JP2004364352A - Motor, drive method thereof, and automobile - Google Patents

Motor, drive method thereof, and automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2004364352A
JP2004364352A JP2003156380A JP2003156380A JP2004364352A JP 2004364352 A JP2004364352 A JP 2004364352A JP 2003156380 A JP2003156380 A JP 2003156380A JP 2003156380 A JP2003156380 A JP 2003156380A JP 2004364352 A JP2004364352 A JP 2004364352A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
battery
motor
electric motor
vehicle
windings
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Pending
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JP2003156380A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Yasuhiro Kondo
Naoyuki Sumiya
Satoshi Tamaki
悟史 玉木
直之 角谷
康宏 近藤
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Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd
松下電器産業株式会社
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Priority to JP2003156380A priority Critical patent/JP2004364352A/en
Publication of JP2004364352A publication Critical patent/JP2004364352A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/641Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty characterised by aspects of the electric machine
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies for applications in electromobilty
    • Y02T10/642Control strategies of electric machines for automotive applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7022Capacitors, supercapacitors or ultracapacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • Y02T10/7077Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors on board the vehicle
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • Y02T10/7208Electric power conversion within the vehicle
    • Y02T10/7241DC to AC or AC to DC power conversion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a motor along with its driving method, capable of reducing a battery output required at a low temperature, resulting in a reduced battery capacity. <P>SOLUTION: In a permanent magnet type motor, first coils 1a, 2a, and 3a and second coils 1b, 2b, and 3b are provided in the same phase. A first inverter 4 and a second inverter 5 are connected to the coils. A relay unit 7 as a switching means, connected in parallel or in series, is provided for a battery 6 for driving the inverters 4 and 5. The inverters 4 and 5 are connected in series at such low temperature when the capacity of the battery 6 drops, to raise motor efficiency in a low rotational speed region, so that a wanted torque is acquired with a small battery capacity. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an electric motor suitably applicable to an electric vehicle (PEV), a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), and other electric vehicles, a driving method thereof, and an automobile using the same.
[0002]
[Prior art]
2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, as a motor used in an automobile or the like as described above and a method of driving the same, an example using a magnet type motor has been known (for example, see Non-Patent Document 1).
[0003]
The configuration of the example will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 8 shows a drive system for a hybrid vehicle including an electric motor 31, a set of inverters 32, a battery 33, an internal combustion engine 34, and a transmission 50.
[0004]
Here, the operation of the electric motor 31 will be described. In general, when a start key is operated in a stopped state, powering electric power is supplied to the electric motor 31 from the battery 33 shown in FIG. At the same time, when the predetermined speed is reached, the internal combustion engine 34 is started. After the start of the internal combustion engine 34, the electric power supplied to the electric motor 31 is cut off, and the electric motor 31 changes to rotation by external force. The subsequent operation differs depending on the configuration of the electric vehicle. Generally, during the operation of the internal combustion engine 34, the electric motor 31 acts as a generator, and the inverter 32 returns a regenerative current to the battery 33. Thus, the battery 33 is charged, and the electric power released at the time of starting is stored again. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is recovered by regenerating the battery 33 and charging the battery 33 during braking. Further, during acceleration, powering power is supplied from the inverter 32 to the electric motor 31 to assist the output of the internal combustion engine 34. When the vehicle stops at an intersection or the like, the internal combustion engine 34 is stopped, and when the vehicle starts again, the electric motor 31 performs the same operation as at the time of the above-described operation start.
[0005]
By performing such a series of operations, the hybrid vehicle effectively utilizes the energy of the fuel onboard, obtains an energy saving effect, and also obtains an environmental effect of reducing exhaust gas.
[0006]
A similar configuration is also disclosed in a patent publication (for example, see Patent Document 1).
[0007]
[Non-patent document 1]
Shinichi Abe, "Elemental Technologies Supporting Hybrid Electric Vehicles", "Automotive Technologies", Japan Society of Automotive Engineers, February 1999, Vol. 2, P23-26
[0008]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-9-140006
[0009]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
By the way, in the above-mentioned conventional hybrid vehicle, the starter motor mounted on the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is not mounted, and the internal combustion engine 34 is started by the electric motor 31, but there is a problem that the startability is deteriorated at low temperatures. When the temperature is low, the lubricating oil viscosity of the internal combustion engine 34 increases, the load at the time of starting increases, and the torque that the electric motor 31 must generate increases.
