EP0315553B2 - Multilayer textile composite made from fibre fleeces having different characteristics - Google Patents

Multilayer textile composite made from fibre fleeces having different characteristics Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0315553B2
EP0315553B2 EP88420363A EP88420363A EP0315553B2 EP 0315553 B2 EP0315553 B2 EP 0315553B2 EP 88420363 A EP88420363 A EP 88420363A EP 88420363 A EP88420363 A EP 88420363A EP 0315553 B2 EP0315553 B2 EP 0315553B2
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Prior art keywords
fibers
fleeces
jets
complex
action
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0315553A1 (en
EP0315553B1 (en
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Gilbert Chomarat
André Fourezon
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Les Fils D'auguste Chomarat & Cie Ets SA
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Les Fils D'auguste Chomarat & Cie Ets SA
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H13/00Other non-woven fabrics
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4209Inorganic fibres
    • D04H1/4218Glass fibres
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4326Condensation or reaction polymers
    • D04H1/435Polyesters
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/42Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
    • D04H1/4374Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece using different kinds of webs, e.g. by layering webs
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H1/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
    • D04H1/40Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
    • D04H1/44Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling
    • D04H1/46Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres
    • D04H1/498Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres entanglement of layered webs
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H5/00Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H5/02Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length strengthened or consolidated by mechanical methods, e.g. needling
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H5/00Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H5/02Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length strengthened or consolidated by mechanical methods, e.g. needling
    • D04H5/03Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length strengthened or consolidated by mechanical methods, e.g. needling by fluid jet
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR, OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N5/00Roofing materials comprising a fibrous web coated with bitumen or another polymer, e.g. pitch
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24058Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including grain, strips, or filamentary elements in respective layers or components in angular relation
    • Y10T428/24074Strand or strand-portions
    • Y10T428/24091Strand or strand-portions with additional layer[s]
    • Y10T428/24099On each side of strands or strand-portions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/249921Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component
    • Y10T428/249953Composite having voids in a component [e.g., porous, cellular, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/10Scrim [e.g., open net or mesh, gauze, loose or open weave or knit, etc.]
    • Y10T442/102Woven scrim
    • Y10T442/159Including a nonwoven fabric which is not a scrim
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/50FELT FABRIC
    • Y10T442/59At least three layers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/60Nonwoven fabric [i.e., nonwoven strand or fiber material]
    • Y10T442/647Including a foamed layer or component

Description

La présente invention concerne un procédé permettant d'obtenir un nouveau type de matériaux constitués par un complexe textile multicouches réalisé à partir de nappes fibreuses utilisables soit telles quelles, soit comme supports d'enduction ou armatures de renforcement d'articles stratifiés à base de résine, de revêtement d'étanchéité constitué d'un support noyé dans une composition de bitume. .The present invention relates to a method for obtaining a new kind of materials made up of a multilayer textile complex made from usable fibrous webs either as is, or as coating media or reinforcements for reinforcing laminated articles based on resin, waterproof coating consisting of support embedded in a bitumen composition. .

Depuis fort longtemps, il a été proposé de réaliser des complexes textiles multicouches à base de nappes non tissées fibreuses, ayant des caractéristiques différentes, ces complexes étant éventuellement renforcés par une âme tissée, non tissée, ou tout autre matériau, par exemple une couche de mousse et ce, en vue de leur conférer des propriétés optimales en fonction de leurs applications.It has been proposed for a long time to carry out multi-layer textile complexes based on non-tablecloths fibrous woven, having different characteristics, these complexes being possibly reinforced by a woven or non-woven core, or any other material, by example a layer of foam and this, for their confer optimal properties according to their applications.

Ainsi, par exemple, il a été envisagé de réaliser des complexes non tissés/tissus et/ou d'associer des nappes à base de matières différentes, par exemple un non-tissé polyester et un voile de fibres de verre.Thus, for example, it has been envisaged to carry out non-woven / fabric complexes and / or combining tablecloths based on different materials, for example a polyester nonwoven and a glass fiber veil.

Dans tous ces complexes, le principal problème qui se pose est celui de la liaison des différentes couches textiles entre elles. A ce jour, les principales propositions pour réaliser cette liaison consistent à associer les différentes couches entre elles par collage (voir US-A-4 539 250 et 4 491 617),par couture-tricotage (US-A-3 044 146) ou par aiguilletage (voir FR-A-2 562 472 correspondant au brevet US 4 576 858). In all these complexes, the main problem which arises is that of the connection of the different layers textiles together. To date, the main proposals to achieve this connection consist in associating the different layers together by gluing (see US-A-4,539,250 and 4,491,617), by sewing-knitting (US-A-3 044 146) or by needling (see FR-A-2 562 472 corresponding to US Patent 4,576,858).

