EP0685554A1 - Solid oil-based candles - Google Patents

Solid oil-based candles Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0685554A1
EP0685554A1 EP19950108006 EP95108006A EP0685554A1 EP 0685554 A1 EP0685554 A1 EP 0685554A1 EP 19950108006 EP19950108006 EP 19950108006 EP 95108006 A EP95108006 A EP 95108006A EP 0685554 A1 EP0685554 A1 EP 0685554A1
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oil
alcohol
composition
ch2ch2
ch3
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EP19950108006
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Sigal Berlyne
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Clilco Cosmetics & Pharmaceuti
Clilco Cosmetics & Pharmaceuticals Ltd
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Clilco Cosmetics & Pharmaceuti
Clilco Cosmetics & Pharmaceuticals Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11CFATTY ACIDS FROM FATS, OILS OR WAXES; CANDLES; FATS, OILS OR FATTY ACIDS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF FATS, OILS, OR FATTY ACIDS OBTAINED THEREFROM
    • C11C5/00Candles
    • C11C5/002Ingredients

Abstract

A composition for use in illumination, including at least one oil; and at a gelatinizing composition consisting exclusively of at least one gelatinizing agent having 15 or more carbons, selected from the group consisting of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives, in a concentration between about 0.3 and 50 mass percent, sufficient to gelatinize the at least one oil. In particular, the oil is olive oil and the gelatinizing agent is a fatty alcohol selected from the group consisting of C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH), C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH) and 12-Hydroxy stearic acid.

