JP2000192547A - Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure - Google Patents

Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure

Info

Publication number
JP2000192547A
JP2000192547A JP10373435A JP37343598A JP2000192547A JP 2000192547 A JP2000192547 A JP 2000192547A JP 10373435 A JP10373435 A JP 10373435A JP 37343598 A JP37343598 A JP 37343598A JP 2000192547 A JP2000192547 A JP 2000192547A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
column
joining
receiving piece
reinforcing beam
beam receiving
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP10373435A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Junji Ando
純二 安藤
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
YAMASHITA SEKKEI KK
Original Assignee
YAMASHITA SEKKEI KK
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by YAMASHITA SEKKEI KK filed Critical YAMASHITA SEKKEI KK
Priority to JP10373435A priority Critical patent/JP2000192547A/en
Publication of JP2000192547A publication Critical patent/JP2000192547A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent brittle failure of a joining part by reinforcing a lower edge position of a beam of the stress concentrating joining part, and efficiently absorbing earthquake energy. SOLUTION: A reinforcing beam receiving piece (dead soft steel) 10 capable of receiving width directional both edge parts by an under surface of a beam 13 is fixed to a beam joining position 4 on a side surface of a column 1. The beam 13 is temporarily arranged on the column 1 while being placed on the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10. The column 1 and the beam 13 are joined, and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 and a lower flange 15 of the beam 13 are welded to complete joining of the column 1 and the beam 13.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】[0001]

【発明の属する技術分野】この発明は、鉄骨構造物にお
ける柱部材と横架材との接合方法及び接合構造に関す
る。
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a joining method and a joining structure between a column member and a horizontal member in a steel structure.

【0002】[0002]

【従来の技術】鉄骨構造物では、一般に箱型断面の柱
と、H型鋼からなる梁を用いる場合が多い。先の兵庫県
南部地震において、このような骨組みの柱梁であって接
合部近傍の梁下フランジの破断が問題となり、多くの機
関でその原因の究明と対策が提案されている。柱梁接合
部は柱と梁とを工場溶接するブラケット形式と、梁を柱
に現場で溶接する現場溶接形式(梁フランジを現場溶接
とし、梁ウエブを高力ボルト接合する混合接合も含む)
との大きく分けられている。
2. Description of the Related Art In a steel structure, a column having a box-shaped cross section and a beam made of H-shaped steel are generally used in many cases. In the previous Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, the fracture of the flange under the beam near the joint in such a frame-column beam became a problem, and many institutions have investigated the cause and proposed countermeasures. Beam-to-column joints include a bracket type for factory-welding columns and beams, and a field-welding type for welding beams to columns on site (including mixed joints where beam flanges are site-welded and beam webs are joined by high-strength bolts).
It is roughly divided.

【0003】[0003]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】一般に、梁の上部には
コンクリートその他のスラブがあり、上フランジは座屈
が押さえられている為に、下フランジの引張破断が先行
する問題点があった。また、工場溶接の場合には、ノン
スカラップ工法の採用により、従来のように溶接用のス
カラップ部底からのフランジ破断を防ぐことができる
が、現場溶接の場合には、スカラップがどうしても必要
となり、ここに応力集中が生じ、脆性的な断面破壊の起
点となる問題点があった。
Generally, concrete and other slabs are provided on the upper part of the beam, and the upper flange is restrained from buckling, so that there is a problem that the lower flange is preceded by a tensile fracture. In the case of factory welding, the non-scallop construction method can be used to prevent the fracture of the flange from the bottom of the welding scallop as in the past, but in the case of field welding, scallop is absolutely necessary. There is a problem that stress concentration occurs in the steel and the brittle cross-sectional fracture starts.

【0004】[0004]

【課題を解決するための手段】然るにこの発明では、梁
などの横架材の下面と柱の側面との間に補強梁受けピー
スを設けたので、前記従来の問題点を解決した。
In the present invention, however, the above-mentioned conventional problems are solved by providing the reinforcing beam receiving piece between the lower surface of the horizontal member such as a beam and the side surface of the column.

【0005】即ちこの発明は、鉄骨構造物における柱部
材と横架材とを接合する方法であって、柱部材の側面に
横架材の端縁部を所定の接合をした後、横架材の下面で
幅方向の両端縁部と柱部材の側面との間に、補強梁受け
ピースを接合することを特徴とする柱部材と横架材との
接合方法である。また、他の発明は、鉄骨構造物におけ
る柱部材と横架材とを接合する方法であって、柱部材の
側面であって横架材接合位置に、該横架材の下面で幅方
向の両端縁部を受けることができる補強梁受けピースを
固着し、前記柱部材を立設した後、前記柱部材の側面に
横架材を接合すると共に、前記補強梁受けピースと前記
横架材とを溶接することを特徴とする柱部材と横架材と
の接合方法である。
That is, the present invention relates to a method of joining a column member and a cross member in a steel structure, and after joining an end portion of the cross member to a side surface of the column member in a predetermined manner, A reinforcing beam receiving piece is joined between both edge portions in the width direction and the side surface of the column member on the lower surface of the column member. Further, another invention is a method of joining a column member and a cross member in a steel structure, wherein the side surface of the column member and the cross member joining position are arranged in the width direction on the lower surface of the cross member. After fixing the reinforcing beam receiving piece capable of receiving both end edges and erecting the column member, a horizontal member is joined to a side surface of the column member, and the reinforcing beam receiving piece and the horizontal member are connected to each other. Is welded to the column member and the horizontal member.