Si les techniques faisant appel au collage permettent d'obtenir des complexes dont les faces extérieures peuvent être à base de matériaux ayant des caractéristiques différentes, par exemple une face constituée essentiellement de fibres synthétiques (polyester, polyamide..), l'autre face étant quant à elle constituée de fibres minérales (verre par exemple), elles présentent cependant comme inconvénients, du fait de la présence d'un adhésif, de poser des problèmes lorsque l'on souhaite imprégner ou enduire la structure ainsi réalisée. Ainsi, par exemple, lorsque l'on souhaite utiliser un tel matériau complexe comme armature de renforcement d'un revêtement d'étanchéité à base d'une composition de bitume, la présence de colle entraíne des risques de résidus aqueux dans le produit, qui sont très souvent à l'origine de la formation de bulles dans le bitume. De plus, la présence de colle confère au complexe réalisé une certaine raideur ou rigidité. Enfin, malgré des progrès faits dans le domaine des colles, des risques de délaminage entre les couches subsistent toujours.If bonding techniques allow to obtain complexes whose external faces may be based on materials with characteristics different, for example a face consisting essentially synthetic fibers (polyester, polyamide, etc.), the other side being made up of mineral fibers (glass for example), they have however as disadvantages, due to the presence adhesive, to cause problems when you want impregnate or coat the structure thus produced. So, for example, when you want to use a such complex material as reinforcement a waterproofing coating based on a composition of bitumen, the presence of glue entails risks of aqueous residues in the product, which are very often the origin of the formation of bubbles in the bitumen. Of more, the presence of glue gives the complex produced a certain stiffness or rigidity. Finally, despite progress facts in the field of adhesives, risks of delamination between the layers still remains.

Dans son brevet français 2 562 472 (correspondant au brevet US 4 576 858), le Demandeur a proposé un nouveau type de matériau qui permet de résoudre ce problème de liaison entre les couches, et d'obtenir des complexes très homogènes et ce, sans apport de matières liantes. Selon ce document, les différentes couches de matières sont intimement mélangées les unes aux autres et liées mécaniquement entre elles, la liaison entre les différentes couches étant obtenue par aiguilletage. Cette solution permet de réaliser des complexes multicouches divers tels que par exemple des complexes constitués de fibres de verre et de fibres polyester, éventuellement combinées à des éléments additionnels de renforcement, tels que notamment des grilles non tissées. Cependant, il a été constaté que l'action des aiguilles lors de l'association des nappes fibreuses et plus particulièrement dans le cas où des renforts additionnels (grilles tissées ou non, feuilles de mousse..) étaient associés auxdites nappes, qu'il pouvait y avoir une détérioration desdits renforts. Par ailleurs, selon les enseignements de ce brevet,l'opération d'aiguilletage permet d'inplanter les fibres des nappes, notamment des fibres de verre, dans toute l'épaisseur de l'autre nappe constituée par exemple d'un non-tissé polyester, de telle sorte que les fibres de la première nappe sur laquelle s'exerce l'action des aiguilles dépassent de chaque côté de l'autre nappe qui sert donc de support. En conséquence, dans le complexe terminé, les faces externes sont toutes les deux à base de fibres de même nature.In his French patent 2,562,472 (corresponding US Patent 4,576,858), the Applicant has proposed a new type of material that solves this problem of connection between the layers, and to obtain complex very homogeneous without adding binding materials. According to this document, the different layers of materials are intimately mixed with each other and linked mechanically between them, the connection between the different layers being obtained by needling. This solution allows to realize multilayer complexes various such as for example complexes made up of glass fibers and polyester fibers, optionally combined with additional reinforcing elements, such as in particular non-woven grids. However, it was found that the action of the needles during the association of fibrous layers and more particularly in the event that additional reinforcements (grids woven or not, foam sheets ...) were associated to the said tablecloths, that there could be a deterioration said reinforcements. Furthermore, according to the teachings of this patent, the needling operation makes it possible to implant the fibers of the tablecloths, in particular fibers of glass, across the entire thickness of the other layer for example of a polyester nonwoven, such so that the fibers of the first layer on which the action of the needles protrudes on each side the other layer which therefore serves as a support. Consequently, in the completed complex, the external faces are both made from fibers of the same kind.

