JP2007111700A - Method for producing bottle-neck shell - Google Patents

Method for producing bottle-neck shell Download PDF

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JP2007111700A
JP2007111700A JP2005302309A JP2005302309A JP2007111700A JP 2007111700 A JP2007111700 A JP 2007111700A JP 2005302309 A JP2005302309 A JP 2005302309A JP 2005302309 A JP2005302309 A JP 2005302309A JP 2007111700 A JP2007111700 A JP 2007111700A
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notch
forging
ring
diameter
shaped
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JP4571571B2 (en
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Hideki Kakimoto
英樹 柿本
Hiroki Nakajima
宏樹 中嶋
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Kobe Steel Ltd
株式会社神戸製鋼所
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for producing a bottle-neck shell for large-sized pressure vessel, in which the defective thickness is prevented by restraining the shrinkage of a material at a boundary part between the bottle-neck part and a straight cylindrical shell and the yield of a product is improved at a low cost. <P>SOLUTION: In the method for producing the bottle-neck shell, a notch is formed on the outer peripheral surface of a ringed blank and the bottle-neck part is integrally formed at the end part of the cylindrical shell part by forging for widening the diameter while rotating this blank between a core metal and an anvil, wherein this notch is formed so that the ratio of the distance L<SB>1</SB>from the end surface Ea at the bottle-neck part side of the blank to the other surface Eb of the blank from the notch to the thickness T becomes ≥7.0 at the position of ≤0.28 of the whole length L<SB>0</SB>of the blank. The forging for widening the diameter is performed so that a forging widening ratio S satisfies the formula (1) S=(1/b)×(δ<SB>1u</SB>/L<SB>1</SB>)×(L<SB>0</SB>/L<SB>1</SB>)<SP>2</SP>, by bringing the anvil into contact with the outer peripheral surface of the blank from the notch to the end surface Eb. Wherein, b is a material dependent constant, and δ<SB>1u</SB>is the permissible upper limit of the forging for widening diameter ratio. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

この発明は、半球形鏡板を接合するため、円筒状の端部が口絞りされた圧力容器用大型リング部材の口絞りシェルの製造方法に関する。   The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an aperture shell of a large-sized ring member for a pressure vessel having a cylindrical end portion apertured for joining hemispherical end plates.
化工機器用リアクターや原子力用圧力容器などの大型圧力容器では、その本体部の直円筒状シェル(ストレートシェル)の端部に設けた口絞り部に、半球形状の鏡板が接合されている。従来、この半球形鏡板の直径と本体部の円筒状シェルの外径が大きく異なる場合は、図11(a)に示すように、半球形状の鏡板7と直円筒状シェル8との間にリング形状で両端面の外径が異なるダッチマン9と呼ばれる中間部材を介在させて接合していた。しかし、この中間部材を介在させる接合方法では、溶接線が増え、製造コストが高くなるため、ダッチマン9と直円筒状シェル8を一体成形することにより、図11(b)に示すように、端部に口絞り部8aが形成された口絞りシェルが求められていた。   In a large pressure vessel such as a reactor for chemical equipment or a nuclear pressure vessel, a hemispherical end plate is joined to a mouth restricting portion provided at an end portion of a straight cylindrical shell (straight shell) of the main body portion. Conventionally, when the diameter of the hemispherical end plate is greatly different from the outer diameter of the cylindrical shell of the main body, a ring is formed between the hemispherical end plate 7 and the right cylindrical shell 8 as shown in FIG. The intermediate members called Dutchman 9 having different shapes and different outer diameters are joined together. However, in this joining method in which the intermediate member is interposed, the weld line is increased and the manufacturing cost is increased. Therefore, by forming the Dutchman 9 and the straight cylindrical shell 8 integrally, as shown in FIG. There has been a demand for a mouth shell having a mouth portion 8a formed therein.
例えば、特許文献1には、図12(a)、(b)に示すように、心金10と金敷11との間で、直円筒状の被鍛造部材を回転させながら鍛造する際に、心金10に段部13を設け、被鍛造材12を鍛造中に、その端部を段部13に下り込ませることによって、口絞り部12aを形成するようにした大形リングの口絞り鍛造方法が開示されている。   For example, in Patent Document 1, as shown in FIGS. 12A and 12B, when forging while rotating a forged member having a cylindrical shape between a mandrel 10 and an anvil 11, A method of forging a large ring for a large ring in which a step portion 13 is provided in the gold 10 and the end portion of the forged material 12 is lowered into the step portion 13 during forging. Is disclosed.
また、特許文献2では、大型肉厚の圧力容器の直円筒状部と半球形状鏡板との間に介在させる中空切頭円錐状長尺異径リングを、図13(a)に示すように、まず、この異形リングの内部形状に合わせた異径スリーブ14を嵌合した心金15を心金支持台16で支持し、この異径スリーブ14に肉厚差を付けた鍛造素材17を懸架し、穴広げ金敷18と心金15と異径スリーブ14とで鍛造素材17を順次回転させながら、その大径部17aの穴広げ鍛造を行ない、リング19により小径部17bの広がりを拘束した状態で大径部17aの穴広げを続行し、次に、図13(b)に示すように、前記金敷18を、傾斜部20と凸部21を設けた金敷18aに取り換えて、鍛造素材17を金敷18aと異径スリーブ14とで穴広げを続行して鍛造成形する方法が開示されている。   Moreover, in patent document 2, as shown to Fig.13 (a), the hollow frustoconical long diameter different diameter ring interposed between the right cylindrical part of a large-sized wall pressure vessel and a hemispherical end plate is shown. First, a mandrel 15 fitted with a different diameter sleeve 14 matched to the inner shape of the deformed ring is supported by a mandrel support 16 and a forging material 17 having a thickness difference is suspended from the different diameter sleeve 14. While the forging material 17 is sequentially rotated by the hole expanding anvil 18, the mandrel 15 and the different diameter sleeve 14, the large diameter portion 17 a is subjected to hole expansion forging, and the ring 19 restrains the expansion of the small diameter portion 17 b. Next, as shown in FIG. 13 (b), the anvil 18 is replaced with an anvil 18a provided with an inclined portion 20 and a convex portion 21, and the forging material 17 is anvil. 18a and different diameter sleeve 14 continue forging and forging How to form is disclosed.
