EP1611650A1 - Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utiliying such coils - Google Patents

Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utiliying such coils

Info

Publication number
EP1611650A1
EP1611650A1 EP20040759627 EP04759627A EP1611650A1 EP 1611650 A1 EP1611650 A1 EP 1611650A1 EP 20040759627 EP20040759627 EP 20040759627 EP 04759627 A EP04759627 A EP 04759627A EP 1611650 A1 EP1611650 A1 EP 1611650A1
Authority
EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
earth doped
rare earth
fiber
clad diameter
optical
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
EP20040759627
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
William A. Wood
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Corning Inc
Original Assignee
Corning Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S3/00Lasers, i.e. devices for generation, amplification, modulation, demodulation, or frequency-changing, using stimulated emission, of infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet waves
    • H01S3/05Construction or shape of optical resonators; Accommodation of active medium therein; Shape of active medium
    • H01S3/06Construction or shape of active medium
    • H01S3/063Waveguide lasers, i.e. whereby the dimensions of the waveguide are of the order of the light wavelength
    • H01S3/067Fibre lasers
    • H01S3/06708Constructional details of the fibre, e.g. compositions, cross-section, shape or tapering
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION
    • H01S3/00Lasers, i.e. devices for generation, amplification, modulation, demodulation, or frequency-changing, using stimulated emission, of infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet waves
    • H01S3/05Construction or shape of optical resonators; Accommodation of active medium therein; Shape of active medium
    • H01S3/06Construction or shape of active medium
    • H01S3/063Waveguide lasers, i.e. whereby the dimensions of the waveguide are of the order of the light wavelength
    • H01S3/067Fibre lasers
    • H01S3/06704Housings; Packages

Abstract

According to the present invention, a rare earth doped fiber coil comprises a rare doped optical fiber having a rare-earth doped core surrounded by a cladding. The outer clad diameter is less than 100μm. The rare earth doped optical fiber has a length of 10 m to 50m and is coiled with abend radius of less than 40mm.

Description

REDUCED CLAD DIAMETER RARE EARTH DOPED FIBER COILS AND OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS UTILIZING SUCH COILS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/459,842, filed April 1, 2003, entitled "Reduced Clad Diameter Rare Earth Doped Fiber Coils and Optical Amplifiers Utilizing Such Coils."

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates generally to optical rare-earth doped fibers with small clad diameters and, more specifically, to coiled or bent optical rare-earth doped fibers with small clad diameters.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND [0003] Rare earth doped optical fibers are commonly utilized in optical amplifiers. An example of optical amplifier is an erbium doped optical fiber amplifier (EDFA). A typical erbium doped fiber has an outer clad diameter of 125 μm. When this type of fiber is coiled such that bend radius is small (35 mm or smaller), the fiber coils suffer from bend-induced birefringence. The tighter (smaller) the bend radius, the higher the amount of bend-induced birefringence. More specifically, the bend-induced birefringence is inversely proportional to the square of the bend radius. The bend induced birefringence results in Differential Group Delay or DGD. As illustrated in

Figure 1, the smaller the bend radius, the greater the DGD. That is, due to bend-induced birefringence one polarization component of the optical signal propagates through the fiber faster than the other polarization component. As a result, because Polarization

Mode Dispersion or PMD is the average of DGD values over the wavelength band, the bend induced birefringence also results in increased PMD. This is especially problematic in high data rate amplifiers because PMD broadens the signal pulse width, thereby limiting the error-free bit rate of a fiber optic transmission system. Thus, DGD and PMD are limiting factors that prevent utilization of smaller coil diameters in high data rate optical amplifiers.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] According to the present invention, a rare earth doped fiber coil comprises a rare earth doped optical fiber having a rare-earth doped core surrounded by a cladding.

The outer clad diameter is less than lOOμm. The rare earth doped optical fiber has a length of 10 m to 50m and is coiled with a bend radius of less than 40mm.

[0005] According to one embodiment, the rare earth doped optical fiber is an Er doped optical fiber.

[0006] According to one embodiment, the bend radius is between 8mm and 20mm.

[0007] According to one embodiment, the outer clad diameter is between 70μm and

95μm.

[0008] One advantage of the present invention is that the coiled optical fiber exhibits reduced DGD and PMD while utilizing lesser amount of glass to manufacture.

Furthermore, the same length fiber may be packaged in a smaller volume, thus reducing the overall size of optical amplifiers. Consequently, the present invention may be utilized, for example, to manufacture optical amplifiers in significantly smaller packages or with ultra-low PMD.

