EP1372880B1 - Method for producing a rolled edge - Google Patents

Method for producing a rolled edge Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1372880B1
EP1372880B1 EP20020703433 EP02703433A EP1372880B1 EP 1372880 B1 EP1372880 B1 EP 1372880B1 EP 20020703433 EP20020703433 EP 20020703433 EP 02703433 A EP02703433 A EP 02703433A EP 1372880 B1 EP1372880 B1 EP 1372880B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
edge
rolled
tube
preliminary
radius
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
EP20020703433
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1372880A1 (en
Inventor
Rudolf Lüthi
Hans Jöhr
Yasar Renkci
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Adval Tech Holding AG
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Adval Tech Holding AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH6552001 priority Critical
Priority to CH655012001 priority
Application filed by Adval Tech Holding AG filed Critical Adval Tech Holding AG
Priority to PCT/CH2002/000158 priority patent/WO2002081118A1/en
Publication of EP1372880A1 publication Critical patent/EP1372880A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1372880B1 publication Critical patent/EP1372880B1/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D51/00Making hollow objects
    • B21D51/16Making hollow objects characterised by the use of the objects
    • B21D51/26Making hollow objects characterised by the use of the objects cans or tins; Closing same in a permanent manner
    • B21D51/2615Edge treatment of cans or tins
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D19/00Flanging or other edge treatment, e.g. of tubes
    • B21D19/02Flanging or other edge treatment, e.g. of tubes by continuously-acting tools moving along the edge
    • B21D19/04Flanging or other edge treatment, e.g. of tubes by continuously-acting tools moving along the edge shaped as rollers
    • B21D19/06Flanging or other edge treatment, e.g. of tubes by continuously-acting tools moving along the edge shaped as rollers working inwardly