Description

    FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to oils and, more particularly, to olive oils and similar oils used for burning to provide illumination.
  • Olive oil and various other oils as well as various waxes, and the like, have for centuries been used as method to provide illumination. With the advent of electricity, the use of these materials for illumination has decreased dramatically in the modern world so that the major uses of these materials is currently largely ceremonial, for example as part of religious ceremonies, or sentimental, for example, to add a certain atmosphere to a restaurant, and the like. For ease of presentation, all uses of candles involving the production of light, whether strictly for illumination purposes or for various ceremonial purposes, will be referred to hereinafter in the specification and claims as "illumination".
  • The use of oils, such as olive oil, enjoys certain advantages over candles, such as wax candles, in that oils typically burn very cleanly with a clear and strong flame. For this and other reasons oils, such as rose hip oil, wheat germ oil, apricot kernel oil, avocado oil, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil, jojoba oil, corn germ oil, mineral oil and especially olive oil are, in many applications, the preferred medium.
  • Unfortunately, oils, being liquid at room temperature, suffer from a major disadvantage relative to candles in the realm of convenience. Thus, while wax candles can be easily transported and installed for lighting, the oils, such as olive oil, by virtue of their being a liquid, require great care in transportation and, more importantly, requires a great deal of attention on the part of the user to pour the desired amounts of oil into the receptacle and to insert the wick in such a way that it will be effective. The use of oils thus requires considerable attention and is very time-consuming, at best, and may produce quite a mess if due care is not taken.
  • On the other hand, in many cases, particularly for religious purposes, there is a limit to the quantity of material which may be added to the oil for hardening or gelatinizing without detracting from the purity of the oil, typically 1.6%.
  • There are a number of patents in the literature for the manufacture of candles from various components, most commonly waxes and petroleum derivatives with gelatinizing additives.
  • There is disclosed in US Patent 3,844,706 to Tsaras a candle having a shaped thermoplastic blend including at least one glyceride, which may be corn, rapeseed or olive oil, or a mixture thereof, ethyl cellulose as a gelatinizing agent, and 3-20 weight percent of additives. The additives can include compounds of the formula R₁-X, wherein R₁ is a hydrocarbon radical having from about 5 to about 37 carbon atoms and X can be hydroxyl or carboxyl.
  • The patent to Tsaras suffers from the disadvantage that it requires a gelatinizing agent as well as additives to improve the characteristics, i.e., strengthen or soften the candle body, lessen its tendency to exude oil, improve the dissolution of ethyl cellulose in the glyceride, as so on. Thus, Tsaras does not contemplate the use of his additives to replace the gelatinizing agent, ethyl cellulose. Furthermore, the gelatinizing agent, ethyl cellulose, must be present in an amount from about 6-55%.
  • There is shown in US Patent 3,645,705 to Miller et al. a transparent combustible material suitable for candle bodies. The material includes a straight chain aliphatic amide with light mineral oil and a short chain primary alcohol. Alternatively, natural oils, such as olive oil, can be utilized. In this patent, the polyamide, which is a long chain linear amide resin polymer derived from the reaction of dimerized linoleic acid with di- or polyamine, such as Versamide 940, serves as the gelatinizing agent. 7-30% of an alcohol may be added to overcome the greasy or oilu surface characteristics of the gel and to improve the combusion characteristics of the composition. In addition, up to about 5% of a fatty acid, such as 12-hydroxy stearic acid, can be incorporated in the material to cheapen it, improve its stiffness and improve its burning characteristics.
  • Again, in the patent to Miller, there is no suggestion that the fatty acid alone can be used as the gelatinizing agent in place of polyamide and alcohol.
  • There is thus a widely recognized need for, and it would be highly advantageous to have a way of obtaining the benefits of oils, such as olive oil, without having to suffer from its disadvantages. That is, it would be desirable to be able to use oils to produce a clean and clear flame without having to spend an inordinate amount of time in preparations and to incorporate a relatively small amount of gelatinizing agent to solidify the candle while permitting its use for religious purposes.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • According to the present invention there is provided a composition for use in illumination, including: (a) at least one oil; and (b) a gelatinizing composition consisting exclusively of at least one gelatinizing agent having 15 or more carbons, selected from the group consisting of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives, in a concentration between about 0.3 and 30 mass percent, sufficient to gelatinize said at least one oil.
  • According to further features in preferred embodiments of the invention described below, the gelatinizing agent is a fatty alcohol which is selected from the group consisting of 1-Pentadecanol, Cetyl Alcohol, 1-Heptadecanol, Stearyl Alcohol, Nonadecanol, Arachidyl Alcohol, Heneicosanol, Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  • According to an alternative embodiment of the invention, the gelatinizing agent is 12-Hydroxy Stearic acid.
  • The present invention successfully addresses the shortcomings of the presently known configurations by providing olive oil in a solid, or gelatinized, state which is easy to transport and easy to deploy for lighting.
  • The olive oil, which is normally liquid at room temperature, is gelatinized through the addition at elevated temperatures of suitable quantities of one or more fatty alcohols, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives and similar other compounds which serve to dramatically raise the oil's viscosity causing it to behave essentially as a solid. In particular, according to one embodiment, no more than 1.6% gelatinizing agent need be incorporated in the oil.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present invention is of an article of manufacture which includes an oil, such as olive oil, and a gelatinizing composition. The resulting article is a high viscosity oil which is candle-like in its properties and which can, as a result, be handled in a way which is similar to the handling of a conventional wax candle.
  • The preferred oil is olive oil and, for ease of presentation and convenience, the description which follows is largely concerned with olive oil. Olive oil is a fixed oil obtained from ripe olives, the fruit of the cultivated olive tree Olea europaea L., Oleaceae. Olive oil is produced almost exclusively in the countries adjoining the Mediterranean Sea, with Spain being the largest producer. To produce olive oil, whole olives are crushed in edge runner mills and the oil is expressed in open hydraulic presses.
  • The composition of olive oil varies slightly but generally is made up primarily of mixed glycerides of oleic acid (83.5%), of palmitic acid (9.4%), of linoleic acid (4.0%), of stearic acid (2.0%) and of arachidic acid (0.9%). Minor constituents of olive oil are squalene (up to 0.7%) and phytosterol and tocopherols (about 0.2%).