さらに、特許文献3では、図14(a)、(b)に示すように、鍛造リング部材22の端部に、内面にテーパを有する口絞り成形用ダイ23を作用させて口絞り成形を行なうにあたり、鍛造リング部材22の成形端部域に薄肉化加工を施すかまたはその領域の周方向にノッチ加工を施して、プレスベッド上の置台24に載置した鍛造リング部材22に、口絞り成形用ダイ23を均一圧下するためのプレート25を介してプレス金敷26により作用させる口絞り成形方法が開示されている。
特公昭55−24378号公報 特公昭57−46938号公報 特開昭63−317231号公報
Further, in Patent Document 3, as shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B, mouth drawing is performed by causing a die 23 for mouth drawing having a taper on the inner surface to act on the end of the forged ring member 22. At this time, the forging ring member 22 placed on the table 24 on the press bed is subjected to mouth drawing by thinning the forming end region of the forging ring member 22 or performing notch processing in the circumferential direction of the region. A mouth-drawing molding method is disclosed in which a press anvil 26 acts through a plate 25 for uniformly reducing the working die 23.
Japanese Patent Publication No.55-24378 Japanese Examined Patent Publication No.57-46938 Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. Sho 63-317231
しかし、特許文献1に開示された鍛造方法で口絞り部を成形する場合、口絞り部12aと円筒状シェル部12bの境目に引けによる欠肉が発生する。とくに、円筒状シェル部12aの端部に、その外周にわたって容器支持用に短く突出させたミニスカート部を設ける場合、前記欠肉の発生を防止するために、余肉を大きく付ける必要があり、鍛造工程設計が難しくなる。また、特許文献2に開示された鍛造方法では、金敷18aおよび異径スリーブの傾斜部14aの角度がとくに重要であるため、製品の円錐状長尺異径リングに合わせ金敷および異径スリーブが必要となり、製造コストが高くなる。さらに、特許文献3に開示された口絞り成形方法では、口絞り部を、円筒状シェル部(本体部)の拡げ鍛造により形成するのではなく、口絞り用成形ダイス23を用いたプレス加工により形成するため、特許文献2の場合と同様に、製品の鍛造リングに合わせた口絞り用成形ダイスが必要となり、また、プレス荷重も大きくなることなどにより、製造コストが増加する。   However, in the case of forming the squeezed portion by the forging method disclosed in Patent Document 1, a thinning due to the shrinkage occurs at the boundary between the squeezed portion 12a and the cylindrical shell portion 12b. In particular, in the case of providing a mini skirt portion that protrudes short for container support over the outer periphery of the end portion of the cylindrical shell portion 12a, it is necessary to increase the surplus in order to prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned lack of thickness, Forging process design becomes difficult. Further, in the forging method disclosed in Patent Document 2, since the angle of the anvil 18a and the inclined portion 14a of the different diameter sleeve is particularly important, an anvil and a different diameter sleeve are required in accordance with the conical long different diameter ring of the product. This increases the manufacturing cost. Furthermore, in the mouth-drawing molding method disclosed in Patent Document 3, the mouth-drawing portion is not formed by expanding and forging the cylindrical shell portion (main body portion), but by press working using the mouth-drawing forming die 23. In order to form, like the case of patent document 2, the shaping die for aperture drawing matched with the forge ring of a product is needed, and a manufacturing cost increases by the press load becoming large.
そこで、この発明の課題は、口絞り部と直円筒状シェルとの境界部での材料の引けを抑制して欠肉の発生を防止でき、かつ、低コストで製品歩留まりが向上する、大型圧力容器用の口絞りシェルの製造方法を提供することである。   Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a large pressure that can prevent the occurrence of thinning by suppressing the shrinkage of the material at the boundary portion between the mouthpiece portion and the right cylindrical shell, and improve the product yield at a low cost. It is to provide a method for producing a mouth-opening shell for a container.
前記の課題を解決するために、この発明では以下の構成を採用したのである。   In order to solve the above problems, the present invention employs the following configuration.
即ち、請求項1に係る口絞りシェルの製造方法は、リング状素材の外周面にノッチを加工する工程を有し、このリング状素材を芯金と金敷との間で回転させながら拡径鍛造することにより、円筒状シェルの端部に口絞り部が一体に形成されるようにした口絞りシェルの製造方法であって、前記リング状素材の肉厚をT、全長をL、リング状素材の口絞り部が形成される一方の端面Eaからノッチまでの距離をL、このノッチから他方の端面Ebまでの距離をL、拡径鍛造後の円筒状シェルの肉厚をtとし、許容される上限の絞り量をδ1u、圧下率をSとしたとき、前記ノッチの位置が、端面EaからL/Lが0.28以下の範囲にある外周面に、L/T≧7.0を満たすように形成され、前記ノッチから端面Ebまでの素材外周面に前記金敷を接触させ、圧下率Sが、以下の第1式を満たすように拡径鍛造することを特徴とする。
S≦(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L -------------(1)
ここで、圧下率(肉厚減少率)S=((T−t)/T×100(%))であり、bは素材の材質に依存する定数であり、許容される上限の絞り量δ1uは、目標絞り量δ+口絞り部外周面側の機械加工しろMuである。
That is, the manufacturing method of the mouth-opening shell according to claim 1 includes a step of machining a notch on the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material, and diameter-enlarging forging while rotating the ring-shaped material between the core metal and the anvil. By doing so, a mouth-drawing shell manufacturing method in which a mouth-drawing portion is integrally formed at the end of the cylindrical shell, wherein the thickness of the ring-shaped material is T, the total length is L 0 , The distance from one end face Ea to the notch where the mouthpiece portion of the material is formed is L 1 , the distance from this notch to the other end face Eb is L 2 , and the thickness of the cylindrical shell after diameter expansion forging is t. When the allowable upper limit amount is δ 1u and the reduction ratio is S, the notch position is L 2 / L on the outer peripheral surface in a range where L 1 / L 0 is 0.28 or less from the end face Ea. Formed to satisfy T ≧ 7.0, from the notch to the end face Eb Contacting the anvil the material peripheral surface, rolling reduction S, characterized in that the diameter increases forging so as to satisfy the following first formula.