Description

    TECHNISCHES GEBIETTECHNICAL AREA
  • Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Rollrandes nach dem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1.The present invention relates to a method for producing a rolled edge according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • Verfahren dieser Art finden unter anderem Anwendung bei der Herstellung von sogenannten Aerosoldomen für Sprayflaschen, wobei ein rohrförmiger Abschnitt dieser Dome zu eben einem solchen Rollrand für die Aufnahme eines Ventiltellers umgeformt wird. Speziell hierbei werden hohe Anforderungen an die Präzision gestellt und müssen dünne Bleche von nur wenigen Zehntel-Millimeter Dicke verarbeitet werden.Methods of this type are used, inter alia, in the production of so-called aerosol domes for spray bottles, wherein a tubular portion of these dome is converted to just such a roll edge for receiving a valve disk. Especially in this case, high demands are placed on the precision and thin sheets of only a few tenths of a millimeter thick are processed.
  • STAND DER TECHNIKSTATE OF THE ART
  • Bei der heutigen Herstellung des Rollrandes an den Aerosoldomen fährt ein Bördelstempel mit einem bestimmten Radius in einen ziehtechnisch an dem Aerosoldom zuvor hergestellten Rohrabschnitt ein und bördelt den Rand dieses Rohrabschnittes zu einer Rolle. Form und Grösse des Rollrandes werden hierbei weitgehend durch die Geometrie des Bördelstempels und seines erwähnten Radius bestimmt: Bei diesem Umformvorgang weist die Anfangszone des Rollrandes jedoch regelmässig nicht den gewünschten Radius auf, sondern eine eher geradlinige Form. Zwischen der eher geraden Anfangszone und der sich anschliessenden radial verformten Zone entsteht eine Art Knick. Dieser Effekt wird durch die Eigenstabilität des Bleches hervorgerufen und ist dadurch um so ausgeprägter, je dünner und härter das Blech ist. Hinzu kommen Unregelmässigkeiten im Material und im Werkzeug, die sich ähnlich auswirken, und ingesamt ungleichmässige, unkontrollierte Verformungen bewirken.In today's production of the rolled edge on the aerosol domes, a crimping die with a certain radius moves into a pipe section previously produced by pulling on the aerosol dome and crimps the edge of this pipe section into a roll. The shape and size of the rolled edge are largely determined by the geometry of the crimping die and its mentioned radius: In this forming process, however, the initial zone of the rolled edge regularly does not have the desired radius, but a more straight shape. Between the rather straight initial zone and the subsequent radially deformed zone a kind of kink arises. This effect is caused by the inherent stability of the sheet and is the more pronounced, the thinner and harder the sheet is. In addition, irregularities in the material and in the tool, which have a similar effect, and cause overall uneven, uncontrolled deformations.
  • Die vorstehend geschilderten Verhältnisse sollen anhand der Figuren 1, 2a) - 2e) und 3 noch näher dargestellt werden.The above-described conditions are based on the FIGS. 1 . 2a) - 2e) and 3 will be shown in more detail.
  • Fig. 1 zeigt in einem Längsschnitt einen Aerosoldom 10 mit einem Rohrabschnitt 11 und einen Bördelstempel 21 mit einem Radius 22 eines nicht weiter dargestellten Umformwerkzeugs 20. Auf der linken Seite von Fig. 1 ist der Ausgangszustand mit dem noch unverformten Rohrabschnitt 11 und dem Bördelstempel 21 in seiner Startpostion dargestellt. Der rechte Teil von Fig. 1 zeigt den Bördelstempel 21 in seiner Endposition. Bei Verfahren des Stempels 21 zwischen Start- und Endposition verformt sich der Rohrabschnitt 11 (bzw. je nach Länge des Rohrabschnittes zumindest ein Randabschnitt desselben) entlang dem Radius 22 zu einer Rolle 12. Fig. 1 shows in a longitudinal section an aerosol dome 10 with a pipe section 11 and a crimping die 21 with a radius 22 of a forming tool 20 not shown. On the left side of Fig. 1 is the initial state with the still undeformed pipe section 11 and the crimping die 21 shown in its starting position. The right part of Fig. 1 shows the hemming punch 21 in its final position. When the plunger 21 moves between the start and end positions, the tube section 11 (or, depending on the length of the tube section, at least one edge section thereof) along the radius 22 deforms into a roller 12.
  • Die Figuren 2a) - 2e) zeigen jeweils in einer Ausschnittsvergrösserung A von Fig. 1 Details des Rollvorganges. Erkennbar entsteht beim Übergang von Fig. 2a) zu Fig.2b) unter Ausbildung einer praktisch gradlinigen Anfangszone 14 der erwähnte Knick 13, der im weiteren Umformprozess gemäss den Figuren 2c) - 2e) ungünstigerweise erhalten bleibt. In umformtechnischer Hinsicht stellt die Anfangszone 14 eine unkontrollierte Geometriezone dar. Sie führt zu einer variablen Höhe H (vergl. Fig. 2e) des Rollrandes 12 und damit auch zu einer unkontrollierten, unregelmässigen Randgeometrie 15, wie dies in Fig. 3 in einer Teilansicht des umgeformten Aerosoldomes dargestellt ist.The FIGS. 2a) - 2e) each show in a detail enlargement A of Fig. 1 Details of the rolling process. Recognizable arises in the transition from Fig. 2a ) too 2b ) forming a virtually straight-line initial zone 14 of the mentioned bend 13, in the further forming process according to the FIGS. 2c) - 2e ) is unfavorably preserved. In terms of forming technology, the initial zone 14 represents an uncontrolled geometry zone. It leads to a variable height H (see FIG. Fig. 2e ) of the rolled edge 12 and thus also to an uncontrolled, irregular edge geometry 15, as shown in Fig. 3 is shown in a partial view of the reshaped aerosol dome.
