since the tea making. It was confirmed at the first tea time and second tea time. As a control, a trough-type vibrating conveyor made of stainless steel trough (fluorine resin tape not attached) having a substantially right angle on the side of the conveying surface is arranged on the conveying means 1 for transferring tea leaves of the roughing machine 41 and the twisting machine 51. A crude tea making machine 200 provided at the bottom was used.
表4に示すように、一般生菌数は本発明の荒茶製造機350のトラフ型振動コンベア114a、115aともに対照と比べ、低減した。また、搬送面19の掃除が容易になった。また、荒茶においても荒茶製造機200と比べて荒茶製造機350で製造した方が一般生菌数が少なかった(表5)。   As shown in Table 4, the number of general viable bacteria was reduced for both the trough-type vibrating conveyors 114a and 115a of the rough tea making machine 350 of the present invention compared to the control. In addition, the transport surface 19 can be easily cleaned. In addition, the number of general viable bacteria produced in the crude tea was lower in the crude tea production machine 350 than in the crude tea production machine 200 (Table 5).
図8のようなレイアウトの荒茶製造機100、150、200、250、300、350、400で荒茶の製造を行なった。食品衛生検査指針に準拠して、製造した荒茶の一般生菌数を確認した。結果は表5に示す。
Crude tea was produced using the rough tea production machines 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 having the layout shown in FIG. Based on the food hygiene inspection guidelines, the number of viable bacteria in the produced crude tea was confirmed. The results are shown in Table 5.
表5に示すように、本発明の荒茶製造機250、300、350で製造した荒茶は、いずれも従来の荒茶製造機となる対照の荒茶製造機200と比べ、荒茶の一般生菌数は低減した。さらに、木製の揉盤53の外周寄りにフッ素樹脂鋼板70を貼設し、ブラシ材73の線径(0.3mm)の揉捻機51を配し、粗揉手段4の粗揉機41の下部に設けられたトラフ型振動コンベア114a、揉捻機51の下部に設けられたトラフ型振動コンベア115aの搬送面19の全部にフッ素樹脂製テープを貼設し、トラフ14のコーナーR22が10mmの搬送手段114、115を備えた荒茶製造機400で製造した荒茶は、荒茶製造機200、250、300、350と比べ、一般生菌数は低減した。   As shown in Table 5, the crude tea produced by the crude tea making machines 250, 300, 350 of the present invention is more commonly used than the control crude tea making machine 200, which is a conventional crude tea making machine. Viable count was reduced. Further, a fluororesin steel plate 70 is affixed near the outer periphery of the wooden grid 53, a twisting machine 51 having a wire diameter (0.3 mm) of the brush material 73 is disposed, and a lower part of the roughing machine 41 of the roughing means 4. The trough-type vibrating conveyor 114a provided and the trough-type vibrating conveyor 115a provided at the lower part of the twisting machine 51 are all attached to the conveying surface 19 with a fluororesin tape, and the trough 14 has a conveying means 114 having a corner R22 of 10 mm. , 115, the number of general viable bacteria was reduced compared to the crude tea production machines 200, 250, 300, and 350.
従来の荒茶製造機200に対し、蒸葉処理手段3及び粗揉手段4を洗浄・殺菌した荒茶製造機150では一般生菌数は低減した。さらに、荒茶製造機400の蒸葉処理手段3及び粗揉手段4を洗浄・殺菌した荒茶製造機100では、他のいずれと比べても著しい一般生菌数の低減が確認された。   Compared to the conventional crude tea manufacturing machine 200, the number of general viable bacteria was reduced in the crude tea manufacturing machine 150 in which the steamed leaf processing means 3 and the crude koji means 4 were washed and sterilized. Furthermore, in the crude tea production machine 100 in which the steamed leaf processing means 3 and the coarse koji means 4 of the crude tea production machine 400 were washed and sterilized, a significant reduction in the number of general viable bacteria was confirmed compared to any other.
