JP2007014663A - Method and device for measuring truncal subcutaneous fat and method and device for measuring truncal internal fat - Google Patents

Method and device for measuring truncal subcutaneous fat and method and device for measuring truncal internal fat Download PDF

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JP2007014663A
JP2007014663A JP2005201193A JP2005201193A JP2007014663A JP 2007014663 A JP2007014663 A JP 2007014663A JP 2005201193 A JP2005201193 A JP 2005201193A JP 2005201193 A JP2005201193 A JP 2005201193A JP 2007014663 A JP2007014663 A JP 2007014663A
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trunk
impedance
tissue
amount
subcutaneous fat
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JP2007014663A5 (en
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Yasuhiro Kasahara
Yoshihisa Masuo
善久 増尾
靖弘 笠原
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Tanita Corp
株式会社タニタ
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Priority to JP2005201193A priority Critical patent/JP2007014663A/en
Priority claimed from DE200660003273 external-priority patent/DE602006003273D1/en
Publication of JP2007014663A publication Critical patent/JP2007014663A/en
Publication of JP2007014663A5 publication Critical patent/JP2007014663A5/ja
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and a device which keep sensitivity required for measurement in a compound tissue region of internal organ tissues and internal fat tissues of low conductivity and simultaneously measure fat tissues deposited in a trunk part of the body, especially internal fat tissues adhered to or deposited in the periphery of internal organ tissues and information on subcutaneous fat tissue layers deposited in subcutaneous layers with the subcutaneous fat tissue layer information only by switching, and especially a method and a device for measuring truncal subcutaneous fat to measure the information on the subcutaneous fat tissue layers at a trunk of the body with high precision. <P>SOLUTION: One current application electrode is disposed at least in one site which is highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissues on the abdominal circumference of the trunk of the body, and the other current application electrode paired with the current application electrode is disposed at a site protruding from the trunk of the body. One voltage measuring electrode is disposed in a position in the proximity to one current application electrode on the abdominal circumference of the trunk of the body, and the other voltage measuring electrode paired with the voltage measuring electrode is disposed in a site protruding form the trunk of the body different from the site where the other current application electrode is disposed. The information on the subcutaneous fat tissue layers of the trunk of the body is aquired by measuring an impedance at the trunk of the body. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

  The present invention relates to a trunk subcutaneous fat measurement method and apparatus, and a trunk visceral fat measurement apparatus.

  The estimation technique of body adipose tissue using bioelectrical impedance has spread to the world as a technique for measuring body adipose tissue and body fat percentage, but in reality, it does not directly measure adipose tissue. In other words, it is an electrical measurement of lean tissue in which water other than fat tissue is dominant. In particular, the whole body (Whole Body) measurement is modeled as a single cylinder between one hand and one leg in the supine position in the conventional type (one hand-one leg guidance method). The guidance method between both palms to be measured, the guidance method between the backs of both legs integrated with a weight scale, upper and lower limbs, upper and lower limbs and trunk, or left and right upper limbs, left and right lower limbs, trunk In this way, the technique of measuring the impedance by making it possible to individually apply a cylindrical model divided into 5 segments has become apparent. In addition, a patent application has been filed for a measurement technique that simplifies the impedance CT measurement technique, arranges current application / voltage measurement electrodes in the trunk umbilical girdle, measures the impedance of the abdomen, and estimates the visceral fat tissue mass. (See Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2).

Japanese Patent No. 3396677 Japanese Patent No. 3396684

  However, body fat information is particularly useful for screening lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and the visceral adipose tissue attached and accumulated in the vicinity of internal organ tissues and The importance of measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue is increasing day by day.

  In particular, the visceral adipose tissue is an adipose tissue concentratedly distributed in the vicinity of the abdomen of the trunk, and has been determined based on the cross-sectional area of the adipose tissue by an abdominal cross-sectional image obtained by X-ray CТ or MRI. However, the apparatus is large-scale, and in the case of X-rays, there is a problem of exposure, and there is a cost, which is not suitable for measurement in the field and home. Therefore, visceral adipose tissue is generally estimated from the correlation with whole body adipose tissue or the correlation with whole body lean tissue, and sufficient reliability has not been ensured even for screening.

  Recently, a method for estimating visceral adipose tissue information by placing electrodes around the umbilical girth of the trunk and measuring the internal impedance of the trunk is also under development. However, this method is based on the fact that there is a significant correlation among the skeletal muscle tissue layer, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, and the visceral adipose tissue. It is assumed that For this reason, good results can be expected for healthy subjects with high independence where a very significant correlation can exist, but subjects with different correlations between tissues, such as visceral adipose tissue, are significantly enlarged. In addition, the measurement result in the subject having a remarkably low correlation with the subcutaneous fat tissue layer or the skeletal muscle tissue layer can include a large error. In other words, even if this method is under development, if it is a subject who can live a healthy independent life, it is possible to measure somehow regardless of where the electrodes are placed around the entire umbilicus. In particular, the problem is large when measurement is performed on a bedridden patient on a bed.

  In addition, this method under development can be said to be a high technology in that the impedance value related to the internal tissue is obtained by applying current from the abdominal surface to the tissue site to be measured. The fact is that the measured impedance information itself has little useful sensitivity to visceral adipose tissue due to problems in the internal structure of the trunk, which is the part. That is, the trunk that is the measurement site is short and thick, the multiple structure, that is, the visceral fat tissue that is the measurement target is covered with a skeletal muscle tissue layer that exhibits very good conductivity together with the internal organ tissue and the spine tissue, This skeletal muscle tissue layer has a structure in which it is covered with a subcutaneous fat tissue layer having very poor conductivity. In particular, the visceral adipose tissue that is the subject of measurement is dominated by internal organ tissues that are less conductive than the skeletal muscle tissue layer and visceral adipose tissues that are attached and accumulated on this internal organ tissue and have poor conductivity. Due to the configuration, the internal conductivity is considerably inferior to that of the skeletal muscle tissue layer. For this reason, even if the current application electrode is simply arranged around the abdomen, the majority is energized through the skeletal muscle tissue layer, and the current density distribution is also a potential distribution dominant to the skeletal muscle tissue layer from the surface measurement electrode. Will be observed. Furthermore, the distribution of the applied current density is determined by the surface area of the electrode to which the current is applied or the electrode width in the abdominal circumference direction, and the observation of information in the spreading resistance region where the current density is high in the subcutaneous fat tissue layer immediately below the electrode becomes dominant. End up.

  Furthermore, since the trunk, which is the measurement site, is thick and short, the sensitivity in the subcutaneous fat tissue layer in the current density concentration (spreading resistance) region directly under the current application electrode is high, and the skeletal muscle tissue is more in comparison with the fat tissue. Since the conductivity is considerably high, a route in which most of the current passing through the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer returns through the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer to the opposing current application electrode side through the skeletal muscle tissue layer is taken. The internal potential distribution is greatly distorted in this skeletal muscle tissue layer. Therefore, in the conventional method, most of the measured potential is information of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, and the visceral fat tissue to be measured, that is, the visceral fat tissue that adheres to and accumulates in the internal organ tissue and its surroundings. It is almost impossible to energize the battery, and only information with extremely low measurement sensitivity of 10% or less of the entire impedance measurement section can be captured.

  In order to avoid these problems, a method for preventing an increase in the estimation error by incorporating an abdominal circumference that is highly correlated with the area of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer into the estimation formula has been considered. It is nothing but indirect estimation based on the correlation between the constituent tissues, and it is difficult to say that it is a measurement method that secures the necessary energization sensitivity at the center of the abdomen. In other words, individual errors that deviate from the statistical correlation design cannot be guaranteed, especially when there are many subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissues pathologically or when there are many / small intermediate skeletal muscle tissue layers. . It should be noted that the area of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is highly correlated with the abdominal circumference, because the human trunk has a concentric tissue arrangement design, and the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is the outermost arrangement, This is because the area is determined by the length and the thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue.

  Usually, the four-electrode method is also used for the electrode arrangement on the trunk. In this method, a current is applied to the body of the subject, and a potential difference generated in the measurement site section of the subject by the applied current is measured to measure the measurement site section bioelectrical impedance. When the four-electrode method is applied to a thick and short measurement site such as the trunk, the current density concentration at which the current begins to spread (ie, the spreading resistance region) is, for example, directly under the current application electrode, so that it is near the subcutaneous fat tissue layer. A large potential difference is generated and accounts for most of the potential difference measured between the voltage measurement electrodes. In order to reduce the influence of the spreading resistance, it is important to have an arrangement that ensures a sufficient distance between the current application electrode and the voltage measurement electrode. In general measurement, since the measurement interval is long and the distance between the voltage measurement electrodes can be sufficiently secured, so-called S / N sensitivity (N is an influence due to spreading resistance (noise), and S is measured between the voltage electrodes). Signal) should be sufficiently secured. However, in the case of a thick and short measurement site such as the trunk, if the voltage measurement electrode is moved away from the current application electrode in order to reduce N, the voltage measurement electrode section distance becomes smaller. As a result, S becomes smaller and eventually the S / N becomes worse. Further, the spreading resistance portion having a high current density is a subcutaneous fat tissue layer portion, and is generally a subject with a tendency to obesity with a large thickness. Therefore, the N is considerably large, and the S / N is doubled. End up. As described above, when the four-electrode method is used for a short and short measurement site such as the trunk, a useful S / N sensitivity to visceral adipose tissue can be obtained simply by placing an electrode on the circumference of the umbilicus. It is speculated that it is quite impossible to secure. The S / N will be described in more detail in the description of the embodiments described later.

  An object of the present invention is to eliminate these problems in the prior art, ensuring sensitivity necessary for measurement even in a complex tissue region of internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue with poor conductivity, and accumulated in the trunk. A method and apparatus that enables measurement of adipose tissue, particularly visceral adipose tissue that adheres and accumulates in the vicinity of internal organ tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue layer information accumulated in the subcutaneous layer, together with subcutaneous adipose tissue layer information, only by switching. It is to provide. In particular, an object of the present invention is to provide a trunk fat measuring method and apparatus capable of accurately measuring subcutaneous fat tissue layer information in the trunk.

  According to one aspect of the present invention, one current application electrode is disposed in at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen, The other current-applying electrode to be paired is disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk, and one voltage measuring electrode is disposed at a position adjacent to the one current-applying electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen. A trunk part by measuring the impedance of the trunk part by arranging the other voltage measurement electrode paired with the measurement electrode at a part protruding from the trunk part different from the part where the other current application electrode is arranged. There is provided a trunk trunk fat measurement method characterized by obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information.

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, the highly useful site for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue is any one of the lateral umbilicus on the circumference of the umbilical cord, the lower scapula, and the upper edge of the iliac crest. Or all the sites, or any or all of the umbilical cavity, spine, and aponeurosis on the circumference of the umbilicus, or the combination of the largest candidate site and the thinnest site of subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is there.

  According to another embodiment of the present invention, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue are the three sites of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis, and the flank.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, the portion protruding from the trunk is one of a limb, a head, or an ear.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of the spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, body specific information is obtained, and a potential difference between each of the voltage measurement electrode pairs is measured, whereby the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen is determined. Then, the amount of the subcutaneous fat tissue of the trunk is obtained based on the obtained body specifying information and the obtained subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, by measuring the potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair, the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen is obtained, and each obtained part The subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk is determined based on the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk, and the subcutaneous fat tissue amount of the trunk is determined based on the determined subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk and the body specifying information.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, one current application electrode disposed in at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen and a portion protruding from the trunk At least one current application electrode pair comprising the one current application electrode and the other current application electrode as a pair, and disposed at a position adjacent to the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen. At least one voltage measurement electrode and the other voltage measurement electrode paired with the one voltage measurement electrode disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk different from the portion where the other current application electrode is disposed. There is provided a trunk subcutaneous fat measuring device comprising a pair of voltage measurement electrode pairs, and determining trunk trunk fat tissue layer information by measuring impedance of the trunk. .

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk subcutaneous fat measuring device, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are the lateral umbilicus and the lower scapula on the circumference of the umbilical cord. Any or all of the upper edge of the iliac crest, or any or all of the umbilical cavity, spine, and aponeurosis on the circumference of the umbilicus, or the candidate site where the subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is greatest It is a combination part with the thinnest part.

  According to another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk subcutaneous fat measuring apparatus, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the subcutaneous fat tissue mass are the umbilical side, the aponeurosis part, and the flank part. One part.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device, the part protruding from the trunk is one of the limbs, the head, or the ear.

  According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device, the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of the spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant. is there.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device, a body-specific information acquisition unit that acquires body-specific information and a potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair are measured. A trunk abdominal region subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance measuring means for measuring a subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen, the acquired body specifying information and the measured subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance of each region And a trunk subcutaneous fat tissue mass estimation means for estimating the subcutaneous fat tissue mass of the trunk based on the above.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device, the potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair is measured, and the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen is measured. Trunk abdominal site subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance measuring means for measuring the trunk abdominal fat tissue layer impedance estimation based on the measured subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each site Means, and a trunk trunk fat tissue quantity estimation means for estimating the trunk fat tissue quantity of the trunk based on the estimated subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk and the body specifying information.

  According to still another aspect of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method for measuring trunk visceral fat tissue, the bioimpedance of the lower limb, the bioimpedance of the upper limb, and the bioimpedance of the trunk are measured. The lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount is obtained based on the measured lower limb bioimpedance and body specifying information, and the upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount is calculated based on the measured upper limb bioimpedance and body specifying information. Obtaining the torso skeletal muscle tissue amount based on the obtained lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount and upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information, and obtaining the torso skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information To determine the impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, determine the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk, and based on the body-specific information organ tissue in the trunk Based on the obtained bioimpedance of the trunk, the impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk Obtaining the impedance of the visceral adipose tissue, and determining the amount of the visceral adipose tissue based on the obtained impedance and the body specifying information of the trunk visceral adipose tissue, the impedance of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer of the trunk Determining the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen, placing one current application electrode at at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and the other current application electrode as a pair. The current application electrode is arranged at a part protruding from the trunk, and is placed at a position close to the one current application electrode on the circumference of the trunk abdomen. And the other voltage measurement electrode paired with the one voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a part protruding from the trunk part different from the part where the other current application electrode is disposed. There is provided a method for measuring a visceral fat of a torso comprising determining an impedance of a subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the torso.

  According to still another aspect of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method for measuring trunk visceral fat tissue, the bioimpedance of the lower limb, the bioimpedance of the upper limb, and the bioimpedance of the trunk are measured. A trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount is obtained based on the measured bioimpedance of the lower limbs, bioimpedance of the upper limbs, and body specifying information, and based on the obtained trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information. Determine the impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, determine the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk, determine the impedance of the organ tissue in the trunk based on the body-specific information, the bioimpedance of the determined trunk, The obtained impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk, and the internal organs of the trunk Obtaining the impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the impedance of the tissue, each step of obtaining the amount of trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the impedance and body specific information of the obtained trunk visceral fat tissue, The step of obtaining the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk comprises disposing one current application electrode in at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue around the trunk abdomen, The other current application electrode that is paired with the current application electrode is disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk, and one voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a position near the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen, The other voltage measurement electrode paired with the one voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a part protruding from the trunk part different from the part where the other current application electrode is disposed, Trunk visceral fat measuring method characterized by comprising determining the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer parts is provided.

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the subcutaneous fat tissue mass are the lateral umbilical region and the lower scapula on the umbilical circumference. Any or all of the upper edge of the iliac crest, or any or all of the umbilical cavity, spine, and aponeurosis on the circumference of the umbilicus, or the candidate site where the subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is greatest It is a combination part with the thinnest part.