  • Ein Verfahren der eingangs genannten Art ist aus US-A-4 113 133 bekannt.A method of the type mentioned is out US-A-4 113 133 known.
  • DARSTELLUNG DER ERFINDUNGPRESENTATION OF THE INVENTION
  • Das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren ist gekennzeichnet durch die Merkmale des Anspruchs 1.The inventive method is characterized by the features of claim 1.
  • Das Blech erhält auf diese Weise in der kritischen Anfangszone vorgängig bereits eine kontrollierte Geometrie mit dem gewünschten Radius. Eine Knickbildung wird vermieden. In der nachfolgenden Umformstufe ist es dadurch möglich, einen Rollrand herzustellen, der in seiner Geometrie regelmässiger und konstanter ist.In this way, the sheet already receives a controlled geometry with the desired radius in the critical initial zone. Kinking is avoided. In the subsequent forming stage, this makes it possible to produce a rolled edge, which is more regular and constant in its geometry.
  • Durch das kontrollierte Anrollen wird auch bewirkt, dass sich Zugspannungen, hervorgerufen durch das Expandieren des Bleches während des Rollens, gleichmässiger über den Umfang des Blechrandes verteilen und damit die Gefahr von radialen Rissbildungen im Blech reduziert wird. Dies erhöht die Prozesssicherheit, was insbesondere wieder bei der Aerosoldomherstellung wichtig und vorteilhaft ist.The controlled rolling also causes tensile stresses, caused by the expansion of the sheet during rolling, to be more uniform over the circumference distribute the sheet edge and thus the risk of radial cracking in the sheet is reduced. This increases process reliability, which is particularly important and advantageous again in aerosol drug production.
  • Mit dem vorgeschlagenen Verfahren lassen sich härtere und dünnere Bleche verarbeiten, woraus sich Einsparungen im Rohmaterialverbrauch ergeben. Auch hierauf kommt es bei der Aerosoldom-Herstellung entscheidend an, da die Materialkosten im Hinblick auf die grossen Stückzahlen einen wesentlichen Faktor darstellen.The proposed method can handle harder and thinner sheets, resulting in savings in raw material consumption. Here too, it is crucial in aerosol dome production, since the material costs are an important factor in view of the large quantities.
  • Anhand der Zeichung soll nachfolgend ein Ausführungsbeispiel der Erfindung, wiederum anhand der Aeorosoldom-Herstellung, erläutert werden. Es versteht sich jedoch, dass die Erfindung auch an beliebigen anderen Rohrabschnitten, die gerollt werden sollen, anwendbar ist.With reference to the drawing, an embodiment of the invention, again based on the Aeorosoldom-production will be explained below. It is understood, however, that the invention is also applicable to any other pipe sections that are to be rolled.
  • KURZE ERLÄUTERUNG DER FIGURENBRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES
  • Es zeigen:
  • Fig. 1 - 3
    die bereits erläuterten Figuren zur Verdeutlichung der Verhältnisse beim Stand der Technik;
    Fig. 4
    in einem Längsschnitt einen Aerosoldom mit einem Rohrabschnitt in einem Anrollwerkzeug in zwei Stellungen, und zwar links noch unverformt und rechts fertig angerollt;
    Fig. 5
    eine Aufsicht auf das Anrollwerkzeug;
    Fig.6.
    eine Fig. 1 entsprechende Darstellung eines Aerosoldomes und eines Bördelstempels in zwei Stellungen, wobei eine der Aerosoldom jedoch eine bereits angerollte Anfangszone aufweist; und
    Fig. 7
    in einer Ausschnittsvergrösserung B von Fig. 6 im Detail einen fertig gerollten Rollrand nach der Erfindung.
    Show it:
    Fig. 1-3
    the figures already explained to illustrate the conditions in the prior art;
    Fig. 4
    in a longitudinal section of an aerosol Tom with a pipe section in a roll-on tool in two positions, and left undeformed and finished rolled right;
    Fig. 5
    a view of the roll-on tool;
    Figure 6.
    a Fig. 1 corresponding representation of an aerosol dome and a crimping punch in two positions, one of the aerosol dome, however, already has an initial area rolled up; and
    Fig. 7
    in a detail enlargement B of Fig. 6 in detail a finished rolled roll edge according to the invention.