[0010]
On the other hand, since the capacity of the battery 33 decreases at a low temperature, there is a problem that a large-capacity battery 33 must be provided in order to supply a current for generating a large torque to the electric motor 31. Since a battery utilizes a chemical reaction, its characteristics are degraded at low temperatures, and are restored and improved at normal temperatures and high temperatures. In particular, this tendency becomes stronger as high-performance batteries such as lithium-ion batteries are used. The battery capacity is determined by the low-temperature characteristics, and it is necessary to mount a large battery that exceeds the specification at room temperature or high temperature and has an excess capacity that exceeds the specifications. Therefore, if the capacity required of the battery at this low temperature can be reduced, the volume of the battery mounted on the vehicle can be reduced.
[0011]
A hybrid vehicle is usually equipped with a battery (high voltage) for supplying electric power for driving the electric motor and a low-voltage battery used as a power source for so-called auxiliary devices such as lamps and fans and a control circuit. The low-voltage battery is charged from the high-voltage battery via a DCDC converter, or a low-voltage generator and a voltage control and rectification circuit for the generator are separately mounted to charge the low-voltage battery. ing. In this case, when the DCDC converter or the low-voltage generator fails, the power for charging the low-voltage battery is cut off, so that there is a problem that the operations of the auxiliary devices and the control circuit stop.
[0012]
In addition, when it is difficult to start the internal combustion engine due to use in a cold region or deterioration of the battery, in a normal vehicle, a method is used in which electric power is externally connected in parallel to a low-voltage battery and a cell motor is operated, but a hybrid vehicle is used. In order to start the internal combustion engine with an electric motor driven by a high-voltage battery, the externally connected power supply must be set to a voltage specification that matches the hybrid vehicle, or a commonly-used low-voltage power supply can be connected in parallel and a DCDC converter Must be operated in the reverse direction, a high voltage must be supplied to operate the motor, and the internal combustion engine must be started. For this purpose, it is necessary to convert the DCDC converter from a high voltage to a low voltage and also to convert the voltage from a low voltage to a high voltage in a bidirectional manner. It is to be noted that it is relatively easy to supply a low-voltage power supply from the outside, and a system for this is provided in cold regions, but supply of a high voltage is not realistic in terms of safety and system.
[0013]
The present invention has been made in view of the above-described conventional problems, and provides an electric motor capable of reducing a required battery output at a low temperature and reducing a battery capacity, a driving method thereof, and an automobile using the same and a low-voltage battery at an abnormal time. It is an object of the present invention to provide a vehicle that can supply electric power.
[0014]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The motor of the present invention comprises at least two or more separate windings arranged in the same phase of the motor, two or more inverters connected to those windings, and connecting these inverters in series with the power supply. Switching means for switching between connection and connection in parallel.
[0015]
With this configuration, when the battery temperature is low, the induced voltage constant of the motor can be increased by connecting the inverter in series with the battery. Considering the model, the torque of the magnet type electric motor becomes maximum at the time of start-up, and the torque decreases to the maximum number of revolutions and reaches zero. In addition, since the induced voltage is proportional to the rotation speed, the motor current becomes maximum at the time of startup and approaches zero at the maximum rotation speed. If the input voltage is constant, the output becomes maximum between the zero speed and the maximum speed, and the efficiency reaches the maximum value near the maximum rotation speed and decreases toward the zero speed and the maximum speed. Thus, a motor having a high induced voltage constant, that is, a motor having a high torque constant, has a lower rotational speed at which the maximum efficiency is obtained as compared with a motor having a lower torque constant. Since the input current of the motor is obtained by dividing the output of the motor by the efficiency of the motor, the driving method in which the windings are connected in series as described above to increase the torque constant also reduces the battery current in the low-speed region. The required battery capacity can be reduced. On the other hand, during normal operation after the battery temperature rises due to energization, an inverter can be connected in parallel to the battery to return the motor's torque constant to the state of normal use, enabling efficient use up to high-speed rotation It becomes.
[0016]
In addition, this configuration includes a stator having a stator core having a plurality of magnetic pole teeth, a stator including windings wound around the magnetic pole teeth, and a rotor including a permanent magnet. The windings wound on the same set of magnetic pole teeth are divided into at least two or more separate windings, and the windings of the windings of adjacent magnetic pole teeth in the same set are divided. By applying the same phase current to the windings in the same set while making the directions opposite to each other, it is suitable for a motor that has high torque and reduces the waveform distortion of the back electromotive voltage to improve the efficiency. Applicable.