  According to another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the subcutaneous fat tissue mass are the umbilical side, the aponeurosis part, and the flank part. One part.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the portion protruding from the trunk is one of the limb, the head, or the ear.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of the spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant. is there.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the obtained bioimpedance of the trunk, the obtained impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the subcutaneous fat tissue of the trunk The step of obtaining the impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the impedance of the layer and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk comprises an electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk, the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk and the trunk The impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the skeletal muscle tissue layer of the trunk are connected in parallel to a series circuit with the impedance of the visceral fat tissue.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the internal organ tissue impedance is obtained by obtaining an internal organ tissue amount from body specifying information, and the internal organ tissue amount and the body specifying Based on information.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the body specifying information is information indicating physical characteristics.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement method, the information indicating the physical characteristics includes height, sex, weight, age, limb length (lower limb length, upper limb length), These are the trunk length (mid-trunk length), abdominal circumference length, abdominal width, abdominal thickness, and the like.

  According to still another aspect of the present invention, in a trunk visceral fat measuring device for measuring a trunk visceral fat tissue, a lower limb bioimpedance measuring means for measuring a bioimpedance of a lower limb, and an upper limb Based on upper limb bioimpedance measurement means for measuring bioimpedance, trunk bioimpedance measurement means for measuring bioimpedance of the trunk, and based on the measured bioimpedance and body specific information of the lower limb Lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount estimating means for estimating lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount, and upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount estimating upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount based on the measured bioimpedance and body specifying information of the upper limb portion Based on the amount estimation means, the estimated lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount, the upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount and the body specifying information Trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount estimating means for estimating skeletal muscle tissue amount, and trunk skeletal muscle for estimating impedance of trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer based on the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information Tissue layer impedance estimating means, trunk subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimating means for estimating impedance of subcutaneous fat tissue layer of trunk and trunk for estimating impedance of internal organ tissue of trunk based on body specifying information Internal organ tissue impedance estimation means, the estimated bioimpedance of the trunk, the estimated impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk Estimating the trunk visceral adipose tissue impedance based on the estimation of the impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue And a trunk visceral fat tissue amount estimating means for estimating a trunk visceral fat tissue amount based on the estimated impedance of the trunk visceral fat tissue and body specifying information, and the trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue The layer impedance estimating means is arranged at one current application electrode arranged at at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue around the trunk abdomen and the one protruding from the trunk. And at least one pair of current application electrodes that are paired with the other current application electrode, and one voltage that is disposed in the vicinity of the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen The other voltage measurement electrode which is arranged at a part protruding from the trunk and different from the part where the measurement electrode and the other current application electrode are arranged, and which is paired with the one voltage measurement electrode; There is provided a trunk visceral fat measuring device characterized in that it comprises at least one set of voltage measurement electrode pairs consisting of the above, and obtains the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk.

  According to still another aspect of the present invention, in a trunk visceral fat measuring device for measuring a trunk visceral fat tissue, a lower limb bioimpedance measuring means for measuring a bioimpedance of a lower limb, and an upper limb Upper limb bio-impedance measuring means for measuring bio-impedance, trunk bio-impedance measuring means for measuring bio-impedance of trunk, bio-impedance of lower limb and bio-impedance of upper limb and body identification A trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount estimating means for estimating a trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount based on the information and the information on the trunk skeletal muscle tissue based on the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information Trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance estimation means for estimating impedance and impedance of subcutaneous fat tissue layer of trunk Body trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance estimating means, body trunk internal organ tissue impedance estimating means for estimating internal organ tissue impedance based on body specifying information, and body life of the estimated trunk Trunk internal organs for estimating the impedance of trunk visceral adipose tissue based on impedance, impedance of the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, impedance of subcutaneous fat tissue layer of trunk and impedance of internal organ tissue of trunk A fat tissue impedance estimating means, and a trunk visceral fat tissue amount estimating means for estimating a trunk visceral fat tissue amount based on the estimated trunk visceral fat tissue impedance and body specifying information, The trunk adipose tissue layer impedance estimation means calculates the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen. At least one current application electrode arranged at least at one site highly useful for estimation and at least one current application electrode paired with the one current application electrode arranged at a site protruding from the trunk A pair of current application electrode pairs is different from a portion where one voltage measurement electrode and the other current application electrode are arranged on the periphery of the trunk abdomen in a position close to the one current application electrode. At least one voltage measurement electrode pair that is arranged at a portion protruding from the trunk and that is paired with the one voltage measurement electrode, and has an impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk There is provided a trunk visceral fat measuring device characterized in that it is obtained.

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the subcutaneous fat tissue mass are the lateral umbilical region and the lower scapula on the umbilical circumference. Any or all of the upper edge of the iliac crest, or any or all of the umbilical cavity, spine, and aponeurosis on the circumference of the umbilicus, or the candidate site where the subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is greatest It is a combination part with the thinnest part.

  According to another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are 3 of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis and the flank. One part.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the portion protruding from the trunk is one of the limb, the head, or the ear.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of the spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant. is there.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat tissue impedance estimating means is configured such that an electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk includes an internal organ tissue of the trunk. The estimation is performed assuming that the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer are connected in parallel to the series circuit of the impedance and the impedance of the trunk visceral fat tissue.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk internal organ tissue impedance estimation means estimates an internal organ tissue amount of the trunk from body specifying information, A trunk internal organ tissue impedance is estimated based on the estimated internal organ tissue amount of the trunk and body specifying information.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the body specifying information is information indicating physical characteristics.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the information indicating the physical characteristics includes height, sex, weight, age, limb length (lower limb length, upper limb length), These are the trunk length (mid-trunk length), abdominal circumference length, abdominal width, abdominal thickness, and the like.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement device, the potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair is measured, and the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen is measured. Trunk abdominal site subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance measuring means for measuring the trunk abdominal fat tissue layer impedance estimation based on the measured subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each site Means, and a trunk trunk fat tissue quantity estimation means for estimating the trunk fat tissue quantity of the trunk based on the estimated subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk and the body specifying information.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement device, the trunk abdominal fat tissue mass is calculated from the estimated trunk visceral fat tissue mass and the estimated trunk subcutaneous fat tissue mass. A trunk abdominal fat tissue amount estimation means for estimation is further provided.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat / subcutaneous fat based on the estimated trunk visceral fat tissue amount and the estimated trunk subcutaneous fat tissue amount. A trunk visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio estimating means for estimating the ratio is further provided.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the influence of fluctuation due to respiration is removed based on the bioimpedance of the trunk measured at a sampling cycle shorter than the respiratory cycle time. A breathing fluctuation effect removing means is further provided.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measurement device, the abnormal value is determined by comparing the measured bioimpedance of the trunk with a general value of a group. A determination processing unit is further provided.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, the trunk visceral fat measurement device further includes display means for displaying advice information based on a determination result by the abnormal value determination processing means.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat rate.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue cross-sectional area.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat tissue volume is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue volume.

  According to still another embodiment of the present invention, in the trunk visceral fat measuring device, the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue weight.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to accurately measure the subcutaneous fat tissue layer information of the trunk, and by using the highly accurate measured subcutaneous fat tissue layer information for estimation of the visceral tissue information of the trunk, Tissue can be measured accurately.

  Further, even in a paralyzed patient and a subject who is bedridden due to care or the like, the subject can easily measure by setting the measurement part as the front surface of the abdomen excluding the back part. Furthermore, since the subject can be aware of the measurement site by attaching electrodes to the abdomen, it is beneficial to improve measurement accuracy and to ensure motivation by conscious restraint.

  In addition, the accuracy of screening information according to the required level can be made clear in the course of combining the accumulation of accumulated adipose tissue adhering to the vicinity of internal organ tissue with the conventional simple measurement method and simplicity. it can.

  Furthermore, according to the present invention, the trunk visceral adipose tissue and the subcutaneous adipose tissue can be accurately measured with a small and simple device, so that it can be optimized for home use. Moreover, an abdominal condition check prior to measurement, that is, early check of inflammation or pathological abnormal fluid distribution in internal organ tissues or the like is possible, and appropriate health guide advice can be given accordingly. Therefore, it is possible for the user to obtain various information useful for self-management for maintaining and promoting sustainable health by appropriately performing daily diet and exercise and maintaining motivation for it. Can be very useful.

  Before describing the embodiments and examples of the present invention in detail, the measurement principle of the visceral adipose tissue of the trunk will be described. The present invention basically uses bioelectrical impedance information and body specific information for each segment obtained by the extremity guidance method for upper limbs (arms), lower limbs (legs), trunk (middle trunk), etc. Visceral adipose tissue information (cross sectional area, volume or weight), trunk visceral fat and subcutaneous fat mass ratio (V / S), and total fat of subcutaneous fat and visceral fat The amount (the amount of trunk abdominal fat tissue) can be estimated.

  In particular, it is an object of the present invention to make it possible to easily and easily measure information on the subcutaneous fat tissue layer accumulated in the subcutaneous layer among the fat tissues accumulated in the trunk. That is, in order to calculate the subcutaneous fat tissue amount of the trunk, particularly the cross sectional area amount (CSA), measurement information of the circumference of the abdomen and the thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue is required. The abdominal circumference length, abdominal width, thickness, etc. can be ensured by actual measurement, but the subcutaneous fat tissue thickness varies depending on the location on the abdominal circumference, and there are many individual differences. Therefore, it is important to specify and measure a site that is highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue. When the volume is estimated as the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue of the abdomen, it can be calculated by multiplying the CSA by the length information of the trunk abdomen. The trunk abdomen length is highly correlated with the height, and can be estimated from the body specifying information.

  In other words, in particular, the present invention uses the abdominal circumference information and the highly-contributed subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness information in estimating the subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (CSA) at the trunk abdominal umbilical circumference. This enables high-precision estimation. In this case, the abdominal circumference information can be useful estimation variable information not only in the abdominal circumference but also in the abdominal width or thickness information in the umbilical girth. Reliable abdominal circumference information can be secured by multiple regression based on physical identification information (height H, weight W, sex difference SEX, age Age, etc.).

For this reason, the present invention makes full use of the following technique.
(1) Assume that the tissue information included in the bioelectrical impedance information of the trunk abdomen is a series-parallel equivalent circuit model of the skeletal muscle tissue layer, the internal organ tissue, and the visceral fat tissue. Consider internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue in series. (Therefore, a change in energization amount can be expected depending on the size of the visceral adipose tissue).

(2) When the abdominal circumference can be secured as the body specifying information, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is included in the equivalent circuit model as a high accuracy model, and the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, the skeletal muscle tissue layer, the internal organ tissue, Assume a series-parallel equivalent circuit model with visceral adipose tissue.

(3) Subcutaneous fat tissue mass estimation is made up of multiple regression equations with the abdominal circumference in the body specifying information as the main explanatory variable. Furthermore, the square of the abdominal circumference is set as the main explanatory variable. When the trunk impedance having dominant information on the subcutaneous fat tissue thickness is obtained by the specific method of the present invention, the product of the trunk impedance and the abdominal circumference (first power) is used as a main explanatory variable.

(4) The skeletal muscle tissue layer information of the trunk abdomen (middle part) using the bioelectrical impedance information and body specific information for each segment obtained by the extremity guidance method of the upper limb (arm) part and the lower limb (leg) part It is revealed and used to determine uncertain information for visceral adipose tissue information estimation.

(5) The determination of internal organ tissue information is made up of multiple regression equations with body height information as the main explanatory variable in the body specific information, and is used to determine uncertain information for visceral fat tissue information estimation. .

(6) Tissue cross-sectional area (CSA: Cross-Section Area) from X-ray CT tomographic images at the umbilical position is the standard measurement of the tissue used for multiple regression analysis (calibration curve creation method) to quantify each tissue And volumetric tissue volume and weight using the DEXA method and MRI method (integration processing for each slice in the length direction) in the whole trunk abdomen and CSA by MRI method Can be calculated from tissue density information). In the DEXA method, the total adipose tissue information of the total of the abdominal visceral fat tissue and the subcutaneous fat tissue can be measured as a reference.

(7) In order to be able to capture visceral adipose tissue information with high accuracy using the method as described above, it is necessary to take measures to replace fluctuations in the measured impedance information of the trunk due to respiration and the like with a certain condition value. The impedance measurement sampling period is within 1/2 of the general respiratory cycle, the respiratory change is monitored in time series, the maximum value and the minimum value for each respiratory cycle are determined for each respiratory cycle, Be able to supplement the median rest breathing.

(8) Further, it is possible to check in advance of adverse effects caused by eating and drinking before the measurement and retention of bladder and urine from the measured impedance information. In general, the information on the skeletal muscle tissue layer is dominantly reflected in the impedance value of the trunk abdomen in a healthy general subject group. In addition, the information on the skeletal muscle tissue layer of the trunk is very small as a measured value, and no great difference is recognized between individuals. The reason is that the design is highly correlated with anti-gravity muscles that support and develop their own weight under the gravity of the earth, so subjects who are specially bedridden and not affected by gravity, or athletes who are subject to several times the stress of their own weight This is because it is almost determined by the body size except for special groups. Therefore, the estimation of the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the trunk abdomen can be expected to achieve better measurement sensitivity from the limb skeletal muscle tissue. Here, the influence on the impedance of the trunk abdomen other than the skeletal muscle tissue layer and the respiratory fluctuation is an adverse effect due to food and drink and bladder and urine storage. Therefore, when the impedance value of the middle trunk is collected as collective data, and the average value [mean] and deviation [SD] are viewed, the effects of food and drink and urinary bladder retention may be in the range exceeding 2SD. all right. However, considering even a semi-general group such as athletes to a certain extent, 3SD can be used as a criterion to screen for this effect.

  Next, the measurement principle of the present invention based on the above-described method will be described in detail step by step.

1. Concept of trunk division (1) When the trunk is divided into upper / middle / lower, the relationship of skeletal muscle tissue development is as follows.
(A) The upper trunk has a high correlation with the upper limb, and in particular, a high correlation with the skeletal muscle tissue of the proximal upper arm.
(B) The lower trunk has a high correlation with the lower limbs, and in particular, a high correlation with the skeletal muscle tissue of the proximal thigh.
(C) The center of the trunk has a high correlation with the amount of thigh skeletal muscle tissue in the lower limbs (because the psoas major and intestinal lumbar muscles that control the lower limb thigh are large as the occupied skeletal muscle tissue amount).

(2) The skeletal muscle tissue of the middle trunk (abdomen) is composed of the abdominal muscle group and the back muscle group. These are the joints of the upper limb and lower limbs (such as left and right rotational movements and back and forth bending movements). Have the functional development of

2. Estimating the middle skeletal muscle tissue from the extremities (3), the skeletal muscle tissue development (quantity) in the middle trunk is closely related to the development of the skeletal muscle tissue in the upper and lower limbs. That is, the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the middle of the trunk can be estimated from the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the upper and lower limbs. Skeletal muscle tissue in the middle of the trunk by creating a multiple regression equation with the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the middle trunk as the dependent variable and the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the upper limb and skeletal muscle tissue in the lower limb as independent explanatory variables. The amount can be estimated.
Trunk skeletal muscle tissue mass [MMtm] = a0 * Lower limb skeletal muscle tissue mass [MMl] + b0 * Upper limb skeletal muscle tissue mass [MMu] + c0
Here, a0, b0 and c0 are regression coefficients and are constants.