S ≦ (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (1)
Here, the rolling reduction (thickness reduction rate) S = ((T−t) / T × 100 (%)), b is a constant depending on the material, and the allowable upper limit δ 1u is the target throttle amount δ 1 + the machining margin Mu on the outer peripheral surface side of the aperture stop portion.
図1(a)および(b)は、前記リング状素材1および拡径鍛造後の口絞りシェル2の長手方向の断面形状をそれぞれ示したものである。図1(a)に示したように、端面EaからLの距離に、深さhのV字状のノッチ3が、その一方の内壁面がリング状素材の中心軸に垂直となるようにして、その外周面に連続して形成されている。このV字状ノッチ3の端面Eaからの距離Lは、端面EaからV字状ノッチ3の溝底までの中心軸方向の距離である。図1(b)で、δは絞り量を、δは鍛造条件によって発生し得る円筒状シェル部2aの外周面のテーパ量をそれぞれ示す。すなわち、絞り量δ1は、口絞り部2bの端部Aでの外径D2aと円筒状シェル部2aの端部Bでの外径D2bとの径差の1/2(=(D2b―D2a)/2)であり、テーパ量δは、円筒状シェル部2aの両端部位B、Cにおける外径D2bとD2cとの径差の1/2(=(D2c―D2b)/2)である。なお、円筒シェル部2aにテーパが発生しない場合は、絞り量δ1は、円筒シェル部2aの外径(D2b=D2c)と口絞り部2bの端部A(端面Ea)での外径D2aとの径差の1/2となる。 FIGS. 1A and 1B show the cross-sectional shapes in the longitudinal direction of the ring-shaped material 1 and the apertured shell 2 after diameter expansion forging, respectively. As shown in FIG. 1 (a), the distance L 1 from the end face Ea, the V-shaped notches 3 of the depth h, the inner wall surface of one of which as a perpendicular to the central axis of the ring-shaped material And continuously formed on the outer peripheral surface thereof. The distance L 1 from the end surface Ea of the V-shaped notch 3 is a distance in the central axis direction from the end surface Ea to the groove bottom of the V-shaped notch 3. In FIG. 1B, δ 1 indicates a drawing amount, and δ 2 indicates a taper amount of the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell portion 2a that can be generated depending on forging conditions. That is, the amount of restriction δ1 is ½ of the diameter difference between the outer diameter D 2a at the end A of the aperture stop 2b and the outer diameter D 2b at the end B of the cylindrical shell 2a (= (D 2b −D 2a ) / 2), and the taper amount δ 2 is 1/2 of the difference in diameter between the outer diameters D 2b and D 2c at both end portions B and C of the cylindrical shell portion 2a (= (D 2c −D 2b ) / 2). When the cylindrical shell portion 2a is not tapered, the throttle amount δ1 is equal to the outer diameter of the cylindrical shell portion 2a (D 2b = D 2c ) and the end portion A (end surface Ea) of the mouth throttle portion 2b. the half of the diameter difference between the D 2a.
表1に示す寸法のリング状素材(図1(a))を、室温での変形挙動が、鋼の熱間温度域での変形挙動と類似する鉛で作製し、拡径鍛造により図1(b)に示した口絞りシェル2を形成した結果を図2〜図5に示す。図2は、円筒状シェル部2aの外周面のテーパδ/Lを圧下率Sに対してプロットしたものである。図3は、図2で得られた各リング状素材についての傾き(勾配)θを、リング状素材の拡径鍛造部の形状パラメータL/Tに対してプロットしたものである。図3から、リング状素材の形状パラメータL/Tが7.0以上であれば、好ましくは7.6以上であればθがゼロとなって、すなわちδ/Tがゼロとなって、円筒状シェル部2aの外周面にテーパが発生しないことがわかる。これは、肉厚Tに対する圧下域(L2)の比が7.0以上になると、リング状素材の長手方向の伸びが殆んど発生しない平面ひずみ状態に近い変形状態になるために、口絞り部2bが円筒状シェル部2aに及ぼす影響が無視できる程度に小さくなるためである。 A ring-shaped material (FIG. 1 (a)) having the dimensions shown in Table 1 is made of lead whose deformation behavior at room temperature is similar to the deformation behavior in the hot temperature range of steel, and FIG. The results of forming the mouthpiece shell 2 shown in b) are shown in FIGS. FIG. 2 is a plot of the taper δ 2 / L 2 of the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell portion 2 a against the rolling reduction S. FIG. 3 is a plot of the inclination (gradient) θ 2 for each ring-shaped material obtained in FIG. 2 against the shape parameter L 2 / T of the diameter-enlarged forged portion of the ring-shaped material. From FIG. 3, if the shape parameter L 2 / T of the ring-shaped material is 7.0 or more, preferably θ 2 is zero if it is 7.6 or more, that is, δ 2 / T is zero. It can be seen that no taper occurs on the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell portion 2a. This is because when the ratio of the reduction region (L2) to the wall thickness T is 7.0 or more, the ring-shaped material becomes a deformation state close to a plane strain state in which the longitudinal elongation hardly occurs. This is because the influence of the portion 2b on the cylindrical shell portion 2a is small enough to be ignored.
