GB2320867A - Signal processors - Google Patents

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Publication number
GB2320867A
GB2320867A GB9724621A GB9724621A GB2320867A GB 2320867 A GB2320867 A GB 2320867A GB 9724621 A GB9724621 A GB 9724621A GB 9724621 A GB9724621 A GB 9724621A GB 2320867 A GB2320867 A GB 2320867A
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signal
bit
processor
bits
words
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GB2320867B (en
GB9724621D0 (en
Inventor
Peter Charles Eastty
Christopher Sleight
Peter Damien Thorpe
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Sony Europe Ltd
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Sony Europe Ltd
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Priority to GB9724621A priority patent/GB2320867B/en
Priority claimed from JP32507097A external-priority patent/JPH1188180A/en
Publication of GB9724621D0 publication Critical patent/GB9724621D0/en
Publication of GB2320867A publication Critical patent/GB2320867A/en
Publication of GB2320867B publication Critical patent/GB2320867B/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M7/00Conversion of a code where information is represented by a given sequence or number of digits to a code where the same, similar or subset of information is represented by a different sequence or number of digits
    • H03M7/30Compression; Expansion; Suppression of unnecessary data, e.g. redundancy reduction
    • H03M7/3002Conversion to or from differential modulation
    • H03M7/3004Digital delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M7/3015Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators
    • H03M7/3031Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the order of the loop filter, e.g. having a first order loop filter in the feedforward path
    • H03M7/3033Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the order of the loop filter, e.g. having a first order loop filter in the feedforward path the modulator having a higher order loop filter in the feedforward path, e.g. with distributed feedforward inputs
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M7/00Conversion of a code where information is represented by a given sequence or number of digits to a code where the same, similar or subset of information is represented by a different sequence or number of digits
    • H03M7/30Compression; Expansion; Suppression of unnecessary data, e.g. redundancy reduction
    • H03M7/3002Conversion to or from differential modulation
    • H03M7/3004Digital delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M7/3015Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators
    • H03M7/302Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution
    • H03M7/3024Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution having one quantiser only
    • H03M7/3028Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution having one quantiser only the quantiser being a single bit one
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M7/00Conversion of a code where information is represented by a given sequence or number of digits to a code where the same, similar or subset of information is represented by a different sequence or number of digits
    • H03M7/30Compression; Expansion; Suppression of unnecessary data, e.g. redundancy reduction
    • H03M7/3002Conversion to or from differential modulation
    • H03M7/3004Digital delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M7/3015Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators
    • H03M7/3031Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the order of the loop filter, e.g. having a first order loop filter in the feedforward path
    • H03M7/3033Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the order of the loop filter, e.g. having a first order loop filter in the feedforward path the modulator having a higher order loop filter in the feedforward path, e.g. with distributed feedforward inputs
    • H03M7/304Structural details of digital delta-sigma modulators characterised by the order of the loop filter, e.g. having a first order loop filter in the feedforward path the modulator having a higher order loop filter in the feedforward path, e.g. with distributed feedforward inputs with distributed feedback, i.e. with feedback paths from the quantiser output to more than one filter stage

Abstract

A 1-bit signal (44) is compressed (40, 41) by dividing it into a series of n-bit words and encoding the words in accordance with a histogram of their frequency of occurrence. If the 1-bit has previously been reprocessed to reduce noise (prior to recording or transmission) in signal processor including an nth order delta-sigma modulator having at least one integrator stage, the encoder may be responsive to the content of the or each integrator stage.

Description

SIGNAL PROCESSORS One aspect of the present invention relates to a signal processor for processing a 1-bit signal. Another aspect of the invention relates to a signal processor for a 1-bit signal, the processor comprising an nth order Delta-Sigma Modulator where null.

Preferred embodiments of the invention relate to processing audio signals and the invention will be described herein in relation to audio signal processors but the invention is not limited to audio signal processors.

Background to the present invention will now be described by way of example with reference to Figures 1, 2 and 3 of the accompanying drawings of which Figure 1 is a block diagram of a known Delta-Sigma Modulator, Figure 2 is a block diagram of a previously proposed Delta-Sigma Modulator configured as an nth order filter section and Figure 3 shows a noise shaping characteristic.