Or on a trouvé, et c'est ce qui fait l'objet de la présente invention, un procédé qui permet d'obtenir un nouveau type de matériau qui comme celui décrit dans le brevet précité, est à base de nappes fibreuses ayant des caractéristiques différentes, lesdites nappes étant liées entre elles par enchevêtrement des fibres de l'une des nappes au travers de la seconde qui, par une sélection appropriée, des nappes fibreuses que l'on assemble ainsi que par le choix d'une technique d'enchevêtrement connue par ailleurs, mise en oeuvre dans des conditions bien précises, à savoir la technique d"'aiguilletage" faisant appel non pas à des aiguilles mais à l'action de jets de fluide sous pression (air ou eau) qui non seulement permet de conserver les caractéristiques (résistance, bonne liaison des nappes entre elles sans apport de colle..) des articles obtenus selon le brevet précité, mais a également la particularité de présenter des surfaces externes qui sont, sinon en totalité, mais du moins pour partie majoritaire, constituées de fibres d'une seule et même nature, chaque face conservant les propriétés spécifiques des fibres de chacune des nappes d'origine entrant dans la réalisation du complexe.We have found, and this is what is the subject of the present invention, a method which allows to obtain a new type of material that like that described in the aforementioned patent, is based on fibrous sheets having different characteristics, said plies being linked together by entanglement fibers from one of the layers through the second which, by appropriate selection, tablecloths fibers that we assemble as well as by the choice of a entanglement technique known elsewhere, implementation works under very specific conditions, namely the technique of "needling" using not needles but to the action of jets of fluid under pressure (air or water) which not only keeps the characteristics (resistance, good connection of the layers between them without adding glue.) of the articles obtained according to the aforementioned patent, but also has the peculiarity of presenting external surfaces which are, if not entirely, but at least in majority, made from fibers of one and the same nature, each side retaining specific properties fibers from each of the original tablecloths entering in the realization of the complex.

Le complexe textile multicouches obtenu par la mise en oeuvre du procédé selon l'invention se caractérise en ce que :

  • l'une des nappes entrant dans sa composition est à base de fibres discontinues synthétiques, souples, non cassantes, telles que des fibres de polyester, polyamide, polypropylène .. one of the webs used in its composition is based on synthetic staple fibers, flexible, non-brittle, such as polyester, polyamide, polypropylene fibers.
  • l'autre nappe est à base de fibres discontinues minérales relativement raides et cassantes (telles que verre, amiante..) ; the other web is based on relatively stiff and brittle mineral staple fibers (such as glass, asbestos, etc.);
  • une partie minoritaire des fibres discontinues synthétiques sont implantées dans l'épaisseur de la nappe à base de fibres discontinues minérales et ce, sans ressortir en surface de cette dernière. a minority part of the synthetic staple fibers are implanted in the thickness of the web based on mineral staple fibers, without emerging at the surface of the latter.
The multilayer textile complex obtained by implementing the method according to the invention is characterized in that: The multilayer textile complex obtained by implementing the method according to the invention is characterized in that:
  • one of the sheets used in its composition is based on synthetic staple fibers, flexible, non-brittle, such as polyester, polyamide, polypropylene fibers. one of the sheets used in its composition is based on synthetic staple fibers, flexible, non-brittle, such as polyester, polyamide, polypropylene fibers.
  • the other layer is based on relatively stiff and brittle mineral staple fibers (such as glass, asbestos, etc.); the other layer is based on relatively stiff and brittle mineral staple fibers (such as glass, asbestos, etc.);
  • a minority part of the synthetic staple fibers are implanted in the thickness of the sheet based on mineral staple fibers and this does not emerge on the surface of the latter. a minority part of the synthetic staple fibers are implanted in the thickness of the sheet based on mineral staple fibers and this does not emerge on the surface of the latter.

En d'autres termes, dans le matériau conforme à l'invention, les fibres qui assurent la liaison entre les différentes couches sont des fibres synthétiques ré-orientées dans le sens de l'épaisseur du complexe multicouches, la ré-orientation étant réalisée de telle sorte qu'elle traverse l'ensemble de l'empilement formé sans toutefois ressortir à l'extérieur de la couche à base de fibres minérales, de manière à ne pas altérer les propriétés de surface de cette dernière. Au maximum, les extrémités des fibres synthétiques ainsi implantées viendront afleurer la surface de la nappe à base de fibres minérales.In other words, in the material conforming to the invention, the fibers which provide the connection between the different layers are synthetic fibers re-oriented in the thickness direction of the complex multilayer, re-orientation being carried out in such a way so that it crosses the entire stack formed without however coming out on the outside of the layer to base of mineral fibers, so as not to alter the surface properties of the latter. At most, the ends of the synthetic fibers thus implanted will come to bloom on the surface of the tablecloth based on mineral fibers.

Si le matériau conforme à l'invention peut être constitué uniquement de structures fibreuses non tissées, bien entendu, on pourrait lui associer une armure de renforcement interne, telle qu'une grille textile tissée ou non tissée, une feuille de mousse, un feutre, un film ou toute combinaison de tels éléments. If the material according to the invention can be consisting only of non-fibrous structures woven, of course, we could associate a weave internal reinforcement, such as a textile grid woven or non-woven, a sheet of foam, a felt, film or any combination of these.

