HU180773B - Method for surface treating concrete bodies made by thermal curing particularly prefabricated reinforced concrete members - Google Patents

Method for surface treating concrete bodies made by thermal curing particularly prefabricated reinforced concrete members Download PDF

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Publication number
HU180773B
HU180773B HUHA001057A HU180773B HU 180773 B HU180773 B HU 180773B HU HA001057 A HUHA001057 A HU HA001057A HU 180773 B HU180773 B HU 180773B
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HU
Hungary
Prior art keywords
concrete
surface
water glass
characterized
applied
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Hungarian (hu)
Inventor
Geza Nemes
Istvan Molnar
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Geza Nemes
Istvan Molnar
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Application filed by Geza Nemes, Istvan Molnar filed Critical Geza Nemes
Priority to HUHA001057 priority Critical patent/HU180773B/en
Publication of HU180773B publication Critical patent/HU180773B/en

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Description

inventors:

dr. Géza Nemes is okay. architect, István Molnár oki. mechanical engineer, Debrecen

Procedure for surface treatment of thermally cured concrete bodies, in particular precast reinforced concrete elements

The present invention relates to a process for surface treatment of thermally cured concrete bodies, in particular prefabricated reinforced concrete elements.

Prefabricated ferroconcrete prefabricated plants all over the world strive to make the prefabrication of the prefabricated elements in the shortest possible time in order to optimize the use of high-cost production equipment (templates, steamers). On the other hand, it is a technological requirement that the concrete body should be set aside before thermal maturation (heat transfer) in order to prevent damage to the surface of the concrete that is not in contact with the template and to ensure proper quality. The completely uncovered, uncovered concrete surfaces are "burned out" by heat transfer, and the upper layer of a few millimeters is detached. This technologically required rest time is usually two to six hours, depending on the quality of the concrete (the total theoretical cycle time for rest and maturation is 9-13 hours in factory practice), which results in a "dead time" in the product manufacturing process and enormous compliance. on the other hand, it is practically impossible to make use of production equipment. Therefore, most of the components that are currently removed from reinforced concrete prefabricated plants are products of defective surface quality.

In concrete technology, the use of water glass to enhance waterproofing, chemical resistance180773 ni, etc. It is known. F. Schwanda, in his book "Kleines Concrete Icon", states that carefully glazed concrete surfaces are applied in several steps with different ιοί water glass coatings.

The water glass is absorbed into the capillaries and increases the water tightness. A. Franjetic: Concrete Schnellhártung. In his book, he describes in detail the influence of curing time on water glass for various cement grades.

No. 601,132. and a Swiss patent describes a technology for sprayed concrete using water glass to mix the material of the sprayed concrete. However, all these solutions are not suitable in themselves for eliminating bagging of heat-cured concrete surfaces.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a process for surface treatment of concrete bodies made of heat-cured, in particular prefabricated prefabricated reinforced concrete panels, which allows a significant reduction in the curing time while providing an appropriate quality surface.

The present invention is based on the discovery that, by means of a glass of water inserted into the concrete mass in the region of the surface to be treated, the hardening of the surface layer can be accelerated before maturation and provide a secure bond to the inner part of

Ίίί0773 surface damaging processes - eg. water outflow from concrete, airtight movement, etc. - its effectiveness.

Based on this discovery, the object of the present invention has been solved by a process comprising the step of applying water glass to a concrete layer disposed along the exposed concrete surface during heat curing prior to the thermal curing operation. Water glass spray, spray; Half chat principles; or mixed with the concrete material and applied to the surface layer. Depending on the quality and consistency of the concrete, it is necessary to apply additional coatings after application or application. spinning in! -, or. smoothing operation, but eg. if the concrete is in a wet state, spraying alone is sufficient to accomplish the task, i.e. to provide a suitable protective layer. The application of water glass to the concrete surface can take place before and after the concrete is compacted, but it is advisable to pre-apply the filler work phase. As indicated above, water glass mixed with concrete as an additive may be suitable for the intended purpose, but considering the final strength of the concrete, current technology, and economic considerations, the spraying process is considered to be most advantageous.

In the spraying method, the water glass is preferably applied to the concrete surface by spraying with air above the atmospheric pressure. The spraying is carried out with air pressure of about 6 att, approx. It can be done from a height of 30-50 cm.

According to a further feature of the invention, the water glass is introduced into the surface of the concrete body, in particular after spraying or brushing, and before finishing the surface. Particularly for home use, the method according to the invention provides a method of impregnating a concrete element in the form of a permeate or even layer of water on the exposed surface of the concrete element by vibrating it into the Template, is applied; subsequently rolling the water end into the surface layer of the concrete element by rolling; then homogenizing the surface layer by finishing, preferably by means of a machine disk; finally, the surface containing the water end is glued.