[0017]
Furthermore, if the windings having the same winding direction in the same phase of the motor are collectively separated windings, the windings are separated for each magnetic pole tooth. This is advantageous in terms of insulation as compared with the case of applying.
[0018]
Further, when the inverters are connected in series, if the PWM switching timings of the inverters are not overlapped with each other, the switching frequency of the inverters is reduced to reduce the loss generated at the time of switching, and the load applied to the elements is reduced. The audible frequency can be removed by increasing the driving frequency of the device, and noise can be reduced.
[0019]
In addition, when an electric double-phase capacitor is connected in parallel with the inverter, it absorbs the electrical noise generated by the switching of the inverter, eliminates control malfunctions, suppresses electrical noise that goes out, and prevents electromagnetic interference to external devices. it can.
[0020]
In addition, the method of driving a motor according to the present invention, when the power supply voltage for driving the motor is low, or when a high output torque is required for the motor, or in both cases, connect the inverter of the motor in series, and then The operation is switched to the parallel connection, and the above-described effects can be obtained.
[0021]
In addition, in the case of a hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell vehicle, or an electric vehicle, particularly when a lithium ion battery is used as a power source, the battery capacity can be reduced by providing the above motor as a motor for driving a vehicle. A large effect can be achieved in terms of reducing the size and weight of the vehicle and operating.
[0022]
Further, in the above-mentioned automobile, the power supply unit has a battery, and means for monitoring the temperature of the battery, and means for controlling the inverter not to be connected in series when the battery temperature is equal to or higher than a certain value, are switched. Even when a relay having a small permissible number of uses is used as a means, the above effect can be stably exhibited over a long period of time.
[0023]
In the above-mentioned automobile, an alternator for generating low voltage or a DCDC converter for converting high voltage to low voltage and a means for switching at least one set of windings for power generation when the alternator or the DCDC converter fails. Thus, the operation can be continued even when the alternator or the DCDC converter fails.
[0024]
Further, in the above-mentioned automobile, when the battery capacity is reduced, if a means for externally connecting a power supply of 50 V or less to at least one or more inverters is provided, a simple configuration can be used at extremely low temperatures or when the battery capacity is exhausted. Also, it is possible to easily start using an external power supply without fear of electric shock.
[0025]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0026]
(1st Embodiment)
FIG. 1 is a block diagram for explaining an electric motor of the present embodiment and a driving method thereof, and FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along a plane perpendicular to a rotation axis of the electric motor. In FIG. 1, 1 is an electric motor, 1a is a first winding wound in a U phase, 1b is a second winding wound in a U phase, and 2a is a first winding wound in a V phase. Reference numeral 1 denotes a winding, 2b denotes a second winding wound in the V phase, 3a denotes a first winding wound in the W phase, and 3b denotes a second winding wound in the W phase. is there. As shown in FIG. 2, the U-phase first and second windings 1a and 1b are respectively wound around three successively located magnetic pole teeth portions 10a, 10b and 10c, and are adjacent to each other. The parts 10a, 10c and 10b are wound in opposite directions. The V-phase and W-phase windings 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b are similarly wound.
[0027]
Reference numeral 4 denotes a first inverter connected to the first windings 1a, 2a, 3a, and reference numeral 5 denotes a second inverter connected to the second windings 1b, 2b, 3b. 4a and 5a are the positive inputs of the inverters 4 and 5, and 4b and 5b are the negative inputs of the inverters 4 and 5. Reference numeral 6 denotes a battery as a drive power supply. Reference numeral 7 denotes a relay unit for switching the inverters 4 and 5 to the battery 6 so as to be connected in series or parallel. 8 is a temperature detector for detecting the temperature of the battery 6, and 9 is a battery management unit.
[0028]
The positive input 4a of the first inverter 4 is on the common side of the relay 7a, the negative input 4b is on the negative side of the battery 6 and the normally closed side of the relay 7b, and the positive input 5a of the second inverter 5 is the battery. 6, the negative input 5b is connected to the common side of the relay 7b, and the normally open side of the relay 7a is connected to the normally open side of the relay 7b.