It is known to convert an analogue signal to a digital form by sampling the analogue signal at at least the Nyquist rate and encoding the amplitudes of the samples by an m bit number. Thus if m = 8, the sample is said to quantized to an accuracy of 8 bits. In general m can be any number of bits equal to or greater than 1.

For the purpose of quantizing to only 1 bit, it is known to provide an analogue to digital converter (ADC) known either as a "Sigma-Delta ADC" or as a "Delta Sigma ADC". Herein the term "Delta-Sigma" is used. Such an ADC is described in for example "A Simple Approach to Digital Signal Processing" by Craig Marven and Gillian Ewers ISBN 0-904.047-00-8 published 1993 by Texas Instruments.

Referring to Figure 1 in an example of such an ADC, the difference (Delta) between an analogue input signal and the integral (Sigma) of the 1-bit output signal is fed to a 1-bit quantizer 3. The output signal comprises bits of logical value 0 and 1 but representing actual values of -1 and +1 respectively. The integrator 2 accumulates the 1-bit outputs so that value stored in it tends to follow the value of the analogue signal. The quantizer 3 increases (+1) or reduces (-1) the accumulated value by l-bit as each bit is produced. The ADC requires a very high sampling rate to allow the production of an output bit stream the accumulated value of which follows the analogue signal.

The term "1-bit" signal as used in the following description and in the claims means a signal quantized to an accuracy of 1 digital bit such as is produced by a Delta-Sigma ADC.

A Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) configured as nth order filter section for directly processing a 1-bit signal was proposed by N.M. Casey and James A.S. Angus in a paper presented at the 95th AES Convention 7-10 October 1993 New York, USA entitled "One Bit Digital Processing of Audio Signals" (Signal Processing: Audio Research Group, The Electronics Department, The University of York, Heslington, York YO1 5DD England). Figure 2 shows a 3rd order (n=3) version of such a DSM filter section.

Referring to Figure 2, the DSM has an input 4 for a 1-bit signal and an output 5 at which a processed a 1-bit signal is produced. The bits of the 1-bit signal are clocked through the DSM by known clocking arrangements which are not shown.

The output 1-bit signal is produced by a 1-bit quantizer Q which is for example a comparator having a threshold level of zero. The DSM has three stages each comprising a first 1-bit multiplier al, a2, a3 connected to the input 4, a second 1-bit multiplier cl, c2, c3 connected to the output 5, an adder 6l, 62, 63 and an integrator 7,, 72, 73.

The 1-bit multipliers multiply the received 1-bit signal by p bit coefficients A1, A2, A3, C1 C2, C3 producing p bit multiplicands which are added by the adders 6l, 62, 63 and the sumps passed to the integrators 7. In the intermediate stages the adders 62, 63 also sum the output of the integrator of the preceding stage. A final stage comprises another l-bit multiplier A4 connected to the input which multiplies the input signal by a p bit coefficient A4 and an adder 64 which adds the multiplicand to the output of the integrator 73 of the preceding stage. The sum is passed to the quantizer 2.

Within the DSM, two's complement arithmetic is used to represent the positive and negative p bit numbers. The input to the quantizer Q may be positive, quantized at the output as +1 (logical 1) or negative quantized at the output as -1 (logical 0).

As observed by Casey and Angus "a one bit processor .. will produce a one bit output that contains an audio signal that is obscured by noise to an unacceptable level and it is imperative the quantization noise is suitably shaped". The noise which obscures the audio signal is the quantization noise produced by the quantizer Q.

The quantizer Q may be modelled as an adder which has a first input receiving an audio signal and a second input receiving a random bit stream (the quantization noise) substantially uncorrelated with the audio signal. Modelled on that basis, the audio signal received at the input 4 is fed forward by multipliers al, a2, a3, a4 to the output 5 and fed back by multipliers cl, C2. c3 from the output 5. Thus coefficients Al to A4 define zeros of the Z-transform transfer function of the audio signal and coefficients C1-C3 define poles of the transfer function of the audio signal.

The noise signal, is fed-back from the quantizer by the multipliers C-C, so that coefficients C1-C3 define poles of the transfer function of the noise signal.

