SOLAR POWERED THREE-AXIS MOBILE AGRICULTURAL AUTOMATION
The present invention is related to a solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation of which the main energy source is solar energy; when reinforced, gains continuity with the support of wind, network and generator; and which carries out drop irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, agricultural spraying, subsoil moisture control and thermal leaf moisture analysis, macro visualization, fogging, shaking, harvesting, displaying, illumination, security operations and which also carries out driving and power supply operations by means of the electric tractor which moves on the soil.
Agriculture is the oldest and still the most important economic activity that provides food, feed, fiber and necessary fuel for people to survive. With the continued increase in world population, it is necessary for agricultural production to also increase to meet the growing demand for food and bioenergv. Limited land, water and labor resources taken into account, the emphasis is on machinery rather than manpower.
Robotics and automation will particularly play an important role in the near future in meeting the needs of agricultural production in order to increase the quality of life for society. In recent years, robots have played a major role in increasing agricultural productivity, in industrial production, and in reducing the cost of products. In particular, GPS and vision-based self-guided tractors and combines have begun to take their place in the automation market in agriculture. More recently, farmers have started to perform processes such as pruning, thinning and harvesting, mowing, agricultural spraying, and removal of grass using automated machines or with autonomous systems.
For example, in the fruit cultivation sector, it was observed that using robotic platforms in the process of collecting fruits from branches was two times more efficient than workers using ladders for the same process. Developments in sensors and control systems allow optimum welding and harmful disease management. Automation systems provide great advantages in terms of cultivation, maintenance and harvesting of agricultural products.
Difficult working conditions, decreasing energy resources and the need for clean energy has accelerated the development and use of technology in the field of agriculture. In present studies, various developments such as automation systems being mobile, energy storage, use of electric tractors, movement of carrier ropes and tree shaking systems, etc. have been observed. Other studies in the relevant field that stand out are irrigation systems, soil and crop cultivation machinery. In this context, fixed and mobile irrigation systems, mobile work machinery and robots have been developed. The common feature of the applications is that they are ground contact systems which carry out processes by means of controlled arms. Their disadvantage is that they cause damage to the soil. In addition to the fact that they cannot be used in all types of fields, their maintenance and repair also requires expertise. Expanding agricultural automation is generally developed for programming and operating conventional farming tools. Irrigation can be considered a typical example. Systems selected according to the crop type are sprinklers, drip irrigation and wild flooding. While in sprinkler systems the run time of water pressure is controlled, in drip irrigation the water tank level and period of irrigation is controlled. The realization of applications with pipes laid in the ground has negative effects in terms of material life, protection of pipes, and blocking of machinery in the field. While irrigation systems with mobile capability which have become widespread in recent years, problems related to soil damage, moving hoses, garages and assembly have not been overcome. While solar-powered pumps and irrigation systems have become widespread, use of solar powered tractors has not. In the invention of patent application number US 201 1 106451 of the known state of the art, a multi-sensor system measures diffuse reflectance of soil, soil conductivity, and other soil properties in situ, in three dimensions. The system includes a sensor shank used tbr X-Y axis measurements and a hydraulic probe implement containing a sensor probe for -Z axis measurements. It includes optical sensors and soil electrical conductivity sensors. It further encompasses a sensor that measures insertion force and a soil temperature sensor. These combinations of sensors are used to calibrate the system and to characterize the soil properties within a field or area.
In patent document number US4612996 A of the known state of the art, a robotic tractor that travels on rails forming a grid over a crop field and automatically performs tasks in the field is described. The tractor is supported on extendable legs that cany dual tandem perpendicular wheel sets. A rotary implement bed supported by the tractor is adapted to carry implements.
In patent document number WO2013 I 81069 A I of the known state of the art, the invention is an agricultural tractor and consists of an electrical control unit and control system that controls the tractor. The control system is programmed such that the sensor related to the tractor's operating functions receive numerous real time signals.
The control system is also arranged to enable numerous output signals of controlled operating components. The control system enables predefined commands to be carried out by means of input being provided over the internet.
In the invention of patent document number EP2622955 A I again of the known state of the art, the tractor has actuator which is controlled by control device and is actuated under external power, to adjust working parameter of machine. A sensor is connected to control device, to detect vertical position of machine, machine inclination in forward or sideward direction, and distance between machine and object. The control device is used to identify agricultural several topographical zones of field by means of signals of sensor.