Le procédé selon l'invention permettant l'obtention d'un tel complexe, consiste à superposer au moins deux nappes fibreuses non tissées, réalisées par voie sèche (cardage notamment), l'une de ces nappes étant constituée de fibres discontinues synthétiques souples, non cassantes, l'autre de fibres discontinues minérales relativement rigides et cassantes, et il se caractérise par le fait que l'on soumet l'empilement de nappes ainsi réalisées à l'action de jets de fluides (air ou eau) agissant sur les matériaux superposés sur la surface de la nappe à base de fibres synthétiques, de manière à ré-orienter une partie des fibres dans le sens de l'épaisseur, l'empilement étant, lors de l'action des jets, supporté par une surface continue, perméable, évitant que les fibres synthétiques ne ressortent à l'extérieur de la surface de la nappe à base de fibres minérales.The method according to the invention allowing obtaining such a complex, consists of superimposing at least two nonwoven fibrous webs, dry (carding in particular), one of these sheets being made up of staple fibers soft synthetics, not brittle, the other of staple fibers relatively mineral rigid and brittle, and it is characterized by the fact that the stack is subjected of tablecloths thus produced by the action of jets of fluids (air or water) acting on superimposed materials on the surface of the web based on synthetic fibers, so as to re-orient part of the fibers in the thickness direction, the stack being, during the action of the jets, supported by a continuous surface, permeable, preventing synthetic fibers from coming out outside the surface of the base web mineral fibers.

Conformément au procédé selon l'invention, il est possible d'interposer entre les deux nappes fibreuses précitées tout élément additionnel, tel que par exemple une grille textile (tissée ou non), un tissu, un tricot, une feuille de mousse.., ces éléments étant interposés seuls ou en combinaison les uns avec les autres en fonction des résultats recherchés et l'ensemble des couches étant reliées entre elles par les fibres synthétiques ré-orientées dans le sens de l'épaisseur. Il est évident que ces couches additionnelles doivent pouvoir être traversées par les jets de fluide.In accordance with the process according to the invention, it is possible to interpose between the two fibrous layers aforementioned any additional element, such as for example a textile grid (woven or not), a fabric, a knitted fabric, a sheet of foam .., these elements being interposed alone or in combination with each other depending desired results and all layers being interconnected by synthetic fibers re-oriented in the thickness direction. It is obvious that these additional layers must be able to be crossed by the fluid jets.

Par ailleurs, selon une forme de mise en oeuvre préférentielle du procédé selon l'invention, forme selon laquelle on utilise comme jets de fluide des jets d'eau, il est avantageux avant de soumettre les matériaux superposés à l'action desdits jets, de les comprimer, de préférence en les humidifiant de telle sorte que l'opération se réalise en ayant un empilement ayant la plus faible épaisseur possible par rapport au nombre de couches entrant dans sa composition.Furthermore, according to one form of implementation of the process according to the invention, form according to which we use as water jets, water jets, it is advantageous before submitting the overlapping materials to the action of said jets, to compress them, to preferably by moistening them so that the operation is achieved by having a stack having the most thin possible compared to the number of layers used in its composition.

Les nouveaux matériaux conformes à l'invention présentent de très nombreux avantages par rapport aux matériaux multicouches antérieurs, par le fait que les fibres souples synthétiques (polyester par exemple) qui pénètrent à travers la nappe à base de fibres raides (verre), permettent d'obtenir un matériau composite unique de faible épaisseur et dépourvu de tout apport de colle, permettant de nombreuses utilisations telles que par exemple renforcement des membranes de toitures, des structures stratifiées à base de résine..The new materials according to the invention have many advantages over to previous multilayer materials, by the fact that flexible synthetic fibers (polyester for example) that penetrate through the fiber-based web stiff (glass), allow to obtain a material unique composite of low thickness and devoid of any addition of glue, allowing many uses such as for example strengthening roofing membranes, laminated structures resin base ..

Par ailleurs, une telle liaison entre les couches évite tout risque de délaminage, les crochets fibreux obtenus par la pénétration des jets sur le voile en fibres synthétiques à travers la couche de voile en fibres minérales,permettant d'obtenir un composite stratifié sans colle, facilitant la pénétration du bitume, de la résine..Furthermore, such a connection between the layers avoids any risk of delamination, the fibrous hooks obtained by the penetration of the jets on the veil in synthetic fibers through the veil layer in mineral fibers, to obtain a composite glue-free laminate, facilitating the penetration of bitumen, resin ..

De plus, l'absence de colle diminue les risques de résidus aqueux dans le produit qui, très souvent sont à l'origine de la formation de bulles. In addition, the absence of glue reduces the risk of aqueous residues in the product which very often are causing bubbles to form.

Par ailleurs, les fibres minérales (verre) étant disposées sur une seule face du complexe, cela permet de réaliser des produits terminés (par exemple revêtements bitumineux) répondant aux caractéristiques exigées pour les problèmes de non-feu. Furthermore, the mineral fibers (glass) being arranged on one side of the complex, this allows to make finished products (for example coatings bituminous) meeting the specifications required for fire problems.