The coefficients Al to A4 and C1 to C3 are chosen to provide circuit stability amongst other desired properties.

The coefficients C1-C3 are chosen to provide noise shaping so as to rniniinise quantization noise in the audio band, as shown for example in Figure 3 by the full line 31.

The coefficients A1-A4 and C1-C3 are also chosen for a desired audio signal processing characteristic.

The coefficients A1-A4 and C1-C3 may be chosen by: a) finding the Z-transform H(z) of the desired filter characteristic - e.g noise shaping function; and b) transforming H(z) to coefficients.

This may be done by the methods described in "Theory and Practical Implementation of a Fifth Order Sigma-Delta A/D Converter, Journal of Audio Engineering Society, Volume 39, no. 7/8, 1991 July/August by R.W Adams et al." and in the above mentioned paper by Angus and Casey using the knowledge of the person skilled in the art. One way of producing coefficients is outlined in Annex A.

According to one aspect of the invention, there is provided a signal processor for processing a 1-bit signal stream, comprising means for dividing a 1-bit stream into a succession of n bit words (where n > > 1), and means for coding the n bit words as coded words of less than n bits.

The bit stream of a 1-bit signal especially one produced by a DSM approximates a random sequence and therefore appears to be unresponsive to compression techniques which exploit redundancy and/or correlation between parts of a signal because it appears that no such redundancy or correlation exists. However, in accordance with the invention, it has been appreciated that some sequences of bits are more unlikely than others and some may in fact seldom if ever occur especially in audio signals. For example, a prolonged sequence of + l's or of -l's is highly unlikely because it signifies maximum positive or negative amplitude of the signal.

Thus the bit stream may be compressed by dividing it into words of n bits where n > > 1 and encoding the words according to their probability of occurrence.

The n-bit words may comprise mutually exclusive sets of n-bits in one embodiment. In another embodiment, an n-bit window is used through which the l-bit signal stream continuously passes. Each of the successive different sets of n-bits in the window is encoded.

Other encoding schemes may be used. One encoding scheme uses predictive encoding. A window (n-l) bits in length may be used. The bit stream passes through the window continuously. The n-1 bits in the window are used to predict the nth bit.

In another encoding scheme, a window Q bits wide is used for encoding a subset nbits long of the Q bits where n is less than Q, using those of the Q bits preceding and succeeding the n- bits.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a signal processor for processing a l-bit signal comprising: an nth order Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) where n > 1, the DSM having n integrator stages; and an encoder for reducing the bit rate of the l-bit signal, the encoder being responsive to the state variables of the n integrator stages.

The encoding of the l-bit signal is improved by knowledge of the processor producing the signal because the signal sequence is dependent on the process to which the signal is subject. By using the state variables of the DSM as represented by the values stored in the integrators of the DSM the encoding efficiency is improved.

In an embodiment of the another aspect, the sampling rate of the l-bit signal is increased. This spreads the quantisation noise power over a broader band width reducing noise in the signal band. In the embodiment, the encoder encodes the higher rate 1-bit signal to reduce the data content of the l-bit signal. This reduces storage required to store the signal e.g. on a tape or disc or the bandwidth needed to transmit the signal in a transmission channel.

According to a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a 1-bit signal processing system comprising: a signal processing means for processing a 1-bit signal; an encoder responsive to the state variables of the signal processing means to compress the processed signal; and a transmission channel and/or storage means coupled to receive the processed and encoded signal from the encoder.

The present invention is based on the new rcognition that a 1-bit signal is compressible despite its random nature. Embodiments of the invention relate to the data sources which are usable to control the compression.

For a better understanding of the present invention, reference will now be made by way of example to Figures 4 to 7 of the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 4A is a schematic block diagram of an encoding decoding apparatus according to an embodiment of the invention; Figures 4B to 4E are signal diagrams illustrating sets of bits and windows used in embodiments of the invention; Figure 5 is a schematic block diagram of an alternative encoding and decoding apparatus according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 6 is a schematic block diagram of yet another encoding and decoding apparatus according to the invention; and Figure 7 is a block diagram of a signal processing system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.

Referring to Figure 4A, a l-bit signal at an input 44 is fed to an encoder 40.