【0006】前記において、補強梁受けピースを、並列
した2枚の板片から構成した柱部材と横架材との接合方
法の発明である。また、補強梁受けピースを並列した2
枚の板片とし、該板片の上端部内面に、横架材の内面に
当接できる支持突起を夫々溶接して構成した柱部材と横
架材との接合方法の発明である。また、補強梁受けピー
スを、横架材の接合端部下面の全幅に亘り当接する受け
板の下面に、1枚又は並列した複数枚の縦片を溶接して
構成した柱部材と横架材との接合方法の発明である。
In the above, there is provided an invention of a method for joining a column member and a horizontal member, each of which has a reinforcing beam receiving piece formed of two parallel plate pieces. In addition, two reinforcing beam receiving pieces are arranged in parallel.
The present invention is a method of joining a column member and a lateral member, each of which is formed by welding a support protrusion capable of contacting an inner surface of a lateral member to an inner surface of an upper end portion of the plate member. Further, a column member and a horizontal member which are formed by welding one or a plurality of parallel vertical pieces to the lower surface of a receiving plate which abuts the reinforcing beam receiving piece over the entire width of the lower surface of the joint end portion of the horizontal member. It is an invention of a method of joining with the.

【0007】また、前記各発明において、補強梁受けピ
ースは、極軟鋼から構成することが望ましい。
In each of the above-mentioned inventions, the reinforcing beam receiving piece is desirably made of extremely mild steel.

【0008】また、この発明は、鉄骨構造物における柱
部材と横架材との接合位置において、柱部材の側面と横
架材の下面との間に、極軟鋼からなる補強梁受けピース
を固着した接合構造であって、前記補強梁受けピース
は、横架材の下面であって幅方向の両端縁を支持できる
縦方向の板材を有する構造としたことを特徴とする柱部
材と横架材との接合構造である。
According to the present invention, a reinforcing beam receiving piece made of extremely mild steel is fixed between a side surface of the column member and a lower surface of the horizontal member at a joint position between the column member and the horizontal member in the steel structure. A column member and a horizontal member, wherein the reinforcing beam receiving piece has a structure in which a lower surface of the horizontal member and a vertical plate material capable of supporting both widthwise edges are supported. It is a joining structure.

【0009】前記における柱部材とは、縦方向の部材を
指し、例えば柱をいう。また、前記における横架材と
は、横方向に配置する部材を指し、例えば梁、胴差し等
をいう。また、柱部材として、主にダイアフラムで補強
した鋼管の場合に顕著な効果が得られるが、H型鋼その
他の鋼材の単独又は組合わせの構造でも可能である。ま
た、横架材としては、溶接用のスカラップをウエブに形
成したH型鋼の場合に顕著な効果が得られるが、他の構
造の横架材とすることもできる。
The column member in the above refers to a member in the vertical direction, for example, a column. In addition, the horizontal member in the above refers to a member arranged in the horizontal direction, and refers to, for example, a beam, a trunk, and the like. In addition, a remarkable effect is obtained in the case of a steel pipe mainly reinforced with a diaphragm as a column member, but a structure of an H-shaped steel or other steel materials alone or in combination is also possible. Further, as the horizontal member, a remarkable effect is obtained in the case of an H-shaped steel in which scallops for welding are formed on a web, but a horizontal member having another structure can also be used.

【0010】前記における極軟鋼とは、降伏点(又は0.
2 %耐力)は90〜250[N/mm2 ]程度、引張り
強さ200〜400[N/mm2 ]程度、伸び40〜5
0[%]以上のものをいう。例えば、日本鋼管製NK−
LY100、NK−LY235等をいう。極軟鋼を使用
するにより、梁本体や接合部の降伏より先に補強梁受け
ピースを降伏させることができ、地震力が作用した場合
等で、接合部や梁の変形を吸収できる。従って、同じ地
震力では、接合部や梁の降伏を遅らせることができ、よ
り大きな地震力でも接合部や梁の降伏を防ぐことがで
き、結果として、接合部の強度と靭性とを高めることが
できる。
In the above, the mild steel is defined as the yield point (or 0.1%).
2% yield strength) of about 90 to 250 [N / mm 2 ], tensile strength of about 200 to 400 [N / mm 2 ], and elongation of 40 to 5
It means the one with 0 [%] or more. For example, NK-
LY100, NK-LY235, etc. By using extremely mild steel, the reinforcing beam receiving piece can be yielded prior to yielding of the beam body and the joint, and deformation of the joint and the beam can be absorbed in the case where seismic force acts. Therefore, with the same seismic force, the yielding of the joints and beams can be delayed, and the yielding of the joints and beams can be prevented even with a larger seismic force.As a result, the strength and toughness of the joints can be increased. it can.

【0011】[0011]

【発明の実施の形態】工場で予め柱1の側面であって梁
接合位置4に、梁13の下フランジ15の下面15で、
幅方向の両端縁部を受けることができる補強梁受けピー
ス10、10を固着する。補強梁受けピース10は極軟
鋼製である。構築現場で、柱1を立設する。柱1、1間
に、補強梁受けピース10、10に載置しながら、梁1
3を仮設する。柱1と梁13のウエブ17、上下フラン
ジとを接合する。補強梁受けピース10、10と梁13
の下フランジ15とを溶接して柱1と梁13との接合を
完了する。
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION In a factory, a side surface of a pillar 1 and a beam joining position 4 and a lower surface 15 of a lower flange 15
The reinforcing beam receiving pieces 10, 10 capable of receiving both end portions in the width direction are fixed. The reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is made of extremely mild steel. Pillar 1 is erected at the construction site. The beam 1 is placed between the columns 1 and 1 while being placed on the reinforcing beam receiving pieces 10 and 10.
3 is provisionally set. The column 1, the web 17 of the beam 13, and the upper and lower flanges are joined. Reinforcement beam receiving pieces 10, 10 and beam 13
The lower flange 15 is welded to complete the joining of the column 1 and the beam 13.