(4) It is clear from previous studies that the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the extremities can be estimated from the impedance measurement value in the measurement section and the length information of the section.
Lower extremity skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMl] = a1 * Ll 2 / Zl + b1 ··· type 2
Upper extremity skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMu] = a2 * Lu 2 / Zu + b2 ··· Formula 3
Here, a1, a2, b1, and b2 are regression coefficients and constants. Ll is the length of the lower limb, Lu is the length of the upper limb, Zl is the impedance value of the lower limb, and Zu is the impedance value of the upper limb.

(5) Limb length may be estimated from body (individual) specific information such as height, weight, gender, age, etc. for general subjects (especially height information by gender is highly useful) ).

(6) Similarly, by adding body-specific information such as gender, age, weight, etc. as explanatory variables to the estimation formulas for the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the upper and lower limbs and the middle skeletal muscle tissue, It is also possible to slightly correct the qualitative changes in the nervous system and tissues with aging.

(7) The skeletal muscle mass determined by the MRI method and the DEXA method is used for the measurement on the reference side when creating the multiple regression estimation formula.

(8) In addition, as a simpler method that can be expected to improve accuracy, when trunk and limb length information is estimated from body-specific information such as height other than that obtained by measuring trunk and limb length information In this method, the impedance information of the extremities is directly incorporated into the estimation formula of the mid-trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount.
Middle trunk skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMtm] = a3 * H 2 / Zl + b3 * H 2 / Zu + c3 ··· formula 4
Here, a3, b3, and c3 are regression coefficients and constants. H is the height, Zl is the impedance value of the lower limb, and Zu is the impedance value of the upper limb.

(9) As a method that can be expected to improve the accuracy, when the trunk length information is further obtained by measurement, the following estimation equation can be modified.
For equations 1-3
Middle trunk skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMtm] = a0 '* lower limb skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMl] * Ltm 2 / Ltm ' 2 + b0 '* upper extremity skeletal muscle tissue volume [MMu] * Ltm 2 / Ltm ' 2 + c0 '... Formula 5
Here, a0 ′, b0 ′, and c0 ′ are regression coefficients and constants. Ltm is the trunk length (or trunk length). Ltm ′ is an estimated value of the trunk length (or trunk middle length) from the limb length or height.
Ltm '= aa * Ll + bb * Lu + cc ... Formula 5-1
Or
Ltm '= aa1 * H + bb1 ・ ・ ・ Equation 5-2
Here, aa, aa1, bb, bb1, and cc are regression coefficients and constants.

(10) In the case of expecting further improvement in accuracy, there is a demerit that increases the restraint on measurement (it is less convenient), but there is a method using information on the proximal part of the limb. By applying or attaching a voltage measurement electrode to the knee elbow, measurement can be performed by the same limb guidance method as that for limb measurement. In other words, the information on the proximal part excluding the distal part is more useful as the information related to the skeletal muscle tissue layer in the middle trunk than the information on the lower limbs and upper limbs from the distal end. is there. That is, the upper arm (proximal upper limb) part has a high correlation with the upper trunk and the thigh (proximal lower limb) part has a high correlation with the lower trunk, and the upper trunk, middle part, and lower part also have a useful relationship. Therefore, the method used to estimate the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the middle of the trunk by measuring the amount of thigh skeletal muscle tissue and the amount of upper arm skeletal muscle with respect to the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the upper and lower limbs is the same procedure as above. An estimation formula can be created.

(11) As an example of the way of thinking about the skeletal muscle tissue layer of the trunk,
(A) Since the upper and lower trunks have a high correlation between the upper limbs and the lower limbs, the upper part is regarded as the upper limbs and the lower part is regarded as the lower limbs.
(B) There is an idea that the upper and lower trunks are combined with the middle trunk and regarded as the trunk.
In any of the methods, since the correlation between the individual is high by placing the subject in a range where a normal healthy person or a self-sustainable life close to that is normal, there is no big difference in either way of thinking.

3. Electrical Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Trunk Structure Tissue (12) Trunk impedance determined by the limb guidance method is information on the middle trunk. This impedance will be described in detail in the description of the embodiment described later.

(13) The trunk can be considered to mainly consist of a subcutaneous fat tissue layer, a skeletal muscle tissue layer (abdominal muscle group, back muscle group), an internal organ tissue, and a visceral adipose tissue adhering to the gap. The reason why the bone tissue is not listed as a constituent tissue is that the bone tissue has a very high quantitative correlation with the skeletal muscle tissue layer and can be considered as an integral tissue body. In terms of volume resistivity, bone marrow tissue is considered to have characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle tissue layers and internal organ tissues in vivo. Therefore, when these four tissues are represented by an electrical equivalent circuit model, the internal organ tissue and the visceral adipose tissue are configured in series, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer and the skeletal muscle tissue layer are respectively formed with respect to the serial composite tissue layer. Configured in parallel. The equivalent circuit model will be described in detail in the description of the embodiment described later. According to this model, current flows predominantly through the skeletal muscle tissue layer when energized in the longitudinal direction of the trunk. Since visceral adipose tissue adheres to gaps around the internal organ tissue, when there is no visceral adipose tissue, or when there is little visceral adipose tissue, the internal organ tissue exhibits conductivity close to that of skeletal muscle tissue. Current will be applied. Further, as the visceral adipose tissue increases, the energization amount to the composite tissue as a composite of the internal organ tissue and the visceral adipose tissue decreases. The model impedance when the measured impedance of the middle trunk and the four tissues constituting it are expressed by an equivalent circuit model can be expressed as follows.
Ztm = ZFS // ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) (6)
here,
Impedance of the whole trunk: Ztm
Impedance of subcutaneous adipose tissue layer: ZFS: Volume resistivity is large.
Impedance of skeletal muscle tissue layer: ZMM: Volume resistivity is small.
Impedance of internal organ tissue: ZVM ... It is considered as volume resistivity close to the skeletal muscle tissue layer.
Visceral adipose tissue impedance: ZFV: Volume resistivity is considered to be equivalent to or slightly smaller than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Since the synthetic decomposition of adipose tissue is faster than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue, it is considered that the blood vessels and blood volume in the tissue are large.
The electrical characteristics between tissues are determined by volume resistivity ρ [Ωm] rather than impedance. From the above relationship, the electrical characteristic values of each tissue are generally explained by the following relationship.
ρMM << ρ (VM + FV) << ρFS
ρVM << ρFV
ρMM = ρMV or ρMM <ρMV
ρFV = ρFS or ρFV <FS
here,
Volume resistivity of subcutaneous adipose tissue layer: ρFS
Volume resistivity of composite tissue layer of internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue inside skeletal muscle tissue layer: ρ (VM + FV)
Volume resistivity of skeletal muscle tissue layer: ρMM
Therefore, the comparison of electrical characteristics between tissues is
ZFS >> (ZVM + ZFV) >> ZMM ・ ・ ・ Expression 7
it is conceivable that.
From the relational expressions of Equations 6 and 7, there can be considered a method that enables visceral fat tissue information to be estimated by the following two approaches.

(14) Approach 1
Since the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer has a higher volume resistivity compared with other constituent tissues, it is omitted from the viewpoint of an equivalent circuit in the middle of the trunk. That is, it can be considered that the information of lean tissue including visceral fat tissue excluding the subcutaneous fat tissue layer in the middle trunk is measured in the impedance value measured in the middle trunk. Therefore, this relational expression can be expressed as follows.
Ztm ≒ ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) ・ ・ ・ Formula 8
If Equation 8 is transformed,
1 / Ztm ≒ 1 / ZMM + 1 / (ZVM + ZFV) ・ ・ ・ Equation 9
By revealing the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer and the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue in this equation by means described below, the impedance ZFV of the visceral fat tissue can be calculated. The visceral fat tissue amount can be estimated from the impedance information of the visceral fat tissue. When ZFV is derived from Expression 9, the following Expression 10 is obtained, and impedance information having information on visceral adipose tissue can be obtained.
ZFV = 1 / [1 / Ztm-1 / ZMM]-ZVM ... Equation 10

(15) Approach 2
In approach 1 above, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer was omitted, but it can be an error factor for a subject having a large amount of subcutaneous fat tissue layer, and thus the method proceeds with Equation 6.
In this formula, the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer and the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue are the same as those described above, and the impedance information for the impedance ZFS of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is the same as that of other tissues. There is a useful relationship with the amount of tissue. Here, it is generally reported that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue has a very high correlation with the perimeter of the tissue surface, that is, the abdominal circumference (particularly for subjects with many subcutaneous adipose tissue layers). Therefore, the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer can be estimated from the abdominal circumference information. Therefore, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer can be estimated from information on the abdominal circumference. Hereinafter, the impedance ZFV of the visceral adipose tissue can be calculated by a method similar to the above approach. The visceral fat tissue amount can be estimated from the impedance information of the visceral fat tissue.
By transforming Equation 6,
1 / Ztm = 1 / ZFS + 1 / ZMM + 1 / (ZVM + ZFV) Equation 11
ZFV = 1 / [1 / Ztm−1 / ZMM−1 / ZFS] −ZVM ・ ・ ・ Equation 12

4). Estimating impedance [ZVM] from internal organ tissue volume [VM] (16) Estimating internal organ tissue volume [VM] in the middle trunk from body (individual) specific information such as height, weight, sex, and age I can do it. Among the explanatory variables, the influence of the height term is large.
For men: Internal organ tissue mass [VM] = a4 * Height [H] + b4 * Weight [W] + c4 * Age [Age] + d4
... Formula 13-1
For women: Internal organ tissue mass [VM] = a5 * Height [H] + b5 * Weight [W] + c5 * Age [Age] + d5
... Formula 13-2
Here, a4, a5, b4, b5, c4, c5, d4, and d5 are regression coefficients and constants.
The reference amount of visceral adipose tissue volume VM used in this calibration curve (regression equation) is obtained by integrating the CSA (tissue cross-sectional area) for each slice obtained by MRI method or X-ray CТ method in the length direction. The calculated tissue volume or CSA from one slice such as the umbilical position. The tissue volume can be converted into a tissue amount by converting the tissue density information known in prior research papers into weight.

(17) Next, the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue is estimated.
For each tissue, a cylindrical model is applied in order to be able to express the relationship between the impedance and the tissue amount by an expression. The application formula can be expressed as follows.
VM ∝ LVM 2 / ZVM ・ ・ ・ Formula 14-1
When deformed,
ZVM ∝ LVM 2 / VM ・ ・ ・ Formula 14-2
Here, LVM is a virtual cylinder length when modeling a cylinder, but because there is a high correlation with trunk length [Lt], trunk mid-length [Ltm] and height [H],
LVM ∝ Lt ∝ Ltm ∝ H ・ ・ ・ Equation 15
Therefore, instead of LVM, if you substitute height H (if you can obtain actual trunk information, use Lt or Ltm in the formula),
ZVM = a6 * H 2 / VM + b6 ··· formula 16
Thus, the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue can be estimated.
Here, a6 and b6 are regression coefficients and are constants.
Although this equation 16 is a single regression equation, an improvement in estimation accuracy can be expected by using a multiple regression equation in which body specific information is incorporated as an explanatory variable.
Men: ZVM = a7 * H 2 / VM + b7 * H + c7 * W + d7 * Age + e7 ··· formula 17-1
For women: ZVM = a8 * H 2 / VM + b8 * H + c8 * W + d8 * Age + e8 ... Formula 17-2
Here, a7, a8, b7, b8, c7, c8, d7, d8, e7, e8 are regression coefficients and are constants.

5. Estimating impedance [ZMM] from skeletal muscle tissue mass [MM] (18) The skeletal muscle tissue mass [MM] of the middle trunk is calculated from the limb skeletal muscle tissue mass (limb part) The trunk core skeletal muscle tissue quantity [MMtm] from the impedance information) is used.
MM = MMtm ・ ・ ・ Formula 18

(19) Next, the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer is estimated.
For each tissue, a cylindrical model is applied in order to be able to express the relationship between the impedance and the tissue amount by an expression. The application formula can be expressed as follows.
MM ∝ Ltm 2 / ZMM ・ ・ ・ Formula 19-1
When deformed,
ZMM ∝ Ltm 2 / MM ・ ・ ・ Formula 19-2
Here, Ltm is the mid-trunk length when modeling a cylinder, but because there is a high correlation with the trunk length [Lt] and height [H],
Ltm ∝ Lt ∝ H ・ ・ ・ Formula 20
Therefore, instead of Ltm, if you substitute height H (when the trunk's actual measurement information Ltm, Lt can not be obtained),
ZMM = a9 * H 2 / MM + b9 ··· formula 21
Thus, the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer can be estimated.
Here, a9 and b9 are regression coefficients and are constants.
Although this equation 21 is a single regression equation, an improvement in estimation accuracy can be expected by making it a multiple regression equation by the same procedure as described above incorporating body specifying information as an explanatory variable.

6). Estimation of impedance [ZFS] from subcutaneous fat tissue volume [FS] (20) The subcutaneous fat tissue volume [FS] in the middle of the trunk can be estimated from the abdominal circumference [Lw] 2 . Furthermore, accuracy improvement can be expected by adding other body specific information as an explanatory variable to obtain a multiple regression equation.
For men: Subcutaneous adipose tissue volume [FS] = a10 * abdominal circumference [Lw] 2 + b10 * height [H] + c10 * body weight [W] + d10
* Age [Age] + e10 ... Formula 22-1
For women: Subcutaneous fat tissue mass [FS] = a11 * abdominal circumference [Lw] 2 + b11 * height [H] + c11 * body weight [W] + d11
* Age [Age] + e11 ... Formula 22-2
Here, a10, a11, b10, b11, c10, c11, d10, d11, e10, e11 are regression coefficients and constants.
The standard amount of subcutaneous fat tissue volume FS used in this calibration curve (regression equation) is measured by integrating the CSA (tissue cross-sectional area) for each slice obtained by the MRI method or X-ray CТ method in the length direction. The calculated tissue volume or CSA from one slice such as the umbilical position. The tissue volume can be converted into a tissue amount by converting the tissue density information known in prior research papers into weight.

(21) Next, the impedance ZFS of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is estimated.
For each tissue, a cylindrical model is applied in order to be able to express the relationship between the impedance and the tissue amount by an expression. The application formula can be expressed as follows.
FS ∝ Ltm 2 / ZFS ・ ・ ・ Formula 23-1
When deformed,
ZFS α Ltm 2 / FS ··· formula 23-2
Here, Ltm is the mid-trunk length when modeling a cylinder, but because there is a high correlation with the trunk length [Lt] and height [H],
Ltm ∝ Lt ∝ H ・ ・ ・ Formula 20
Therefore, instead of Ltm, if you substitute height H (when the trunk's actual measurement information Ltm, Lt can not be obtained),
ZFS = a12 * H 2 / FS + b12 Equation 24
Thus, the impedance ZFS of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer can be estimated.
Here, a12 and b12 are regression coefficients and constants.
Although this equation 24 is a single regression equation, an improvement in estimation accuracy can be expected by making it a multiple regression equation by the same procedure as described above, which incorporates body specifying information as an explanatory variable.

7). Estimating the amount of visceral adipose tissue [FV] (22) The impedance [ZFV] of the visceral adipose tissue is obtained by using Equation 10 or Equation 12, the measured impedance [Ztm] of the middle trunk, and the internal organ tissue obtained by Equations 16 and 17. And the impedance [ZMM] of the skeletal muscle tissue layer obtained by the equation 21 or the impedance [ZFS] of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer obtained by the equation 24.