図4は、表1に示した各ノッチ3の位置について、口絞り部2bのテーパδ/L1を圧下率Sに対してプロットしたものである。図5は、図4から得られる絞り量傾き(勾配)θ(=δ/(L×S))をノッチ3の位置パラメータL/Lに対してプロットしたものである。図5から、絞り量傾きθ(=δ/(L×S))とノッチ3の位置パラメータL/Lとは、(3)式の関係があることがわかる。
δ/(L×S)=0.32×(L/L -------------(3)
(3)式から、目標とする絞り量δを得るために必要な圧下率Sは、(4)式で求めることができる。
S=1/0.32×(L/L×(δ/L)-----------(4)
したがって、目標とする絞り量δを得るためには、圧下率Sは、上記(5)式を満足する必要がある。
S=(1/b)×(δ/L)×(L/L -------------(5)
ここで、bは材質によって決まる材質固有値であり、上記拡径鍛造実験のリング状素材として鉛を用いた場合、b=0.32である。
FIG. 4 is a plot of the taper δ 1 / L1 of the mouth restricting portion 2b against the rolling reduction S at the position of each notch 3 shown in Table 1. FIG. 5 is a plot of the throttle amount gradient (gradient) θ 1 (= δ 1 / (L 1 × S)) obtained from FIG. 4 against the position parameter L 1 / L 0 of the notch 3. From FIG. 5, it can be seen that the aperture amount inclination θ 1 (= δ 1 / (L 1 × S)) and the position parameter L 1 / L 0 of the notch 3 have the relationship of the expression (3).
δ 1 / (L 1 × S) = 0.32 × (L 1 / L 0 ) 2 ------------ (3)
From the equation (3), the reduction ratio S necessary for obtaining the target throttle amount δ 1 can be obtained by the equation (4).
S = 1 / 0.32 × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 × (δ 1 / L 1 ) ---------- (4)
Therefore, in order to obtain the aperture value [delta] 1 of the target is reduction ratio S, it is necessary to satisfy the equation (5).
S = (1 / b) × (δ 1 / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (5)
Here, b is a material specific value determined by the material, and b = 0.32 when lead is used as the ring-shaped material in the above-mentioned diameter expansion forging experiment.
前記口絞りシェルは、上述の拡径鍛造により口絞り部を形成した後、図6に模式的に示したように、機械加工を施して口絞りシェル製品となる。したがって、許容される上限の絞り量δ1uは、口絞り部2bの外周面の機械加工しろをMuとすると、δ1u=δ+Muとなる。このδ1uを(5)式のδに代入すると、許容される上限の圧下率Sは、
=(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L------------(6)
したがって、圧下率Sは、許容される上限の圧下率S以下とする必要があり(S≦S)、(1)式を満足する必要がある。
S≦(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L -------------(1)
また、許容される下限の絞り量δ1Lは、口絞り部2bの内周面の機械加工しろをMLとすると、δ1L=δ―Mとなる。このδ1Lを(5)式のδに代入すると、許容される下限の圧下率Sは、
=(1/b)×(δ1L/L)×(L/L------------(7)
したがって、圧下率Sは、許容される下限の圧下率S以上とする必要があり(S≧S)、(8)式を満足する必要がある。
S≧(1/b)×(δ1L/L)×(L/L-------------(8)
このようにして、円筒状シェル部にテーパが発生せず、目標とする絞り量δが形成された口絞りシェルの鍛造品が得られる。なお、(1)式の定数bは、口絞りシェル用に供するリング状素材の材質について、表1に実験条件を示したような拡径鍛造実験を行なうことにより、容易に決定することができる。また、目標とする絞り量δは、口絞りシェルの仕上げ形状および拡径鍛造仕上がり品の外周側および内周側の機械加工しろを考慮して設定することができる。
The squeezed shell is subjected to machining as shown in FIG. 6 after forming a squeezed portion by the above-described diameter-enlarged forging, and becomes a squeezed shell product. Therefore, the allowable upper limit drawing amount δ 1u is δ 1u = δ 1 + Mu, where Mu is the machining margin of the outer peripheral surface of the mouth restrictor 2b. By substituting this δ 1u into δ 1 in equation (5), the allowable upper reduction ratio S U is
S U = (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------ (6)
Therefore, the rolling reduction S needs to be equal to or lower than the allowable upper rolling reduction S U (S ≦ S U ) and needs to satisfy the expression (1).
S ≦ (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (1)
The diaphragm amount [delta] 1L lower limit to be acceptable, when the white machining of the inner peripheral surface of the mouth aperture portion 2b and M L, the δ 1L = δ 1 -M L. By substituting this δ 1L into δ 1 in equation (5), the allowable lower limit rolling reduction S L is
S L = (1 / b) × (δ 1L / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------ (7)
Therefore, the rolling reduction S needs to be equal to or more than the allowable lower rolling reduction S L (S ≧ S L ), and it is necessary to satisfy the equation (8).
S ≧ (1 / b) × (δ 1L / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (8)
In this way, the taper is not generated in the cylindrical shell portion, the mouth aperture forgings shell aperture amount [delta] 1 is formed of the target is obtained. In addition, the constant b of the formula (1) can be easily determined by conducting a diameter expansion forging experiment whose experimental conditions are shown in Table 1 with respect to the material of the ring-shaped material provided for the mouthpiece shell. . Further, the target drawing amount δ 1 can be set in consideration of the finished shape of the mouth-drawing shell and the machining margins on the outer peripheral side and the inner peripheral side of the finished product with the enlarged diameter forged.