La réalisation du complexe grâce à la liaison au moyen de Jets permet d'obtenir un produit d'une grande souplesse, irréalisable par une liaison des différentes couches de manière conventionnelle, au moyen d'un adhésif.The realization of the complex thanks to the connection to means of Jets allows to obtain a product of a great flexibility, impracticable by a connection of different layers in a conventional way, at using an adhesive.

Enfin, il a été constaté, notamment dans le cas où la nappe à base de fibres minérales est constituée de fibres de verre, que les fibres de cette nappe qui sont intimement liées à la fibre synthétique (polyester), possèdent des propriétés avantageuses de résistance à la rupture par traction, une stabilité dimensionnelle thermique, de résistance à l'usure, de détérioration telles qu'elles peuvent être dues par exemple aux rayons ultraviolets.Finally, it was noted, in particular in the case where the tablecloth based on mineral fibers consists of glass fibers, that the fibers of this sheet which are closely linked to synthetic fiber (polyester), have advantageous strength properties at tensile strength, dimensional stability thermal, wear resistance, deterioration as it may be due to example with ultraviolet rays.

L'invention, les avantages qu'elle apporte et les différentes applications que peut recevoir un tel matériau, sera cependant mieux comprise grâce aux exemples de réalisation donnés ci-après à titre indicatif mais non limitatifs, et qui sont illustrés par les deux figures jointes dans lesquelles:

  • la figure 1 est une vue schématique en perspective, montrant la structure générale du matériau conforme à l'invention et qui comporte dans ce mode de réalisation, une armature inteme additionnelle de renforcement ; FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view showing the general structure of the material according to the invention and which comprises, in this embodiment, an additional internal reinforcement;
  • la figure 2 illustre schématiquement, vu de côté, le processus opératoire d'obtention d'un tel matériau. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates, seen from the side, the operating process for obtaining such a material.
The invention, the advantages which it brings and the different applications that such a material can receive, will however be better understood thanks to the exemplary embodiments given below by way of indication but not limiting, and which are illustrated by the two accompanying figures. The invention, the advantages which it brings and the different applications that such a material can receive, will however be better understood thanks to the exemplary embodiments given below by way of indication but not limiting, and which are illustrated by the two accompanying figures. in which: in which:
  • Figure 1 is a schematic perspective view showing the general structure of the material according to the invention and which comprises in this embodiment, an additional internal reinforcement; Figure 1 is a schematic perspective view showing the general structure of the material according to the invention and which included in this embodiment, an additional internal reinforcement;
  • FIG. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates, seen from the side, the operating process for obtaining such a material. 2 schematically illustrates, seen from the side, the operating process for obtaining such a material.

La figure 1 illustre d'une manière générale, en perspective édatée, la structure du matériau selon l'invention qui est constituée de nappes fibreuses (1, 2) ayant des caractéristiques différentes, ces nappes étant liées entre elles par enchevêtrement des fibres (3) de l'une des nappes (1) au travers de la seconde (2).Figure 1 illustrates in general, in edgy perspective, the material structure according to the invention which consists of fibrous sheets (1, 2) having different characteristics, these plies being linked together by entanglement of fibers (3) from one of the layers (1) through the second (2).

Conformément à l'invention, l'une des nappes, (1) dans le cas présent est à base de fibres synthétiques souples, non cassantes alors que l'autre nappe (2) est, quant à elle, à base de fibres minérales relativement rigides et cassantes, telles que par exemple de fibres de verre, d'amiante, de carbone..According to the invention, one of the layers, (1) in this case is based on synthetic fibers flexible, not brittle while the other layer (2) is, for its part, based on mineral fibers relatively rigid and brittle, such as for example glass fibers, asbestos, carbon ..