(23) The visceral fat tissue volume [FV] is estimated from the impedance [ZFV] information of the visceral fat tissue.
For each tissue, a cylindrical model is applied in order to be able to express the relationship between the impedance and the tissue amount by an expression. The application formula can be expressed as follows.
FV ∝ LFV 2 / ZFV ... Formula 25
Here, LFV is a virtual cylinder length when modeling a cylinder, but because there is a high correlation with trunk length [Lt], trunk midlength [Ltm] and height [H],
LFV ∝ Lt ∝ Ltm ∝ H ・ ・ ・ Equation 26
Therefore, instead of LFV, if you substitute height H (if actual trunk information can be obtained, use Lt or Ltm in the formula)
FV = a13 * H 2 / ZFV + b13 ··· formula 27
Thus, the visceral fat tissue amount FV can be estimated.
Here, a13 and b13 are regression coefficients and are constants.
Although this equation 27 is a single regression equation, it can be expected that the estimation accuracy can be improved by using a multiple regression equation in which body-specific information is incorporated as an explanatory variable.
For men: FV = a14 * H 2 / ZFV + b14 * H + c14 * W + d14 * Age + e14 ··· formula 28-1
Women: FV = a15 * H 2 / ZFV + b15 * H + c15 * W + d15 * Age + e15 ··· formula 28-2
Here, a14, a15, b14, b15, c14, c15, d14, d15, e14, e15 are regression coefficients and are constants.

8). Estimation of trunk abdominal fat tissue mass [FM] (24) Abdominal fat tissue mass [FM] is calculated from subcutaneous fat tissue mass [FS] from Equation 22 and visceral adipose tissue mass [FV] from Equation 27 or Equation 28. You can ask.
FM = FS + FV ... Formula 29

(25) As another method for estimating the abdominal adipose tissue volume [FM], the abdominal adipose tissue volume is measured using the DEXA method as reference measurement information, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue volume [FS] from Expression 22 and Expression 27 or By using the main parameter of the visceral fat tissue volume [FV] from Equation 28 as an explanatory variable, the abdominal fat tissue volume [FM] can be estimated. That is, a multiple regression equation is created from the abdominal circumference [Lw] 2 , H 2 / ZFV, and body specifying information.

9. Estimating the trunk abdominal visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio [V / S] (26) The visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio [V / S] is calculated from the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue [FS] from Equation 22 and Equation 27 or Equation 28. It can be determined from the amount of visceral adipose tissue [FV].
V / S = FV / FS ... Equation 30

10. Concept of internal organ tissue abnormality judgment by trunk abdominal (middle) impedance (27) The impedance Ztm of trunk abdomen (middle) necessary for visceral adipose tissue amount estimation above is also a part that varies greatly due to breathing and eating and drinking Therefore, it is necessary to measure information with high stability and reliability. Therefore, highly reliable impedance information of the trunk abdomen can be secured by applying the following processing. Further, it is possible to determine a tissue abnormality of the trunk abdomen from the viewpoint as information relating to the disturbance of the body fluid distribution in the partial trunk.

(28) Removal of influence of fluctuation due to respiration (a) Impedance of trunk abdomen is measured at a sampling period shorter than 1/2 of a general respiration period time.
(B) A smoothing process such as moving average is performed on the measurement data for each sampling.
(C) From the time series data after processing, the periodicity of respiration and the maximum and minimum values for each cycle are detected.
(D) A maximum value and a minimum value for each period are averaged separately.
(E) The average value of the maximum value and the minimum value is averaged, and the median value of respiration is calculated.
(F) When the median value of respiration for each respiratory cycle enters a stable range within the specified number of times, it is determined that the median respiratory value is confirmed, and the determined impedance value is used as the trunk abdominal impedance value. Register and complete the measurement.

(29) Abnormal value determination processing due to eating and drinking and water retention (such as urine) in the bladder (a) The trunk abdominal impedance is 26.7 ± 4.8Ω (mean ± SD) as a general value of the group.
(B) On the other hand, the value at the time of constipation and urinary bladder retention and fullness of food and drink in the stomach exceeds the range of mean ± 3SD.
(C) Therefore, when a measured value exceeding 3SD is obtained, the subject is informed of the possibility of effects such as eating and drinking and bladder and urine, and is encouraged to hope for the measurement in the best environment. However, in a subject whose skeletal muscle tissue development and internal organ tissue are different from the standard size without actually having these effects, the measurement should be continued.
(D) Further, as a method of increasing the determination sensitivity, the specified values are subdivided according to sex, weight, and height. Alternatively, the specified value is defined as a value per unit divided by weight or divided by height.

<Subcutaneous adipose tissue measurement or selective measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue>
In selectively measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue or subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, the following 11 to 16 are particularly considered.

11. Electrical equivalent circuit modeling of trunk tissue (Supplement 1)
(30) The electrical characteristics between tissues are determined by volume resistivity ρ [Ωm] rather than impedance. From the relationship shown in “3. Electrical equivalent circuit modeling of the trunk tissue,” the electrical characteristic values of each tissue are generally explained by the following relationship.
ρMM << ρ (VM + FV) << ρFS
ρVM << ρFV
ρMM = ρMV or ρMM <ρMV
ρFV = ρFS or ρFV <FS
here,
Volume resistivity of subcutaneous adipose tissue layer: ρFS
Volume resistivity of composite tissue layer of internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue inside skeletal muscle tissue layer: ρ (VM + FV)
Volume resistivity of skeletal muscle tissue layer: ρMM
Therefore, due to the relationship with Equation 6, the electrical property comparison relationship between the tissues is
ZFS >> (ZVM + ZFV) >> ZMM ... Formula 31 (same as Formula 7)
It becomes.

12 Estimation of trunk skeletal muscle tissue cross-sectional area (AMM) and trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance (ZMM) (31) Visceral adipose tissue volume can be expressed in terms of cross-sectional area and volume. In the case of the cross-sectional area amount, the cross-sectional area amount by CT method (X-ray-CT, MRI) is considered as a general measurement standard in the measurement at the umbilical circumference. On the other hand, in the case of the volume amount, it can be obtained by integrating the cross-sectional area amount by the slice by the CT method with a plurality of slice information in the length direction. The amount of skeletal muscle tissue (skeletal muscle mass) is considered to have a high correlation with both the cross sectional area and volume. Here, the cross-sectional area is considered. The amount of cross-sectional area (AMM) of the skeletal muscle tissue layer can be roughly estimated by body specific information. This is because the developmental design of the body's skeletal muscle is almost determined by the development and adaptation to support its own weight under the earth's gravity. Therefore, except for non-gravity adaptors such as athletes, paralysis nurses, and caregivers, it is possible to estimate with body specifying information. This estimation is performed by substituting height H, weight W, and age Age into the following equations.
AMM = a * H + b * W + c * Age + d Equation 32
Here, a, b, c, and d are constants.
(32) Trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance (ZMM) can also be estimated from body specific information. For convenience, the cross sectional area (AMM) obtained above is used here. This estimation can be performed using the following equation.
ZMM = a0 * H / AMM + b0 Equation 33
Here, a0 and b0 are constants.

13. From the relational expressions of the visceral adipose tissue impedance (ZFV) and visceral adipose tissue mass (AFV) estimation equations 6 and 31, there can be considered a method that enables visceral adipose tissue information to be estimated by the following two approaches.
(33) Approach 1
Since the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer has a higher volume resistivity than other constituent tissues, it is omitted from the viewpoint of the equivalent circuit of the trunk. That is, it can be considered that the information of lean tissue including visceral fat tissue excluding the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk is measured in the impedance value measured in the trunk. Therefore, this relational expression can be expressed as follows.
Ztm ≒ ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) Equation 34
Transforming equation 34,
1 / Ztm ≒ 1 / ZMM + 1 / (ZVM + ZFV) Equation 35
By revealing the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer and the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue in this equation by means described below, the impedance ZFV of the visceral fat tissue can be calculated. The visceral fat tissue amount can be estimated from the impedance information of the visceral fat tissue. When ZFV is derived from Expression 35, the following Expression 36 is obtained, and impedance information having information on visceral adipose tissue can be obtained.
ZFV = 1 / [1 / Ztm−1 / ZMM] −ZVM Expression 36

(34) Approach 2
In approach 1, the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer is omitted, but it can be an error factor for a subject having a large amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue.
In this formula, the impedance ZMM of the skeletal muscle tissue layer and the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue are the same as those described above, and the impedance information for the impedance ZFS of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is the same as that of other tissues. There is a useful relationship with the amount of tissue. Here, it is generally reported that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue has a very high correlation with the perimeter of the tissue surface, that is, the abdominal circumference (particularly for subjects with many subcutaneous adipose tissue layers). Therefore, the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer can be estimated from the abdominal circumference information. Therefore, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer can be estimated from information on the abdominal circumference. Hereinafter, the impedance ZFV of the visceral adipose tissue can be calculated by a method similar to the above approach. The visceral fat tissue amount can be estimated from the impedance information of the visceral fat tissue.
By transforming Equation 6,
1 / Ztm = 1 / ZFS + 1 / ZMM + 1 / (ZVM + ZFV) Equation 37
ZFV = 1 / [1 / Ztm−1 / ZMM−1 / ZFS] −ZVM ・ ・ ・ Equation 38

(35) Visceral adipose tissue volume (AFV) is treated here as the visceral adipose tissue cross-sectional area. The visceral adipose tissue volume (AFV) can be calculated from the impedance information and the height information in Equation 39,
AFV = aa * H / ZFV + bb ... Equation 39
Here, aa and bb are constants.

14 Estimating internal organ tissue volume [AVM] and internal organ tissue impedance [ZVM] (36) Estimating internal organ tissue volume [VM] of the trunk from body (individual) specific information such as height, weight, sex, and age I can do it. Among the explanatory variables, the influence of the height term is large.
Internal organ tissue volume [AVM] = a1 * Height [H] + b1 * Weight [W] + c1 * Age [Age] + d1 ... Formula 40
Here, a1, b1, c1, and d1 are constants that give different values for men and women.
The reference amount of visceral adipose tissue volume VM used in this calibration curve (regression equation) is obtained by integrating the CSA (tissue cross-sectional area) for each slice obtained by MRI method or X-ray CТ method in the length direction. The calculated tissue volume or CSA from one slice such as the umbilical position. The tissue volume can be converted into a tissue amount by converting the tissue density information known in prior research papers into weight.

(37) Next, the impedance ZVM of the internal organ tissue is estimated.
The internal organ tissue impedance [ZVM] can be estimated from body (individual) specifying information such as height, weight, sex, and age. Among the explanatory variables, the influence of the height term is large. For convenience, the internal organ tissue volume [AVM] obtained above is used here. This estimation can be performed using the following equation.
ZVM = a2 * H / AVM + b2 Equation 41
Here, a2 and b2 are constants.

15. Estimation of subcutaneous adipose tissue volume [AFS] (38) A method for measuring the subcutaneous adipose tissue volume [AFS] of the trunk will be described later. The standard amount of subcutaneous fat tissue volume FS used in this calibration curve (regression equation) is measured by integrating the CSA (tissue cross-sectional area) for each slice obtained by the MRI method or X-ray CТ method in the length direction. The calculated tissue volume or CSA from one slice such as the umbilical position. The tissue volume can be converted into a tissue amount by converting the tissue density information known in prior research papers into weight.

16. Trunk visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio [V / S] estimate (39) visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio [V / S] is of formula 22-1, the subcutaneous fat tissue volume of formulas 22-2 [AFS] Ya It can be determined from the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue [AFS] from Equation 45 described later and the amount of visceral fat tissue [AFV] from Equation 39.
V / S = AFV / AFS ... Formula 42

17. Estimation of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue [AFS] (40) Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue AFS was calculated as described in “6. Estimation of Impedance [ZFS] from Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue [FS]” in the previous section. [Lw] can also be estimated from 2 but, as shown below, can also be estimated from the impedance information ZFS and abdominal circumference length Lw of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer.
Subcutaneous fat tissue volume [AFS] = aa0 * ZFS * Lw + bb0 Equation 43
Here, aa0 and bb0 are constants.
Note that how to derive the above equation 43 will be described in detail later.

  Next, the trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measurement method and apparatus of the present invention for measuring trunk visceral fat tissue and / or trunk subcutaneous fat tissue based on the measurement principle of the present invention as described above. Examples will be described.

  FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view showing an external appearance of an embodiment of a trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measuring apparatus according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a trunk visceral fat tissue and subcutaneous fat tissue layer using the apparatus of FIG. It is the schematic for demonstrating the usage aspect in the case of measuring. FIG. 3 is a schematic view showing an abdominal pressing electrode unit as another embodiment that can be substituted for the abdominal pressing electrode unit in the apparatus of the example of FIG. 1, and FIG. 4 is an abdominal pressing electrode unit of FIG. It is the schematic for demonstrating the usage aspect of. FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the apparatus of FIG. 1 (including the case where the abdomen pressing electrode part of FIG. 3 is used).

  As shown in FIGS. 1 to 5, the trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measuring device 1 of the present embodiment mainly includes a main body 2, a body weight measuring unit 3, and an abdominal pressing electrode unit 4 or 4 </ b> A. Composed. The body weight measuring unit 3 is connected to the main body 2 via an electric cable 5, and the abdomen pressing electrode portion 4 or 4 </ b> A is connected to the main body 2 via an electric cable 6. As well shown in FIG. 5, the main body 2 mainly includes a power supply unit 21, a calculation / control unit 22, a part impedance measurement unit 23, a storage unit 24, a display / input unit 25, and a buzzer. A notification unit 26 and a printing unit 27 are provided.

  The site impedance measurement unit 23 mainly includes a current supply unit 231, a current ignition electrode switching unit 232, a voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233, and a voltage measurement unit 234. As well shown in FIG. 1, the display / input unit 25 provides an input unit 25 a including various operation keys and a display unit 25 b including a liquid crystal display panel on the front side of the main body unit 2. A buzzer notification unit 26 is also provided on the front side of the main body 2. The power supply unit 1 supplies power to each part of the electrical system of this apparatus.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the body weight measurement unit 2 includes a platform 31 including a weight detection unit, an amplification unit, and an AD conversion unit, such as a publicly known scale, and is based on body identification information (body weight). Measure the voltage to be used. Furthermore, a left foot current application electrode 10a and a right foot current application electrode 10b, a left foot voltage measurement electrode 11a, and a right foot voltage measurement electrode 11b are provided on the upper surface of the mounting base 31.

  As shown well in FIG. 1, the abdomen pressing electrode unit 4 includes an abdomen pressing plate 41, and a left hand grip 42 and a right hand grip 43 provided on the left and right sides of the front side of the abdomen pressing plate 41. Prepare. On the rear surface side of the abdomen pressing plate 41, there are three current application electrodes 10e, 10f, and 10g, and three voltage measurement electrodes 11e, 11f, and 11g arranged at positions close to the current application electrodes. Is provided. The left hand grip 42 is provided with a left hand current applying electrode 10c and a left hand voltage measuring electrode 11c, and the right hand grip 43 is provided with a right hand current applying electrode 10d and a right hand voltage measuring electrode. 11d. The electrodes provided on the left hand grip 42 and the right hand grip 43 may be a single electrode that is also used as a current application electrode and a voltage measurement electrode.

  As is well shown in FIG. 3, the abdominal pressing electrode portion 4A includes an abdominal pressing central plate 41A, an abdominal pressing left plate 41B, and an abdominal pressing right plate 41C. 41B and the abdomen pressing right plate 41C are hinge-connected to the side edge of the abdomen pressing central plate 41 via an appropriate joint material having flexibility. Thus, the abdomen pressing center plate 41A, the abdomen pressing left plate 41B, and the abdomen pressing right plate 41C are brought into close contact with the abdomen, and the electrodes disposed there can be brought into close contact with the abdominal surface. A left hand grip 42A is provided near the left side edge of the front side of the abdominal pressing left plate 41B, and a right hand grip 43A is provided near the right side edge of the front side of the abdominal pressing right plate 41C. Yes.