請求項2に係る口絞りシェルの製造方法は、リング状素材の外周面にノッチを加工する工程を有し、このリング状素材を芯金と金敷との間で回転させながら拡径鍛造することにより、円筒状シェルの端部に口絞り部が一体に形成されるようにした口絞りシェルの製造方法であって、前記リング状素材の肉厚をT、全長をL、外径をD、リング状素材の口絞り部が形成される一方の端面Eaからノッチまでの距離をL、このノッチから他方の端面Ebまでの距離をL、拡径鍛造後の円筒状シェルの肉厚をtとし、許容される上限の絞り量をδ1u、圧下率をSとしたとき、前記ノッチの位置が、端面EaからL/Lが0.33以下の範囲にある外周面に、L/T<7.0を満たすように形成され、前記ノッチから端面Ebまでの素材外周面に前記金敷を接触させ、圧下率Sが、以下の第1式および第2式のいずれをも満たすように拡径鍛造することを特徴とする。
S≦(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L -------------(1)
S≦a×(L/L)×(D/L)--------------------------(2)
ここで、aおよびbは素材の材質に依存する定数であり、許容される上限の絞り量δ1uは、目標絞り量δ+口絞り部外周面側の機械加工しろMuである。
The manufacturing method of the mouth-opening shell according to claim 2 includes a step of processing a notch on the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material, and forging the diameter-enlarging while rotating the ring-shaped material between the core metal and the anvil. The manufacturing method of the mouthpiece shell in which the mouthpiece portion is formed integrally with the end portion of the cylindrical shell, where the wall thickness of the ring-shaped material is T, the overall length is L 0 , and the outer diameter is D 2. The distance from one end face Ea to the notch where the mouthpiece portion of the ring-shaped material is formed is L 1 , the distance from this notch to the other end face Eb is L 2 , and the thickness of the cylindrical shell after diameter-enlarged forging When the thickness is t, the allowable upper limit amount is δ 1u , and the reduction ratio is S, the position of the notch is on the outer peripheral surface where L 1 / L 0 is in the range of 0.33 or less from the end face Ea. is formed so as to satisfy L 2 /T<7.0, the end face from said notch The material peripheral surface to b contacting the anvil, rolling reduction S, characterized in that the diameter increases forging so as to satisfy any of the following first equation and the second equation.
S ≦ (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (1)
S ≦ a × (L 0 / L 1 ) × (D 2 / L 1 ) ------------------------- (2)
Here, a and b are constants depending on the material, and the allowable upper limit δ 1u is the target squeeze amount δ 1 + the machining margin Mu on the outer peripheral surface side of the aperture squeeze portion.
図7は、円筒状シェル部のテーパδ/Lを、口絞り領域を表す前記ノッチの位置パラメータL/L、口絞り部の拘束強さを表すパラメータL/D、および圧下率Sの積、(L/L)×(L/D)×Sに対してプロットしたものである。図中の数式は、δ/Tと(L1/)×(L1/)×Sとの関数式(回帰式)を示したものである。図7から、(L/L)×(L/D)×S≦0.1185以下では、δ/Lがゼロとなって、円筒状シェル部2aの外周面にテーパが発生しないことがわかる。したがって、上記(1)および(2)式を満足するように圧下率Sを選択すれば、円筒状シェル部2aの外周面にテーパが発生せずに、目標とする絞り量δが得られることがわかる。なお、上記(2)式の定数aについても、口絞りシェル用に供するリング状素材の材質について、表1に実験条件を示したような拡径鍛造実験を行なうことにより、容易に決定することができる。 FIG. 7 shows the taper δ 2 / L 2 of the cylindrical shell part, the notch position parameter L 1 / L 0 representing the aperture area, the parameter L 1 / D 2 representing the constraint strength of the mouth area, and It is plotted against the product of the rolling reduction S, (L 1 / L 0 ) × (L 1 / D 2 ) × S. The mathematical formula in the figure shows a functional expression (regression formula) of δ 2 / T and (L 1 / L 0 ) × (L 1 / D 2 ) × S. From FIG. 7, when (L 1 / L 0 ) × (L 1 / D 2 ) × S ≦ 0.1185 or less, δ 2 / L 2 is zero, and the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell portion 2 a is tapered. It turns out that it does not occur. Therefore, if the reduction ratio S is selected so as to satisfy the above expressions (1) and (2), the target throttle amount δ 1 can be obtained without generating a taper on the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell portion 2a. I understand that. It should be noted that the constant a in the above equation (2) can also be easily determined by conducting a diameter-forging experiment whose experimental conditions are shown in Table 1 for the material of the ring-shaped material used for the aperture shell. Can do.
この発明では、リング状素材の外周面にノッチを加工して、このリング状素材を芯金と金敷との間で回転させながら拡径鍛造することにより、円筒状シェル部の端部に口絞り部が一体に形成された口絞りシェルを製造するにあたり、ノッチを加工する位置範囲を明確にして、円筒状シェル部の外周面にテーパを発生させず、その口絞り部との境界に欠肉を発生させずに目標絞り量を得るための拡径鍛造条件を明確にしたので、従来のプレス加工の場合よりも低コストで、機械加工しろが少なくて済む鍛造上がり品が得られ、このような製品歩留の向上がもたらされる鍛造工程設計を簡便に行なうことができる。   According to the present invention, a notch is formed on the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material, and the ring-shaped material is subjected to diameter expansion forging while rotating between the core metal and the anvil, so that the end of the cylindrical shell portion is apertured. When manufacturing a mouthpiece shell in which the part is formed integrally, the position range where the notch is processed is clarified, the outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical shell part is not tapered, and the boundary with the mouthpiece part is lacking. The diameter forging conditions for obtaining the target drawing amount without damaging are clarified, so that a forged product can be obtained at a lower cost and with less machining margin than conventional press working. Forging process design that can improve the product yield can be easily performed.