[0029]
Next, the operation will be described. The temperature of the battery 6 is detected by the temperature detector 8, and when the temperature is lower than a predetermined value, for example, 0 ° C., an instruction is issued from the battery management unit 9 to the relay unit 7, and the relays 7a and 7b are operated to disconnect the common side. The normally closed side is switched to the normally open side, and the positive side input 4a of the first inverter 4 is connected to the negative side input 5b of the second inverter 5.
[0030]
By this operation, two sets of motor windings are connected in series to the battery 6. Depending on the unit system, the torque constant is equal to the induced voltage constant, and if the torque constants of the two windings are equal, the series connection will reduce the induced voltage constant to twice the torque constant T2 (Nm / A) in the case of parallel connection. As a result, the torque constant T1 (Nm / A) also doubles.
[0031]
Although the motor torque is determined by the product of the torque constant and the current, the torque constant is doubled when the windings are in series, so that the motor current with respect to the required torque at the time of starting the motor is only one half. Here, assuming that the required torque for starting the internal combustion engine is T1 (Nm) and the required rotation speed is N1 (rad / sec), the input W1 to the internal combustion engine required for starting is:
W1 = T1 × N1 (W) (1)
It becomes. Considering an ideal state with no loss in each part, the output of the electric motor at the time of starting is equal to this W1, and when the electric motor and the internal combustion engine are directly connected without passing through the reduction gear, the rotational speeds become equal to each other. The required torque of the motor is also equal to the starting torque and is also T1. On the other hand, when the battery output voltage under the above conditions is Vb (V), and the efficiencies of the motor 1, the inverters 4, 5 and the like are ideal and there is no loss, the output current I1 of the battery 6 becomes
I1 = W1 / Vb (A) (2)
It becomes.
[0032]
This is constant regardless of the torque constant of the electric motor 1. However, in reality, there is a loss in each of the inverters 4 and 5 and the electric motor 1. Here, assuming that the inverter efficiency is Ei, the motor efficiency is E1 when the inverter is directly connected to the power supply, and E2 is when the inverter is parallel, the battery current is I2 when the inverter is directly connected and I3 when the inverter is parallel.
I2 = W1 / (Vb × Ei × E1) (A) (3)
I3 = W1 / (Vb × Ei × E2) (A) (4)
It becomes.
[0033]
On the other hand, the motor efficiency is 0 at 0, 0 at the maximum no-load speed, and between 0 speed and the no-load maximum speed, the motor efficiency becomes maximum at a speed slightly closer to the maximum speed. When compared in terms of quantity, since the maximum efficiency is almost the same, the motor having a larger torque constant has a higher efficiency in a speed region relatively close to 0 between 0 and the no-load maximum rotation speed.
[0034]
That is,
E1> E2 (5)
So,
I2 <I3 (6)
It becomes.
[0035]
When there is a double difference between the torque constants T1 and T2, the difference between E1 and E2 is considerably large.
E1 >> E2 (7)
Therefore, the difference in battery current also increases,
I2 << I3 (8)
It becomes.
[0036]
Therefore, if the battery output is W2 when the motor drive inverters are connected in series and W3 when the motor drive inverters are connected in parallel,
W2 = I1 × Vb (W) (9)
W3 = I2 × Vb (W) (10)
Can be expressed as
W2 << W3 (11)
When the inverter is connected in series, it is only necessary to output low power, and it is not necessary to use a large-capacity battery 6 at startup, especially when the battery temperature is low.
[0037]
Further, once the electric motor 1 is started, the battery temperature rises rapidly due to the heat generated by energization, and the battery capacity returns to a larger value than at low temperatures.
[0038]
On the other hand, during normal running, the motor needs to rotate up to the maximum rotation speed of the internal combustion engine, but since the maximum rotation speed of the motor is determined by the torque constant, that is, the induced voltage constant, the induced voltage constant is set to a somewhat low value. There is a need to. Here, in the present embodiment, a countermeasure is taken by connecting the inverter in parallel to the power supply during normal running and setting the induced voltage constant to half that at the time of starting the internal combustion engine.
[0039]
As described above, in the present embodiment, the relay unit 7 that switches the torque constant of the motor at the time of starting the motor is provided. However, since the allowable number of operations is not as large as that of the semiconductor, the battery temperature detector 8 detects the temperature, The operation of the relay unit 7 for switching the connection to the power supply by inputting the signal to the power supply 9 can be limited to the case where the battery voltage is low.