The common feature of the above patents is that they are ground contact systems which carry out processes by means of controlled arms. Their disadvantage is that they cause damage to the soil. While they cannot be used in all types of fields, their maintenance and repair also requires expertise.
Expanding agricultural automation is generally developed for programming and operating conventional farming tools. Irrigation can be considered a typical example. Systems selected according to the crop type are sprinklers, drip irrigation and wild flooding. While in sprinkler system the run time of water pressure is controlled, in drip
irrigation the water tank level and period of irrigation is controlled. The realization of applications with pipes laid in the ground has negative effects in terms of material life, protection of pipes, and blocking of machinery in the field. While irrigation systems with mobile capability which have become widespread in recent years, problems related to soil damage, moving hoses, garages and assembly have not been overcome. While solar-powered pumps and irrigation systems have become widespread, use of solar powered tractors has not
Taking into account all of the above documents part of the known state of the art, these do not mention a system such as the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation of the present invention to be used in agricultural activities.
Brief Description and Objectives of the Invention
The objective in developing the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation is to provide the production of an efficient product using programmable agricultural activities, remote control and management systems and to provide savings by using low cost energy source.
Another objective in developing the invention is to enable cultivation with deformation in the soil and to provide up to date tracking of crop growth.
Description of Drawings Describing the Invention
The drawings prepared to better describe the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation developed with this invention are specified below.
Figure 1 - View of the elements that constitute the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation system.
Figure 2 - View of the chassis panel position when the chassis is located in the interior Figure 3 - View of the tank position when the chassis is in tunnel
Figure 4 - View of the chassis panel position when the chassis is located in the exterior Figure 5 - View of the pressurized tree shaking device
Figure 6 - Perspective view of the drip irrigation tank
Definitions of the Coniponents/Parts/Pieces Forming the Invention
The components/parts/pieces found in the figures to better describe the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation realized by means of this invention are numbered individually as specified below.
1. Solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation
2. Carrier pole
3. X axis movement platform
4. Rotating head
5. Stretch ropes
6. Bridge ropes
7. Control elements
8. Parallel rope
9. Subsoil moisture sensor
10. Wind energy system
11. Solar cell panels
12. Electric tractor
13. Mobile conveyor line
14. Water pump
15. Compressed air tank
16. Water tank
17. Power supply
18. Control panel
19. Drip irrigation tank
20. DC overhead engine
21. Mobile platform body
22. Robotic arm
23. Controlled access gate
24. Cooling unit
25. Pressure shaker
26. Shaker piston
27. Direct movement mechanism
Detailed Description of the Invention
The solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation ( I) consists of a pair of ropes (8) parallel to each other placed on the stretch ropes (5) located on the top section of four carrier poles (2) positioned on the specified area. The movement of the stretch ropes (5) is possible by means of the DC overhead engine (20) connected to the pulley center on the pole (2). The stretch ropes (5) move the X axis movement platform (3) along the x axis. The mutual platform (21), which is placed on the bridge ropes (6) and which is idle on the bottom and fixed on the top, can move in the (z) direction with the movement of the rope (6). This platform (21) also provides the transfer of data, liquid, and air by means of the idle wheel located on the mobile conveyor line (13). This body (21) moves by means of the drive of the mobile bridge engine (20) to which the pulleys found on two ends of the platform (3) are connected. The body platform (21) provides balance stability to the four ropes (5, 8) with eight contact points. The rotating head (4), which can rotate 360 degrees with the vertical (y) axis motion of the four bedded columns located on the body (21), positions the poles (2) to the points referenced by means of laser measurements. Functional apparatuses are located on the side of the head (4), while a robotic arm (22) is located on its bottom to perform point-in commands.
In the automation system (1); data, energy, water and compressed air conveyor line (13) moves together with the spool connected to the stretch rope (5) in an accordion like manner. The conveyor line ( 13) operates similarly on the overhead bridge as well. The mobile platform body (21 ) passes over the bridge ropes (6) to reach the rotating head (4). The rotating head (4), which can be positioned to any point, performs agricultural activities in the area it is located by means of the robotic arm (22). in the system's energy management, energy is obtained directly or indirectly from the solar cell panels (1 1) positioned on top of the carries poles (2) and the storage units (16), from the wind energy systems (10) and from the network if reinforcement exists.