  On the rear surface side of the abdomen pressing left plate 41B, for example, two current application electrodes 10h and 10i and two voltage measurement electrodes 11h and 11i arranged at positions close to the current application electrodes are provided. It has been. Further, on the rear surface side of the abdomen pressing central left plate 41A, for example, two current application electrodes 10j and 10k and two voltage measurement electrodes 11j and 11k arranged at positions close to these current application electrodes are provided. And are provided. Furthermore, on the rear surface side of the abdomen pressing right plate 41C, for example, two current application electrodes 10l and 10m and two voltage measurement electrodes 11l and 11m arranged at positions close to these current application electrodes are provided. And are provided. The left hand grip 42A is provided with a left hand current applying electrode 10c and a left hand voltage measuring electrode 11c, and the right hand grip 43A is provided with a right hand current applying electrode 10d and a right hand voltage measuring electrode 11d. Is provided. The electrodes provided on the left hand grip 42A and the right hand grip 43A may be a single electrode that is used both as a current application electrode and a voltage measurement electrode.

  As well shown in FIG. 4, on the front side of the abdomen pressing center plate 41A, an input unit 25a including various operation keys and a display unit 25b are provided. In this case, instead of the main body 2 provided in the embodiment of FIG. 1, the abdomen pressing central plate 41A can be configured as the main body. Moreover, it can also be set as the structure which arrange | positions these input parts and a display part not on the front side but on the back side. Furthermore, the mounting table 31 may be omitted, and only the configuration shown in FIG.

As described above, the number and positional relationship and shape of the current application electrode and the voltage measurement electrode arranged on the rear surface side of each plate are not limited to the illustrated example, and in the measurement of subcutaneous fat tissue thickness to be described later, It is important to select an optimal number, positional relationship, and shape to easily obtain the following information.
(A) Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness measurement site is the site where the subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is the largest, either the umbilical side on the circumference of the umbilical cord, the lower scapula, the upper edge of the iliac crest (flank), or all Use information.
(B) The subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness measurement site is the site where the subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition is the thinnest, and the umbilical recess, spine, and aponeurosis on the circumference of the umbilicus (the connected tendon between the rectus abdominis and the external oblique muscle) ) Or all of the information. In particular, use information on the aponeurosis (joint tendon between the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles) that has a large individual difference.
(C) For the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness measurement site, information combining the site candidate portion with the largest subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition and the thinnest site is used.
(D) The subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution is a cross-sectional area around the umbilical cord, and is symmetrical with the umbilicus and spine connected in a straight line. Therefore, it suffices to measure either the left or right subcutaneous fat tissue distribution information.
(E) Since the relationship between the distributions of the subcutaneous fat tissue thickness between the umbilical side and the lower scapula is in good agreement, any information can be used instead.
(F) Therefore, reliable estimation can be performed at the three points of the lateral side of the umbilicus, the aponeurosis, and the anterior abdominal side section of the upper edge of the iliac crest (lateral abdomen).
(G) This subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness measurement uses the potential difference or impedance information directly under the current application electrode placed on the trunk abdomen.

  The calculation and control unit 22 is based on body identification information (weight), various body impedances (upper limb impedance, lower limb impedance, trunk impedance, etc.), the above-described equations 1 to 51, etc. Tissue volume, lower limb skeletal muscle tissue volume, upper limb skeletal muscle tissue volume, internal organ tissue volume, subcutaneous fat tissue volume, visceral fat tissue volume, trunk abdominal fat tissue volume, abdominal fat tissue volume, trunk abdominal visceral fat / It calculates the subcutaneous fat ratio, etc., performs processing for removing the effects of fluctuations due to respiration, internal organ tissue abnormality determination, etc., and performs various other inputs / outputs, measurements, calculations, and the like.

  The part impedance measurement unit 23 is a current supply unit 231, a current application electrode switching unit 232, a voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233, and a voltage measurement unit, such as a known bioimpedance measurement device (eg, body fat meter, body composition meter). 234, and under the control of the arithmetic and control unit 22, the current application electrodes 10a to 10m and the voltage measurement electrodes 11a to 11m as described above are connected via the current application electrode switching unit 232 and the voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233. The potential difference measurement unit 234 can measure a potential difference caused by bioelectrical impedance (various part impedances) between various body parts by appropriately switching and using.

  The storage unit 24 stores body specifying information such as height, limb length, trunk length manager, middle trunk length, and the like, Formula 1 to Formula 51, and the like. The storage unit 4 also stores an appropriate message or the like for advice on health guidelines as will be described later.

  The display and input unit 25 is a touch panel type liquid crystal display in which the input unit 25a and the display unit 25b are integrated, and inputs body specifying information including height, and displays various results, advice information, and the like. To do. The buzzer notification unit 26 issues an alarm or the like according to the measurement result or the like. The printing unit 27 prints various results, advice information, and the like displayed on the display unit 25b.

  In addition, the apparatus by this invention is not limited to the structural example shown in FIG. 1 or FIG. 3, It can take various structures and shapes. For example, in the embodiment of FIG. 1, the main body 2 and the weight measuring unit 3 are separated, but the main body 2 and the weight measuring unit 3 may be integrated.

  Next, the usage mode of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 will be described with particular reference to FIGS. 2 and 4. First, the usage mode of the embodiment of FIG. 1 will be described. As shown in FIG. 2, a user who wants to measure body adipose tissue uses the left hand grip 42 and the right hand grip 43 of the abdomen pressing electrode part 4. Each of the abdomen pressing electrodes 41 is gripped with the left hand and the right hand and placed on the platform 31 of the weight measuring unit 3 so that the rear side of the abdominal pressing plate 41 of the abdominal pressing electrode 4 is pressed against a predetermined position of the abdomen. The user operates the input unit 25a of the main unit 2 to input predetermined body specifying information or the like before getting on the platform 31, or various instructions displayed on the display unit 25b. It is possible to perform operations according to.

  In this state, the user's left hand and right hand can contact the left hand current application electrode 10c and the left hand voltage measurement electrode 11c, respectively, and the right hand current application electrode 10d and the right hand voltage measurement electrode 11d, respectively. Further, the soles of the left leg and the right leg of the user can contact the left foot current application electrode 10a and the left foot voltage measurement electrode 11a, respectively, and the right foot current application electrode 10b and the right foot voltage measurement electrode 11b, respectively. Further, the predetermined part of the user's abdomen is a predetermined current application electrode of the current application electrodes 10e to 10g provided on the abdomen pressing electrode part 4 and a predetermined voltage measurement electrode of the voltage measurement electrodes 11e to 11g. Can touch.

  Similarly, when the abdominal pressing electrode portion 4A of the embodiment of FIG. 3 is used, as shown in FIG. 4, the user who wants to measure body adipose tissue has a grip for the left hand of the abdominal pressing electrode portion 4A. 42A and the grip 43A for the right hand are gripped with the left hand and the right hand, respectively, and placed on the platform 31 of the weight measuring unit 3, and the abdominal pressing center plate 41A, the abdominal pressing left plate 41B and the abdominal pressing The rear surface side of the contact right plate 41C is pressed against a predetermined position of the abdomen. In this state, the user's left hand and right hand can contact the left-hand current application electrode 10c and the left-hand voltage measurement electrode 11c, and the right-hand current application electrode 10d and the right-hand voltage measurement electrode 11d, respectively. Further, the soles of the left and right legs of the user can contact the left foot current application electrode 10a and the left foot voltage measurement electrode 11a, respectively, and the right foot current application electrode 10b and the right foot voltage measurement electrode 11b, respectively. Further, the predetermined part of the user's abdomen is a predetermined current application electrode of the current application electrodes 10h to 10m provided on the abdomen pressing electrode part 4A and a predetermined voltage measurement electrode of the voltage measurement electrodes 11h to 11m. Can touch.

  These current application electrodes 10a to 10m and voltage measurement electrodes 11a to 11m may be realized by performing metal plating on the surface of the SUS material and the resin material. This type of electrode is used by coating a water-retaining polymer film on the surface of a metal electrode to wipe off moisture before measurement or wet it with water. By soaking in water, the stability of the electrical contact with the skin can be ensured. Further, although not particularly shown, it is possible to use an adhesive-attached electrode. This is a type in which a replaceable adhesive pad is attached to the base electrode surface of each electrode to ensure contact stability with the skin. This type is often used, for example, in low-frequency treatment devices and electrocardiogram electrodes, etc., when it is removed and discarded after measurement, and when the pad surface becomes dirty and adhesion decreases or moisture evaporates There is a form in which it is stored in a cover sheet or the like until it is discarded and replaced.

  Next, with reference to FIG. 6, among the measurement of bioimpedance between various body parts by the limb guidance method used in the present apparatus, an aspect of electrode switching particularly when measuring only trunk impedance will be described. .

  FIG. 6A shows a case where trunk impedance is measured by energizing between the right hand and the right foot and measuring a potential difference between the left hand and the left foot (the energization route between the upper right limb and the right lower limb). The trunk abdomen bioimpedance Ztmrr is shown). In this case, the right hand current application electrode 10d and the right foot current application electrode 10b are used as current application electrodes, and the left hand voltage measurement electrode 11c and the left foot voltage measurement electrode 11a are used as voltage measurement electrodes.

  FIG. 6B shows a case where trunk impedance is measured by energizing between the left hand and the left foot and measuring a potential difference between the right hand and the right foot (the energization route between the left upper limb and the left lower limb). The trunk abdomen bioimpedance Ztmll is shown). In this case, the left hand current application electrode 10c and the left foot current application electrode 10a are used as current application electrodes, and the right hand voltage measurement electrode 11d and the right foot voltage measurement electrode 11b are used as voltage measurement electrodes.

  FIG. 6C shows a case where the trunk impedance is measured by energizing between the right hand and the left foot and measuring the potential difference between the left hand and the right foot (the energization route between the upper right limb and the left lower limb). The trunk abdomen bioimpedance Ztmrl is shown). In this case, the right hand current application electrode 10d and the left foot current application electrode 10a are used as current application electrodes, and the left hand voltage measurement electrode 11c and the right foot voltage measurement electrode 11b are used as voltage measurement electrodes.

  FIG. 6D shows a case where the trunk impedance is measured by energizing between the left hand and the right foot and measuring the potential difference between the right hand and the left foot (the energization route between the left upper limb and the right lower limb). Trunk abdominal bioimpedance Ztmlr is shown). In this case, the left hand current application electrode 10c and the right foot current application electrode 10b are used as current application electrodes, and the right hand voltage measurement electrode 11d and the left foot voltage measurement electrode 11a are used as voltage measurement electrodes. The electrode switching in the measurement of bioimpedance between various body parts by such limb guidance method is performed under the control of the calculation / control unit 22 in a state where the measurement subject (user) touches each electrode. This is performed by the application electrode switching unit 232 and the voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram schematically showing the structure of the trunk abdomen (middle part). The tissues constituting the trunk abdomen are subcutaneous fat tissue layer (FS), skeletal muscle tissue layer (MM), internal organ tissue ( VM), visceral adipose tissue (FV) adhering to the gap. When energizing the trunk, most of the current is considered to be energized to the skeletal muscle tissue layer. This is because the electrical conductivity of the skeletal muscle tissue layer is better than that of other tissues. The internal organ tissue is considered in series with the visceral adipose tissue, and it can be seen that the amount of energization can be expected to change depending on the size of the visceral adipose tissue.

FIG. 8 shows the structure of the trunk abdomen of FIG. 7 as an electrical equivalent circuit, and shows a simplified trunk abdomen equivalent circuit in which the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is omitted. This is a trunk abdominal equivalent circuit considered in the approach 1 approach in “Electrical equivalent circuit modeling of trunk constituent tissue” (14). Similarly, FIG. 9 shows the structure of the trunk abdomen of FIG. 7 as an electrical equivalent circuit, and shows the trunk abdomen equivalent circuit considered without omitting the subcutaneous fat tissue layer. This is a trunk abdominal equivalent circuit considered by the approach 2 approach in “3. Electrical equivalent circuit modeling of trunk structural organization” (15). Note that, as described above, Ztm is the impedance of the entire trunk, ZFS is the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, ZMM is the impedance of the skeletal muscle tissue layer, and ZVM is as described above. The internal organ tissue impedance, ZFV, represents the visceral fat tissue impedance. As described above, in the equivalent circuit of FIG.
Ztm ≒ ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV)
In the equivalent circuit of FIG. 9, the relational expression Ztm = ZFS // ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) holds.

<Subcutaneous adipose tissue layer measurement or selective measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue layer and visceral adipose tissue>
In particular, a technique used for subcutaneous fat tissue layer measurement or selective measurement of subcutaneous fat tissue layer and visceral fat tissue will be described.

  First, the principle that is the premise of the basic principle of subcutaneous fat tissue thickness measurement according to the present invention will be described. FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of the trunk shown in FIG. FIG. As shown in this figure, the trunk cross section includes the outermost subcutaneous adipose tissue layer (FS), the skeletal muscle tissue layer (MM) just inside, and the inner organ tissue (VM) inside. It includes visceral adipose tissue (FV) surrounding it.

  FIG. 11 shows the schematic diagram shown in FIG. 10 as an electrical equivalent circuit. For example, when the current (I) is applied to the current application electrodes 10A and 10B and the potential difference (V) is measured using the voltage measurement electrodes 11A and 11B, the electrical resistance in this equivalent circuit is mainly around the umbilicus. Impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer (ZFS1, ZFS2), Impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer around the abdomen (ZFS0), Impedance of the skeletal muscle tissue layers on the left and right sides of the navel (ZMM1, ZMM2), Visible as visceral fat tissue impedance (ZFV1, ZFV2), and further as internal organ tissue impedance near the trunk center (ZVM).

  FIG. 12 shows a circuit obtained by further simplifying FIG. Since ZFS1 and ZFS2 are considered to have substantially the same size, they are represented as ZFS having the same value, and ZMM1 and ZMM2 or ZFV1 and ZFV2 are represented as ZMM and ZFV, respectively. In addition, ZFS0, which is considered to be significantly lower in conductivity than other regions, is omitted. The point where this can be omitted will be apparent from the description in “3. Electrical equivalent circuit modeling of the trunk tissue” (13).

  Next, the relationship between the interelectrode distance and the spreading resistance in the four-electrode method will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 13 shows the relationship between the distance between electrodes and spreading resistance. In the drawing, a portion 30 surrounded by a round dotted line indicates a spreading resistance region. The current from the current application electrode gradually spreads in the subject's body after application, but does not spread so much in the region immediately after application, i.e., in the spreading resistance region. Very high compared to other areas. Therefore, when the current application electrodes 10A and 10B and the voltage measurement electrodes 11A and 11B are arranged too close to each other, the potential difference measured at the voltage measurement electrodes 11A and 11B spreads and is greatly affected by the current in the resistance region. .

For example, as is clear from the above-described equation 31, the impedance (ZFS) of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer near the umbilicus, the impedance (ZFS0) of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer around the abdomen, the impedance (ZMM) of the skeletal muscle tissue layer, the internal organs Between the impedance of the fat tissue (ZFV) and the impedance of the internal organ tissue near the center of the trunk (ZVM),
ZFS >> (ZVM + ZFV) >> ZMM
There is a relationship.
Therefore, the potential difference measurement impedance ΣZ1 when arranged close to each other with almost no distance between the IV electrodes is as follows:
ΣZ1 = 2 * ZFS + ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) ≈2 * ZFS
It becomes. As is clear from this, ZFS is amplified several times under the influence of spreading resistance, and information by ZFS is dominant here.