【0012】[0012]

【実施例1】図1〜3に基づきこの発明の実施例を説明
する。
Embodiment 1 An embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

【0013】(1) 角形鋼管からなる柱1は、梁接合位
置4で、梁のフランジ14、15位置に合わせてダイア
フラム5、5が介装溶接されて構成される、いわゆる通
しダイアフラム構造である。また、柱1の梁接合位置4
で、梁13のウエブ17位置に合わせて、かつウエブ1
7の接合用のボルト孔18、18に合わせてボルト孔
8、8を穿設したガセットプレート7が突設されてい
る。
(1) The column 1 made of a rectangular steel pipe has a so-called through-diaphragm structure in which the diaphragms 5 and 5 are interposed and welded at the beam joining positions 4 in accordance with the positions of the flanges 14 and 15 of the beams. . In addition, beam connection position 4 of column 1
To adjust the position of the web 13 of the beam 13 and the web 1
A gusset plate 7 in which bolt holes 8 are drilled in accordance with the bolt holes 18 for joining 7 is provided.

【0014】また、前記柱1の梁接合位置4で、梁13
の下フランジ15の下面16位置に合わせて、その上縁
を位置させた補強梁受けピース10を突設する。前記補
強梁受けピース10は極軟鋼から形成され、成分は、 C 0.002%(重量) Si 0.010% Mn 0.160% P 0.013% S 0.001% 程度である。また、前記補強梁受けピース10は、柱側
面から水平方向(梁の長さ方向)の長さL、高さH、厚
さDで形成され、受けるべき梁の構造・大きさや補強梁
受けピースの材質にもよるが、L=150〜300m
m、H=75〜150mm、D=9〜32mm程度で形
成される。また、補強梁受けピース10の上縁外側に溶
接用の斜面11が形成されている(図1(a)
(c))。
At the beam joining position 4 of the column 1, the beam 13
The reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 with its upper edge positioned is projected to match the position of the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15. The reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is formed of extremely mild steel and has a composition of about C 0.002% (weight) Si 0.010% Mn 0.160% P 0.013% S 0.001%. The reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is formed with a length L, a height H, and a thickness D in the horizontal direction (the length direction of the beam) from the side surface of the column, and the structure and size of the beam to be received and the reinforcing beam receiving piece. L = 150-300m, depending on the material
m, H = 75 to 150 mm, D = 9 to 32 mm. Also, a slope 11 for welding is formed on the outer side of the upper edge of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 (FIG. 1A).
(C)).

【0015】(2) 梁13は上下フランジ14、15とウ
エブ17とからなるH型鋼で、ウエブ17には、接合用
のボルト孔18、18を穿設してあり、ウエブ17の上
下端部には溶接用のスカラップ(切欠)19、19が形
成されている(図1(c))。
(2) The beam 13 is an H-shaped steel comprising upper and lower flanges 14 and 15 and a web 17, and the web 17 is provided with bolt holes 18 and 18 for joining. Are formed with scallops (notches) 19 for welding (FIG. 1 (c)).

【0016】(3) 以上のように工場で製造した柱1、梁
13を構築現場に搬入する。
(3) The columns 1 and beams 13 manufactured in the factory as described above are carried into the construction site.

【0017】(4) 所定位置に立設した柱1、1間に、梁
13を仮設する。この際梁13は、補強梁受けピース1
0上に位置し、梁13の下フランジ15の下面16で、
両端縁(梁の幅方向)16a、16aに沿って補強梁受
けピース10、10が配置される。補強梁受けピース1
0により、梁13を仮設する位置合わせと、ボルト締め
するまでに梁13を所定位置に保持できる。
(4) A beam 13 is temporarily provided between the columns 1 and 1 erected at predetermined positions. At this time, the beam 13 is
0, on the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13,
The reinforcing beam receiving pieces 10, 10 are arranged along both end edges (width direction of the beam) 16a, 16a. Reinforcement beam receiving piece 1
With 0, the beam 13 can be held at a predetermined position before the bolts are tightened with the temporary alignment of the beam 13.

【0018】(5) 続いて、ガセットプレート7と梁13
のウエブ17とのボルト孔8、18間にボルトを挿通し
ナットを仮締めする。
(5) Subsequently, the gusset plate 7 and the beam 13
A bolt is inserted between the bolt holes 8 and 18 with the web 17 to temporarily tighten the nut.

【0019】(6) 所定の歪み取りが完了した後に、前記
ボルトを本締めする。続いて、梁13の上下フランジ1
4、15とダイアフラム5とを溶接すると共に、梁13
の下フランジ15と補強梁受けピース10とを溶接す
る。
(6) After the predetermined strain relief is completed, the bolt is fully tightened. Subsequently, the upper and lower flanges 1 of the beam 13
4 and 15 and the diaphragm 5 are welded, and
The lower flange 15 and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 are welded.

【0020】以上のようにして柱1と梁13との接合を
完了する(図1(b)(d)、図3(a))。前記の柱
1と梁13との接合構造では、補強梁受けピース10に
より、スカラップ19部分の応力集中を小さくし、梁1
3の下フランジ15の脆性破壊を防ぐことができる。
As described above, the joining of the column 1 and the beam 13 is completed (FIGS. 1B and 3D and FIG. 3A). In the joint structure between the column 1 and the beam 13, the stress concentration at the scallop 19 is reduced by the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10, and the beam 1
3 can prevent brittle fracture of the lower flange 15.

【0021】前記実施例において、地震時等に最も応力
が集中する梁13の接合縁の下面であって、かつ梁13
の下フランジ15の端縁16a、16aに補強梁受けピ
ース10を固着したので、最も少ない材料で、効率良く
接合部の補強ができるが、接合部の他の位置(上フラン
ジ14、ウエブ17、下フランジ15の中央)に更に追
加して、補強梁受けピース10同等の補強手段を施すこ
ともできる(図示していない)。
In the above embodiment, the lower surface of the joining edge of the beam 13 where the stress is most concentrated during an earthquake
Since the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is fixed to the edges 16a, 16a of the lower flange 15, the joint can be efficiently reinforced with the least amount of material, but at other positions (the upper flange 14, the web 17, In addition, a reinforcing means equivalent to the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 may be additionally provided at the center of the lower flange 15 (not shown).

