GB2523843A - A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine - Google Patents

A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2523843A
GB2523843A GB1404114.9A GB201404114A GB2523843A GB 2523843 A GB2523843 A GB 2523843A GB 201404114 A GB201404114 A GB 201404114A GB 2523843 A GB2523843 A GB 2523843A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
steam
water
working
engine
primary
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB1404114.9A
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GB201404114D0 (en
Inventor
Robert Cooper
Russell Glyn Cooper
Original Assignee
Robert Cooper
Russell Glyn Cooper
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Robert Cooper, Russell Glyn Cooper filed Critical Robert Cooper
Priority to GB1404114.9A priority Critical patent/GB2523843A/en
Publication of GB201404114D0 publication Critical patent/GB201404114D0/en
Publication of GB2523843A publication Critical patent/GB2523843A/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B41/00Engines characterised by special means for improving conversion of heat or pressure energy into mechanical power
    • F02B41/02Engines with prolonged expansion
    • F02B41/06Engines with prolonged expansion in compound cylinders
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/04Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust using liquids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B47/00Methods of operating engines involving adding non-fuel substances or anti-knock agents to combustion air, fuel, or fuel-air mixtures of engines
    • F02B47/02Methods of operating engines involving adding non-fuel substances or anti-knock agents to combustion air, fuel, or fuel-air mixtures of engines the substances being water or steam
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies

Abstract

An internal combustion steam engine comprises primary and working sections 1, 10 and means for injecting water or steam, wherein the engine is configured so that a mixture of steam and exhaust gases from the primary section are supplied to the working section. The primary section may comprise a small capacity engine having an inlet valve 3 for entry of air and an exhaust valve 4 for the outlet of exhaust gases following ignition of a mixture of air and fuel. The exhaust valve may be connected to an inlet valve 7 of the working section via a passage 6, which preferably comprises an enlarged section forming an annular chamber. The water or steam injection means may be a water injector 5 that provides water to the passage, where the water is converted to steam.

Description

A Development of the construction and operation of a Four Stroke Internal Combustion En2ine This new internal combustion engine can be described as two sets of cylinder, piston, crankshaft, connecting rod, cylinder head and valve gear which are all separately the same as engine components which are established parts, and which can be found in all current modern engines.The developments here described are applicable to both petrol and diesel engines working on the four-stroke principle.
A diagrammatic section through the new engine is shown in the Drawing on page 6. In this diagram, minor parts which do not differ from the current normal engine mechanism, for example the valve operating cams and followers, which are not different to common practise, are not shown for clarity and simplicity.
For convenience the smaller set of basic parts will be referred to as the Primary mechanism, ( Drawing Ref No. 1), the larger set the Working mechanism ( Ref No. 10), . The two crankshafts are connected by gears or chain so that the Primary crankshaft rotates twice as fast as the Working crankshaft.
The layout and operation of the engine is designed to provide an increase of the efficiency of the power unit using a new operating cycle which also provides for a method of controlling the quality of the emission of the exhaust fumes, which with current internal combustion engines are contributing to atmospheric pollution.
The Primary part shows a small capacity, almost normal, engine in which, the piston, ( Ref No. 2), moves down with the inlet valve ( Ref, No. 3) open and sucks in the air/fuel mix, or plain air if a diesel, metered by a computer control unit ( C.C.U.). As the piston nears bottom dead centre the valve shuts and gasses in the cylinder are compressed as the piston moves up and the air/fuel mixture ignited by electric spark for a petrol engine or compression heat if a diesel. The exhaust valve (Ref No. 4) opens to a passage ( Ref No. 6) which leads to the inlet valve ( Ref No. 7) of the working cylinder. V/here this passage meets the primary exhaust valve it is slightly enlarged to form an annular chamber into which is mounted an injector ( Ref No. 5), similar to those used to inject fliel into normal engines. This injector is fixed to direct a water jet onto the primary exhaust valve.
This injector is controlled by the C.C.IJ. to inject water under pressure into the annular chamber. The primary exhaust and working inlet valves can be smaller than normal exhaust valves but of a size consistent with the need to be able to pass the generated gasses from the primary cylinder to the working cylinder, where they generate useftil work before being released, on the upward stroke of the piston (Ref. 9), by the opening of the working exhaust valve ( Ref No. 8), into the final exhaust pipe. Experiment has shown no need for a silencer in this pipe, but means of cooling and condensing the steam for re-use by the engine or trapping the dangerous products of combustion is indicated.
The sequence of operation of the new engine cycle is as follows.
On starting the engine the primary inlet valve ( Ref 3), starts to open as the primary piston (Ref 2), reaches top dead centre followed by it's downward movement causing the input of the air or air/fuel mix. With the valve closed, the next upward movement of the piston compresses the gasses and ignition of the explosive mixture takes place. Very soon after ignition the primary exhaust valve ( Ref. 4), opens releasing the hot high pressure gasses into the passage to the working cylinder ( Ref 6) and remains open until the primary piston completes it's upward exhaust stroke. The working inlet valve ( Ref 7), opens very slightly later than the opening of the primary exhaust valve as the working piston (Ref 9), travelling upwards, reaches top dead centre. Pressure from the expanding gasses forces the working piston down performing the power stroke. The working cylinder exhaust valve (Ref. 8), opens as the working piston approaches bottom dead centre and remains open only for the following upward exhaust stroke. The gearing of the two crankshafts ensures that while the working piston is doing it's working and exhaust strokes, the primary piston carries out the four sftokes of it's function.
When running the C.C.U. monitors the rotational speed, and when a satisfactory tick-over speed is reached, generates the signal to the injector ( Ref. 5), and injection of water under pressure occurs, timed to take place when the primary exhaust valve and the working inlet valve are both closed.
Initially the injected water is heated by the hot exhaust valve and surrounding metal, in so doing cools what is otherwise one of the hottest parts of an engine. The release of the results of the explosion in the primary cylinder head finally raises the temperature of the water and vapour surrounding the exhaust valve, to produce high pressure steam which passes to the working cylinder when the inlet valve in that cylinder opens. While the primary exhaust valve is open the final resultant gas and steam pressure acts on both pistons with the primary piston contributing to the power developed whilst it is moving downwards.
Any speed change prompted by the injection of water is corrected by the C.C.U. by modifying the air/fuel/water rates of input calculated by the C.C.U.
The water under pressure delivered to the injector is generated by a pump which may be driven by the engine mechanism or be an external electric device. The quantity of water injected is calculated by the C.C.U. and is related to the quantity of fuel injected. The relation between these two quantities defines the quality of steam, generated to achieve the design purpose for which the engine is to be used. As an intuitive guide, less water will tend to give high pressure superheated steam for high torque and power, whereas more water will tend to give wetter steam which may be capable of absorbing more of the products of combustion leading to a cleaner engine. A further factor is the relative volumes of the primary and working cylinders.
Experiment has indicated that a factor of three may be applicable but may not be optimal.
Thus in this evolution of the 4 stroke internal combustion engine, the prime function of the Primary part of the engine is to provide a core of hot gases which in turn evaporate the injected water. The resultant mixture of hot air, burnt fuel and steam then has a large swept volume available in which usable work can be generated. With the working parts operating at half the speed of the primary parts the resultant power output, of the engine, from the working crankshaft, is of a low speed, high torque nature.
This proposed engine therefore may be called an internal combustion steam engine