The encoder compresses the bit stream by dividing it into n-bit words and encoding the words according to a measure of the probability of occurrence. The measure of probability is provided by a histogram circuit 41 which builds a histogram of the frequency of occurrence of the words. The encoded bit stream is provided to a channel 42 which may be a tape recorder or disc recorder or a transmission channel.

The encoded bit stream reduces the amount of storage space or bandwidth required. A decoder 43 and histogram circuit 46 decode the encoded words from the channel in a manner complementary to the encoding process. The histogram builds a table which maps the received and uncompressed n-bit words onto corresponding compressed words of less than n bits.

Referring to Figure 4B, the encoding may be performed on mutually exclusive sets of n bits. As shown in Figure 4B a 1-bit signal bit stream is divided into sets a, b, c of bits each set comprising n bits. The encoder 40 and histogram circuit 41 act on e.g. the first set a, then on the second set b and then on the third set c and so on.

Referring to Figure 4C, the encoding may be performed on each successive sets of n bits within a window W n-bits wide. The bit stream flows continuously through the window. Thus as shown in Figures 4Ci and 4Cii a set of n bits is encoded and then the bit stream moves on by 1 bit and the next set of n bits including n-l bits of the previous set is encoded.

Referring to Figure 4D, the window W may be Q bits wide where Q is greater than n, and the set of n bits in the middle of the window is encoded on the basis of the bits preceding and succeeding the set of n bits.

As shown in Figure 4E, the encoding may be predictive and performed on the basis of a set of M bits which are used to predict the next, M+ ith bit.

Referring to Figure 5, the 1-bit signal may be processed by a Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) as described hereinbefore, or in co-filed applications 9624674.9 (I- 96-16), 9624671.5 (I-96-24), 9624673.1 (I-96-25), Attorney References P/1508.GB, P1509.GB and P/15 10.GB, as represented by block 50. The DSM has at least one integrator stage corresponding to block 71, 72 in Figure 2 and comprising an adder 52 and a unit time delay 51 which feeds delayed signal samples back to the adder 52.

The adder 52 thus accumulates the integral of the signal. The values in the adder 52 of the or each integrator stage are state variables of the DSM. In this embodiment the state variables are fed to an encoder 53 to aid the encoding process. The encoder compresses the bit stream in accordance with the state variables. The encoded bitstream is transmitted by a channel 42 to a decoder 54 which reproduces the original 1-bit signal, the information for the decoding being present on the encoded bit stream.

Referring to Figure 6, the 1-bit signal has, at an input 60, a sampling rate of 64fs where fs = 44.1 or 48Khz the standard sampling rate for digital audio.

An up converter 61 increases the sampling rate to e.g. 128fs by repeating sample values or by inserting zeroes in the bit stream. Increasing the sampling rate spreads the noise power over a larger bandwidth.

In the example of Figure 6, the 1-bit signal is processed by one or more DSMs 62, 63 in series and encoded by an encoder 64 responsive to the state variables of DSM 63 to compress the data in the signal as discussed with reference to Figure 5.

The encoded signal is provided to the channel 42 as described with reference to Figure 5.

The signal produced by the channel is decoded by a decoder 65 complementary to the encoder 64.

Figure 7 illustrates an audio signal processing system incorporating encoding and decoding according to embodiments of the invention. In Figure 7 a 1-bit audio signal is supplied to a signal processor 70 which incorporates for example a DSM such as is shown in Figure 6. An encoder 71 for comprising the bit stream is associated with the processor 70, the compression being controlled by the state variables of the processor 70. The compressed data stream is then supplied to a transmission channel and/or storage device 72. The compressed data stream is recovered from channel/device 72, decoded in a decoder 73 to be further processed by a processor 74.

The efficiency of encoding is enhanced by associating the encoder 71 with the processor 70.

In hitherto conventional practice as applied to n bit signals ,where n > > 1, the encoding as at 71 is unassociated with the processing as at 70, but instead encoding (and decoding) is performed at the transmission channel and/or storage device 72, without reference to the processing at the processor 70.