  • In Fig. 4 ist mit 10 wieder ein Aerosoldom mit einem Rohrabschnitt 11 bezeichnet, welcher hier jedoch in einem Anrollwerkzeug 30 plaziert ist. Dieses umfasst einen Anrollstempel 31, mit einem Radius 32, mindestens einen Niederhalter 33, mehrere Gegenhalter 34 und entsprechend viele Schieber 35. Gemäss Fig. 5 können die Gegenhalter 34 als vier radial bewegliche, zusammen eine kreisförmige Öffnung begrenzende bzw. freigebende Segmente ausgebildet sein. Auf der linken Seite von Fig. 4 ist der Ausgangszustand mit dem noch unverformten Rohrabschnitt 11 und dem Anrollstempel 31 in seiner Startpostion dargestellt. Die Teile 33 - 35 befinden sich jedoch bereits in ihrer End- bzw. Funktionsstellung. Diese erreichen sie aus einer strichliert gezeigten Freigabestellung, indem zunächst der Niederhalter 33 zusammen mit den Gegenhaltern 34 nach unten bis auf Anschlag mit einem Ringrand 16 des Aerosoldomes fährt. Sodann werden die Schieber 35 nach unten bis auf den Niederhalter 33 verfahren. Indem sie über eine Schrägfläche mit den Gegenhaltern 34 gekoppelt sind, schieben sie die Gegenhalter 34 hierbei radial nach innen bis in ihre dargestellte Endstellung für den Prägevorgang. Der rechte Teil von Fig. 4 zeigt den Anrollstempel 31 in seiner Endposition. Bei Verfahren des Anrollstempels 31 zwischen seiner Start- und Endposition wird ein Anfangsabschnitt 14 des Rohrabschnitts 11 angerollt und mit dem Radius 32 versehen. Danach wird der Anrollstempel 31 wieder aus dem Rohrabschnitt zurückgezogen, die Schieber 35 nach oben gefahren, die Gegenhalter 34 radial nach aussen verfahren, der Niederhalter 33 nach oben verfahren und der Aerosoldom 10 dadurch freigegeben.In Fig. 4 is again denoted by 10 an aerosol dome with a pipe section 11, which is here, however, placed in a Anrollwerkzeug 30. This includes a Anrollstempel 31, with a radius 32, at least one hold-down 33, a plurality of counter-holder 34 and a corresponding number of slides 35. According to Fig. 5 For example, the counter-holders 34 may be configured as four radially movable segments which delimit or release a circular opening. On the left side of Fig. 4 is the initial state with the still undeformed pipe section 11 and the Anrollstempel 31 shown in its starting position. However, the parts 33 - 35 are already in their final or functional position. They reach this from a release position shown in dashed lines, by first the hold-down 33 moves together with the brackets 34 down to the stop with a ring edge 16 of the aerosol dome. Then, the slider 35 are moved down to the hold 33. By being coupled via an inclined surface with the brackets 34, they push the counter-holder 34 in this case radially inwardly to its illustrated end position for the embossing process. The right part of Fig. 4 shows the Anrollstempel 31 in its final position. When moving the Anrollstempels 31 between its start and end position, an initial portion 14 of the pipe section 11 is rolled and provided with the radius 32. Thereafter, the Anrollstempel 31 is again withdrawn from the pipe section, the slider 35 is moved upwards, the counter-holder 34 moved radially outward, the hold-down 33 moved up and released the aerosol dome 10 thereby.
  • Wie vorbeschrieben angerollt kann der Aerosoldom 10 bzw. sein Rohrabschnitt 11 anschliessend analog des bereits anhand der Figuren 1 und 2 erläuterten Verfahrens weiter umgeformt werden, wobei Fig. 6 eine der Fig. 1 entsprechende Darstellung zeigt. Erkennbar schmiegt sich hier jedoch bereits in der linksseitig dargestellten Startposition die angerollte Anfangszone 14 des Rohrabschnitts 11 formbündig an den Radius 22 des Bördelstempels 21 an. Bevorzugt werden hierzu die Radien 22 des Bördelstempels 21 einerseits und 32 des Anrollstempels 31 auch gleich bemessen. Beim weiteren Rollen mit dem Bördelstempel 21 behält die Anfangszone 14 ihren kontrollierten Radius, wie dies in der Detaildarstellung B von Fig. 6 in Fig. 7 dargestellt ist, die den fertig gerollten Randabschnitt zeigt.As described above, the aerosol dome 10 or its tube section 11 can subsequently be rolled in analogy to that already described with reference to FIG FIGS. 1 and 2 explained method further, wherein Fig. 6 one of the Fig. 1 corresponding representation shows. As can be seen, however, the rolled-up initial zone 14 of the tube section 11 nestles flush with the radius 22 of the crimping punch 21 in the starting position already shown on the left-hand side. For this purpose, the radii 22 of the crimping punch 21 on the one hand and 32 of the Anrollstempels 31 are preferably equally sized. During further rolling with the crimping die 21, the initial zone 14 retains its controlled radius, as shown in the detailed illustration B of FIG Fig. 6 in Fig. 7 is shown showing the finished rolled edge portion.
  • BEZEICHNUNGSLISTENAME LIST
  • 1010
    Aerosoldomaerosol dome
    1111
    Rohr - oder Randabschnitt des AerosoldomesPipe or edge section of the aerosol dome
    1212
    Rollerole
    1313
    Knickkink
    1414
    Anfangszoneinitial zone
    1515
    Randgeometrieedge geometry
    1616
    Ringrandannular rim
    2020
    Umformwerkzeugforming tool
    2121
    Bördelstempelflanging
    2222
    Radius am BördelstempelRadius on the crimping punch
    3030
    Anrollwerkzeugpreliminary rolling
    3131
    Anrollstempelroll-on pad
    3232
    Radius am AnrollstempelRadius at the roll-on punch
    3333
    NiederhalterStripper plate
    3434
    Gegenhalterbackstop
    3535
    Schieberpusher