【0022】また、前記実施例において、補強梁受けピ
ース10は、先端下側に切欠を形成した形状としたが、
柱1の側面と梁13の下面16間に溶接できれば、直角
三角形、四分の一円などその形状は任意である。
In the above embodiment, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 has a shape in which a notch is formed at the lower end of the tip.
As long as welding can be performed between the side surface of the column 1 and the lower surface 16 of the beam 13, its shape such as a right triangle or a quarter circle is arbitrary.

【0023】また、前記実施例において、補強梁受けピ
ース10は予め工場で溶接したが、梁架前に構築現場
で、溶接することもできる。
In the above-described embodiment, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is welded in advance at the factory. However, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 can be welded at a construction site before the beam.

【0024】また、前記実施例において、補強梁受けピ
ース10を梁架設前に固着したので、柱1との溶接又は
ボルト締め前に、梁13を所定位置に保持できるので施
工性が良いが、柱1との溶接又はボルト締め前に、梁1
3を吊りあるいは下から支える手段を施せば、補強梁受
けピース10は柱1と梁13とを溶接した後又はボルト
締め後に、柱1の側面と梁13の下フランジ15下面1
6との間に溶接することもできる。
In the above embodiment, since the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 is fixed before the beam is erected, the beam 13 can be held at a predetermined position before welding with the column 1 or bolting, so that the workability is good. Before welding or bolting to column 1, beam 1
If means 3 for suspending or supporting the beam 3 from below are provided, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 can be connected to the side of the column 1 and the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 after welding the column 1 and the beam 13 or after bolting.
6 can also be welded.

【0025】また、前記実施例において、柱1を通しダ
イアフラム構造の角形鋼管としたが、内ダイアフラム構
造の角形鋼管とすることもできる(図2、図3
(b))。
In the above-described embodiment, the column 1 is a square steel pipe having a diaphragm structure. However, a square steel pipe having an inner diaphragm structure may be used (FIGS. 2 and 3).
(B)).

【0026】この場合には、柱1は、梁接合位置4で、
梁のフランジ14、15位置に合わせて、スカラップ6
a、6a、を形成したダイアフラム6、6が内面3に嵌
挿溶接されて構成され(図3(b))、同様に、ボルト
孔8付きのガセットプレート7、補強梁受けピース10
を突設する(図2(a)(c))。続いて、前記実施例
と同様に構築現場の所定位置に立設した柱1、1間に、
補強梁受けピース10に載置しながら、梁13を仮設す
る。続いて、ガセットプレート7と梁13のウエブ17
とのボルト孔8、18間にボルトを挿通しナットで仮締
めし、本締めする。続いて、梁13の上下フランジ1
4、15と、柱1とを溶接すると共に、梁13の下フラ
ンジ15と補強梁受けピース10とを溶接する。以上の
ようにして柱1と梁13との接合を完了する(図2
(b)(d)、図3(b))。
In this case, the column 1 is
Scallop 6 according to the position of the flanges 14 and 15 of the beam
a, 6a are formed by fitting and welding to the inner surface 3 (FIG. 3 (b)). Similarly, a gusset plate 7 having bolt holes 8 and a reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 are formed.
(FIGS. 2A and 2C). Subsequently, between the pillars 1 and 1 erected at a predetermined position on the construction site as in the above-described embodiment,
The beam 13 is temporarily installed while being placed on the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10. Subsequently, the web 17 of the gusset plate 7 and the beam 13
The bolt is inserted between the bolt holes 8 and 18 and temporarily tightened with a nut, and then fully tightened. Subsequently, the upper and lower flanges 1 of the beam 13
4, 15 and the column 1 are welded, and the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 are welded. The joining of the column 1 and the beam 13 is completed as described above (FIG. 2).
(B), (d), FIG. 3 (b)).

【0027】更に、前記実施例において、柱1は角形鋼
管としたが、丸形鋼管その他の鋼管の単独又は組合せ構
造とすることもできる(図示していない)。
Further, in the above embodiment, the column 1 is a square steel pipe, but may be a round steel pipe or other steel pipes alone or in combination (not shown).

【0028】[0028]

【実施例2】図4〜6に基づきこの発明の他の実施例を
説明する。
Embodiment 2 Another embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

【0029】(1) 実施例1と同様に、ダイアフラム5、
ガセットプレート7が溶接された通しダイアフラム構造
の角形鋼管の柱1の梁接合位置4に、梁13の下フラン
ジ15の下面16位置に合わせて、その上縁を位置させ
た補強梁受けピース21を突設する(図4(a)
(c))。
(1) As in the first embodiment, the diaphragm 5,
A reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 having an upper edge positioned at a beam joining position 4 of a column 1 of a rectangular steel pipe having a through-diaphragm structure to which a gusset plate 7 is welded and aligned with a lower surface 16 of a lower flange 15 of a beam 13. Projecting (Fig. 4 (a)
(C)).

【0030】前記補強梁受けピース21は、柱1に固着
されて梁13の下フランジ15の外側に位置する基板2
2と、該基板22の対向する内面22aの上端部に梁1
3の下フランジ15下面16の両端部16a、16aに
当接できる受け片25と、から構成される(図6)。ま
た、前記基板22、22の上縁内側22aには溶接用の
斜面23が形成され、基端側の上部には溶接用の切欠2
4が形成されている。また、補強梁受けピース21は実
施例1と同様に極軟鋼から構成される。また補強梁受け
ピース21の基板22の長さL、高さH、厚さDは実施
例1の梁受けピース10と同様である。
The reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 is fixed to the column 1, and the substrate 2 is located outside the lower flange 15 of the beam 13.
2 and a beam 1 on the upper end of the opposing inner surface 22a of the substrate 22.
3 and a receiving piece 25 that can contact both end portions 16a of the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 (FIG. 6). A slope 23 for welding is formed on the inner side 22a of the upper edge of the substrates 22, 22, and a notch 2 for welding is formed on the upper portion on the base end side.
4 are formed. Further, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 is made of extremely mild steel as in the first embodiment. The length L, height H, and thickness D of the substrate 22 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 are the same as those of the beam receiving piece 10 of the first embodiment.