以下に、この発明の実施形態を添付の図8から図10に基づいて説明する。   Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS. 8 to 10.
図8は、芯金4と金敷5との間に、例えば、Cr−Mo鋼等の圧力容器用の、全長L、肉厚Tのリング状素材1をセットした状態を示している。このリング状素材1は、内部組織の改善のため、予め、その全長Lにわたって予備の拡径鍛造が施されている。前記リング状素材1には、口絞り部が形成される一方の端面Eaから軸方向に沿った距離Lの位置に、すなわちL/L≦0.28で、かつL/T≧7.0を満たす位置に、外周面に沿ってV字状のノッチ3が加工されている。前記芯金4の口絞り部2b側の端部には、拡径鍛造時に口絞り部2bを拘束しないように段差6が設けられている。また、金敷5は、口絞り部2bを圧下しないように、リング状素材1のノッチ3から他方の端面Ebまでの距離L内の外周面を鍛造する幅に形成されている。そして、図9に示すように、リング状素材1を芯金4と金敷5の間で回転させながら、目標の絞り量δを得るために、上記(1)式を満足する圧下率S(=(T−t)/T×100(%))に到達するまで、拡径鍛造を施す。 FIG. 8 shows a state in which a ring-shaped material 1 having a total length L 0 and a wall thickness T for a pressure vessel such as Cr—Mo steel is set between a core metal 4 and an anvil 5. The ring-like blank 1, for the improvement of the internal organization, in advance, pre-expanded diameter forging is subjected along its entire length L 0. The ring-shaped material 1 is positioned at a distance L 1 along the axial direction from one end face Ea where the aperture stop is formed, that is, L 1 / L 0 ≦ 0.28 and L 2 / T ≧ A V-shaped notch 3 is machined along the outer peripheral surface at a position satisfying 7.0. A step 6 is provided at the end of the cored bar 4 on the side of the squeezed portion 2b so as not to restrain the squeezed portion 2b during diameter expansion forging. Moreover, anvil 5, so as not to pressure the mouth aperture portion 2b, and is formed to a width of forging an outer circumferential surface of the distance L 2 from the notch 3 of the ring-shaped material 1 to the other end face Eb. Then, as shown in FIG. 9, in order to obtain the target drawing amount δ 1 while rotating the ring-shaped material 1 between the core metal 4 and the anvil 5, the reduction ratio S () satisfying the above equation (1). = (T−t) / T × 100 (%)) until diameter expansion forging is performed.
このようにして、口絞り部2bを除いたリング状素材1の外周面を金敷5に押し当てて拡径鍛造を施せば、図9に示したように、ノッチ3の、鍛流線を分断する作用によって口絞り部2bと円筒状シェル部2aとの境界部に材料の引けによる欠肉が発生せず、かつ、外周面にテーパが発生せずに目標絞り量δが得られる。このため、簡便な工程設計で機械加工代の少ない口絞りシェル2の鍛造仕上がり品が得られ、製品歩留が向上する。 In this way, if the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material 1 excluding the mouthpiece 2b is pressed against the anvil 5 and subjected to diameter expansion forging, the forging line of the notch 3 is divided as shown in FIG. underfill does not occur due to material shrinkage of the boundary between the mouth aperture portion 2b and the cylindrical shell portion 2a by the action of, and the target throttle amount [delta] 1 is obtained without taper occurs on the outer peripheral surface. For this reason, a forged finished product of the mouthpiece shell 2 having a small machining cost with a simple process design is obtained, and the product yield is improved.
図10は、図9に示した口絞りシェル2の鍛造仕上がり品に切削などの機械加工を施して図9に破線で示した形状に仕上げた口絞りシェル2の仕上げ形状とその口絞り部2bに取り付けられた半球形状の鏡板7を示したもので、円筒状シェル部2aの端部にその外周にわたって短く突出させた容器支持用のミニスカート部2cが形成されている。図8および図9に示したように、ノッチ3を設けたリング状素材1を拡径鍛造することにより、簡便な工程設計で、欠肉の発生が防止された、機械加工代の少ない口絞りシェル2の鍛造仕上がり品が得られ、製品歩留が向上する。   FIG. 10 shows the finished shape of the mouth-drawn shell 2 that has been subjected to machining such as cutting on the forged finished product of the mouth-drawn shell 2 shown in FIG. 9 and finished in the shape shown by the broken line in FIG. 2 shows a hemispherical end plate 7 attached to a container, and a container-supporting miniskirt portion 2c is formed at the end of the cylindrical shell portion 2a so as to protrude short over the outer periphery thereof. As shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, the ring-shaped material 1 provided with the notch 3 is subjected to diameter-forging to reduce the machining allowance with a simple process design and with less machining allowance. A forged finished product of the shell 2 is obtained, and the product yield is improved.
前記口絞り部2bと円筒状シェル部2aとの境界部に材料の引けによる欠肉が発生せず、かつ、外周面にテーパが発生せずに目標絞り量δが得るための圧下率は、上記(1)式および(2)式の両方を満たす圧下率Sを選定することによっても実現できる。円筒状シェル部2aにテーパが発生しない条件式として、(2)式を用いているため、ノッチ3を加工する位置を、リング状素材1の外径Dを考慮して、すなわちリング状素材1の大きさを考慮して決定することができ、より大型のリング状素材の場合でも適切なノッチの位置を簡便に決定することができる。 The reduction ratio for obtaining the target throttle amount δ 1 without the occurrence of thinning due to material shrinkage at the boundary between the mouth throttle portion 2b and the cylindrical shell portion 2a and without the occurrence of taper on the outer peripheral surface is as follows: It can also be realized by selecting a rolling reduction S that satisfies both the above formulas (1) and (2). As conditional expression taper does not occur in a cylindrical shell portion 2a, due to the use of (2), the position for machining a notch 3, in consideration of the outer diameter D 2 of the ring-like material 1, or ring-shaped material 1 can be determined in consideration of the size of 1 and an appropriate notch position can be easily determined even in the case of a larger ring-shaped material.