The encoders and decoders 40, 41; 43, 46; 53, 54, 64, 65 have not been described in detail. They are within the skill of those expert in encoding and decoding for data reduction. Examples of encoders and decoders are disclosed in: GB-A-1 023 029 (IBM) which describes a predictive encoder capable of predicting for each of successive M-bit sequences the most likely N-bit sequence following the M bit sequence; and US-A4 516 246 (Prentice Corporation) which describes a character base input data stream is encoded in compressed form by using a histogram of a sample of the data stream to determine the frequency of appearance of characters in the stream. A code for a character M + 1 is generated in an encoder to be a length which is an inverse function of the frequency of appearance of character M +1 in the preceding M characters in the sample. Decoding can be achieved by forming a comparable sample window in a decoder to which is applied an estimated index of the incoming character being decoded.

ANNEX CALCULATING COEFFICIENTS This annex outlines a procedure for analysing a fifth order DSM and for calculating coefficients of a desired filter characteristic.

A fifth order DSM is shown in Figure A having coefficients a to f and A to E, adders 6 and integrators 7. Integrators 7 each provide a unit delay. The outputs of the integrators are denoted from left to right s to w. The input to the DSM is a signal x[n] where [n] denotes a sample in a clocked sequence of samples. The input to the quantizer Q is denoted y[n] which is also the output signal of the DSM. The anaiysis is based on a model of operation which assumes quantizer Q is simply an adder which adds random noise to the processed signal. The quantizer is therefore ignored in this analysis.

The signal y[n] = fx[n] # w[Il] i.e. output signal yln] at sample tn7 is the input signal x[n3 multiplied by coefficient f plus the output w[n] of the preceding integrator 7.

Applying the same principies to each output signal of the integrators 7 results in Equations set i. y[n] = fx[n] +w[n] w[n] = w[n-1]-ex[n-1]+Ey[n-1]+v[n-1] v[n] = v[n-1]-dx[n-1]+Dy[n-1]+u[n-1] u[n] = u[n-1]+cx[n-1]+Cy[n-1]+t[n-1] t[n] = t[n-1]-bx[n-1]+By[n-1]+s[n-1] ANNEX s[n] = s[n-1]+ax[n-1]+Ay[n-1] These equations are transformed into z-transform equations as well known in the art resulting in equations set 2.

Y(z) = fX(z) + W(z) W(z)(1-z-1) = z-1(eX(z)+EY(z)+V(z)) V(z)(1-z-1) = z-1(dX(z)+DY(z)+U(z)) U(z)(1-z-1) = z-1(cX(z)+CY(z)+T(z)) T(z)(1-z-1) = z-1(bX(z)+BY(z)+S(z)) S(z)(1-z-1) = z-1(aX(z)+AY(z)) The z transform equations can be solved to derive Y(z) as a single function of X(z) (Equation 3) z-1 Y(z) = fX(z) + (eX(z) + EY(z) + (1-z) z-1 (dX(z) + DY(z) + 1-z-1 ANNEX z-1 (cX(z) + CY(z) + 1-z-1 z-1(bX(z)+ BY(z) z-1 (aX(z) + AY(z)))))) 1-z-1 This may be reexpressed as shown in the right hand side of the following equation, Equation 4. A desired transfer function of the DSM can be expressed in series form Y(z) X(z) given in left hand side of the following equation and equated with the right hand side in Equarion 4.

Equation 4 can be solved to derive the coefficients f to a from the coefficients α0 to α5 and coefficients E to A from the coefficients 0 to 5 as follows noting that the coefficients an and n are chosen in known manner to provide a desired transfer function. f is the only z0 term in the numerator. Therefore f = a0. ANNEX The term α0(1-z-1)5 is then subtracted from the left hand numerator resulting in α0 + α1z-1 +...α5z-5 - α0(1-z-1)5 which is recalculated.

Similarly f(1-z-1)5 is subtracted from the right hand numerator. Then e is the only z-1 term and can be equated with the corresponding a, in the recalculated left hand numerator.

The process is repeated for all the terms in the numerator.

The process is repeated for all the terms in the denominator.