In order to reduce the influence of the spreading resistance, it is necessary to increase the distance between the current application electrode and the voltage measurement electrode. For example, the potential difference measurement impedance ΣZ2 when the distance between the IV electrodes is secured to about 10 cm is
ΣZ2≈2 * ZFS + ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV)
It is. As is apparent, the influence of the spreading resistance is somewhat reduced by increasing the distance between the I and V electrodes. However, the ZFS information is still dominant only by being separated by this degree.

In order to examine the influence of this spreading resistance in detail, as shown in FIG. 14, the distance between the IV electrodes and between the V-V electrodes in the electrodes 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11D is about 1/3 each. Consider a case where about 10 cm is secured and arranged. However, the electrodes 10A and 11A and the electrodes 10B and 11D are arranged close to each other with little distance between the IV electrodes. In this case, the potential difference measurement impedance ΣZ3 is
ΣZ3≈2 * ZFS + ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV).
At this time, the relationship of the voltage drop measured between the electrodes is approximately as follows.
V1 = I * ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV)
V2 = V3 = I * 2 * ZFS
V1: (V2 + V3) ≈1-2: 10-20 = S: N
Variations in S 1-2 and N 10-20 in the above formula are due to individual differences in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer and the development of the skeletal muscle tissue layer. As can be seen from this result, it is difficult to say that a sufficient S / N can be secured even if the distance between the electrodes is adjusted.

In addition, since most of the current is predominantly energized in the skeletal muscle tissue layer, it is not possible to sufficiently secure energization sensitivity to the composite tissue layer of internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue. That is, if the current flowing in the skeletal muscle tissue layer is I1, and the current flowing in the internal organ tissue and visceral fat tissue to be measured is I2,
V1 = I * ZMM // (ZVM + ZFV) = I1 * ZMM = I2 * (ZVM + ZFV)
I = I1 + I2
And therefore
ZMM: (ZVM + ZFV) = I2: I1≈1: 2-5
It becomes. As is clear from this, even if the influence of spreading resistance can be eliminated, the current flowing through the skeletal muscle tissue layer reaches 2-5 times the current flowing through the internal organ tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The S / N characteristic is further deteriorated. In this way, in a thick and short measurement site such as the trunk, even if the inter-electrode distance is adjusted, the upper limit is determined by the distance between the current electrodes, so there is a limit to the improvement of the S / N characteristics. .

  FIG. 15 shows an example of an electrode arrangement method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information by the same method as in FIG. Based on this electrode arrangement method, not only subcutaneous fat tissue layer information but also visceral fat tissue information can be simultaneously measured as information separated from each other. The apparatus of the present invention has both a voltage measurement electrode for measuring visceral adipose tissue and a voltage measurement electrode for measuring a subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, and these electrode arrangements are selectively switched by a switching means. Thus, it is possible to measure both visceral fat tissue information and subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. The purpose of both simultaneous measurements is to measure the error factors during measurement due to breathing etc. at a sampling timing faster than the fluctuation of breathing, etc., so that both error factors can be relatively eliminated by measuring them simultaneously in the same environment. There is to do. Therefore, in addition to breathing, the influence of heartbeat and other body movements can be considered. In addition to speeding up, the same purpose can be achieved by smoothing processing in the same measurement environment.

  The specific electrode arrangement example of FIG. 15 is an impedance measurement arrangement example of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer immediately below the current application electrodes 10A and 10B arranged on the left and right aponeurosis parts 15, and V2 is the right front side subcutaneous fat tissue measurement. Indicates potential. Reference symbol A indicates the umbilicus position. In order to obtain subcutaneous fat tissue layer information (specifically, a potential difference value or an impedance value), here, spread resistance is used. Spread resistance has generally been regarded as unfavorable, but it can be said that the spread resistance directly under the current application electrode represents information about the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, so it is useful to measure the potential difference in this region. Information on the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer can be obtained. In the present invention, paying attention to this point, subcutaneous fat tissue layer information is obtained.

  In order to measure the spreading resistance, at least one current application electrode pair 10A, 10B and at least one voltage measurement electrode pair capable of measuring a potential difference generated in the subject by the current applied from the current application electrode pair are provided. Here, one of the current application electrodes included in the current application electrode pair, for example, the current application electrode 10B, applies a current to a site where the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is thin, or where there is no or thin muscle abdomen of the skeletal muscle tissue layer. The other current application electrode, for example, the current application electrode 10A, is used to apply a current to a site where the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is thick (or a site where the subcutaneous fat tissue layer is to be measured).

On the other hand, one voltage measurement electrode 34 included in the voltage measurement electrode pair is disposed in a position where the influence of the spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant, that is, close to the current application electrode 10B. On the other hand, the other voltage measurement electrode 36 is either a position away from the current application electrode or a limb part in the longitudinal direction of the trunk, until the influence of the spreading resistance directly under the current application electrode is reduced. Placed in. The potential difference measurement value at the potential difference V2 generated between the voltage measurement electrodes 34 and 36 due to the current applied by the current application electrodes 10A and 10B is proportional to the impedance (ZFS) value of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer portion. It is considered impedance information proportional to the tissue layer thickness (L FS ) information. If the impedance of the spreading resistor portion is ΔZ and the constant corresponding to the area of the current application electrode is A0,
△ Z Z ZFS ∝ L FS / A0 L L FS
It is. Therefore, the cross-sectional area amount AFS of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer is
AFS = Lw * L FS = aa0 * ZFS * Lw + bb0 ... Formula 43
Can be obtained. In the above equation, Lw is the abdominal circumference, that is, the length around the abdomen 16, and aa0 and bb0 are constants that have different values for men and women.

  In order to obtain visceral adipose tissue information (potential difference value, impedance value, etc.) together with subcutaneous adipose tissue layer information, at least another set of voltage measurements provided in an arrangement different from the voltage electrode arrangement for measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue layer information An electrode pair is necessary (as a result of the above, in order to implement the method and apparatus according to the present invention capable of simultaneously measuring both subcutaneous fat tissue layer information and visceral fat tissue information, at least two voltage measuring electrode pairs are required. is required).

  Furthermore, with reference to FIGS. 16 to 21, a guidance method for measuring adipose tissue, in particular, a subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, by limb and trunk combination electrode arrangement will be described. 16 to 21, one of the current application electrodes for energization (grip electrode) is provided on the palm, the other current application electrode is provided in the trunk abdomen (on the aponeurosis), and the other two voltage measurement electrode pairs are provided. The guidance method arrange | positioned on a trunk abdomen is shown.

  In FIGS. 16 to 18, one of the current application electrodes for energization is provided on the palm as a grip electrode, the other current application electrode is provided in the trunk abdomen (on the aponeurosis), and the other two voltage measurement electrodes are also provided. FIG. 16 relates to right arm-trunk abdomen energization measurement, FIG. 17 relates to left arm-trunk abdomen energization measurement, and FIG. It relates to both arms-trunk abdomen energization measurement. In the right arm-trunk abdomen energization measurement of FIG. 16, the voltage measurement electrode is arranged close to a current application electrode (one of which is more advantageous on the skeletal muscle tissue layer) arranged near the circumference of the umbilical cord of the trunk abdomen. As long as the other is spread from the current application electrode on the circumference of the umbilical cord and a distance that can avoid the influence of the resistance is secured, the position may be anywhere as long as an equivalent potential can be measured. This concept is similarly applied to the electrode arrangement of the new induction method shown in FIG.

  In FIG. 19, one of the current application electrodes for energization is provided on the sole as a foot electrode, the other current application electrode is provided in the trunk abdomen (on the aponeurosis), and the other two voltage measurement electrodes are also provided on the trunk. The right-leg-trunk abdomen energization measurement is shown among the new guidance methods arranged on the abdomen. Although not shown, there are electrode arrangements for left leg-trunk abdomen energization measurement and both leg-trunk abdomen energization measurement based on the same idea as the electrode arrangement shown in FIG. Although not shown, based on the same concept, one of the current applying electrodes for energization is provided in the head and ears (as a clip electrode sandwiched between ear lobes and the like), and the other current applying electrode is disposed in the trunk abdomen ( There is also a new guidance method that is placed on the aponeurosis), and also in this new guidance method, right ear-trunk abdomen energization measurement, left ear-trunk abdomen energization measurement, right by organ et al. An ear-trunk abdomen energization measurement or the like can be considered.

  In FIG. 20, one current applying electrode of the current applying electrode for energizing is provided in the trunk abdomen (on the aponeurosis), and one of the two voltage measuring electrodes is provided on the palm opposite to the current applying electrode on the left and right. Among the new guidance methods in which the other is placed on the trunk abdomen, the right arm-trunk abdomen energization measurement by the organ guidance method is shown. In this new guidance method, although not shown, left arm-trunk abdomen energization measurement or the like by the organs' guidance method based on the same concept can be considered.

  In FIG. 21, one of the current application electrodes for energization is provided on the sole as a foot electrode, the other current application electrode is provided in the trunk abdomen (on the aponeurosis), and one of the two voltage measurement electrodes is applied with current. The figure shows the right leg-trunk abdomen energization measurement based on the organ induction method among the new induction methods in which the electrode is provided on the sole opposite to the left and right as the foot electrode and the other is disposed on the trunk abdomen. In this new guidance method, although not shown, left leg-trunk abdomen energization measurement or the like by the organs' guidance method based on the same concept can be considered.

FIG. 22 is a schematic diagram showing an example of electrode arrangement with respect to an optimum subcutaneous fat tissue measurement site for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information according to the present invention by using a new induction method as described with reference to FIGS. 16 to 21. FIG. The electrode arrangement example of FIG. 22 is the optimum three-point site described in the item (f) among the items (a) to (g) as the subcutaneous fat tissue thickness measurement site in the present invention, that is, It is the example of electrode arrangement | positioning for measuring the subcutaneous fat tissue layer thickness in "the three points of the umbilical side, the aponeurosis part, and the abdominal side part of the iliac crest upper edge part (flank part). In the electrode arrangement shown in FIG. 22, the current application electrode 10B1 is arranged on the lateral side of the umbilicus near the navel A of the abdomen 16, the current application electrode 10B2 is arranged on the aponeurosis 15, and the current application electrode 10B3 is The other current application electrode 10A1 that is arranged with respect to the flank and is paired with these current application electrodes is arranged in one of the limbs. On the other hand, as described above with reference to FIG. 15, the voltage measurement electrodes 341, 342, and 343 are positions where the influence of the spreading resistance directly under the current application electrode is dominant, that is, the current application electrodes 10B1, 10B2, and 10B3. Is placed close to. On the other hand, the other voltage measurement electrode 361 is disposed at one of the limbs (a position different from the limb current application electrode). The potential difference measurement value in the potential difference V1 generated between the voltage measurement electrode 361 and the voltage measurement electrode 341 generated by the current I1 applied by the current application electrode 10A1 and the current application electrode 10B1 is the subcutaneous fat tissue layer portion next to the umbilicus. Is proportional to the impedance ZFS1 value, and is proportional to the thickness L FS1 of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer at the side of the umbilicus. Similarly, the potential difference measurement value in the potential difference V2 generated between the voltage measurement electrode 361 and the voltage measurement electrode 342 generated by the current I2 applied by the current application electrode 10A1 and the current application electrode 10B2 is subcutaneous in the aponeurosis. proportional to the impedance ZFS2 adipose tissue layer portion, also, proportional to the thickness L FS2 of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the aponeurosis unit. Similarly, the potential difference measurement value in the potential difference V3 generated between the voltage measurement electrode 361 and the voltage measurement electrode 343 generated by the current I3 applied by the current application electrode 10A1 and the current application electrode 10B3 is subcutaneous in the flank. proportional to the impedance ZFS3 adipose tissue layer portion, also, proportional to the thickness L FS3 of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the aponeurosis unit.

  Speaking of the device of the above-described embodiment of the present invention, the current application electrode 10A1 in the electrode arrangement example of FIG. 22 includes the current application electrodes 10a and 10b provided on the upper surface of the platform 31 of the weight measuring unit 3 and the abdomen pressing. Of the current application electrodes 10c, 10d provided on the left hand grip 42 and the right hand grip 43 of the electrode unit 4, the one selected by the current application electrode switching unit 232 under the control of the calculation / control unit 22 is used. Will be. Similarly, as the current application electrodes 10B1, 10B2, and 10B3 in the electrode arrangement example of FIG. 22, among the current application electrodes 10e to 10m provided in the abdomen pressing electrode parts 4 and 4A, The one selected by the current application electrode switching unit 232 below is used. In this case, depending on the specific form of the apparatus of the present invention, the user changes the pressing position of the abdomen pressing electrode parts 4 and 4A with respect to the abdomen in accordance with an instruction displayed on the display unit 25b or the like of the main body unit 2. Therefore, it is necessary that the predetermined current application electrode is pressed and brought into contact with the optimal position of the abdomen. As the voltage measurement electrode 361 in the electrode arrangement example of FIG. 22, the left hand grip 42 and the right hand grip 43 of the voltage measurement electrodes 11 a and 11 b and the abdomen pressing electrode part 4 provided on the upper surface of the mounting 31 of the weight measurement unit 3. Among the voltage measurement electrodes 11c and 11d provided in the first and second electrodes, the one selected by the voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233 under the control of the calculation / control unit 22 is used. Moreover, as the voltage measurement electrodes 341, 342, and 343 in the electrode arrangement example of FIG. 22, out of the voltage measurement electrodes 11e to 11m provided in the abdomen pressing electrode portions 4 and 4A, under the control of the arithmetic and control unit 22. The switch selected by the voltage measurement electrode switching unit 233 is used. In this case, depending on the specific form of the device of the present invention, the user changes the pressing position of the abdominal pressing electrode portions 4 and 4A with respect to the abdominal portion according to an instruction displayed on the display unit 25b or the like of the main body unit 2. Therefore, it is necessary to make a predetermined voltage measurement electrode press and contact the optimal position of the abdomen.

  Next, referring to the basic flowchart shown in FIG. 23 and the subroutine flowcharts shown in FIGS. 24 to 28, the trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measuring apparatus (subcutaneous trunk trunk) in the embodiment of the present invention shown in FIGS. The operation and operation of the fat measuring device will be described.

  In the basic flowchart shown in FIG. 23, first, when a power switch (not shown) in the main body 2 is turned on, power is supplied from the power supply unit 21 to each part of the electrical system, and the height and the like are displayed by the display unit 25b. A screen for inputting body specifying information (height, weight, sex, age, etc.) is displayed (step S1).

  Subsequently, according to this screen, the user inputs height, weight, sex, age, and the like from the input unit 25a (step S2). In this case, the body weight may be input from the input unit 25a, but the data measured by the body weight measuring unit 3 connected to the main body unit 2 is automatically input, and the body weight is input by the calculation / control unit 22. The method specifying information (weight) may be calculated. These input values are stored in the storage unit 24.

  Next, in step S3, it is determined whether or not morphometric measurement actual values such as trunk length and abdominal circumference length are input. If these morphometric measurement actual values are input, morphometric measurement is performed in step S4. The actual values such as trunk length and abdominal circumference length are input from the input unit 25a, and the process proceeds to step S6. If it is determined in step S3 that the morphometric measurement actual value is not input, the process proceeds to step S5. These input values are also stored in the storage unit 24. Similarly, numerical information and the like obtained in the following processing are stored in the storage unit 24.

  In step S5, the computation / control unit 22 estimates the trunk length, abdominal girth, etc. from the body identification information such as height, weight, sex, age, etc. stored in the storage unit 24 (for example, , Use calibration curve created from human body information database). As described above with reference to FIG. 2 or FIG. 4, the user holds the left hand grip 42 or 42A and the right hand grip 43 or 43A of the abdominal pressing electrode part 4 or 4A with the left hand and the right hand, respectively. It rides on the mounting table 31 of the measuring unit 3 and presses the abdominal pressing electrode unit 4 or 4A against a predetermined position of its own abdomen in accordance with an instruction displayed on the display unit 25b of the main unit 2.