なお、前記ノッチ3は、材料の引けを抑制して欠肉を防止するためには、口絞り部2bの肉厚の少なくとも5%以上の深さで設けることが望ましい。また、ノッチ3の形状は必ずしもV字状に限定するものではない。   The notch 3 is desirably provided at a depth of at least 5% of the wall thickness of the mouth restrictor 2b in order to suppress the shrinkage of the material and prevent the lack of thickness. Further, the shape of the notch 3 is not necessarily limited to the V shape.
(a)リング素材の長手方向の断面形状を示す説明図である。(b)拡径鍛造後の口絞りシェルの長手方向の断面形状を示す説明図である。(A) It is explanatory drawing which shows the cross-sectional shape of the longitudinal direction of a ring raw material. (B) It is explanatory drawing which shows the cross-sectional shape of the longitudinal direction of the aperture_diaphragm | restriction shell after diameter expansion forging. 口絞りシェルの円筒状シェル部の外周面のテーパ(δ/L)を圧下率に対してプロットした説明図である。It is an explanatory diagram plotting the outer circumferential surface of the taper (δ 2 / L 2) the reduction ratio of the cylindrical shell portion of the mouth aperture shell. 図2の円筒状シェル部のテーパ(δ/L)を、リング状素材の形状パラメータ(L/T)に対してプロットした説明図である。The cylindrical shell portion of the taper of Fig. 2 (δ 2 / L 2) , is an explanatory diagram plotting the ring-shaped material shape parameter (L 2 / T). 表1に示した各ノッチの位置について、口絞り部のテーパδ/Lを圧下率Sに対してプロットした説明図である。FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram in which the taper δ 1 / L 1 of the mouth restrictor is plotted against the rolling reduction S for each notch position shown in Table 1. 口絞りシェルの絞り量傾きθ(=δ/(L×S))とノッチ位置パラメータ(L/L)との関係を示す説明図である。It is an explanatory view showing the relationship between the mouth aperture aperture amount inclination theta 1 of the shell (= δ 1 / (L 1 × S)) and notch position parameter (L 1 / L 0). 拡径鍛造仕上がり品の目標絞り量とその許容範囲を模式的に示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows typically the target drawing amount of the diameter forging finishing goods, and its tolerance | permissible_range. 円筒状シェル部のテーパδ/Lを、拡径鍛造パラメータFに対してプロットした説明図である。FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram in which a taper δ 2 / L 2 of a cylindrical shell portion is plotted with respect to a diameter forging parameter F. 拡径鍛造時の芯金4と金敷5との間にリング状素材をセットした状態を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the state which set the ring-shaped raw material between the metal core 4 and the anvil 5 at the time of diameter expansion forging. 拡径鍛造により口絞り部が形成された状態を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the state in which the aperture part was formed by diameter expansion forging. 口絞りシェルの仕上げ形状を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the finishing shape of a mouth-drawing shell. (a)中間部材を用いて半球形状鏡板と円筒状本体部を接合する構造を模式的に示した説明図である。(b)円筒状本体部の端部に口絞り部を設けた一体型口絞りシェルを示す説明図である。(A) It is explanatory drawing which showed typically the structure which joins a hemispherical end plate and a cylindrical main-body part using an intermediate member. (B) It is explanatory drawing which shows the integrated aperture diaphragm shell which provided the aperture diaphragm part in the edge part of a cylindrical main-body part. (a)、(b)従来技術の拡径鍛造により口絞りシェルを製造する方法を示す説明図である。(A), (b) It is explanatory drawing which shows the method of manufacturing a caliber shell by the diameter expansion forging of a prior art. (a)、(b)他の従来技術の拡径鍛造により口絞りシェルを製造する方法を示す説明図である。(A), (b) It is explanatory drawing which shows the method of manufacturing a squeezed shell by the diameter expansion forging of another prior art. 従来技術のプレス成形により口絞りシェルを製造する方法を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the method of manufacturing a mouth-opening shell by the press molding of a prior art.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1:リング状素材 2:口絞りシェル 2a:円筒状シェル部
2b:口絞り部 2c:ミニスカート部 3:ノッチ
4:芯金 5:金敷 6:段部
7:鏡板 8:直円筒状シェル 9:ダッチマン
1: Ring-shaped material 2: Mouth aperture shell 2a: Cylindrical shell portion 2b: Mouth aperture portion 2c: Mini skirt portion 3: Notch 4: Core metal 5: Anvil 6: Stepped portion 7: End plate 8: Straight cylindrical shell 9 : Dutchman

Claims (2)

  1. リング状素材の外周面にノッチを加工する工程を有し、このリング状素材を芯金と金敷との間で回転させながら拡径鍛造することにより、円筒状シェルの端部に口絞り部が一体に形成されるようにした口絞りシェルの製造方法であって、前記リング状素材の肉厚をT、全長をL、リング状素材の口絞り部が形成される一方の端面Eaからノッチまでの距離をL、このノッチから他方の端面Ebまでの距離をL、拡径鍛造後の円筒状シェルの肉厚をtとし、許容される上限の絞り量をδ1u、圧下率をSとしたとき、前記ノッチの位置が、端面EaからL/Lが0.28以下の範囲にある外周面に、L/T≧7.0を満たすように形成され、前記ノッチから端面Ebまでの素材外周面に前記金敷を接触させ、圧下率Sが、以下の第1式を満たすように拡径鍛造することを特徴とする口絞りシェルの製造方法。
    S≦(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L -------------(1)
    ここで、圧下率(肉厚減少率)S=((T−t)/T×100(%))であり、bは素材の材質に依存する定数であり、許容される上限の絞り量δ1uは、目標絞り量δ+口絞り部外周面側の機械加工しろMuである。
    There is a step of processing a notch on the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material, and the ring-shaped material is subjected to diameter forging while rotating between the metal core and the anvil, so that the mouth restrictor is formed at the end of the cylindrical shell. A manufacturing method of a mouthpiece shell formed integrally, wherein the thickness of the ring-shaped material is T, the total length is L 0 , and a notch is formed from one end face Ea on which the mouth-shaped mouthpiece portion of the ring-shaped material is formed. L 1 , the distance from this notch to the other end face Eb, L 2 , the wall thickness of the cylindrical shell after diameter-enlarged forging t, the allowable upper limit amount δ 1u , and the reduction ratio S, the position of the notch is formed on the outer peripheral surface where L 1 / L 0 is in the range of 0.28 or less from the end face Ea so as to satisfy L 2 /T≧7.0. The anvil is brought into contact with the outer peripheral surface of the material up to the end surface Eb, and the rolling reduction S is Mouth aperture method for manufacturing a shell, characterized in that the diameter increases forging so as to satisfy the first equation below.