[0009] Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the detailed description which follows, and in part will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art from that description or recognized by practicing the invention as described herein, including the detailed description which follows, the claims, as well as the appended drawings.

[0010] It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description present exemplary embodiments of the invention, and are intended to provide an overview or framework for understanding the nature and character of the invention as it is claimed. The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings illustrate various embodiments of the invention, and together with the description, serve to explain the principles and operations of the invention. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0011] Figure 1 is an illustration of differential group delay DGD dependence on bend radius R;

[0012] Figure 2 is a view of one embodiment of the present invention;

[0013] Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view of the optical fiber illustrated in Fig. 2;

[0014] Figure 4 illustrates the relationship between DGD and the outer clad diameter of two optical fibers with identical compositions; and

[0015] Figure 5 illustrates fiber profile of an exemplary rare earth doped fiber.

[0016] Figure 6 is a schematic of an optical amplifier that utilizes the fiber coil depicted in Fig. 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0017] Reference will now be made in detail to the present preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Whenever possible, the same reference numerals will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts.

[0018] One embodiment of the reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coil of the present invention is shown in Figure 2, and is designated generally throughout by the reference numeral 10. The fiber coil 10 has a bend radius (illustrated as coil radius R) of less than 40 mm. It is preferable, in order to be more compact while maintaining minimal PMD effects due to birefringence, that the bend radius R be between 8 mm and 35 mm, more preferably between 8 mm and 2 0mm and most preferably between 10 mm and 15 mm. However, if the bend radius R becomes too small (i.e. less than 5mm), then fiber bend loss increases and, even more importantly, fiber reliability may suffer, i.e. fiber life span may be shortened.

[0019] As embodied herein and depicted in Figure 3, this fiber coil 10 comprises a rare earth doped optical fiber 12 having a rare-earth doped core 14 surrounded by a cladding 16 with outer clad diameter d of less than lOOμm. It is preferable that the outer clad diameter d be in the range of 70μm to 95 μm, more preferably in the range of 72μm to 90μm, and even more preferably in the range of 75μm to 85μm. The rare earth doped optical fiber has a length L of 10m to 50m and, when utilized in optical amplifiers, it is often preferred that its length be in the 10 to 30m range. If the outer clad diameter d becomes too small (i.e., less then 70μm), the fiber may become more difficult to handle, less strong and more sensitive to perturbations such as microbending. [0020] Bend induced birefringence, DGD and PMD are all proportional to the square of the outer clad diameter d. Therefore, a reduction in a size of outer clad diameter from 125 μm to 80 μm should result in (80/125)2=0.41 x PMD of the identical composition fiber with a 125 μm outer diameter, or a 59% reduction in PMD. Similarly, a 90 μm outer clad diameter should have only 0.52 x PMD of the identical composition fiber with a 125 μm outer diameter, or a 48% reduction in PMD.

[0021] Figure 4 illustrates the relationship between DGD and the outer clad diameter of two exemplary optical fibers. Specifically, the vertical axis of Figure 4 represents DGD (measured in fs). The horizontal axis is an inverse square of the fiber's outer clad diameter (1/d2), in units of mm"2. These measurements shown in Figure 4 were performed using 20 m long fiber coils of various radii R. In these measurements, coil radii R were between 5 mm and 10 mm. Results for a rare earth doped fiber (Er doped fiber) with an outer clad diameter d=125 μm is denoted by line A. Another rare earth doped fiber with identical composition, but reduced clad diameter d=80 μm is denoted by line B. Figure 4 clearly shows that fiber B suffers from much smaller amount of DGD than fiber A. The reduction in PMD is approximately consistent with the above calculation.

[0022] The exemplary fibers A and B have the following core composition: 8.6 wt% Al2O3, 13.6 wt%GeO2, 700 wtppm Er2O3. The fiber profile is illustrated in Figure 5. The claddings of these fibers is made of silica.

[0023] However, because DGD and PMD are proportional to a square of the fiber's outer clad diameter, as shown above, then regardless of fiber's composition, a reduction in the clad diameter of any coiled rare-earth doped optical fiber will result in better DGD, PMD and smaller package volume. The latter attribute is especially useful for reducing the overall size of optical amplifiers.