Claims (1)

  1. Claims 1/ This invention allows for a much greater recovery of energy from the fuel burned in the combustion chamber by providing a larger swept volume for expansion together with the addition of the working qualities of steam, which combined, improve the overall efficiency of the engine.
    2/ Injection of water adjacent to the Primary exhaust valve cools that area and allows a higher compression ratio to be used before ignition thus improving combustion.
    3/ Transferring the heat produced by combustion to steam reduces the risk of waste due to heat loss. The new engine design loses less heat in the wasteful process of cooling the working parts.
    4/ Production of power as low speed torque from the working crankshaft is advantageous for many applications, in vehicles, for example, drive mechanisms can be much more simple.
    5/ Exhaust noise is much reduced, silencers are unlikely to be needed but may be replaced by condensers to recover the water used. This may be re-used in the proposed new engine cycle.
    6/ Introduction of steam into the engine cycle allows the volume of water injected to be varied to alter the quality of the steam produced. This will make it possible to control the exhaust emissions by providing in the final exhaust pipe means by which the steam/hot water is encouraged to absorb some of the more dangerous products emitted to the atmosphere by current internal combusti on engines.
GB1404114.9A 2014-03-08 2014-03-08 A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine Withdrawn GB2523843A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1404114.9A GB2523843A (en) 2014-03-08 2014-03-08 A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1404114.9A GB2523843A (en) 2014-03-08 2014-03-08 A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB201404114D0 GB201404114D0 (en) 2014-04-23
GB2523843A true GB2523843A (en) 2015-09-09

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GB1404114.9A Withdrawn GB2523843A (en) 2014-03-08 2014-03-08 A development of the construction and operation of a four stroke internal combustion engine

Country Status (1)

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GB (1) GB2523843A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2550273A (en) * 2016-04-05 2017-11-15 Cooper Robert Power generation system

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191219547A (en) * 1912-08-27 1913-08-27 John Deam Improvements in and relating to Internal Combustion Engines.
DE4032630A1 (en) * 1990-10-15 1991-05-02 Klaus Gerhard Double rotor multi-fuel combustion engine - arrangement of vane cell rotors in separate housings
DE4300264A1 (en) * 1993-01-08 1994-07-14 Wilhelm Gathmann Energy conversion method using rotary piston aggregate
CN1553046A (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-12-08 黎 王 Composite rotor engine
CN201354676Y (en) * 2009-03-02 2009-12-02 欧志鹏 Internal-combustion engine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB191219547A (en) * 1912-08-27 1913-08-27 John Deam Improvements in and relating to Internal Combustion Engines.
DE4032630A1 (en) * 1990-10-15 1991-05-02 Klaus Gerhard Double rotor multi-fuel combustion engine - arrangement of vane cell rotors in separate housings
DE4300264A1 (en) * 1993-01-08 1994-07-14 Wilhelm Gathmann Energy conversion method using rotary piston aggregate
CN1553046A (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-12-08 黎 王 Composite rotor engine
CN201354676Y (en) * 2009-03-02 2009-12-02 欧志鹏 Internal-combustion engine

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2550273A (en) * 2016-04-05 2017-11-15 Cooper Robert Power generation system
GB2550273B (en) * 2016-04-05 2021-12-29 Cooper Robert Power generation system
GB2598073A (en) * 2016-04-05 2022-02-16 Cooper Robert Power generation system
GB2598073B (en) * 2016-04-05 2022-05-11 Cooper Robert Power generation system

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Publication number Publication date
GB201404114D0 (en) 2014-04-23

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