【0031】(2) 以上のように製造した柱1と、実施例
1と同様に加工した梁13とを構築現場に搬入する。
(2) The pillar 1 manufactured as described above and the beam 13 processed in the same manner as in the first embodiment are carried into the construction site.

【0032】(3) 実施例1と同様に、所定位置に立設し
た柱1、1間に、補強梁受けピース21上に、梁13を
仮設する。ここで、梁13の下フランジ15の下面16
で、両端縁(梁の幅方向)16a、16aに沿って補強
梁受けピース21、21が配置される(図4(d)、図
5)。補強梁受けピース21の基板22の内面22a上
端部と梁13の下フランジ16の両側面(下フランジの
厚さ方向の面)が対向している。従って、補強梁受けピ
ース21により、実施例1より確実に、梁13を仮設す
る位置合わせができ、また、より確実に、ボルト締めす
るまでに梁13を所定位置に保持できる。
(3) As in the first embodiment, the beam 13 is temporarily provided on the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 between the columns 1 and 1 erected at predetermined positions. Here, the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13
Then, the reinforcing beam receiving pieces 21, 21 are arranged along both end edges (beam width direction) 16a, 16a (FIGS. 4D and 5). The upper end of the inner surface 22a of the substrate 22 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 and both side surfaces of the lower flange 16 of the beam 13 (the surface in the thickness direction of the lower flange) face each other. Therefore, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 can more reliably position the beam 13 temporarily than in the first embodiment, and can more reliably hold the beam 13 at a predetermined position before bolting.

【0033】(5) 続いて、ガセットプレート7と梁13
のウエブ17のボルト孔8、18間にボルトを挿通しナ
ットを仮締めする。
(5) Subsequently, the gusset plate 7 and the beam 13
A bolt is inserted between the bolt holes 8 and 18 of the web 17 and the nut is temporarily tightened.

【0034】(6) 所定の歪み取りが完了した後に、前記
ボルトを本締めする。続いて、梁13の上下フランジ1
4、15とダイアフラム5、5とを溶接すると共に、梁
13の下フランジ15と補強梁受けピース21とを溶接
する。ここで、下フランジ15と補強梁受けピース21
との溶接作業は下向きで行うことができ、前記実施例1
より作業効率を更に高めることができる。
(6) After the predetermined distortion is removed, the bolt is fully tightened. Subsequently, the upper and lower flanges 1 of the beam 13
4, 15 and the diaphragms 5, 5 are welded, and the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 are welded. Here, the lower flange 15 and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21
Can be carried out downward, as in the first embodiment.
Work efficiency can be further improved.

【0035】以上のようにして柱1と梁13との接合を
完了する(図4(b)(d))。前記の柱1と梁13と
の接合構造では、実施例1と同様に、補強梁受けピース
21により、スカラップ19部分の応力集中を小さく
し、梁13の下フランジ15の脆性破壊を防ぐことがで
きる。
The joining of the column 1 and the beam 13 is completed as described above (FIGS. 4B and 4D). In the joint structure between the column 1 and the beam 13, similarly to the first embodiment, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 can reduce the stress concentration at the scallop 19 and prevent the brittle fracture of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13. it can.

【0036】前記実施例における柱1は、実施例1の図
2等と同様に、内ダイアフラム構造の角形鋼管、その他
の鋼管構造とすることもできる(図示ししていない)。
The column 1 in the above embodiment can be a square steel pipe having an inner diaphragm structure or another steel pipe structure (not shown), similarly to FIG. 2 and the like of the first embodiment.

【0037】また、前記実施例における他の構成は、実
施例1と同様である。
The other configuration in the above embodiment is the same as that in the first embodiment.

【0038】[0038]

【実施例3】図7、8に基づきこの発明の他の実施例を
説明する。
Embodiment 3 Another embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

【0039】(1) 実施例1と同様に、ダイアフラム5、
ガセットプレート7が溶接された通しダイアフラム構造
の角形鋼管の柱1の梁接合位置4に、梁13の下フラン
ジ15の下面16位置に合わせて、その上縁を位置させ
た補強梁受けピース27を突設する(図7(a)
(c))。
(1) As in the first embodiment, the diaphragm 5,
At the beam joining position 4 of the column 1 of the rectangular steel pipe having the through-diaphragm structure to which the gusset plate 7 is welded, a reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 having its upper edge positioned at the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 is positioned. Projecting (Fig. 7 (a)
(C)).

【0040】前記補強梁受けピース27は、梁13の下
フランジ15の接合部の下面16全体に当接できる受け
板28と、該受け板28の下面29と柱1の側面とに固
着される支持突起30とから構成される。前記支持突起
30、30は、受け板25の全長Lに亘って位置し、か
つ梁13の下フランジ15の下面16で両端縁(梁の幅
方向)16a、16aに沿った位置に配置されている。
また、補強梁受けピース27は、少なくとも支持突起3
0が極軟鋼から構成される(図7(a)(c))。
The reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 is attached to a receiving plate 28 capable of abutting on the entire lower surface 16 of the joint portion of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13, and is fixed to the lower surface 29 of the receiving plate 28 and the side surface of the column 1. And a support projection 30. The support protrusions 30, 30 are located over the entire length L of the receiving plate 25, and are disposed on the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 at positions along both edges (width direction of the beam) 16a, 16a. I have.
In addition, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 has at least the support protrusion 3.
0 is composed of extremely mild steel (FIGS. 7A and 7C).