Afin d'obtenir un matériau conforme à l'invention dans lequel les faces extérieures (4, 5) du complexe conservent les caractéristiques des nappes fibreuses (1, 2) d'origine, l'association des nappes entre elles est réalisée de telle sorte que ce soit des fibres synthétiques, souples, qui soient amenées à pénétrer à l'intérieur de la nappe à base de fibres minérales. Pour ce faire, on fait appel à la technique d'enchevêtrement ou d'emmêlement désignée par les techniciens par l'expression "entremêlement hydraulique" et dont le principe est schématisé à la figure 2 et qui consiste, d'une manière générale, à soumettre la superposition de nappes fibreuses à l'action de jets de fluide provenant de buses (6). Les nappes superposées (1) et (2) sont, conformément à l'invention, amenées en-dessous des buses (6) au moyen d'un tapis transporteur (7) permettant de les maintenir à plat lors de l'opération d'entremêlement. Lors de cette opération, la nappe sur laquelle s'exercent directement les jets de fluide est la nappe (1) constituée de fibres synthétiques alors que la nappe (2) est, quant à elle, maintenue sur le tapis support (7). Grâce à un tel mode de mise en oeuvre, sous l'action des jets de fluide provenant des buses (6), une partie (3) des fibres de la nappe (2) est ré-orientée pourvenir pénétrer à l'intérieur de la nappe (2), l'extrémité (8) desdites fibres ainsi ré-orientées venant au plus afleurer la surface inférieure (5) de la nappe (2) qui est en contact avec le tapis support (7).In order to obtain a material according to the invention in which the outer faces (4, 5) of the complex retain the characteristics of fibrous webs (1, 2) of origin, the association of the layers between them is made so that it is fibers synthetic, flexible, which are brought to penetrate inside the tablecloth based on mineral fibers. To do this, we use the entanglement technique or entanglement designated by technicians by the expression "hydraulic intermingling" and the principle of which is shown diagrammatically in FIG. 2 and which generally involves submitting the superimposition of fibrous layers on the action of jets fluid from nozzles (6). The overlapping tablecloths (1) and (2) are, in accordance with the invention, brought below the nozzles (6) by means of a conveyor belt (7) enabling them to be kept at flat during the intermingling operation. During this operation, the tablecloth on which is exercised directly the fluid jets is the sheet (1) made up of synthetic fibers while the web (2) is, as to her, held on the support mat (7). Thanks to a such mode of implementation, under the action of the jets of fluid from the nozzles (6), part (3) of the fibers of the web (2) is re-oriented to penetrate inside the ply (2), the end (8) of said fibers thus re-oriented coming at most to flower the lower surface (5) of the ply (2) which is in contact with the support mat (7).

En procédant de cette manière, la surface supérieure (4) de la nappe (1) présente de petites perforations qui sont pratiquement invisibles étant donné du fait de l'orientation des fibres et qui sont réparties au hasard, cette surface supérieure étant bien entendu constituée uniquement de fibres synthétiques, la surface (5) de la nappe à base de fibres minérales conservant, quant à elle, ses propriétés d'origine, par exemple ses caractéristiques non-feu dans le cas où les fibres de la nappe (2) sont à base de verre.By doing this, the upper surface (4) of the sheet (1) has small perforations which are practically invisible given the made of the orientation of the fibers and which are distributed chance, this upper surface being of course made entirely of synthetic fibers, the surface (5) tablecloth based on mineral fibers retaining its original properties, by example its fire-resistant characteristics in the case where the fibers of the sheet (2) are glass-based.

Bien entendu, les propriétés seront fonction du matériau choisi.Of course, the properties will depend on the chosen material.

Si le matériau conforme à l'invention peut être constitué uniquement de nappes fibreuses ainsi liées entre elles, il est cependant préférable, afin notamment de communiquer au complexe des caractéristiques de résistance mécanique en traction tant dans le sens long que dans le sens travers, d'incorporer entre les deux nappes (1, 2) un renfort additionnel (9) constitué par exemple par une grille textile (tissée ou non), un tissu, un tricot. à base d'une matière qui peut être soit identique à l'une des matières constituant les nappes (1, 2) soit différente. Bien entendu, la structure de ce renfort additionnel doit être telle que les fibres (3) de la nappe (1) qui sont ré-orientées puissent la traverser sous l'action des jets de fluide (6).If the material according to the invention can be consisting only of fibrous sheets thus bound between them, it is however preferable, in particular to communicate to the complex of characteristics mechanical tensile strength both in the long way that in the cross direction, to incorporate between the two layers (1, 2) an additional reinforcement (9) constituted for example by a textile grid (woven or no), a fabric, a knit. based on a material that can be either identical to one of the materials constituting the tablecloths (1, 2) is different. Of course, the structure of this additional reinforcement must be such that the fibers (3) of the ply (1) which are re-oriented can cross it under the action of the jets of fluid (6).

Exemple 1 : Example 1 :

On réalise un matériau conforme à l'invention à partir des deux composants suivants :