The thickness of the layer containing the water glass is selected to a minimum of 0.5 mm (this is virtually always self-permeable, i.e. without additional rolling or finishing penetration into the concrete material by spraying or lubrication of the water glass); we can work with higher film thicknesses, but this is usually not required technologically.

For the procedure up to soda; water end (ThiOSSiC ^) ', or potassium water end (ThiOiSiC ^) may be used; they have a viscosity ranging from 35.7 to 52 Se °. Potassium water glass gives the treated concrete layer more favorable technical properties in some cases, since some types of cement produce soluble salts, which when reacted with soda water glass can cause aesthetic-technological problems on the wall; potassium water glass, on the other hand, is slightly more expensive than soda water glass. Otherwise, the technology is the same for both types of water glass.

According to a further feature of the invention, a quantity of water glass of 0.002 to 0.5 1 / m 2 , preferably about 0.1 1 / m 2, is applied to the concrete surface to be treated as an aqueous solution of up to 80% by volume. By the way, the water glass is so called. may be used in combination with fixing or stabilizing agents, including concrete chemicals and non-concrete damaging agents, but may be started without the use of calcidur or other chemicals without thermal aging.

The object of the accelerated heat-aging process, which increases the amount of production, is that the concrete body, after application of the concrete, preferably without resting, for about 2 to 4 hours. 30 ° C for approx. Heat to 70 ° C for about 1.5-3.0 hours. It is maintained at a temperature of 70 ° C for a further period of about 1.5 to 2 hours. Cool to 30-40 ° C. Another method of thermal maturation, which can achieve very significant energy savings, is that after the concrete has been applied, the concrete may be deposited for approx. 30 ° C for approx. Heating to 50 ° C; for about 7-5 hours, this approx. Store at 50 ° C for about 1-2 hours. Cool to 30 ° C. The heat sensation can even be achieved by direct steam injection. (in a steam bath), or indirect mqdori (eg by the radiator method). Temperature - time values during the maturation cycle depend on the size (shape) of the product, the type of paintbrush, concrete quality, including cement quality, chemicals, other additives, etc. depends on the amount. The maturation technology we use is essentially indifferent to water-based surface treatment. In the case of direct maturation systems, pressure equalization of the vapor space (e.g., vacuum formed by vapor deposition), or generally aeration of the vapor space during maturation, has a beneficial effect on surface quality, but without these methods, which are not currently used in industry to use.

The main advantage of the surface treatment method according to the invention is that it allows to eliminate from the manufacturing process the time required for curing before heat maturing, so that the finished product is not covered by a template or formwork, and is suitable for wallpapering or painting without any additional measures. As a result, the performance of the production equipment, and consequently the volume of production, can be greatly increased, with the advantage of being economical -

-2180773 Considering both the available energy savings and better utilization of live labor power - very important.

If the primary goal is not to shorten the production cycle time, but to maximize energy-saving operation, the thermal aging process of the present invention achieves up to about 40% energy savings due to lower isothermal heat storage temperatures, it never happened.

Note that water glass surface treatment technology is safe from a health and safety point of view. The surface layer of the reinforced concrete body treated with water glass does not differ in technical (physical and chemical) parameters from the rest of the concrete body.

The invention will now be described in more detail by way of example.

At the factory, we produce an internal partition, as well as slab panels on a vibratory table. The main technical parameters and conditions of production are as follows:

concrete quality: B 280 cement quality: PC 500, concrete consistency of Hajjcsaba: 3.5 cm, concrete additive: KALCIDUR;

1.5% by weight of cement;

maturation: in a steam bath with direct steam injection.

After the raw concrete has been applied to the template on a vibratory table, commercially available standard (autoclaved) soda water or potassium water is applied to the free surface in a uniform spray rate of 0.07 1 / m 2 . (Hungarian standard number for soda water is MSZ 929-63.) The water glass solution should be used in its original form and without dilution with water. If diluted, the proportion of water in the solution should preferably not exceed 80% by volume; mixing the water facilitates the spraying of the water glass. The value of 0,07 1 / m 2 is to be understood as concentrated (undiluted) water glass.

The water glass solution is pressed from the pressure vessel connected to the domestic 6.0 att compressed air network with a useful volume of 50-100 liters by the pressure of the pressurized air supplied over the solution by approx. Through a 10.0 m rubber tubing into a well-known standard spray nozzle, which is guided by hand over a free concrete surface at a height of approximately 30-50 cm. The spray produced by the spray does not produce fog, so the procedure has no adverse health consequences.

The panel surface containing the waterglass film is subjected, in the next stage of work, to machine-rolling. This ensures that the water glass (sodium silicate) penetrates into the surface of the concrete with sufficient depth, which is approx. 2.0 mm.