【0041】(2) 以上のように製造した柱1と、実施例
1と同様に加工した梁13を構築現場に搬入する。
(2) The pillar 1 manufactured as described above and the beam 13 processed in the same manner as in the first embodiment are carried into the construction site.

【0042】(3) 実施例1と同様に、所定位置に立設し
た柱1、1間に、補強梁受けピース27上に、梁13を
仮設する。梁13の接合部で下フランジ15の下面16
が、補強梁受けピース27の受け板28上面に配置され
る。補強梁受けピース27の支持突起30、30は、下
フランジ15の下面16で、両端縁(梁の幅方向)16
a、16aに沿って配置される。従って、補強梁受けピ
ース27により、実施例1、2より確実に、梁13を仮
設する位置合わせができ、かつボルト締めするまでに梁
13を所定位置に確実に保持できる(図7(e))。
(3) As in the first embodiment, the beam 13 is temporarily provided on the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 between the columns 1 and 1 erected at predetermined positions. The lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 at the joint of the beam 13
Are arranged on the upper surface of the receiving plate 28 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27. The support projections 30, 30 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 are formed on the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 at both ends (in the width direction of the beam) 16.
a, 16a. Therefore, by the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27, the position where the beam 13 is temporarily provided can be more reliably aligned than in the first and second embodiments, and the beam 13 can be surely held at a predetermined position before bolting (FIG. 7E). ).

【0043】(5) 続いて、ガセットプレート7と梁13
のウエブ17のボルト孔8、18間にボルトを挿通しナ
ットを仮締めする。
(5) Subsequently, the gusset plate 7 and the beam 13
A bolt is inserted between the bolt holes 8 and 18 of the web 17 and the nut is temporarily tightened.

【0044】(6) 所定の歪み取りが完了した後に、前記
ボルトを本締めする。続いて、梁13の下フランジ15
と補強梁受けピース21の受け板28とを溶接すると共
に、梁13の上下フランジ14、15とダイアフラム
5、5とを溶接する。この際、受け板28が溶接の裏当
てとなり、溶接作業を効率的にできる。
(6) After the predetermined distortion has been removed, the bolt is fully tightened. Subsequently, the lower flange 15 of the beam 13
And the supporting plate 28 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 21 and the upper and lower flanges 14 and 15 of the beam 13 and the diaphragms 5 and 5 are welded. At this time, the receiving plate 28 serves as a backing for welding, and the welding operation can be performed efficiently.

【0045】以上のようにして柱1と梁13との接合を
完了する(図7(b)(d))。前記の柱梁の接合構造
では、実施例1と同様に、補強梁受けピース27によ
り、スカラップ19部分の応力集中を小さくし、梁13
の下フランジ15の脆性破壊を防ぐことができる。
The joining of the column 1 and the beam 13 is completed as described above (FIGS. 7B and 7D). In the joint structure of the column and the beam, the stress concentration at the scallop 19 is reduced by the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 and the
Brittle fracture of the lower flange 15 can be prevented.

【0046】前記実施例において、補強梁受けピース2
7は2つの支持突起30を使用したが、1つの支持突起
30を受け板25の下面中央に溶接して構成することも
できる(図8(c))。
In the above embodiment, the reinforcing beam receiving piece 2
7 uses two support projections 30, but one support projection 30 may be welded to the center of the lower surface of the receiving plate 25 (FIG. 8C).

【0047】この場合には、前記実施例と同様に、柱1
の梁接合位置4で、梁13の下フランジ15の下面16
位置に合わせて、その上縁を位置させて、1つの支持突
起30を有する補強梁受けピース27及びボルト孔8付
きのガセットプレート7、補強梁受けピース10を突設
する(図8(a)(c))。続いて、前記実施例と同様
に構築現場の所定位置に立設した柱1、1間に、補強梁
受けピース27に架設しながら、梁13を架設する(図
8(e))。続いて、ガセットプレート7と梁13のウ
エブ17とのボルト孔8、18間にボルトを挿通しナッ
トで仮締めし、本締めする。続いて、梁13の上下フラ
ンジ14、15と、柱1のダイアフラム5、5とを溶接
すると共に、梁13の下フランジ15と補強梁受けピー
ス27とを溶接して、柱1と梁13との接合を完了する
(図8(b)(d))。
In this case, as in the previous embodiment, the pillar 1
At the beam joining position 4 of the lower surface 16 of the lower flange 15 of the beam 13
The reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 having one support protrusion 30, the gusset plate 7 with the bolt hole 8, and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 10 are protruded with the upper edge thereof positioned according to the position (FIG. 8A). (C)). Subsequently, the beam 13 is erected between the columns 1 and 1 erected at a predetermined position on the construction site in the same manner as in the above-described embodiment, while being erected on the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 (FIG. 8E). Subsequently, a bolt is inserted between the bolt holes 8 and 18 between the gusset plate 7 and the web 17 of the beam 13 and temporarily tightened with a nut, and then fully tightened. Subsequently, the upper and lower flanges 14 and 15 of the beam 13 and the diaphragms 5 and 5 of the column 1 are welded, and the lower flange 15 of the beam 13 and the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 are welded. Are completed (FIGS. 8B and 8D).

【0048】また、前記補強梁受けピース27の支持突
起30は、受け板28の下面に2つ以上の支持突起3
0、30を並列して突設して構成することもできる(図
示していない)。
The support projection 30 of the reinforcing beam receiving piece 27 has two or more support projections 3 on the lower surface of the receiving plate 28.
It is also possible to configure by projecting 0 and 30 in parallel (not shown).

【0049】また、前記実施例における柱1は、実施例
1の図2等と同様に、内ダイアフラム構造の角形鋼管、
その他の鋼管構造とすることもできる(図示ししていな
い)。
The column 1 in the above embodiment is a square steel pipe having an inner diaphragm structure, as in FIG.
Other steel tube structures are also possible (not shown).

【0050】更に、前記実施例における他の構成は、実
施例1と同様である。
Further, other configurations in the above embodiment are the same as those in the first embodiment.