[0024] As embodied herein and depicted in Figure 6, an optical amplifier 20 may utilize rare earth doped fiber coil 10 as its amplification medium. In this exemplary amplifier, coil 10 is pumped by the pump source 22 (laser diode, for example) that is coupled to the rare-earth doped fiber 12 by an optical coupler 24. The optical coupler 24 provides both incoming optical signal S and the pump light from the pump source 22 to the rare earth doped fiber 12, which amplifies incoming signal S and provides, as an output, the amplified signal S'. Optionally, in order to provide additional pump power, another pump source 22' may also be coupled to the rare-earth doped fiber 12 via an additional optical coupler 24'.

[0025] As stated above, the rare earth doped amplifying fiber 12 of coil 10 has a rare earth doped core 14 surrounded by a cladding. The outer clad diameter d is less than 100 μm, preferably less than 95 μm, more preferably 90 μm or less, and most preferably 75 μm to 85 μm. The length of the rare earth doped optical fiber 12 is 10 m to 50 m and the bend radius is less than 40mm. It is preferred that the bend radius R be 35 mm or less, and more preferably 10mm to 20 mm.

[0026] It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made to the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Thus it is intended that the present invention cover the modifications and variations of this invention provided they come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1. A rare earth doped fiber coil, said rare earth doped fiber coil comprising: a rare earth doped optical fiber having a rare-earth doped core surrounded by a
cladding with outer clad diameter of less than lOOμm, said rare earth doped optical fiber
having a length of 10 m to 50m and being coiled with a bend radius of less than 40mm.
2. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said clad diameter is in the range of 70μm to 95 μm.
3. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said clad diameter is in the range of 72μm to 90μm
4. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said clad diameter is in the range of 75 μm to 85μm.
5. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said rare earth doped optical fiber is an Er doped optical fiber.
6. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 5, wherein said bend radius is between 8mm and 35mm
7. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 5, wherein said bend radius is between 8mm and 20mm.
8. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 5, wherein said bend radius is between 10mm and 15mm.
9. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said bend radius is between 8mm and 20mm.
10. The rare earth doped fiber coil according to claim 1, wherein said bend radius is between 10mm and 15mm.
11. An optical amplifier comprising: a length of rare earth doped amplifying fiber, said amplifying fiber having a rare-earth doped core surrounded by a cladding with outer clad diameter of less than lOOμm, said rare earth doped optical fiber having a length of 10 m to 50m and being coiled with a bend radius of less than 40mm.
12. The optical amplifier according to claim 10, wherein said rare earth doped optical fiber is an Er doped optical fiber.
13. The optical amplifier according to claim 10, wherein said bend radius is between 8mm and 20mm.
14. The optical amplifier according to claim 10 wherein said clad diameter is between 70μm and 95 μm.
15. The optical amplifier according to claim 10 wherein said outer clad diameter is between 72μm and 90μm.
16. The optical amplifier according to claim 10 wherein said outer clad diameter is between 75μm and 85μm.
EP20040759627 2003-04-01 2004-03-17 Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utiliying such coils Ceased EP1611650A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US45984203 true 2003-04-01 2003-04-01
US10755009 US6978078B2 (en) 2004-01-08 2004-01-08 Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utilizing such coils
PCT/US2004/008097 WO2004095655B1 (en) 2003-04-01 2004-03-17 Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utiliying such coils

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1611650A1 true true EP1611650A1 (en) 2006-01-04

Family

ID=33313393

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20040759627 Ceased EP1611650A1 (en) 2003-04-01 2004-03-17 Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utiliying such coils

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1611650A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2006522366A (en)
WO (1) WO2004095655B1 (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6978078B2 (en) * 2004-01-08 2005-12-20 Corning Incorporated Reduced clad diameter rare earth doped fiber coils and optical amplifiers utilizing such coils

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US5161050A (en) * 1990-02-12 1992-11-03 Pirelli Cavi S.P.A. Optical amplifier with bent, single-mode active fiber
DE69424606D1 (en) * 1993-02-25 2000-06-29 Fujikura Ltd Polarization maintaining optical fiber, manufacturing method thereof, joining method for optical amplifiers, laser oscillator and polarization holder fiber optic coupler
JPH0854546A (en) * 1994-08-10 1996-02-27 Fujikura Ltd Optical fiber having small diameter
JPH10115727A (en) * 1996-08-20 1998-05-06 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Dispersion compensating optical fiber
JP3868573B2 (en) * 1997-03-11 2007-01-17 株式会社フジクラ Method of manufacturing the parts for optical fiber
US6434295B1 (en) * 1999-01-14 2002-08-13 Jds Uniphase Corporation Side coupled pumping of double clad fiber gain media
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO2004095655B1 (en) 2005-01-13 application
JP2006522366A (en) 2006-09-28 application
WO2004095655A1 (en) 2004-11-04 application

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