  • pour la nappe fibreuse (1) à base de fibres synthétiques souples, un voile de polyester obtenu par cardage à partir de fibres de 6,6 Dtex, coupe 50 mm pesant 150 g/m2 et ayant une épaisseur moyenne de 5 mm; for the fibrous web (1) based on flexible synthetic fibers, a polyester web obtained by carding from fibers of 6.6 Dtex, cut 50 mm weighing 150 g / m2 and having an average thickness of 5 mm;
  • pour la nappe (2) à base de fibres minérales, un voile de fibres de verre ayant une longueur de 50 mm, un diamètre de 14 microns, pesant 75 g'm2 et ayant une épaisseur moyenne de 2 mm. for the web (2) based on mineral fibers, a glass fiber web having a length of 50 mm, a diameter of 14 microns, weighing 75 g'm2 and having an average thickness of 2 mm.
A material according to the invention is produced from the following two components: A material according to the invention is produced from the following two components:
  • for the fibrous web (1) based on flexible synthetic fibers, a polyester veil obtained by carding from fibers of 6.6 Dtex, cut 50 mm weighing 150 g / m2 and having an average thickness of 5 mm; for the fibrous web (1) based on flexible synthetic fibers, a polyester veil obtained by carding from fibers of 6.6 Dtex, cut 50 mm weighing 150 g / m2 and having an average thickness of 5 mm;
  • for the web (2) based on mineral fibers, a veil of glass fibers having a length of 50 mm, a diameter of 14 microns, weighing 75 gm 2 and having an average thickness of 2 mm. for the web (2) based on mineral fibers, a veil of glass fibers having a length of 50 mm, a diameter of 14 microns, weighing 75 gm 2 and having an average thickness of 2 mm.

Ces deux nappes (1,2) sont superposées etamenées sur une installation du type illustré à la figure 2, de telle sorte que la nappe (1) soit située en regard des jets de fluide (6). Avant traitement par les jets de fluide (6), le complexe formé est de préférence soumis à l'action de moyens (10) (non représentés sur la figure 2) permettant de le comprimer et, dans le cas où les jets de fluide sont des jets d'eau, d'humidifier les nappes ainsi comprimées.These two layers (1,2) are superimposed and brought back on an installation of the type illustrated in FIG. 2, so that the tablecloth (1) is located opposite fluid jets (6). Before treatment with jets of fluid (6), the complex formed is preferably subjected to the action of means (10) (not shown in the figure 2) allowing it to be compressed and, in the case where the fluid jets are water jets, to moisten the tablecloths thus compressed.

La pression des jets de fluide sera variable en fonction de l'épaisseur du nombre de nappes superposées, cette pression étant en général comprise entre 30 et 150 bars et, dans le cas présent, de l'ordre de 70 bars.The pressure of the fluid jets will vary in depending on the thickness of the number of overlapping layers, this pressure being generally understood between 30 and 150 bars and, in this case, around of 70 bars.

A la sortie de l'installation, on obtient un complexe constitué de deux nappes fibreuses différentes parfaitement liées entre elles et les fibres (3) de la nappe (1) qui ont été entraínées au travers de la nappe (2) ne dépassent pas par rapportà la surface (5) de cette nappe.At the end of the installation, a complex consisting of two different fibrous layers perfectly bonded to each other and the fibers (3) of the tablecloth (1) which have been driven through the sheet (2) does not protrude relative to the surface (5) of this tablecloth.

Un tel matériau peut être utilisé dans de nombreuses applications et notamment comme support d'enduction, par exemple pour réaliser un renfort de chappe de bitume. Such a material can be used in many applications and in particular as support coating, for example to make a reinforcement of bitumen chappe.

Exemple 2 : Example 2 :

On répète l'exemple 1 mais on interpose entre les deux nappes (1, 2) une grille (9), à base de fils de verre (silione) comportant quatre fils et quatre trames par centimètre, chaque fil ayant un titre de 51 Tex. Cette grille pèse 50 g/m2.We repeat example 1 but interpose between the two layers (1, 2) a grid (9), based on glass (silione) with four wires and four wefts per centimeter, each thread having a title of 51 Tex. This grid weighs 50 g / m2.

Après traitement conformément à l'invention, on obtient une structure complexe ayant exactement la configuration donnée à la figure 1 et dans laquelle l'une des faces (4) est à base de fibres de polyester, l'autre face (5) étant, quant à elle, à base de fibres de verre. After treatment in accordance with the invention, obtains a complex structure having exactly the configuration given in Figure 1 and in which one of the faces (4) is based on polyester fibers, the other face (5) being, for its part, based on glass fibers.

Un tel matériau est particulièrement adapté pour être utilisé comme support de bitume permettant de réaliser un revêtement d'étanchéité monocouche afin d'obtenir un revêtement ayant d'excellentes caractéristiques de stabilité dimensionnelle, de résistance au poinçonnement statique et dynamique.Such a material is particularly suitable for be used as a bitumen support allowing to realize a single layer waterproofing coating so to obtain a coating having excellent characteristics dimensional stability, resistance to static and dynamic punching.

Le matériau décrit précédemment peut être facilement stocké et manipulé. Par ailleurs, les propriétés de chacune des couches sont conservées, ce qui est particulièrement intéressant lorsque l'on souhaite, par exemple obtenir une face non feu et l'autre face isolante. De plus, l'opération d'entremêlement provoque, de manière évidente, des canaux à l'intérieur du complexe qui favorisent la pénétration des résines, bitumes, ou de tout autres matières que l'on souhaiterait associer à un tel complexe.The material described above can be easily stored and handled. Furthermore, the properties of each layer is preserved, which is particularly interesting when you want, for example get one side fire and the other side insulating. In addition, the intermingling operation causes obviously, channels inside the complex which promote the penetration of resins, bitumens, or any other material that we would like associate with such a complex.