Claims (3)

  1. A method for producing a rolled edge from an edge section (11) of a tube, in which method an initial zone (14) of the edge section (11) is rolled in a preliminary manner by a positively controlled tool (30) and subsequently a flanging die (21) moves into the edge section (11) and flanges the latter to form a roll (12), characterized in that the initial zone (14) of the edge section (11) is rolled in a preliminary form-fitting manner by the positively controlled tool (30) comprising a preliminary rolling die (31), having a radius (32) and pressure pads (34), and is provided with the radius (32).
  2. The method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the tool (30) comprises a plurality of outer pressure pads (34), radially adjustable with respect to the tube axis, and a preliminary rolling die (31), and in that the preliminary rolling is carried out in the following steps:
    - adjusting the outer pressure pads (34) radially inward until they strike the tube section (11),
    - moving the preliminary rolling die (31) into the tube section (11) with its initial zone (14) being rolled in a preliminary manner,
    - moving the preliminary rolling die (31) out of the tube section (11),
    - adjusting the outer pressure pads (34) radially outward with the tube section (11) being cleared axially.
  3. The method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the rolled edge is made on a tubular section (11) of an aerosol dome (10) for spray cans for accommodating a valve disk.
EP20020703433 2001-04-06 2002-03-18 Method for producing a rolled edge Active EP1372880B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH6552001 2001-04-06
CH655012001 2001-04-06
PCT/CH2002/000158 WO2002081118A1 (en) 2001-04-06 2002-03-18 Method for producing a rolled edge