【0051】[0051]

【発明の効果】この発明は、柱と梁とを接合後又は接合
前に、梁の下面で幅方向の両端縁部と固定できる補強梁
受けピースを柱部材の側面に固定するので、地震時に最
も応力が集中する接合部で、梁の下縁位置を補強できる
効果がある。また、補強梁受けピースを極軟鋼から構成
すれば、梁の接合部下縁位置を補強すると共に、柱梁接
合部での地震エネルギーを効率良く吸収し、梁下端フラ
ンジの脆性破壊を防ぐことができる。
According to the present invention, a reinforcing beam receiving piece, which can be fixed to both ends in the width direction at the lower surface of the beam, is fixed to the side surface of the column member after or before joining the column and the beam. At the joint where the stress is concentrated most, there is an effect that the lower edge position of the beam can be reinforced. In addition, if the reinforcing beam receiving piece is made of extremely mild steel, the lower edge position of the beam joint can be reinforced, the seismic energy at the beam-column joint can be efficiently absorbed, and brittle fracture of the beam lower flange can be prevented. .

【図面の簡単な説明】[Brief description of the drawings]

【図1】この発明の実施例1で、通しダイアフラムの柱
を使用した場合を表し、(a)は接合前の正面図、
(b)は接合後の正面図、(c)は(a)のA−A線に
おける断面図、(d)は(b)のB−B線における断面
図である。
FIG. 1 shows a case in which a column of a through diaphragm is used in Embodiment 1 of the present invention, wherein (a) is a front view before joining,
(B) is a front view after joining, (c) is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA of (a), and (d) is a cross-sectional view taken along line BB of (b).

【図2】この発明の実施例1で、内ダイアフラムの柱を
使用した場合を表し、(a)は接合前の正面図、(b)
は接合後の正面図、(c)は(a)のD−D線における
断面図、(d)は(b)のE−E線における断面図であ
る。
FIGS. 2A and 2B show a case where a pillar of an inner diaphragm is used in Embodiment 1 of the present invention, wherein FIG. 2A is a front view before joining, and FIG.
FIG. 3C is a front view after bonding, FIG. 4C is a cross-sectional view taken along line DD in FIG. 4A, and FIG. 4D is a cross-sectional view taken along line EE in FIG.

【図3】(a)は図1(b)のC−C線における断面
図、(b)は図2(b)のF−F線における断面図であ
る。
3A is a cross-sectional view taken along line CC of FIG. 1B, and FIG. 3B is a cross-sectional view taken along line FF of FIG. 2B.

【図4】この発明の実施例2で、(a)は接合前の正面
図、(b)は接合後の正面図、(c)は(a)のG−G
線における断面図、(d)は(b)のI−I線における
断面図である。
4 (a) is a front view before joining, FIG. 4 (b) is a front view after joining, and FIG. 4 (c) is a GG of FIG. 4 (a).
FIG. 4D is a cross-sectional view taken along line II, and FIG. 4D is a cross-sectional view taken along line II in FIG.

【図5】図4(c)のQ部分の拡大図である。FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of a portion Q in FIG. 4 (c).

【図6】この発明の実施例2で使用する梁受けピースの
拡大斜視図である。
FIG. 6 is an enlarged perspective view of a beam receiving piece used in Embodiment 2 of the present invention.

【図7】この発明の実施例3で、(a)は接合前の正面
図、(b)は接合後の正面図、(c)は(a)のJ−J
線における断面図、(d)は(b)のK−K線における
断面図、(e)は(b)のM−M線における断面図であ
る。
7 (a) is a front view before joining, FIG. 7 (b) is a front view after joining, and FIG. 7 (c) is JJ of FIG. 7 (a).
(D) is a cross-sectional view taken along line KK of (b), and (e) is a cross-sectional view taken along line MM of (b).

【図8】この発明の実施例3で、他の梁受けピースを使
用した場合で、(a)は接合前の正面図、(b)は接合
後の正面図、(c)は(a)のN−N線における断面
図、(d)は(b)のO−O線における断面図、(e)
は(b)のP−P線における断面図である。
8 (a) is a front view before joining, FIG. 8 (b) is a front view after joining, and FIG. 8 (c) is (a) in a case where another beam receiving piece is used in Embodiment 3 of the present invention. (D) is a cross-sectional view taken along the OO line of (b), and (e) is a cross-sectional view taken along the NN line.
FIG. 3B is a cross-sectional view taken along line PP of FIG.

【符号の説明】[Explanation of symbols]

1 柱 2 外面(柱) 3 内面(柱) 4 梁接合位置(柱) 5 ダイアフラム(補強板) 6 ダイアフラム(補強板) 7 ガセットプレート 10 補強梁受けピース(実施例1) 13 梁 14 上フランジ(梁) 15 下フランジ(梁) 16 下フランジの下面(梁) 16a 下フランジの下面の両端縁(梁) 17 ウエブ(梁) 21 補強梁受けピース(実施例2) 22 基板(補強梁受けピース21) 25 受け片(補強梁受けピース21) 27 補強梁受けピース(実施例3) 28 受け板(補強梁受けピース27) 30 支持突起(補強梁受けピース27) DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Column 2 Outer surface (column) 3 Inner surface (column) 4 Beam joining position (column) 5 Diaphragm (reinforcement plate) 6 Diaphragm (reinforcement plate) 7 Gusset plate 10 Reinforcement beam receiving piece (Example 1) 13 Beam 14 Upper flange ( 15) Lower flange (beam) 16 Lower surface of lower flange (beam) 16a Both end edges (beam) of lower surface of lower flange 17 Web (beam) 21 Reinforcement beam receiving piece (Example 2) 22 Board (reinforcement beam receiving piece 21) 25) Reception piece (reinforcement beam receiving piece 21) 27 Reinforcement beam receiving piece (Example 3) 28 Receiving plate (reinforcement beam receiving piece 27) 30 Support projection (reinforcement beam receiving piece 27)