Claims (16)

  1. CLAIMS 1. A signal processor for processing a 1-bit signal, comprising means for dividing a 1-bit stream into a succession of n bit words (where n > > 1), and means for coding the n bit words as coded words of less than n bits.
  2. 2. A processor according to claim 1, wherein the words are encoded according to the probability of occurrence thereof.
  3. 3. A processor according to claim 2, comprising means for forming a histogram of the frequency of occurrence of the words and means for encoding the words in accordance with the histogram.
  4. 4. A processor according to claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein the n-bit words comprise mutually exclusive sets of n bits.
  5. 5. A processor according to claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein the dividing means comprises a window through which the bit stream continuously passes and each word comprises the bits within the window.
  6. 6. A processor according to claim 1, wherein the dividing means comprises a window through which the bit stream continuously passes, the window having a length of Q bits where Q is greater than n, and each n-bit word is a subset of the Q bits and is encoded in dependence upon the other Q-n bits in the window preceding and succeeding the said n-bit word.
  7. 7. A processor according to claim 1, wherein n-l bits of each word are used to predict the nth bit of the word.
  8. 8. A signal processor for processing a I-bit signal comprising: an nth order Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) where null, the DSM having n integrator stages; and an encoder for reducing the bit rate of the 1-bit signal, the encoder being responsive to the state variables of the integrator stages.
  9. 9. A processor according to claim 8 further comprising means for increasing the sampling rate of the 1-bit signal, the said DSM operating on the 1-bit signal having the increased sampling rate, the encoder reducing the data content of the signal.
  10. 10. A signal processor for processing a 1-bit signal encoded by the processor of claim 1, 2 or 3, comprising means for decoding the coded words.
  11. 11. A processor according to claim 10 comprising means for forming a histogram of the frequency of occurrence of the coded words and means for decoding the coded words in accordance with the histogram.
  12. 12. A 1-bit signal processing system comprising: a signal processing means for processing a 1-bit signal; an encoder responsive to the state variables of the signal processing means to compress the processed signal; and a transmission channel and/or storage means coupled to receive the processed and encoded signal from the encoder.
  13. 13. A system according to claim 12, further comprising: a decoder for receiving the encoded 1-bit signal from the channel and/or storage means for decompressing the 1-bit signal; and means for utilising the decompressed 1-bit signal.
  14. 14. A signal processor substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to: Figure 4A optionally as modified by Figure 4B, 4C, 4D or 4E; Figure 5; or Figure 6 of the accompanying drawings.
  15. 15. A signal processing system substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figure 7 of the accompanying drawings.
  16. 16. An audio signal processor comprising a signal processor or system according to any preceding claim.
GB9724621A 1996-11-27 1997-11-20 Signal processors Expired - Fee Related GB2320867B (en)

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JP32507097A JPH1188180A (en) 1996-11-27 1997-11-26 One-bit signal processor

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GB1023029A (en) * 1962-07-17 1966-03-16 Ibm Circuitry for reducing the number of bits required to represent a given sequence of data
GB1336317A (en) * 1969-11-25 1973-11-07 Licentia Gmbh Communication transmission system
US4516246A (en) * 1982-02-26 1985-05-07 Prentice Corporation Data compression system
US4630007A (en) * 1984-06-12 1986-12-16 Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation Delta modulated signal sampling rate converter using digital means
WO1993011611A1 (en) * 1991-12-06 1993-06-10 Nicolas Vaugnier Method and device for converting regular codes into codes of variable size, and to enable serial communication of the codes obtained

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6269338B1 (en) * 1996-10-10 2001-07-31 U.S. Philips Corporation Data compression and expansion of an audio signal
ES2292066T3 (en) * 1996-11-07 2008-03-01 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Transmission of a bits flow signal.

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1023029A (en) * 1962-07-17 1966-03-16 Ibm Circuitry for reducing the number of bits required to represent a given sequence of data
GB1336317A (en) * 1969-11-25 1973-11-07 Licentia Gmbh Communication transmission system
US4516246A (en) * 1982-02-26 1985-05-07 Prentice Corporation Data compression system
US4630007A (en) * 1984-06-12 1986-12-16 Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation Delta modulated signal sampling rate converter using digital means
WO1993011611A1 (en) * 1991-12-06 1993-06-10 Nicolas Vaugnier Method and device for converting regular codes into codes of variable size, and to enable serial communication of the codes obtained

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GB2320867B (en) 2001-12-05

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