[0040]
In this case, the normally-on state of the relays 7a and 7b can be either the series or parallel side of the above operation. Note that the relay may be made of a semiconductor.
[0041]
As shown in FIG. 2, the electric motor 1 in the present embodiment includes a plurality of motors that are continuously located in the same manner as the electric motor described in the specification and drawings of Japanese Patent Application No. 2002-329454, which is a prior application of the present applicant. An embedded magnet type electric motor (hereinafter referred to as a multi-forked motor) having a stator in which the magnetic pole teeth are in phase and the winding directions of the windings of the magnet pole teeth adjacent to each other in the same phase are reversed. As an example, similar effects can be achieved by applying the same method to a normal concentrated winding motor or a distributed winding motor.
[0042]
(Second embodiment)
Next, an electric motor according to a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the following description of the embodiment, the same components as those in the preceding embodiment will be denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof will be omitted, and different points will be mainly described.
[0043]
In the present embodiment, in the same multi-forked motor as the first embodiment, the first winding 1c is wound around the U-phase magnetic pole teeth 10a and 10c, and the second winding is wound on the U-phase magnetic pole teeth 10b. The first winding 2c is wound around the V-phase magnetic pole teeth 11a and 11c, the second winding 2d is wound around the V-phase magnetic pole teeth 11b, and W A first winding 3c is wound around the magnetic pole teeth 12a and 12c of the phase, and a second winding 3d is wound around the magnetic pole teeth 12b of the W phase.
[0044]
The same effect can be obtained by applying the same driving method as that of the first embodiment to the electric motor of this embodiment, and in this embodiment, the first windings 1c, 2c, 3c and the second winding Since the windings 1d, 2d, and 3d are wound around independent magnetic pole teeth, respectively, it is advantageous in terms of insulation configuration. In particular, between the first and second windings, 1c and 1d, 2c and 2d, 3c There is no need to take a special insulating configuration between 3d, and it has a feature that a simple configuration can be achieved.
[0045]
Further, in the present embodiment, a multi-forked motor is taken as an example. However, a normal three-phase motor may have the same configuration as long as it has four or more poles. For example, a plurality of U phases may be provided for each magnetic pole tooth portion. The same application can be made by separating the first and second windings and separating the V and W phases in the same manner.
[0046]
(Third embodiment)
Next, a method for driving an electric motor according to a third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
[0047]
In FIG. 4, 13 is a control signal for the first inverter 4 and 14 is a control signal for the second inverter 5.
[0048]
The car itself is quiet when stopped, generating no noise, but it is advantageous to increase the switching frequency of the inverter and remove the audible frequency to reduce noise when starting the internal combustion engine when starting from here There is. As described above, when the temperature of the battery 6 is equal to or less than a certain value, an inverter is connected in series to the battery 6, but since the inverters 4 and 5 are controlled for the same motor, the energization phase is Although they are controlled completely synchronously, if one of the inverters is off because of the series connection, the other inverter is also off regardless of the state of the switching element.
[0049]
Therefore, as shown in FIG. 4, if the control signals 13 and 14 are alternately turned on and off and the respective switching frequencies are set to F (Hz), the entire motor is turned on and off at 2 F (Hz). Thus, a higher frequency is achieved. On the other hand, since the switching elements of the inverters 4 and 5 are driven at F (Hz) and have a value lower than the driving frequency of the electric motor, the loss that occurs at the time of switching is small and the load on the elements is reduced. To play.
[0050]
(Fourth embodiment)
Next, a configuration of a motor according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
[0051]
5, reference numeral 15 denotes an electric double-phase capacitor connected in parallel to the first inverter 4, and reference numeral 16 denotes an electric double-phase capacitor connected in parallel to the second inverter 5.
[0052]
When the electric double-phase capacitors 15 and 16 are connected in parallel to the inverters 4 and 5 as described above, for example, when the inverters 4 and 5 are connected in series, electric noise due to switching generated by each inverter is absorbed and control is performed. The effect of eliminating the malfunction of can be expected. In addition, since the electric noise that is output from the inverters 4 and 5 to the outside is suppressed, it is possible to take measures against electromagnetic interference to external devices.
[0053]
(Fifth embodiment)
Next, a fifth embodiment in which the electric motor of the present invention is applied to an automobile will be described with reference to FIG.