If an electric tractor (12) is to be used within the framework of the control panel (18), the
energy is directly directed to the tractor (12). Deep wells, water transfers and other activities are disabled. For example, if agricultural spraying is to be performed, the stock energy (compressed air) is provided to the pesticide and water tank (16) and transfer pressure is achieved. At other times, energy is used in deep water extraction and storage, air compression, irrigation, battery storage, feeding of other units and in the power battery group of the electric tractor (12).
The control panel (18) activates the related units by converting agricultural activities according to the type of agricultural field (field, garden) and the plant to be planted in accordance with basic data such as time, temperature, moisture, and energy into commands by means of sensor feedback into commands.
In irrigation, the subsoil moisture sensor (9) measures moisture and temperature. According to data, the drop and rain irrigation commands are chosen from the control panel (18). In drop irrigation, the water at the rotating head (4) is poured to the conical drop irrigation tanks (19) found at the determined area by means of the pouring apparatus on the robotic arm (22). in rain irrigation, micronized moistening in the form of multiple drops or pressurized air mixture is performed. The water pump (14) is enabled at the desired angle and time by means of the smart energy method.
In the liquid agricultural spraying process, pesticides and water at a particular location and of a certain type are provided to the water transfer line (13) with dosage control. Then pesticide is applied from the top and from the sides from the micronized head through the robotic arm (22) by providing pressurized air.
With the help of control elements (7) such as the camera and color sensors, the robotic arm (22), enables the collection of fruits and crops predefined in the program. The collection head on the arm (22) is changed in accordance with the crop type. The pressure shaker (25) is locked to the tree in the form of two half-moons and carries out shaking by means of the weight on the edge of the shaker piston (26) working in the opposite direction with the pressurized air coming from the compressed air tank (15). This process enables the collection of crops such as olives, which are found as small pieces on the
The automation system ( 1) is enclosed in the application area. Exit, with the exception of the classic lid, is performed by means of the three step motion controlled access gate (23) under the control of the system (I). The sides of the system ( 1 ) are in the form of open chassis and the front and back panels serve as gates (23). In the first step, the front panel is the gate that closes the exit, the chassis enters the tunnel after it is full and this step is the standby lid position (Figure 2). In the second step, the lid which serves as a closed tank also serves as a cooling unit (24) due to the insulation and of the lid surfaces and the cooling capability of the tunnel (Figure 3). In the third step, the chassis moves outside by moving on the rail in three moves and serves as a back lid (Figure 4. Passage from the exterior to the interior and from the interior to the exterior is provided in a controlled manner. The electric tractor ( 12) is fed from the three axis mobile energy transfer line and carries out tractor activities in all areas on-site and remotely. The panel energy used enables obtaining satisfactory power in a more economical manner. The water and air supplied from the transfer line (13) may be stored and carried in the tractor. By using shorter carries poles (2), the system (1 ) enables easy use in orchards. Moreover, it also manually carries out external activities by means of the energy storage batteries. in uses of the system (1) in appropriate large land and for cultivated crops, the tanks (16, 19) are stationary and can change the work area with the progressive (worm) action at low speed (3m/h) by means of the electromotor movement mechanism (27) placed under the poles (2). The stretch ropes (5) in the system enable ease of movement. This enables more efficient operation with a single module.
Control elements (7) found in the system consisting of gas, audio, visual, lighting actuators may also be used for security functions with the appropriate programming. Movement and heat sensitive detectors provide deterrent effect against wild animals, birds and intrusions by spraying pressurized water via the robotic arm (22) or by applications such as sounding alarms.
By means of the solar powered three-axis mobile agricultural automation ( I ) which can be implemented in various areas such as parks, agricultural areas and gardens, a versatile integrated use through a single energy panel is provided; by means of the solar powered tractor application, a low cost and clean energy solution is provided. The system (1) provides ease of control by means of on-site or remote control.
The system (1 ) also provides easier efficient produce production by means of diversity in irrigation, time-independent application and subsoil and sub-leaf sensor (9) which does not damage the soil .
The automatic remote controlled spraying, shaking of trees and harvesting operations of the system (1 ) can be carried out without workers and thus provides saving in manpower.