In the subsequent working step, the surface is subjected to disk (machine) smoothing, which ensures the homogeneity of the surface layer.

The final surface smoothness is achieved by gluing the element surface.

When the concrete elements treated as described above are lifted into the steam bath, the free concrete surface becomes already strong and compact due to the effect of sodium silicate that thermal aging can be started without resting. Calciumuride, used as an additive, facilitates the solidification and compaction of the surface layer.

Thermal maturation may be carried out in a manner known per se. Optimal results are obtained by thermal maturation according to the characteristic curve B shown in the figure, that is, when the surface treated element is kept in an air space heated to 70 ° C for 2.0 hours (heating is carried out in a controlled, near linear curve). After 0 hours of isothermal heating, the element was finally cooled to about 50 ° C over 1.5 hours. Note that when opening the steam bath, the opening watertight must be filled with water so that the vacuum created after intermittent steam inlet is approx. It can compensate in a short space of time with the atmospheric pressure of the production hall through a 5 cm height gap.

The whole process of thermal maturation takes about 6.5 hours as described, as opposed to the traditional method - the necessary rest! including a complete maturation cycle of 9-13 hours as mentioned in the introduction, but with a 2-6 hour rest period! time is not respected due to huge production demands and efforts to maximize the use of assets, so the surface of the batteries is burnt leafy, defective. In contrast, the reinforced concrete panels treated by the process of the present invention have an impeccably smooth and compact surface and are suitable for painting or wallpapering without any curing or surface preparation since the surface has no adverse chemical effects on these materials. In the surface treated according to the invention, the strength of the concrete is not less than that of the rest of the concrete body. Other properties of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements are: porosity, air permeability, thermal and acoustic insulation properties are not altered due to the thin and single-sided treated layer, at least negligibly (preferably in some cases). In addition to all these quality benefits, the cycle time of production is reduced by a 2- to 6-hour standstill, which greatly increases the utilization rate of the production equipment, thus greatly increasing the economics of production.

A method of heat maturation which may be used in connection with the process of the invention is described in more detail in the accompanying drawings. The vertical axis of the coordinate system shows the temperature and the horizontal axis the time. The full line drawn The curve is a tradition3

Represents -3180773 degrees of maturity (currently used in battery factories) where after 3 hours at 30 ° C the temperature is raised to 70 ° C for 2 hours, then the battery is kept at this temperature for a further 2 hours Within 1.5 to 2 hours, the temperature is lowered again to 30-40 ° C.

The dashed B curve essentially corresponds to the thermal maturation process described in the example above, provided that, without resting, the elemental front temperature reaches 70 ° C, starting at 30 ° C, but in this case substantially in less time: this phase takes 2 hours here. The battery was held at 70 ° C for 3 hours and then lowered to 30 ° C over an additional 2 hours. Thus, in this case too, the maturation was carried out without any rest for 7 hours without any damage to the surface.

It may also be that. The aim of the manufacturers is not to increase the amount of production, but to save energy. In this case, perform the curve C in the dotted line. hőérlelést. Here is rest - start the heating process without · but only heated to 50 ° C to 30 C to c.

... the battery is held at this temperature for about 1 'hour, then for about 7 hours, and finally cooled to 30-40 ° C for an additional 1 hour. Thus, the thermal maturation process is longer than 2 hours, as compared to curve B, but the energy saving is about '40% and the quality parameters of the product are slightly improved. The reason for this is that the area under the maturation curve C, the so-called maturation curve. The number of hours is essentially the same as the area under curve B, but the isothermal temperature is lower. Otherwise, the available energy savings a. depends on the heating temperature and the degree of opening of the cycle. In house factories, it is expedient to use a separate program dial for heat automation for the accelerated (curve B) and energy saving (curve C) methods, which are run according to the production cycle.

Of course, the above part of the surface treatment process according to the invention is characterized by the use of thermal aging methods characterized by fixed temperature and time ranges. Thermal maturation of concrete bodies can be initiated at 50 ° C and the treatment temperature can reach 110 ° C in about 0.5 hours; even at such temperatures, the treated surface is of acceptable quality, but optimum results can be obtained using the methods detailed above.

The invention is, of course, not limited to

- example but described. The invention can be accomplished in a number of ways within the scope of the claims. The process can be applied in the concrete quality range B 50 to B 600, the quantity and the dilution ratio with water depending on the min task.

. . Surface treatment. method of? otherwise used concrete additives - including concrete chemicals and other materials that do not harm the concrete. also - independently, without them, but with them, practically all known concrete and reinforced concrete and prefabricated technology. Within the temperature range of the thermal maturation process, there are also many possibilities for performing optimal thermal maturation, taking into account the technical parameters of the particular task.