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1372880A1 EP1372880A1 (en) 2004-01-02
EP1372880B1 true EP1372880B1 (en) 2008-05-14

Family

ID=4526447

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20020703433 Active EP1372880B1 (en) 2001-04-06 2002-03-18 Method for producing a rolled edge

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (1) US7392683B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1372880B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4022472B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20040022211A (en)
CN (1) CN1248800C (en)
AT (1) AT395152T (en)
AU (1) AU2002237139B2 (en)
DE (1) DE50212269D1 (en)
MX (1) MXPA03008670A (en)
WO (1) WO2002081118A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2942597A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-03 Sabatier Device for conforming the opening edge of a metal container
CN102847831A (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-01-02 苏州戴尔菲精密机械科技有限公司 Binding jig

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AU2002237139B2 (en) 2001-04-06 2007-08-02 Adval Tech Holding Ag Method for producing a rolled edge
CN100342989C (en) * 2004-09-02 2007-10-17 比亚迪股份有限公司 Trimming method for non-vertical flanged and intersecting-line flanged product
US20060201970A1 (en) * 2005-03-11 2006-09-14 Jasek Sidney J Safety nozzle for aerosol can
JP4972771B2 (en) * 2006-12-05 2012-07-11 Jfeスチール株式会社 Method for producing aerosol drawn can and aerosol drawn can
US20100013217A1 (en) * 2008-07-16 2010-01-21 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Tube joint and method of joining tubes in an engine exhaust system
JP5249147B2 (en) * 2009-07-07 2013-07-31 本田技研工業株式会社 Curling method
GB201205243D0 (en) 2012-03-26 2012-05-09 Kraft Foods R & D Inc Packaging and method of opening
CN102688937B (en) * 2012-05-03 2014-10-22 四川集成天元模具制造有限公司 Wedge-flanging die of automobile beam-type parts
GB2511560B (en) 2013-03-07 2018-11-14 Mondelez Uk R&D Ltd Improved Packaging and Method of Forming Packaging
GB2511559B (en) 2013-03-07 2018-11-14 Mondelez Uk R&D Ltd Improved Packaging and Method of Forming Packaging
CN104416090A (en) * 2013-08-26 2015-03-18 美的集团股份有限公司 Processing method for flanging of metal container
CN105170792B (en) * 2015-07-16 2017-05-10 昆山广标精密机械有限公司 Opening molding method for stretching piece
CN111372700A (en) 2017-10-02 2020-07-03 阿德维尔技术控股股份公司 Method for producing a crimp
CN107983813B (en) * 2017-11-14 2019-10-29 西安交通大学 A kind of method of belt restraining pipe axis pressure synchronous forming plate heat exchanger grommet

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AU2002237139B2 (en) 2001-04-06 2007-08-02 Adval Tech Holding Ag Method for producing a rolled edge

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2942597A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-03 Sabatier Device for conforming the opening edge of a metal container
EP2226132A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-08 Sabatier SAS Apparatus for forming the edge of a metallic container
CN102847831A (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-01-02 苏州戴尔菲精密机械科技有限公司 Binding jig
CN102847831B (en) * 2012-07-30 2014-05-21 苏州戴尔菲精密机械科技有限公司 Binding jig

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN1498142A (en) 2004-05-19
AU2002237139B2 (en) 2007-08-02
DE50212269D1 (en) 2008-06-26
US7392683B2 (en) 2008-07-01
JP2004524976A (en) 2004-08-19
US20040139779A1 (en) 2004-07-22
WO2002081118A1 (en) 2002-10-17
EP1372880A1 (en) 2004-01-02
MXPA03008670A (en) 2005-04-08
KR20040022211A (en) 2004-03-11
AT395152T (en) 2008-05-15
JP4022472B2 (en) 2007-12-19
CN1248800C (en) 2006-04-05

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