[0054]
6, 17 is an internal combustion engine, 18 is an electric motor, 19 is a transmission, 20 is a differential gear, 21 is an axle and wheels, 22 is a vehicle control unit, and 23 is an internal combustion engine control unit. 22a is a signal line between the battery management unit 9 and the vehicle control unit 22, 22b is a signal line between the vehicle control unit 22 and the internal combustion engine control unit 23, and 22c is a signal for the vehicle control unit 22 such as vehicle speed and other various signals. Signal lines 23a for inputting and outputting necessary signals are signal lines between the internal combustion engine 17 and the internal combustion engine control unit 23.
[0055]
When the vehicle is started, the internal combustion engine 17 is stopped, but the electric motor 18 is driven by the inverters 4 and 5 to start the internal combustion engine 17 and to drive the axles and wheels 21 to move the vehicle. At this time, when the battery 6 composed of a battery unit is at a certain temperature, for example, 0 ° C. or lower, the battery management unit 9 detects this, activates the relay unit 7 and connects the inverters 4 and 5 in series with the battery 6. Connect to
[0056]
As a result, the induced voltage constant of the motor 18 is increased, so that starting can be reliably performed with a smaller current than in the case of the parallel connection. At this time, the current flowing out of the battery 6 can be reduced. Start is possible.
[0057]
Further, for example, the output required of the electric motor when traveling at high speed from normal speed is usually about 1 to 3 kW, depending on the vehicle weight and specifications. On the other hand, when the motor efficiency is about 30% at 400 to 800 rpm and the inverter efficiency is about 95%, the battery output needs to have a capacity of about 7 kW. Incidentally, the input required for starting the internal combustion engine at a low temperature is about 2 kW.
[0058]
Here, when the induced voltage constant of the motor is doubled, the motor efficiency at 400 to 800 rpm is improved to about 60%. The motor loss here is mostly copper loss, and if the motor current is reduced by half, the loss is expected to be reduced by half. Thus, the capacity of the battery 6 mounted on the hybrid vehicle can be reduced, which is effective in reducing the size and weight of the vehicle, and can reduce the cost and provide a vehicle having excellent properties.
[0059]
(Sixth embodiment)
Next, a sixth embodiment in which the electric motor of the present invention is applied to an automobile will be described with reference to FIG.
[0060]
In FIG. 7, reference numeral 24 denotes a second relay unit, which includes relays 24a and 24b interlocked with each other. 25 is a low voltage battery. 26 is a DCDC converter, 26a is its high voltage side, and 26b is its low voltage side.
[0061]
The positive input 4a of the inverter 4 is connected to the common side of the relay 7a, and the negative input 4b is connected to the common side of the relay 24a. The positive input 5a of the inverter 5 is connected to the positive side of the battery 6 and the normally closed side of the relay 24b, and the negative input 5b is connected to the common side of the relay 7b. The normally open side of the relay 7a is connected to the normally open side of the relay 7b. The normally closed side of the relay 7a is connected to the common side of the relay 24b. The normally closed side of the relay 24a is connected to the negative side of the battery 6 and the normally closed side of the relay 7b, and the normally open side is connected to the negative side of the low voltage battery 25. The normally open side of the relay 24b is connected to the positive side of the low voltage battery 25 and the low voltage side 26b of the DCDC converter 26. The high voltage side 26a of the DCDC converter 26 is connected to the positive side of the battery 6, and the low voltage side 26b is connected to the positive side of the low voltage battery 25.
[0062]
The low-voltage battery 25 supplies 12 V power to auxiliary equipment and control circuits, and is normally charged by converting the voltage of the high-voltage battery 6 via the DCDC converter 26.
[0063]
In this embodiment, when the DCDC converter 26 fails, the relay unit 2 is operated, the inverter 4 is connected in parallel with the low-voltage battery 25, and the power generated in the motor windings 1a, 2a, 3a is supplied to the inverter 4. Rectification and power control to charge the low-voltage battery 25 and to drive auxiliary equipment and a control circuit.
[0064]
Thus, when the DCDC converter 26 fails, charging of the low-voltage battery 25 cannot be performed, the battery voltage drops, and it is possible to prevent a situation in which the auxiliary equipment and the control circuit stop.
[0065]
Although FIG. 7 illustrates an example in which a DCDC converter is used, a similar effect can be obtained in a configuration in which a low-voltage alternator, a voltage stabilizing circuit, and a rectifying circuit are combined instead of the DCDC converter.