Claims (14)

  1. Claims
    CLAIMS 1. A method of surface-curing a concrete body made by heat-curing, in particular a prefabricated reinforced concrete element, wherein the concrete body is vibrationally compacted, characterized in that it is subjected to heat during curing. After the vibration, prior to the commencement of the thermal maturation operation, water is applied to the exposed concrete layer along the exposed free-standing concrete deck, such as smoothing and / or rolling.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the water glass is sprayed onto the concrete surface and then applied to the concrete.
  3. 3. The process according to claim 2, wherein the water glass is applied to the concrete surface at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, preferably by spraying with air, and then applied to the concrete.
  4. 4. The method of claim 3, wherein said spraying of said water glass comprises an air gap of about 6 att, with 35 others at a distance of about 5 att. 30-50 cm (height) with a spray nozzle.
  5. 5. A method according to any one of claims 1-4, characterized in that the water glass is applied by brushing to the concrete surface 4q and then to the. into concrete.
  6. 6. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that
    - pouring the water anchor into the raw concrete into the concrete body. and the mechanical incorporation operation, e.g. finishing or rolling.
  7. 7. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the water glass is used, in particular, by spraying and brush. In case ses.felhordás - the .beton stuffs t öríté§e, .után and smoothing the surface .végleges niegelőzően applied to the surface along .betontest .rétegébe.
  8. 8. The principle of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the gait induction is characterized by:
    Surface treatment of concrete elements manufactured in template 55_
    in the case of concrete material having been vibrated into the template,. glass, a concrete element a. shuttering; left surface is preferable to self, evenly sprayed for60. . or sprinkle on the liver. .through / rolling the water glass into the surface layer of the concrete element by rolling ;. and then the surface layer. ..surfacing - ..gun target ..machine disc., finishing - ho.homelize .; finally, the surface of the g water-containing washing machine is plastered.
    -4180773
  9. 9. Figures 1-8. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that water glass is applied to the surface layer of the concrete body having a thickness of about 0.5 to 4.0 mm, preferably 1.0 to 2.0 mm.
  10. 10. Figures 1-9. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the surface treatment is carried out using soda water glass (Na2OSiO2j 35.7-52 Be °).
  11. 11. Figures 1-9. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the surface treatment comprises potassium water glass (K 2 OSiO 2 ; 35.7-52 Be °).
  12. 12. and 7-11. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 3 , characterized in that waterglasses of 0.002-0.5 l / m 3 , preferably about 0.1 l / m 2, are applied to the concrete surface to be treated.
  13. 13. Figures 1-12. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the water glass is preferably of max. 80% (v / v) aqueous solution is applied to the concrete layer along the concrete surface to be treated.
  14. 14. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the water glass is so-called "glass". mixed with a fixing or stabilizing agent to a concrete layer bordering the surface to be treated.
    pc drawing, 1 pc figure
    Responsible for publishing: Director of Economic and Legal Publishing House 84.1277.66-42 Alföldi Nyomda, Debrecen - Responsible manager: István Benkő director
    International Classification: B 32 B 13/04 B 32 B 31/20 B 32 B 33/00
HUHA001057 1978-04-27 1978-04-27 Method for surface treating concrete bodies made by thermal curing particularly prefabricated reinforced concrete members HU180773B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7658794B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2010-02-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Fiber cement building materials with low density additives
US7704316B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2010-04-27 James Hardie Technology Limited Coatings for building products and methods of making same
US7993570B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2011-08-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Durable medium-density fibre cement composite
US7998571B2 (en) 2004-07-09 2011-08-16 James Hardie Technology Limited Composite cement article incorporating a powder coating and methods of making same
US8209927B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2012-07-03 James Hardie Technology Limited Structural fiber cement building materials
US8993462B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2015-03-31 James Hardie Technology Limited Surface sealed reinforced building element

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7658794B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2010-02-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Fiber cement building materials with low density additives
US8182606B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2012-05-22 James Hardie Technology Limited Fiber cement building materials with low density additives
US8603239B2 (en) 2000-03-14 2013-12-10 James Hardie Technology Limited Fiber cement building materials with low density additives
US7704316B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2010-04-27 James Hardie Technology Limited Coatings for building products and methods of making same
US7993570B2 (en) 2002-10-07 2011-08-09 James Hardie Technology Limited Durable medium-density fibre cement composite
US7998571B2 (en) 2004-07-09 2011-08-16 James Hardie Technology Limited Composite cement article incorporating a powder coating and methods of making same
US8993462B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2015-03-31 James Hardie Technology Limited Surface sealed reinforced building element
US8209927B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2012-07-03 James Hardie Technology Limited Structural fiber cement building materials

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