  • Olive oil is used primarily as food in salads, with sardines, for cooking and baking. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, textile lubricants, sulfonated oils, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. The present invention involves the use of olive oil for illumination, which is today a relatively minor use of olive oil.
  • It has been surprisingly found that the addition to olive oil of relatively small amounts, in many cases less than 1.6 mass%, of certain fatty alcohols, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives and similar other compounds dramatically increases the viscosity of the olive oil. The increase in vesicate is so dramatic that the resultant composition acts in many ways as a solid candle-like structure which can be easily transported and readily deployed for lighting.
  • A composition according to the present invention is formed by mixing olive oil with a gelatinizing composition consisting exclusively of one or more saturated fatty alcohol, saturated or unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid derivative and similar other compounds having 15 or more carbons in a concentration between about 0.3 and 30 mass percent sufficient to gelatinize the olive oil. Preferably, the gelatinizing composition is present in a concentration between about 0.3 and 15 mass%, and most preferably, between about 0.3 and 16. mass%.
  • The mixing of the olive oil and the one or more fatty alcohols and the like preferably takes place at an elevated temperature, such as about 60-120°C, depending on the melting point of the gelatinizing additive, and is accompanied by suitable mixing. When the mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature the viscosity of the mixture increases.
  • It was found that the gelatinization of the olive oil depends on the length of the fatty alcohol or alcohols, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives and similar other compounds added and the amount of fatty alcohol, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives and similar other compounds added to a given amount of olive oil, i.e, the concentration of the gelatinizing compound.
  • Various fatty alcohols are suitable according to the present invention. These include, but are not limited to 1-Pentadecanol, Cetyl Alcohol, 1-Heptadecanol, Stearyl Alcohol, Nonadecanol, Arachidyl Alcohol, Heneicosanol, Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH). Preferably, one or more of the following fatty alcohols is or are used: Nonadecanol, Arachidyl Alcohol, Heneicosanol, Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH). More preferably, one or more of the following fatty alcohols are used: Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH). Most preferably, one or more of the following fatty alcohols are used: 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  • Various unsaturated fatty acids and derivatives are suitable according to the present invention. These include, but are not limited to Stearic acid, Hexacosanoic acid, Stearic acid ethyl ester, Stearic acid methyl ester, Stearic acid propyl ester, Stearic anhydride, Alpha hydroxy stearic acid, C16-24 Triglycerides, 12-Hydroxy stearic acid, 1-Monopalmitoyl-rac-glyceride, 1,3 Dipalmitin, 1,2 Dipalmitoyl-3-myristoyl-rac-glycerol and hexdecanedioic acid.
  • Various saturated fatty acids and derivatives are suitable according to the present invention. These include, but are not limited to Linoleyl alcohol.
  • Various other compounds are suitable according to the present invention. These include, but are not limited to Ceteareth-30 R(OCH₂CH₂)nOH n=30, R-Mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols, Cetearyl alcohol & Ceteareth 33 wherein cetearyl alcohol is a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols and Ceteareth 33 is R(OCH₂CH₂)nOH where n=30 and R is a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols, a mixture of Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and 12-Hydroxy stearic acid, and hydrogenated castor oil.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Olive oil was heated to about 60-120°C, depending on the melting point of the gelatinizing additive. A pre-determined amount of one of ten fatty alcohols was added to the olive oil while mixing. Mixing was continued at the elevated temperature until a homogeneous solution was obtained. The mixing was then stopped and the mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature. The mixture was checked to see whether it gelatinized (Tables 1, 1A and 1B). In those cases where the composition gelatinized, The amount of time that it took to get viscous was measured (Tables 2 and 2A). Finally, the viscosity of the various compositions was measured (Table 3).
  • As can be seen from Table 1, of the five fatty alcohols tested, Cetyl Alcohol was found to be effective at a mass percentage of more than about 4 percent, Stearyl Alcohol was found to be effective at a mass percentage of more than about 2 percent and 1-Hexacosanol was found to be effective at a mass percentage of more than about 0.05 percent.
  • All the gelatinizing agents tested in the various examples were found to be effective up to at least 50 mass%. TABLE 1
    Gelatinization
    CONCENTRATION (mass%) 2 4 6 8 10
    FATTY ALCOHOL
    Lauryl Alcohol No No No No No
    Myristyl Alcohol No No No No No
    Cetyl Alcohol No No Yes Yes Yes
    Stearyl Alcohol Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    TABLE 1A
    Gelatinization
    CONCENTRATION (mass%) 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
    FATTY ALCOHOL
    1-Hexacosanol No Yes Yes Yes Yes
    TABLE 1B
    Gelatinization
    NAME OF CHEMICAL MINIMAL CONCENTRATION FOR GELATINIZATION
    Arachidyl alcohol (C20) >1%
    Behenyl alcohol (C22) >1%
    1-Triacontanol (C30) >0.3%
    C-40 straight chain Fatty Alcohol CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH >0.3%
    C-50 straight chain Fatty Alcohol CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH >0.3%
    C-40 + C-50 in 1:1 mixture >0.3%
    TABLE 2
    Time (min) of gelatinization of the oil
    CONCENTRATION (mass%) 2 4 6 8 10
    FATTY ALCOHOL
    Lauryl Alcohol - - - - -
    Myristyl Alcohol - - - - -
    Cetyl Alcohol - - 220 90 60
    Stearyl Alcohol - 80 50 35 25
    TABLE 2A
    Time (min) of gelatinization of the oil
    CONCENTRATION (mass%) 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
    FATTY ALCOHOL
    1-Hexacosanol - Immediately Immediately Immediately Immediately
    TABLE 3
    VISCOSITY (cps)
    CONCENTRATION (mass%) 2 4 6 8 10
    FATTY ALCOHOL
    Lauryl Alcohol ∼100 ∼100 ∼100 ∼100 ∼100
    Myristyl Alcohol ∼100 ∼100 ∼100 ∼100 ∼100
    Cetyl Alcohol ∼100 ∼100 6000 8000 11000
    Stearyl Alcohol ∼100 5000 10000 14000 49000
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • In a second set of experiments fatty alcohols were used to gelatinize different kinds of oils of both natural and synthetic origin. The procedure was as described above with the results tabulated in Table 4.
    Figure imgb0001
    Figure imgb0002
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Shown in Table 5 are a number of gelatinizing agents including saturated or unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives and similar other compounds along with their approximate experimentally determined minimum effective gelatinizing concentration in olive oil.
    Figure imgb0003
    Figure imgb0004
    Figure imgb0005
  • While the invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, it will be appreciated that many variations, modifications and other applications of the invention may be made.