[0066]
(Seventh embodiment)
Next, a seventh embodiment in which the electric motor of the present invention is applied to an automobile will be described with reference to FIG.
[0067]
In the present embodiment, as shown by a virtual line in FIG. 7, an external power supply 27 is connected in parallel to the low-voltage battery 25 so that power can be supplied.
[0068]
With this configuration, when it is difficult to start the internal combustion engine 17 due to a decrease in the capacity of the battery 6 in a cold region or a decrease in capacity due to aging of the battery 6, the external power supply 27 is connected in parallel to the low-voltage battery 25. By operating the relay unit 24 and connecting the inverter 4 in parallel with the low-voltage battery 25 in the same manner as in the sixth embodiment, it is possible to externally supply power to the low-voltage battery 25 and start the internal combustion engine 17. It becomes possible. In addition, power can be easily supplied by setting the voltage of the external power supply 27 to 50 V or less at which there is no risk of electric shock.
[0069]
【The invention's effect】
According to the invention, it comprises at least two separate windings, at least two inverters connected to the windings, and means for switching these inverters to a power supply such that they are connected in series or in parallel. Therefore, when the capacity of the battery power source decreases at a low temperature or the like, by connecting at least two inverters in series with the power source, a desired motor output can be obtained even if only a small battery current can be obtained from the power source. Obtainable.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of an electric motor and a driving method thereof according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view showing a winding configuration of the electric motor of the embodiment.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a winding configuration of a motor according to a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a drive timing chart of an inverter according to a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of a motor according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of a hybrid vehicle according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of a motor according to a sixth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a schematic configuration diagram of a conventional hybrid vehicle.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 Electric motor
1a, 1c, 2a, 3a First winding
1b, 1d, 2b, 3b Second winding
4 First inverter
5 Second inverter
6 batteries
7 Relay unit
8 Temperature detector
9 Battery management unit
10a, 10b, 10c U-phase magnetic pole teeth
11a, 11b, 11c V-phase magnetic pole teeth
12a, 12b, 12c W-phase magnetic pole teeth
15, 16 Electric double phase capacitor
17 Internal combustion engine
18 Electric motor
24 Second relay unit
25 Low voltage battery
26 DCDC Converter
27 External power supply

Claims (13)

  1. At least two or more separate windings arranged in the same phase of the motor, two or more inverters connected to those windings, and either of these inverters connected in series or parallel to a power supply. An electric motor, comprising: switching means for switching and connecting the crab.
  2. The electric motor includes a stator having a stator core having a plurality of magnetic pole teeth, a stator including windings wound around the magnetic pole teeth, and a rotor including a permanent magnet. And the windings wound on the same set of magnetic pole teeth are made into at least two or more separate windings, and the winding directions of the windings of the adjacent magnetic pole teeth in the same set are mutually different. 2. The electric motor according to claim 1, wherein currents of the same phase are applied to windings in the same set in opposite directions.
  3. 3. The electric motor according to claim 2, wherein the windings having the same winding direction in the same phase of the motor are collectively separated windings.
  4. The electric motor according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein when the inverters are connected in series, the PWM switching timings of the inverters do not overlap each other.
  5. The electric motor according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein an electric double-phase capacitor is connected in parallel with the inverter.
  6. The method for driving an electric motor according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein a power supply voltage for driving the electric motor is low, or a high output torque is required for the electric motor, or in both cases, the inverter is driven. A method for driving an electric motor, comprising connecting in series and then switching to parallel connection.
  7. A hybrid vehicle comprising the motor according to claim 1 as a motor for driving a vehicle.
  8. A fuel cell vehicle comprising the motor according to claim 1 as a motor for driving a vehicle.
  9. An electric vehicle, comprising the electric motor according to claim 1 as a motor for driving a vehicle.
  10. The vehicle according to any one of claims 7 to 9, wherein a lithium ion battery is used as a power supply.
  11. The vehicle according to any one of claims 7 to 10, further comprising a battery in the power supply unit, and means for monitoring the temperature of the battery, and controlling the inverter not to be connected in series when the battery temperature is higher than a certain value. A vehicle comprising:
  12. The vehicle according to any one of claims 7 to 10, wherein an alternator for generating low voltage or a DCDC converter for converting high voltage to low voltage, and at least one set of windings when the alternator or DCDC converter fails. A vehicle characterized by comprising means for switching power for power generation.