1 搬送手段
2 蒸熱手段
3 蒸葉処理手段
4 粗揉手段
5 揉捻手段
6 中揉手段
7 精揉手段
8 乾燥手段
9 合組手段
11 トラフ型振動コンベア
12 バケットコンベア
13 ベルトコンベア
14 トラフ
15 板ばね
16 架台
17 振動駆動部
18 クランク
19 搬送面
20 搬送面底面
20a 側部
20b 側部
21 搬送面側面
22 コーナーR
41 粗揉機
42 葉打ち機
51 揉捻機
52 フレーム
53 揉盤
54 揉捻鉢
55 揉圧盤装置
56 アーム
57 アームカバー
58 揉圧盤
59 分銅レール
60 分銅
61 レール支持板
62 支持部
63 中心軸
64 揉圧盤底面中心部
65 分銅モーター
66 取出盤
67 外周部
68 固定揉盤
69 揉捻ヒル
70 フッ素樹脂鋼板
71 可動領域
72 掃き込みブラシ
73 ブラシ材
73a (ブラシ材の)二つ折部分
73b (ブラシ材の)端部
74 芯線
75 チャンネル
76 ブラシ体
77 取り付け輪
78 取り付け金具
79 ねじ
80 シュート
81 生葉コンテナ
111 (生葉コンテナから揉捻手段までの)搬送手段
112 (蒸葉処理手段から粗揉手段までの)搬送手段
113 (葉打ち機から粗揉機までの)搬送手段
114 (粗揉機から揉捻機までの)搬送手段
114a トラフ型振動コンベア
114b バケットコンベア
115 (揉捻手段から中揉手段までの)搬送手段
115a トラフ型振動コンベア
115b バケットコンベア
116 (中揉手段から精揉手段までの)搬送手段
117 (精揉手段から乾燥手段までの)搬送手段
118 (乾燥手段から合組手段までの)搬送手段
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Conveyance means 2 Steaming means 3 Steamed leaf processing means 4 Coarse dripping means 5 Twist means 6 Middle anchor means 7 Precision means 8 Drying means 9 Combined means 11 Trough type vibration conveyor 12 Bucket conveyor 13 Belt conveyor 14 Trough 15 Leaf spring 16 Pedestal 17 Vibration drive unit 18 Crank 19 Conveying surface 20 Conveying surface bottom surface 20a Side portion 20b Side portion 21 Conveying surface side surface 22 Corner R
41 Crusher 42 Leaf Cutter 51 Folding Machine 52 Frame 53 Scissor 54 Spiral Bowl 55 Crushing Plate Device 56 Arm 57 Arm Cover 58 Crushing Plate 59 Weight Rail 60 Weight 61 Rail Support Plate 62 Supporting Unit 63 Center Axis 64 Centering Pressure Bottom Center Part 65 Weight motor 66 Unloading board 67 Peripheral part 68 Fixed board 69 Spiral hill 70 Fluororesin steel plate 71 Movable region 72 Sweep brush 73 Brush material 73a (Brush material) Folded part 73b (Brush material) End 74 Core wire 75 Channel 76 Brush body 77 Mounting wheel 78 Mounting bracket 79 Screw 80 Chute 81 Fresh leaf container 111 (Transfer from raw leaf container to twisting means) Conveying means 112 (From steamed leaf processing means to rough culling means) Conveying means 113 (Leaf punching machine) 114) (from roughing machine to roughing machine) 114a trough-type vibratory conveyor 114b bucket conveyor 115 (conveyor from twisting means to middle anchor means) 115a trough-type vibratory conveyor 115b bucket conveyor 116 (from middle anchor means to precision means) Means 117 Conveying means (from scouring means to drying means) 118 Conveying means (from drying means to assembly means)

Claims (12)

  1. 少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記揉捻手段は、揉盤と、この揉盤上を旋回移動し裾に掃き込みブラシを支持した揉捻鉢と、該揉捻鉢内に配設され揉盤上の茶葉を加圧する略円錐形の揉圧盤とを備えており、前記揉盤は外周寄りの所定範囲を低付着性の表面部材にしたことを特徴とする荒茶製造機。   In a rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means, rough crumpling means, twisting means, intermediate punching means, and conveying means, the twisting means swivels on the board and swivels to the skirt. A bowl having a sweeping brush, and a bowl having a substantially conical shape arranged in the bowl to press the tea leaves on the board, and the board has a low adhesion in a predetermined range near the outer periphery. A rough tea making machine characterized by the fact that it is made of a surface material.
  2. 少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記搬送手段の搬送面の両側部は10mm以上のコーナーRを有し、更に前記搬送面の一部又は全部にフッ素樹脂処理したトラフ型振動コンベアを、蒸熱手段後且つ中揉手段前に一以上備えたことを特徴とする荒茶製造機。   In the rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means, rough kneading means, twisting means, intermediate punch means, and conveying means, both sides of the conveying surface of the conveying means have corners R of 10 mm or more, Furthermore, one or more trough-type vibratory conveyors in which a part or all of the conveying surface is treated with a fluororesin are provided after the steaming means and before the middle bowl means.