───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き Fターム(参考) 2E125 AA04 AA14 AB01 AB16 AC15 AC16 AG03 AG04 AG12 AG32 AG41 AG45 AG47 BE10 CA05 CA90  ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continued on the front page F term (reference) 2E125 AA04 AA14 AB01 AB16 AC15 AC16 AG03 AG04 AG12 AG32 AG41 AG45 AG47 BE10 CA05 CA90

Claims (7)

【特許請求の範囲】[Claims] 【請求項1】 鉄骨構造物における柱部材と横架材とを
接合する方法であって、柱部材の側面に横架材の端縁部
を所定の接合をした後、横架材の下面で幅方向の両端縁
部と柱部材の側面との間に、補強梁受けピースを接合す
ることを特徴とする柱部材と横架材との接合方法。
1. A method of joining a column member and a lateral member in a steel structure, comprising: joining an edge portion of the lateral member to a side surface of the column member in a predetermined manner; A method of joining a column member and a transverse member, wherein a reinforcing beam receiving piece is joined between both end portions in the width direction and a side surface of the column member.
【請求項2】 鉄骨構造物における柱部材と横架材とを
接合する方法であって、柱部材の側面であって横架材接
合位置に、該横架材の下面で幅方向の両端縁部を受ける
ことができる補強梁受けピースを固着し、前記柱部材を
立設した後、前記柱部材の側面に横架材を接合すると共
に、前記補強梁受けピースと前記横架材とを溶接するこ
とを特徴とする柱部材と横架材との接合方法。
2. A method for joining a column member and a lateral member in a steel structure, comprising: a lateral end of a lateral member at a joint position of the lateral member; After the reinforcing beam receiving piece capable of receiving the portion is fixed and the column member is erected, a horizontal member is joined to the side surface of the column member, and the reinforcing beam receiving piece and the horizontal member are welded. A method of joining a column member and a horizontal member, comprising:
【請求項3】 補強梁受けピースを、並列した2枚の板
片から構成した請求項1又は2記載の柱部材と横架材と
の接合方法。
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the reinforcing beam receiving piece is composed of two parallel plate pieces.
【請求項4】 補強梁受けピースを並列した2枚の板片
とし、該板片の上端部内面に、横架材の内面に当接でき
る支持突起を夫々溶接して構成した請求項1又は2記載
の柱部材と横架材との接合方法。
4. A reinforcing plate according to claim 1, wherein the reinforcing beam receiving pieces are arranged in parallel to form two plate pieces, and support projections capable of contacting the inner surface of the horizontal member are welded to the inner surface of the upper end of the plate piece. 3. The method for joining a column member and a horizontal member according to 2.
【請求項5】 補強梁受けピースを、横架材の接合端部
下面の全幅に亘り当接する受け板の下面に、1枚又は並
列した複数枚の縦片を溶接して構成した請求項1又は2
記載の柱部材と横架材との接合方法。
5. The reinforcing beam receiving piece is formed by welding one or a plurality of parallel vertical pieces to the lower surface of a receiving plate abutting over the entire width of the lower surface of the joint end of the horizontal member. Or 2
The joining method of the column member and the horizontal member described in the above.
【請求項6】 補強梁受けピースを極軟鋼から構成した
請求項1乃至請求項5記載の柱部材と横架材との接合方
法。
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the reinforcing beam receiving piece is made of extremely mild steel.
【請求項7】 鉄骨構造物における柱部材と横架材との
接合位置において、柱部材の側面と横架材の下面との間
に、極軟鋼からなる補強梁受けピースを固着した接合構
造であって、前記補強梁受けピースは、横架材の下面で
あって幅方向の両端縁を支持できる縦方向の板材を有す
る構造としたことを特徴とする柱部材と横架材との接合
構造。
7. A joint structure in which a reinforcing beam receiving piece made of extremely mild steel is fixed between a side surface of a column member and a lower surface of a transverse member at a joint position of the column member and the transverse member in a steel structure. The reinforcing beam receiving piece has a structure having a vertical plate material that can support both edges in the width direction on the lower surface of the horizontal member, and a joining structure between the column member and the horizontal member. .
JP10373435A 1998-12-28 1998-12-28 Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure Pending JP2000192547A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10373435A JP2000192547A (en) 1998-12-28 1998-12-28 Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10373435A JP2000192547A (en) 1998-12-28 1998-12-28 Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2000192547A true JP2000192547A (en) 2000-07-11

Family

ID=18502156

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP10373435A Pending JP2000192547A (en) 1998-12-28 1998-12-28 Joining method and joining structure for column member and horizontal member in steel frame structure

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JP2000192547A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6739099B2 (en) 2001-06-06 2004-05-25 Nippon Steel Corporation Column-and-beam join structure
US7497054B2 (en) 2001-06-06 2009-03-03 Nippon Steel Corporation Column-and-beam join structure
CN103669722A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-03-26 北京工业大学 Novel post-earthquake easy-to-repair steel column leg of special-shaped column frame structure
CN103711215A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-04-09 北京工业大学 Novel post-earthquake easily-repaired steel special-shaped column frame-eccentric supporting frame

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6739099B2 (en) 2001-06-06 2004-05-25 Nippon Steel Corporation Column-and-beam join structure
US7497054B2 (en) 2001-06-06 2009-03-03 Nippon Steel Corporation Column-and-beam join structure
CN103669722A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-03-26 北京工业大学 Novel post-earthquake easy-to-repair steel column leg of special-shaped column frame structure
CN103711215A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-04-09 北京工业大学 Novel post-earthquake easily-repaired steel special-shaped column frame-eccentric supporting frame
CN103669722B (en) * 2013-12-19 2015-10-28 北京工业大学 Steel Framed Structure with Special-Shaped Columns suspension column is easily repaired after a kind of shake

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