Claims (20)

  1. A composition for use in illumination, comprising:
    (a) at least one oil; and
    (b) a gelatinizing composition consisting exclusively of at least one gelatinizing agent having 15 or more carbons, selected from the group consisting of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives, in a sufficiently high concentration to gelatinize said at least one oil.
  2. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one gelatinizing agent is a fatty alcohol.
  3. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one oil includes an oil selected from the group consisting of, rose hip oil, wheat germ oil, apricot kernel oil, avocado oil, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil, jojoba oil, corn germ oil, mineral oil and olive oil.
  4. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one oil includes an oil selected from the group consisting of, wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, corn germ oil, mineral oil and olive oil.
  5. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one oil includes olive oil.
  6. A composition as in claim 2, wherein said fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of 1-Pentadecanol, Cetyl Alcohol, 1-Heptadecanol, Stearyl Alcohol, Nonadecanol, Arachidyl Alcohol, Heneicosanol, Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  7. A composition as in claim 2, wherein said fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of Nonadecanol, Arachidyl Alcohol, Heneicosanol, Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  8. A composition as in claim 2, wherein said fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of Behenyl Alcohol, Lignoceryl Alcohol, 1-Pentacosanol, 1-Hexacosanol, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  9. A composition as in claim 2, wherein said fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Octacosanol, 1-Triacontanol, C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH) and C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  10. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said fatty acid or fatty acid derivative is C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH).
  11. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said fatty acid or fatty acid derivative is C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH).
  12. The composition as in claim 1, wherein:
    (a) said at least one oil is olive oil; and
    (b) said at least one gelatinizing agent is at least one fatty acid derivative selected from the group consisting of C-40 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₁₉CH₂OH), C-50 straight chain fatty alcohol (CH₃(CH₂CH₂)₂₄CH₂OH) and 12-Hydroxy stearic acid.
  13. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one gelatinising agent is a saturated fatty acid or fatty acid derivative.
  14. A composition as in claim 13, wherein said saturated fatty acid or fatty acid derivative is selected from the group consisting of Stearic acid, Hexacosanoic acid, Stearic acid ethyl ester, Stearic acid methyl ester, Stearic acid propyl ester, Stearic anhydride, Alpha hydroxy atearic acid, C16-24 Triglycerides, 12-Hydroxy stearic acid, 1-Monopalmitoyl-rac-glyceride, 1,3 Dipalmitin, 1,2 Dipalmitoyl-3-myristoyl-rac-glycerol and hexdecanedioic acid.
  15. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said fatty acid or fatty acid derivative is 12-Hydroxy stearic acid.
  16. A composition as in claim 1, wherein said at least one gelatinizing agent is selected from the groups consisting of Ceteareth-30 R(OCH₂CH₂)nOH, where n=30, and R is a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols; Cetearyl alcohol & Ceteareth 33, where cetearyl alcohol is a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols and Ceteareth 33 is R(OCH₂CH₂)nOH, where n=30 and R is a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohols; and a combination of Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and 12-Hydroxy stearic acid.
  17. The composition as in claim 1, wherein said gelatinizing composition is present in a concentration between about 0.3 and 15 mass percent.
  18. The composition as in claim 1, wherein said gelatinizing composition is present in a concentration between about 0.3 and 1.6 mass percent.
  19. A candle, comprising:
    (a) at least one oil; and
    (b) a gelatinizing composition consisting exclusively of at least one gelatinizing agent having 15 or more carbons, selected from the group consisting of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives, in a sufficiently high concentration to gelatinize said at least one oil.
  20. The candle of claim 19 for religious use, wherein:
    (a) said oil includes olive oil; and
    (b) said gelatinizing composition is present in a concentration of between about 0.3 and 1.6 mass percent.
EP19950108006 1994-05-29 1995-05-24 Solid oil-based candles Withdrawn EP0685554A1 (en)