  3. 少なくとも蒸熱手段と、粗揉手段と、揉捻手段と、中揉手段と、搬送手段とを備えた荒茶製造機において、前記揉捻手段は、揉盤と、この揉盤上を旋回移動し裾に掃き込みブラシを支持した揉捻鉢と、前記揉捻鉢内に配設され揉盤上の茶葉を加圧する略円錐形の揉圧盤とを備えており、前記揉盤は外周寄りの所定範囲を低付着性の表面部材にし、且つ、前記搬送手段の搬送面の両側部は10mm以上のコーナーRを有し、更に前記搬送面の一部又は全部にフッ素樹脂処理したトラフ型振動コンベアを、蒸熱手段後且つ中揉手段前に一以上備えたことを特徴とする荒茶製造機。   In a rough tea making machine provided with at least steaming means, rough crumpling means, twisting means, intermediate punching means, and conveying means, the twisting means swivels on the board and swivels to the skirt. A bowl having a sweeping brush and a bowl having a substantially conical shape arranged in the bowl to press the tea leaves on the board, and the board has a low adhesion to a predetermined range near the outer periphery. A trough-type vibratory conveyor, which is made of a conductive surface member and has corners R of 10 mm or more on both sides of the conveying surface of the conveying means, and further, a part or all of the conveying surface is treated with fluororesin In addition, a crude tea making machine characterized in that one or more of them are provided in front of the middle bowl means.
  4. 前記揉圧盤の中心軸の揉盤上の可動領域よりも外周寄りを低付着性の表面部材にしたことを特徴とする請求項1又は3記載の荒茶製造機。   The rough tea making machine according to claim 1 or 3, wherein a surface member having a low adhesion is formed near the outer periphery of the movable area of the central axis of the rolling platen on the rolling plate.
  5. 前記低付着性の表面部材をフッ素樹脂とすることを特徴とする請求項1、3又は4記載の荒茶製造機。   The rough tea making machine according to claim 1, wherein the low adhesion surface member is a fluororesin.
  6. 前記掃き込みブラシのブラシ材の線径を0.6mm未満とすることを特徴とする請求項1、3、4又は5記載の荒茶製造機。   The rough tea making machine according to claim 1, 3, 4, or 5, wherein a wire diameter of the brush material of the sweeping brush is less than 0.6 mm.
  7. 請求項1乃至6のいずれかに記載の荒茶製造機を用いることによって製造されたことを特徴とする荒茶。   A crude tea produced by using the crude tea production machine according to any one of claims 1 to 6.
  8. 請求項1乃至6のいずれかに記載の荒茶製造機を用いて荒茶を製造することを特徴とする荒茶の製造方法。   A method for producing crude tea, comprising producing crude tea using the crude tea production machine according to any one of claims 1 to 6.
  9. 請求項1乃至6のいずれかに記載の荒茶製造機を用いて荒茶を製造することを特徴とする荒茶の微生物数低減化方法。   A method for reducing the number of microorganisms of crude tea, comprising producing crude tea using the crude tea production machine according to claim 1.
  10. 蒸葉処理手段を備えた請求項1乃至6のいずれかに記載の荒茶製造機において、荒茶を製造する前に少なくとも蒸葉処理手段及び粗揉手段をそれぞれ殺菌処理することを特徴とする荒茶の製造方法。   The crude tea making machine according to any one of claims 1 to 6, further comprising a steamed leaf processing means, wherein at least the steamed leaf processing means and the crude koji means are sterilized before producing crude tea. A method for producing crude tea.
  11. 請求項10記載の荒茶の製造方法を用いることによって製造されたことを特徴とする荒茶。   A crude tea produced by using the method for producing crude tea according to claim 10.
  12. 請求項10記載の荒茶の製造方法を用いることを特徴とする荒茶の微生物数低減化方法。   A method for reducing the number of microorganisms in crude tea, characterized in that the method for producing crude tea according to claim 10 is used.
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CN103431081A (en) * 2013-08-09 2013-12-11 苏州市西山宏运材料用品厂 Gas-fired barrel-type removing green machine

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