    S ≦ (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (1)
    Here, the rolling reduction (thickness reduction rate) S = ((T−t) / T × 100 (%)), b is a constant depending on the material, and the allowable upper limit δ 1u is the target throttle amount δ 1 + the machining margin Mu on the outer peripheral surface side of the aperture stop portion.
  2. リング状素材の外周面にノッチを加工する工程を有し、このリング状素材を芯金と金敷との間で回転させながら拡径鍛造することにより、円筒状シェルの端部に口絞り部が一体に形成されるようにした口絞りシェルの製造方法であって、前記リング状素材の肉厚をT、全長をL、外径をD、リング状素材の口絞り部が形成される一方の端面Eaからノッチまでの距離をL、このノッチから他方の端面Ebまでの距離をL、拡径鍛造後の円筒状シェルの肉厚をtとし、許容される上限の絞り量をδ1u、圧下率をSとしたとき、前記ノッチの位置が、端面EaからL/Lが0.33以下の範囲にある外周面に、L/T<7.0を満たすように形成され、前記ノッチから端面Ebまでの素材外周面に前記金敷を接触させ、圧下率Sが、以下の第1式および第2式のいずれをも満たすように拡径鍛造することを特徴とする口絞りシェルの製造方法。
    S≦(1/b)×(δ1u/L)×(L/L -------------(1)
    S≦a×(L/L)×(D/L)--------------------------(2)
    ここで、aおよびbは素材の材質に依存する定数であり、許容される上限の絞り量δ1uは、目標絞り量δ+口絞り部外周面側の機械加工しろMuである。


















    There is a step of processing a notch on the outer peripheral surface of the ring-shaped material, and the ring-shaped material is subjected to diameter forging while rotating between the metal core and the anvil, so that the mouth restrictor is formed at the end of the cylindrical shell. A manufacturing method of a mouthpiece shell formed integrally, wherein the ring-shaped material has a wall thickness T, an overall length L 0 , an outer diameter D 2 , and a ring-shaped material mouth restrictor is formed. The distance from one end face Ea to the notch is L 1 , the distance from this notch to the other end face Eb is L 2 , and the thickness of the cylindrical shell after the diameter expansion forging is t. When δ 1u and the rolling reduction ratio are S, the position of the notch is such that L 2 /T<7.0 is satisfied on the outer peripheral surface where L 1 / L 0 is within 0.33 or less from the end face Ea. The anvil is formed in contact with the outer peripheral surface of the material formed from the notch to the end surface Eb. Mouth aperture method for manufacturing a shell, characterized in that the reduction ratio S is, the diameter increases forging so as to satisfy any of the following first equation and the second equation.
    S ≦ (1 / b) × (δ 1u / L 1 ) × (L 0 / L 1 ) 2 ------------- (1)
    S ≦ a × (L 0 / L 1 ) × (D 2 / L 1 ) ------------------------- (2)
    Here, a and b are constants depending on the material, and the allowable upper limit δ1u is the target squeeze amount δ 1 + the machining margin Mu on the outer peripheral surface side of the aperture squeeze portion.


















JP2005302309A 2005-10-17 2005-10-17 Mouthpiece shell manufacturing method Expired - Fee Related JP4571571B2 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009269052A (en) * 2008-05-07 2009-11-19 Kobe Steel Ltd Method for manufacturing narrow-mouthed shell
CN102489660A (en) * 2011-12-20 2012-06-13 二重集团(德阳)重型装备股份有限公司 Forging forming process of heteromorphic transition section of super large pressure vessel

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5415454A (en) * 1977-07-06 1979-02-05 Japan Steel Works Ltd Mouth draw forging of large ring
JPS63317231A (en) * 1987-06-22 1988-12-26 Kawasaki Steel Corp Method for necking of forging ring

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5415454A (en) * 1977-07-06 1979-02-05 Japan Steel Works Ltd Mouth draw forging of large ring
JPS63317231A (en) * 1987-06-22 1988-12-26 Kawasaki Steel Corp Method for necking of forging ring

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009269052A (en) * 2008-05-07 2009-11-19 Kobe Steel Ltd Method for manufacturing narrow-mouthed shell
CN102489660A (en) * 2011-12-20 2012-06-13 二重集团(德阳)重型装备股份有限公司 Forging forming process of heteromorphic transition section of super large pressure vessel

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