Ainsi, si dans l'exemple qui précède, chacune des nappes (1, 2) était constituée d'un même type de fibres, il pourrait être envisagé d'inclure à ces nappes des additifs divers ou de les mélanger à d'autres fibres. Par exemple, on pourrait incorporer à l'intérieur de la nappe à base de fibres thermoplastiques des fibres thermofusibles dont les propriétés pourraient être révélées ultérieurement, des fibres susceptibles de friser ou de révéler d'autres propriétés, permettant d'avoir une meilleure cohésion (fibres bilames par exemple).So if in the example above, each of the tablecloths (1, 2) consisted of the same type of fibers, it could be envisaged to include in these tablecloths various additives or mix them with other fibers. For example, we could incorporate inside the web based on thermoplastic fibers, hot-melt fibers whose properties could be revealed later, fibers capable of curling or revealing other properties, allowing better cohesion (bimetallic fibers for example).

Claims (8)

  1. A process making it possible to obtain a multilayer textile complex which involves superposing at least two nonwoven fibrous fleeces (1,2) produced by dry means, one of these fleeces (1) being composed of non-brittle flexible discontinuous synthetic fibers and the other (2) of relatively rigid and brittle discontinuous mineral fibers, characterized in that the stack of fleeces(1,2) so produced is subject to the action of jets of fluid (6) acting on the superposed materials on the surface (4) of the fleece (1) based on synthetic fibers, so as to reorient some of the fibers (3) in the direction of thickness, during the action of the jets (6) the stack being supported by a permeable continuous surface (7), preventing the synthetic fibers (3) from protruding outside the surface (8) of the fleece (2) based on mineral fibers.
  2. A process as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the stack of fleeces is compressed before the action of the jets of fluid and is subjected to this action, at the same time being maintained in this compressed state.
  3. A process as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the jets of fluid are liquid jets, the compressed fleeces also being moistened before the action of the said jet.
  4. A process as claimed in one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that between the abovementioned fibrous fleeces (1,2) is interposed an additional reinforcing element (textile net, knit, foam, etc.), all the layers being connected to one another by means of the synthetic fibers (3) reoriented in the direction of the thickness.
  5. A multilayer textile obtained by using the process as claimed in one of claims 1 to 4, said omplex being based on fibrous fleeces (1,2) having different characteristics, the said fleeces being connected to one another as a result of the interlacing of the fibers of one of the fleeces (1) with those of the second fleece (2), characterized in that :
    one of the fleeces (1) involved in its composition is based on non-brittle flexible synthetic fibers, such as discontinuous fibers of polyester, polyamide, polypropylene, etc. ;
    the other fleece (2) is based on relatively rigid and brittle discontinuous mineral fibers (such as glass, asbestos, etc.);
    a minor proportion (3) of the discontinuous synthetic fibers is implanted in the thickness of the fleece (2) based on discontinuous mineral fibers, without protruding at the surface of the latter.
  6. A multilayer complex as claimed in claim 5, characterized in that it possesses an inner reinforcing structure (9).
  7. A complex as claimed in claim 6, characteriezed in that the inner reinforcing structure (9) is a (woven or nonwoven) textile net, a fabric, etc.
  8. A complex as claimed in claim 6, characterized in that the reinforcing structure is a foam sheet or a felt.
EP88420363A 1987-11-03 1988-10-25 Multilayer textile composite made from fibre fleeces having different characteristics Expired - Lifetime EP0315553B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8715461A FR2622604B1 (en) 1987-11-03 1987-11-03 MULTI-LAYERED TEXTILE COMPLEX BASED ON FIBROUS TABLECLOTHS WITH DIFFERENT FEATURES
FR8715461 1987-11-03

Publications (3)

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EP0315553A1 EP0315553A1 (en) 1989-05-10
EP0315553B1 EP0315553B1 (en) 1991-04-24
EP0315553B2 true EP0315553B2 (en) 2001-04-11

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US (1) US5047276A (en)
EP (1) EP0315553B2 (en)
DE (1) DE3862568D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2021871T5 (en)
FR (1) FR2622604B1 (en)

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US5047276A (en) 1991-09-10
ES2021871T5 (en) 2001-07-01
FR2622604A1 (en) 1989-05-05
FR2622604B1 (en) 1990-01-19
DE3862568D1 (en) 1991-05-29
EP0315553B1 (en) 1991-04-24
ES2021871B3 (en) 1991-11-16
EP0315553A1 (en) 1989-05-10

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