  Subsequently, in step S <b> 6, the trunk impedance measurement process is performed by the part impedance measurement unit 23. The trunk impedance measurement process will be described later with reference to a subroutine flowchart shown in FIG.

  Next, in step S7, the computation / control section 22 performs a trunk skeletal muscle tissue cross-sectional area amount (AMM) estimation process. This calculation process is performed based on the above-described equation 32 using, for example, the height H, the weight W, and the age Age stored in the storage unit 4.

  Next, in step S8, the calculation / control section 22 performs trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance (ZMM) estimation processing. This ZMM is performed based on the above-described equation 33 using the height H stored in the storage unit 24 and the AMM obtained in step S7.

Next, in step 9, the calculation and control unit 22 performs an estimation process of subcutaneous fat tissue mass (AFS). In this estimation process, in the present invention, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance ZFS is first calculated by the following equation instead of the aforementioned equation 24.
ZFS = aa1 * ZFS1 + bb1 * ZFS2 + cc1 * ZFS3 + dd1 .. formula 44
Here, aa1, bb1, cc1, and dd1 are constants and give different values for men and women.
Then, the subcutaneous fat tissue amount AFS is calculated based on the aforementioned equation 43.

  In step S10, the calculation and control unit 22 performs an estimation process of the internal organ tissue amount (AVM) and the internal organ tissue impedance (ZVM). Step 10 will be described in detail later with reference to a subroutine flowchart shown in FIG.

  In step S11, the computation / control section 22 performs a visceral fat tissue impedance (ZFV) and visceral fat tissue volume (AFV) estimation process. Step 11 will be described in detail later with reference to a subroutine flowchart shown in FIG.

  Next, in step S12, the calculation / control unit 22 performs a calculation process of the visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio (V / S). This process is performed according to the above-described equation 42 stored in the storage unit 24.

Next, in step S <b> 13, the computation / control section 22 performs a physique index (BMI) computation process. This calculation process can be calculated from the weight W and the height H stored in the storage unit 24 by the following equation.
BMI = W / H 2 ··· formula 45

Further, in step S14, the calculation / control section 22 performs a calculation process of the trunk body fat percentage (% Fatt). This calculation processing is performed from the subcutaneous fat tissue volume (AFS), the visceral fat tissue volume (AFV), the trunk skeletal muscle tissue cross-sectional area volume (AMM), and the internal organ tissue volume (AVM) stored in the storage unit 24. It is calculated by the following formula.
% Fatt = (AFS + AFV) / [(AFS + AFV) + AMM + AVM] * 100
... Formula 46

Next, in step S15, the calculation / control unit 22 performs a calculation process of the visceral fat rate (% VFat). This process is performed according to the following equation from the trunk body fat percentage (% Fatt) and the visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio (V / S) calculated by the above-described calculation process and stored in the storage unit 24.
% VFat =% Fatt * (V / S) / [(V / S) +1] Equation 47

  Finally, in step S16, the calculation and control unit 22 determines the visceral fat tissue information (AFV,% VFat), body composition information (% Fatt, AMM, AFS, AVM) obtained by the calculation process as described above, Display processing is performed to display the physique index (BMI), advice guidelines obtained by processing to be described later, and the like on the display unit 25b. Thereby, a series of processes is completed (step S17).

  Next, the internal organ tissue quantity (AVM) and internal organ tissue impedance (ZVM) estimation processing in step S10 will be described in detail with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. In this estimation process, the internal organ tissue quantity (AVM) is calculated using the numerical values stored in the storage unit 24 and the aforementioned equation 32 in step S18, and the numerical values stored in the storage unit 24 in step S19. And using equation 41 above.

  Next, the visceral adipose tissue impedance (ZFV) and visceral adipose tissue volume (AFV) estimation processing in step S11 will be described in detail with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. In this estimation process, the visceral fat tissue impedance (ZFV) is calculated using the numerical values stored in the storage unit 24 and the above-described equation 36 in step S20, and the height H stored in the storage unit 24 in step S21. And the visceral fat tissue impedance (ZFV) and the above-described equation 39 are used to calculate the visceral fat tissue mass (AFV).

  Next, the trunk impedance measurement process in step S6 will be described in detail with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. 26 showing the first embodiment. In the first embodiment, the above-mentioned 10. As described in (28) and (29), the “removal effect removal process due to respiration” and the “abnormal value determination process by eating and drinking and water retention (urine etc.) in the bladder, etc.” are performed. First, in step S22, the arithmetic and control unit 22 performs initial setting of the number of samples of measurement data of the impedance Ztm of the initial setting trunk such as a counter based on an instruction from the input unit 25a or the like.

Subsequently, in step S23, the computation / control section 22 determines whether or not it is a measurement timing. If the measurement timing is determined, in step S24, the computation / control section 22 performs a trunk impedance (Ztm) measurement electrode arrangement setting process and performs a trunk impedance (Ztm x ) measurement process. Further, in step 25, subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS1) measurement electrode arrangement setting processing and subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS1x) measurement processing (lateral umbilicus) are performed. In step 26, subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS2) measurement electrode arrangement setting processing and subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS2x) measurement processing (tendon portion) are performed. Furthermore, in step 27, subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS3) measurement electrode arrangement setting processing and subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS3x) measurement processing (side aponeurosis) are performed, and the processing returns to step 23.

On the other hand, if it is determined not to be the measurement timing in step S23, the process proceeds to step S28, with respect to the trunk impedance (Ztm x) and the subcutaneous fat tissue layer section impedance (ZFS1-3 x), measured impedance ( Zx) Data smoothing processing (moving average processing, etc.), that is, Z x = (Z x-1 + Z x ) / 2 is performed. Then, in step 29, trunk impedance measurement data breathing fluctuation correction processing is performed. This correction processing will be described later with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. Note that the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance (ZFS1-3 x ) is not affected by respiratory fluctuations, and thus correction processing is not performed like the trunk impedance.

Subsequently, in step S30, the calculation / control unit 22 performs time-series stability confirmation processing of the measured impedance for each part. This is performed by determining whether or not each value after the trunk impedance measurement data breathing fluctuation correction process in step S29 has converged to a value within a predetermined fluctuation a predetermined number of times. In step S31, the arithmetic and control unit 22, measured Ztm x and ZFS1-3 x is to determine whether to satisfy the stability condition. This determination is such that it is determined that the respiration median value is determined when the respiration median value for each respiration cycle enters a stable range within the specified number of times. If it is determined in this step S31 that the stability condition has been satisfied, the process proceeds to step S32, where the determined median impedance value is set as the trunk trunk impedance value or the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance value, and finally The stability condition determination value is registered in the storage unit 24 as a measurement value result value. In other words, it satisfies the stability condition, the Ztm x as Ztm, as ZFS1 the ZFS1 x, as ZFS2 the ZFS2 x, as ZFS3 the ZFS3 x, respectively registers. On the other hand, if it is determined in step S31 that the stability condition is not satisfied, the process returns to step S23 and the same process is repeated.

  Subsequent to step S32, in step S33, the calculation / control unit 22 performs an abnormal value determination process based on eating and drinking and urinary bladder retention, and in step S34, the notification buzzer 26 (see FIG. 5) indicates the completion of the measurement. Using a buzzer or the like to notify the user, the measurement is completed. The abnormal value determination process in step 33 will be described later with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG.

Next, the trunk impedance measurement data respiration variation correction process in step S29 will be described in detail with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. First, in step S35, the calculation / control section 22 performs an inflection point detection process from the time-series data processed in step S28. In step S36, it is determined whether or not it is an inflection point. This is performed by detecting data of polarity change positions of the front and rear derivatives or difference values. If it is determined in step 36 that the point is not an inflection point, the respiration variation correction process ends. On the other hand, when it is determined in step S36 that the point is an inflection point, the process proceeds to step S37, and it is determined whether the maximum value is reached. This is a step of distributing the maximum value and the minimum value. If it is not the maximum value, the minimum value determination data moving average process is performed in the following equation stored in the storage unit 24 in step S38.
[Ztm] min x ← ([Ztm] min x-1 + [Ztm] min x ) / 2 Formula 48

If the maximum value is determined in step S37, the maximum value determination data moving average process is performed in step S39 according to the following equation stored in the storage unit 24.
[Ztm] max x ← ([Ztm] max x-1 + [Ztm] max x ) / 2 Formula 49

Subsequently, in step S40, it is determined whether the maximum value and minimum value data for one breathing cycle have been secured. If it is determined in step 40 that data is not secured, this breathing variation correction process is terminated. On the other hand, if it is determined in step S40 that the data has been secured, in step S41, the respiratory fluctuation median value calculation process (maximum value and minimum value data is calculated using the following equation stored in the storage unit 24). (Average value calculation) is performed.
Ztm x ← ([Ztm] max x + [Ztm] min x ) / 2 Formula 50

Next, the abnormal value determination processing based on eating and drinking and urinary bladder retention in step S33 will be described in detail with reference to the subroutine flowchart of FIG. First, in step S42, the arithmetic and control unit 22 checks whether the trunk impedance (Ztm) is within the normal allowable range using the following formula stored in the storage unit 24.
Mean-3SD ≦ Ztm ≦ Mean + 3SD Equation 51
Here, as an allowable value example, ± 3SD is conceivable with respect to 26.7 ± 4.8 (Mean ± SD).

  In step S43, it is determined whether the trunk impedance is within an allowable range. When it is determined that the value is not within the allowable range, the process proceeds to step S44, where the arithmetic and control unit 22 performs message notification processing regarding a trunk (abdomen) condition abnormality, and displays appropriate advice on the display unit 25b. Etc. are made. As this advice, for example, notification such as “implementing preparatory processing such as defecation and urination for abnormal trunk condition” may be considered. Further, when the same determination result is obtained after the preparation process, the measurement can be completed using the abnormal value, and the measurement can be stopped.

  When it is determined within the allowable range in step S43, in step S45, the calculation / control unit 22 performs message notification processing regarding normal condition of the trunk (abdomen) condition, and displays appropriate advice on the display unit 25b. Made. As this advice, for example, notification such as “normal condition of trunk” is conceivable.

  With such operations and operations, according to the present invention, visceral adipose tissue information of the trunk (trunk abdomen) can be obtained, and furthermore, the influence removal processing of fluctuation due to breathing, and the moisture in the bladder and the like It is possible to perform abnormality determination processing due to storage (such as urine) and provide advice information accordingly. In the above-described embodiment, the fat percentage is obtained as the trunk visceral adipose tissue information. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and by using an appropriate conversion formula or the like, the cross-sectional area amount or the volume amount is obtained. Or weight.

  According to the present invention, by limiting the subcutaneous fat tissue thickness measurement site and the measurement method, it is possible to accurately measure the subcutaneous fat tissue layer information of the trunk, and the highly accurate measured subcutaneous fat tissue layer information of the trunk. By utilizing the estimation of the visceral tissue information, the trunk visceral adipose tissue can be accurately measured.

  According to the present invention, high-accuracy screening information can be made obvious while following the conventional simple measurement method for the adhesion in the vicinity of internal organ tissue and the accumulation of accumulated fat tissue according to the level.

  According to the present invention, the visceral adipose tissue of the trunk can be accurately measured with a small and simple device, so that it can be optimized for home use. Moreover, an abdominal condition check prior to measurement, that is, early check of inflammation or pathological abnormal fluid distribution in internal organ tissues or the like is possible, and appropriate health guide advice can be given accordingly. Therefore, it is possible for the user to obtain various information useful for self-management for maintaining and promoting sustainable health by appropriately performing daily diet and exercise and maintaining motivation for it. Can be very useful.

1 is a schematic perspective view showing an appearance of an embodiment of a trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measuring device according to the present invention. It is the schematic for demonstrating the usage condition in the case of measuring trunk visceral fat and subcutaneous fat using the apparatus of FIG. It is the schematic which shows the abdominal part pressing electrode part as another embodiment which can replace the abdominal part pressing electrode part in the apparatus of the Example of FIG. It is the schematic for demonstrating the usage condition of the abdominal part pressing electrode part of FIG. It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the apparatus of FIG. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the limb guidance | induction method used in this invention. It is a figure which shows typically the structure of a trunk abdomen. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing the structure of the trunk abdomen of FIG. 7 as an electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk abdomen, with the subcutaneous fat tissue layer omitted. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing the structure of the trunk abdomen of FIG. 7 as an electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk abdomen without considering the subcutaneous fat tissue layer. It is the figure which modeled the schematic diagram of the trunk shown in FIG. 7 in the abdominal circumference cross section in umbilical height. It is the figure which represented the model figure of FIG. 10 as an electrical equivalent circuit. 12 is a simplified diagram of the circuit of FIG. It is a figure explaining the relationship between the distance between electrodes, and spreading resistance. It is a figure explaining the relationship between the distance between electrodes, and spreading resistance. It is a figure which shows an example of the electrode arrangement | positioning method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information with the structure of a trunk abdomen. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure for demonstrating the new induction | guidance | derivation method for obtaining subcutaneous fat tissue layer information. It is a figure which shows the example of electrode arrangement | positioning with respect to the optimal subcutaneous fat tissue measurement site | part in this invention. It is a figure which shows the basic flowchart for trunk internal organs and subcutaneous fat tissue measurement by one Example of this invention. It is a figure which shows the estimation processing flow of the internal organ tissue quantity and internal organ tissue impedance as a subroutine of the basic flow of FIG. It is a figure which shows the estimation processing flow of the visceral fat tissue impedance and visceral fat tissue amount as a subroutine of the basic flow of FIG. It is a figure which shows the trunk | body impedance measurement process flow as a subroutine of the basic flow of FIG. FIG. 27 is a diagram showing a trunk impedance measurement data respiration variation correction process flow as a subroutine of the trunk impedance measurement process flow of FIG. 26. It is a figure which shows the abnormal value determination processing flow by eating and drinking, urinary bladder retention, etc. as a subroutine of the trunk | body trunk impedance measurement processing flow of FIG.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Trunk visceral / subcutaneous fat measuring device 2 Main body part 3 Weight measuring part 4 Abdominal pressing electrode part 4A Abdominal electrode pressing part 5 Electric cable 6 Electric cables 10a to 10m Current applying electrode 10A Current applying electrode 10B Current applying electrode 11a to 11m Voltage measurement electrode 15 aponeurosis part A umbilicus 16 abdomen 21 power supply unit 22 calculation / control unit 23 site impedance measurement unit 24 storage unit 25 display / input unit 25a input unit 25b display unit 26 buzzer notification unit 27 printing unit 31 mounting base 34 Voltage Measurement Electrode 36 Voltage Measurement Electrode ZFS Impedance L of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Layer FS Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Layer Thickness 41 Abdominal Pressing Plate 42 Left Hand Grip 43 Right Hand Grip 231 Current Supply Unit 232 Current Application Electrode Switching Unit 233 Voltage Measurement Switching unit 234 Potential difference measuring unit

Claims (44)