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FR2790480A1 (en) * 1999-03-03 2000-09-08 Andre Verstraeten Ornamental lighting candles made by charging gelatinous particles of candle making material into a glass vessel containing a vertically aligned wick which when burning melts the particles in a defined limited zone round the wick
US6503285B1 (en) 2001-05-11 2003-01-07 Cargill, Inc. Triacylglycerol based candle wax
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US6645261B2 (en) 2000-03-06 2003-11-11 Cargill, Inc. Triacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
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US8500826B2 (en) 2010-03-10 2013-08-06 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Lipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US8551194B2 (en) 2007-05-30 2013-10-08 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Prilled waxes comprising small particles and smooth-sided compression candles made therefrom
US8603197B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2013-12-10 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Wax compositions and methods of preparing wax compositions
US8641814B2 (en) 2010-05-12 2014-02-04 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Natural oil based marking compositions and their methods of making
US8652221B2 (en) 2007-06-15 2014-02-18 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Hybrid wax compositions for use in compression molded wax articles such as candles
US8685118B2 (en) 2005-01-10 2014-04-01 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products
US9139801B2 (en) 2011-07-10 2015-09-22 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Metallic soap compositions for various applications
US9249360B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2016-02-02 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Compositions derived from metathesized natural oils and amines and methods of making
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DATABASE WPI Week 8405, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 84-026892 *
DATABASE WPI Week 8420, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 84-124827 *
DATABASE WPI Week 9407, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 94-054130 *

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FR2790480A1 (en) * 1999-03-03 2000-09-08 Andre Verstraeten Ornamental lighting candles made by charging gelatinous particles of candle making material into a glass vessel containing a vertically aligned wick which when burning melts the particles in a defined limited zone round the wick
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US7410513B2 (en) 2002-11-08 2008-08-12 S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Clean-burning fragrance candle with consistent flame size and burn rate
US6773469B2 (en) 2002-11-12 2004-08-10 Cargill, Incorporated Triacylglycerol based wax for use in candles
US6797020B2 (en) 2002-11-12 2004-09-28 Cargill, Incorporated Triacylglycerol based wax for use in container candles
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US8157873B2 (en) 2003-05-08 2012-04-17 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Wax and wax-based products
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US8911515B2 (en) 2005-01-10 2014-12-16 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products
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US8344052B2 (en) 2006-07-12 2013-01-01 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Hot melt adhesive compositions comprising metathesized unsaturated polyol ester wax
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US8603197B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2013-12-10 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Wax compositions and methods of preparing wax compositions
US8551194B2 (en) 2007-05-30 2013-10-08 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Prilled waxes comprising small particles and smooth-sided compression candles made therefrom
US8652221B2 (en) 2007-06-15 2014-02-18 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Hybrid wax compositions for use in compression molded wax articles such as candles
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US8876919B2 (en) 2010-03-10 2014-11-04 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Lipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US8641814B2 (en) 2010-05-12 2014-02-04 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Natural oil based marking compositions and their methods of making
US9249360B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2016-02-02 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Compositions derived from metathesized natural oils and amines and methods of making
US9867771B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2018-01-16 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Waxes derived from metathesized natural oils and amines and methods of making
US9458411B2 (en) 2010-11-23 2016-10-04 Cargill, Incorporated Lipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US9139801B2 (en) 2011-07-10 2015-09-22 Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. Metallic soap compositions for various applications
WO2016154259A1 (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-09-29 Cl Products International, Llc Candle products comprising vegetable oil that is low in polyunsaturation and gelling agent
US9816052B2 (en) 2015-03-25 2017-11-14 Candle-Lite Company, Llc Candles comprising vegetable oil that is low in polyunsaturation and gelling agent

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