  13. 12. The vehicle according to claim 7, further comprising means for externally connecting a power supply of 50 V or less to at least one or more inverters when the battery capacity is reduced.
JP2003156380A 2003-06-02 2003-06-02 Motor, drive method thereof, and automobile Pending JP2004364352A (en)

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WO2006100420A1 (en) * 2005-03-21 2006-09-28 Converteam Ltd Electrical machine topologies
JP2007104789A (en) * 2005-10-03 2007-04-19 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Power conversion system and electric vehicle equipped therewith
JP2007238086A (en) * 2006-03-07 2007-09-20 Zf Lenksysteme Gmbh Steering device with electric assist
JP2007295720A (en) * 2006-04-25 2007-11-08 Denso Corp Vehicular motor device
JP2008154444A (en) * 2006-11-22 2008-07-03 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Power converter
JP2008228399A (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-25 Denso Corp Vehicular ac motor device
CN100536316C (en) 2005-11-30 2009-09-02 株式会社日立制作所 Motor driving device and automobile using the same
JP2011050150A (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-03-10 Mazda Motor Corp Motor drive method and driving device for electric vehicles
WO2012062376A1 (en) * 2010-11-12 2012-05-18 Abb Research Ltd A rotating electrical machine and corresponding method
JP2012182893A (en) * 2011-03-01 2012-09-20 Hino Motors Ltd Motor drive controller for hybrid vehicle
US8415845B2 (en) 2009-06-24 2013-04-09 Denso Corporation Motor
US8760111B2 (en) 2011-02-03 2014-06-24 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Secondary battery output power controller
JP2014201198A (en) * 2013-04-04 2014-10-27 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Electric power steering system
JP2015042509A (en) * 2013-08-26 2015-03-05 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Electric power source device for hybrid vehicle
JP2015189442A (en) * 2014-03-28 2015-11-02 トヨタ自動車株式会社 power steering system
WO2016132450A1 (en) * 2015-02-17 2016-08-25 三菱電機株式会社 Permanent magnet three-phase duplex motor and electric power steering device
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WO2006100420A1 (en) * 2005-03-21 2006-09-28 Converteam Ltd Electrical machine topologies
JP2007104789A (en) * 2005-10-03 2007-04-19 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Power conversion system and electric vehicle equipped therewith
CN100536316C (en) 2005-11-30 2009-09-02 株式会社日立制作所 Motor driving device and automobile using the same
JP2007238086A (en) * 2006-03-07 2007-09-20 Zf Lenksysteme Gmbh Steering device with electric assist
JP2007295720A (en) * 2006-04-25 2007-11-08 Denso Corp Vehicular motor device
JP2008154444A (en) * 2006-11-22 2008-07-03 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Power converter
JP2008228399A (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-25 Denso Corp Vehicular ac motor device
US8415845B2 (en) 2009-06-24 2013-04-09 Denso Corporation Motor
JP2011050150A (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-03-10 Mazda Motor Corp Motor drive method and driving device for electric vehicles
WO2012062376A1 (en) * 2010-11-12 2012-05-18 Abb Research Ltd A rotating electrical machine and corresponding method
US8760111B2 (en) 2011-02-03 2014-06-24 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Secondary battery output power controller
JP2012182893A (en) * 2011-03-01 2012-09-20 Hino Motors Ltd Motor drive controller for hybrid vehicle
JP2014201198A (en) * 2013-04-04 2014-10-27 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Electric power steering system
JP2015042509A (en) * 2013-08-26 2015-03-05 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Electric power source device for hybrid vehicle
JP2015189442A (en) * 2014-03-28 2015-11-02 トヨタ自動車株式会社 power steering system
WO2016132450A1 (en) * 2015-02-17 2016-08-25 三菱電機株式会社 Permanent magnet three-phase duplex motor and electric power steering device
JPWO2016132450A1 (en) * 2015-02-17 2017-06-08 三菱電機株式会社 Permanent magnet type three-phase duplex motor and electric power steering device
CN107251410A (en) * 2015-02-17 2017-10-13 三菱电机株式会社 The double threephase motors of permanent-magnet type and electric power-assisted steering apparatus
EP3261248A4 (en) * 2015-02-17 2018-10-24 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Permanent magnet three-phase duplex motor and electric power steering device
WO2019193749A1 (en) * 2018-04-06 2019-10-10 三菱電機株式会社 Ac rotating machine apparatus

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