  1.   One current application electrode is disposed at at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue around the trunk abdomen, and the other current application electrode paired with the one current application electrode is placed on the body. The voltage measurement electrode is arranged at a portion protruding from the trunk, and one voltage measurement electrode is arranged at a position close to the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen, and the other voltage measurement paired with the one voltage measurement electrode Disposing the electrode at a portion protruding from the trunk different from the portion where the other current applying electrode is disposed, and measuring trunk trunk impedance by obtaining trunk trunk fat tissue layer information A method for measuring trunk fat under the trunk.
  2.   Sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue are any or all of the lateral umbilical cord, the lower scapulae, and the upper iliac crest, or the umbilical circumference. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement according to claim 1, which is a combination portion of any or all of the umbilical recess, spine, and aponeurosis, or a combination of a candidate portion with the largest subcutaneous fat tissue deposit and the thinnest portion. Method.
  3.   2. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement method according to claim 1, wherein the highly useful sites for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are the three sites of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis and the flank.
  4.   4. The trunk fat subcutaneous fat measurement method according to claim 1, wherein the part protruding from the trunk is one of an extremity, a head, or an ear. 5.
  5.   The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of spreading resistance directly under the current application electrode is dominant. .
  6.   Obtaining body identification information and measuring the potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair to determine the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen, and obtaining the body identification information and the obtained 6. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement method according to claim 1, wherein the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue in the trunk is determined based on the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part.
  7.   By measuring the potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen is obtained, and the trunk of the trunk is subcutaneously determined based on the obtained subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part. The fat tissue layer impedance is obtained, and the subcutaneous fat tissue amount of the trunk is obtained based on the obtained subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk and the body specifying information. Of measuring trunk fat in the trunk.
  8.   One current application electrode arranged at at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen and the one current application electrode arranged at a site protruding from the trunk At least one pair of current application electrodes consisting of the other current application electrode, and one voltage measurement electrode disposed at a position close to the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen and the other At least one voltage measurement electrode pair comprising the other voltage measurement electrode paired with the one voltage measurement electrode and disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk part different from the portion where the current application electrode is disposed. A trunk trunk fat measuring apparatus characterized in that trunk trunk fat tissue layer information is obtained by measuring impedance of the trunk.
  9.   Sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue are any or all of the lateral umbilical cord, the lower scapulae, and the upper iliac crest, or the umbilical circumference. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement according to claim 8, which is a combination part of any one or all of the umbilical recess, spine, and aponeurosis, or a combination of a candidate part with the largest subcutaneous fat tissue deposition and a thinnest part. apparatus.
  10.   9. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement apparatus according to claim 8, wherein the highly useful sites for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are the three sites of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis and the flank.
  11.   The trunk fat measuring apparatus according to claim 8, 9 or 10, wherein the part projecting from the trunk is one of an extremity, a head, or an ear.
  12.   12. The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device according to claim 8, wherein the position adjacent to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant. .
  13.   Trunk abdominal region subcutaneous fat for measuring the potential difference between the body specific information acquisition means for acquiring the body specific information and each voltage measurement electrode pair, and measuring the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part of the trunk abdomen Tissue layer impedance measurement means, trunk body subcutaneous fat tissue amount estimation means for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue of the trunk based on the acquired body specifying information and the measured subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of each part The trunk subcutaneous fat measuring device according to any one of claims 8 to 12, comprising:
  14.   A trunk abdominal site subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance measuring means for measuring a potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair and measuring a subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance of each site of the trunk abdomen, and each measured site Based on the estimated body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance and body specific information, the body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimating means for estimating the body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance based on the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk The trunk subcutaneous fat measurement device according to any one of claims 8 to 12, further comprising trunk trunk subcutaneous fat tissue amount estimation means for estimating a subcutaneous fat tissue volume of the trunk.
  15.   In the trunk visceral fat measurement method for measuring the trunk visceral fat tissue, the bioimpedance of the lower limb, the bioimpedance of the upper limb and the bioimpedance of the trunk are measured, and the measured bioimpedance and body identification of the lower limb The amount of lower limb skeletal muscle tissue is determined based on the measured biometric impedance of the upper limb and the body specifying information, and the amount of upper limb skeletal muscle tissue is determined based on the measured information. And determining the amount of trunk skeletal muscle tissue based on the amount of body skeletal muscle tissue and body specifying information, and determining the amount of trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer based on the determined amount of trunk skeletal muscle tissue and body specifying information Obtain impedance, obtain impedance of subcutaneous fat tissue layer of trunk, obtain impedance of organ tissue in trunk based on body specifying information, Based on the vital impedance of the trunk, the impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk, the impedance of the trunk visceral fat tissue is obtained. Each step of determining the amount of trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the determined impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue and body specifying information, and the step of determining the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk includes the steps of: One current application electrode is arranged in at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the circumference of the abdomen, and the other current application electrode paired with the one current application electrode is disposed from the trunk. One voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a position projecting, and one voltage measurement electrode is disposed near the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen. The other voltage measurement electrode that is paired with the voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk different from the portion where the other current application electrode is disposed, and the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk is determined. A method for measuring a visceral fat in a trunk.
  16.   In the trunk visceral fat measurement method for measuring the trunk visceral fat tissue, the bioimpedance of the lower limb, the bioimpedance of the upper limb and the bioimpedance of the trunk are measured, and the measured bioimpedance of the lower limb and the upper limb Obtaining the trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount based on the bioimpedance and body specifying information, obtaining the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance based on the obtained trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information, The impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk is obtained, the impedance of the organ tissue in the trunk is obtained based on the body specifying information, the bioimpedance of the obtained trunk, and the obtained impedance of the skeletal muscle tissue layer of the trunk Based on the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the organ tissue in the trunk Determining the impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue, and determining the amount of trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the determined impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue and the body specifying information, The step of obtaining the impedance includes disposing one current application electrode in at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue around the trunk abdomen and the other pairing with the one current application electrode The current application electrode is disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk, and one voltage measurement electrode is disposed in the vicinity of the one current application electrode on the periphery of the trunk abdomen, and is opposed to the one voltage measurement electrode. The other voltage measurement electrode is disposed at a portion protruding from the trunk different from the portion where the other current application electrode is disposed, and the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk is determined. Trunk visceral fat measuring method characterized by comprising Mel.
  17.   Sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue are any or all of the lateral umbilical cord, the lower scapulae, and the upper iliac crest, or the umbilical circumference. The trunk internal organ according to claim 15 or 16, which is a combination portion of any or all of the umbilical recess, spine, and aponeurosis, or a combination of the candidate portion with the largest subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition and the thinnest portion. Fat measurement method.
  18.   The trunk visceral fat measurement method according to claim 15 or 16, wherein the sites highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are the three sites of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis, and the flank.
  19.   The trunk visceral fat measurement method according to any one of claims 15 to 18, wherein the portion protruding from the trunk is one of a limb, a head, or an ear.
  20.   The trunk visceral fat measurement method according to any one of claims 15 to 19, wherein the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of spreading resistance immediately below the current application electrode is dominant. .
  21.   Based on the bioimpedance of the obtained trunk and the obtained impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk, The step of obtaining the impedance includes the step of determining whether the electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk has an impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk relative to a series circuit of the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk and the impedance of the visceral fat tissue of the trunk. 21. The trunk visceral fat measurement method according to any one of claims 15 to 20, wherein impedances of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layers are connected in parallel.
  22.   The internal organ tissue impedance is obtained based on the internal organ tissue amount and the body specifying information, and the internal organ tissue amount is obtained based on the internal organ tissue amount and the body specifying information. Trunk visceral fat measurement method.
  23.   23. The trunk visceral fat measurement method according to any one of claims 15 to 22, wherein the body specifying information is information indicating physical characteristics.
  24.   The information indicating the physical characteristics includes height, sex, weight, age, limb length (lower limb length, upper limb length), trunk length (trunk length), abdominal circumference length, abdominal width, abdominal thickness, etc. Item 24. The method for measuring trunk visceral fat according to Item 23.
  25.   In the trunk visceral fat measuring device for measuring the trunk visceral fat tissue, the lower limb bioimpedance measuring means for measuring the bioimpedance of the lower limb and the upper limb bioimpedance for measuring the bioimpedance of the upper limb Measuring means, trunk bioimpedance measuring means for measuring bioimpedance of trunk, and lower limb part for estimating lower limb skeletal muscle tissue amount based on measured bioimpedance and body specifying information of lower limb Skeletal muscle tissue amount estimation means, upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount estimation means for estimating upper limb skeletal muscle tissue amount based on the measured bioimpedance and body specific information of the upper limb, and the estimated lower limb skeleton Trunk bone to estimate trunk skeletal muscle tissue volume based on muscle tissue volume, upper limb skeletal muscle tissue volume and body specific information Muscle tissue amount estimating means, trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance estimating means for estimating impedance of trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer based on the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information, and The trunk subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimation means for estimating the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer, the trunk internal organ tissue impedance estimation means for estimating the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk based on the body specifying information, and the estimation The impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the estimated biological impedance of the trunk, the impedance of the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk Estimating trunk visceral fat tissue impedance estimating means, and the estimated trunk visceral fat A trunk visceral fat tissue amount estimating means for estimating the trunk visceral fat tissue amount based on the tissue impedance and the body specifying information, and the trunk subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimating means comprises: One current application electrode arranged at at least one site highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue on the periphery and the other arranged as a pair with the one current application electrode arranged at a site protruding from the trunk At least one pair of current application electrodes, one voltage measurement electrode disposed on the periphery of the trunk abdomen and in the vicinity of the one current application electrode, and the other current application electrode At least one set of voltage measurement composed of the other voltage measurement electrode paired with the one voltage measurement electrode disposed at a position protruding from the trunk part different from the position where the electrode is disposed A trunk visceral fat measuring device comprising an electrode pair and obtaining an impedance of a subcutaneous fat tissue layer of a trunk.
  26.   In the trunk visceral fat measuring device for measuring the trunk visceral fat tissue, the lower limb bioimpedance measuring means for measuring the bioimpedance of the lower limb and the upper limb bioimpedance for measuring the bioimpedance of the upper limb Based on the measurement means, the trunk bioimpedance measurement means for measuring the bioimpedance of the trunk, and the measured bioimpedance of the lower limb, the bioimpedance of the upper limb, and the body specifying information Trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer estimation means for estimating the amount, trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance for estimating trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer impedance based on the estimated trunk skeletal muscle tissue amount and body specifying information Estimating means and trunk subcutaneous fat group for estimating impedance of subcutaneous fat tissue layer of trunk Layer impedance estimation means, trunk internal organ tissue impedance estimation means for estimating the impedance of internal organ tissue of the trunk based on the body specific information, the estimated biological impedance of the trunk, and the estimated trunk skeleton Trunk visceral adipose tissue impedance estimation means for estimating the impedance of the trunk visceral adipose tissue based on the impedance of the muscle tissue layer, the impedance of the subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk and the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk, and the estimation A trunk visceral fat tissue amount estimating means for estimating the trunk visceral fat tissue amount based on the impedance of the trunk visceral fat tissue and the body specifying information, and the trunk subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimating means Is less useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue around the trunk abdomen And at least one current application electrode pair comprising one current application electrode arranged at one site and the other current application electrode paired with the one current application electrode arranged at a site protruding from the trunk. A portion projecting from the trunk that is different from the portion where the one current measurement electrode and the other current application electrode are disposed on the circumference of the trunk abdomen. A trunk comprising: at least one voltage measurement electrode pair that is disposed and configured to be paired with the one voltage measurement electrode; and determining impedance of a subcutaneous fat tissue layer of the trunk Visceral fat measuring device.
  27.   Sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue are any or all of the lateral umbilical cord, the lower scapulae, and the upper iliac crest, or the umbilical circumference. 27. The trunk visceral organ according to claim 25 or 26, which is a combination site of any or all of the umbilical recess, spine, and aponeurosis, or a combination of the candidate site and the thinnest site where subcutaneous fatty tissue deposition is greatest. Fat measuring device.
  28.   27. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to claim 25 or 26, wherein the sites that are highly useful for estimating the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue are three sites of the lateral umbilicus, the aponeurosis, and the flank.
  29.   The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 28, wherein the portion protruding from the trunk is one of an extremity, a head, or an ear.
  30.   30. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 29, wherein the position close to the one current application electrode is a position where the influence of spreading resistance directly under the current application electrode is dominant. .
  31.   The trunk visceral adipose tissue impedance estimator means that the electrical equivalent circuit of the trunk is connected to the series circuit of the impedance of the internal organ tissue of the trunk and the impedance of the trunk visceral fat tissue of the trunk. The trunk visceral fat measuring apparatus according to any one of claims 25 to 30, wherein the estimation is performed on the assumption that an impedance of a subcutaneous fat tissue layer and an impedance of the trunk skeletal muscle tissue layer are connected in parallel.
  32.   The trunk internal organ tissue impedance estimation means estimates the internal organ tissue amount of the trunk from the body identification information, and based on the estimated internal organ tissue amount and body identification information of the trunk 32. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 31, wherein tissue impedance is estimated.
  33.   The trunk visceral fat measurement device according to any one of claims 25 to 32, wherein the body specifying information is information indicating physical characteristics.
  34.   The information indicating the physical characteristics includes height, sex, weight, age, limb length (lower limb length, upper limb length), trunk length (trunk length), abdominal circumference length, abdominal width, abdominal thickness, etc. Item 24. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to Item 23.
  35.   A trunk abdominal site subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance measuring means for measuring a potential difference between each voltage measurement electrode pair and measuring a subcutaneous adipose tissue layer impedance of each site of the trunk abdomen, and each measured site Based on the estimated body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance and body specific information, the body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance estimating means for estimating the body fat subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance based on the subcutaneous fat tissue layer impedance of the trunk 35. The trunk visceral fat measurement device according to any one of claims 25 to 34, further comprising trunk trunk subcutaneous fat tissue amount estimation means for estimating a subcutaneous fat tissue volume of the trunk.
  36.   36. The trunk visceral organ according to claim 35, further comprising a trunk abdominal fat tissue amount estimation means for estimating a trunk abdominal fat tissue amount from the estimated trunk trunk visceral fat tissue amount and the estimated trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue amount. Fat measuring device.
  37.   37. A torso visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio estimating means for estimating a torso visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratio from the estimated torso visceral fat tissue amount and the estimated torso subcutaneous fat tissue amount is further provided. The trunk visceral fat measuring device described in 1.
  38.   38. The respiratory fluctuation effect removing means for removing the influence of fluctuation due to breathing based on the bioimpedance of the trunk measured at a sampling cycle shorter than the breathing cycle time. Torso visceral fat measuring device.
  39.   The body according to any one of claims 25 to 38, further comprising an abnormal value determination processing unit that performs an abnormal value determination process by comparing the measured biological impedance of the trunk with a general value of a group. Executive visceral fat measuring device.
  40.   40. The trunk visceral fat measurement device according to claim 39, further comprising display means for displaying advice information based on a determination result by the abnormal value determination processing means.
  41.   41. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 40, wherein the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat rate.
  42.   41. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to claim 25, wherein the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue cross-sectional area.
  43.   41. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 40, wherein the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue volume amount.
  44.   41. The trunk visceral fat measuring device according to any one of claims 25 to 40, wherein the trunk visceral fat tissue amount is represented by a trunk visceral fat tissue weight.
JP2005201193A 2005-07-11 2005-07-11 Method and device for measuring truncal subcutaneous fat and method and device for measuring truncal internal fat Pending JP2007014663A (en)

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JP2005201193A JP2007014663A (en) 2005-07-11 2005-07-11 Method and device for measuring truncal subcutaneous fat and method and device for measuring truncal internal fat
DE200660003273 DE602006003273D1 (en) 2005-07-07 2006-06-27 Visceral / subcutaneous fat measurement on the trunk and device for this
EP20060013262 EP1741385B1 (en) 2005-07-07 2006-06-27 Truncal visceral/subcutaneous fat measuring method and apparatus
US11/481,902 US20070038140A1 (en) 2005-07-07 2006-07-07 Truncal visceral/subcutaneous fat measuring method and apparatus

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