DE4309056B4 - Method and device for determining the distance and scattering intensity of scattering points - Google Patents

Method and device for determining the distance and scattering intensity of scattering points

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Publication number
DE4309056B4
DE4309056B4 DE19934309056 DE4309056A DE4309056B4 DE 4309056 B4 DE4309056 B4 DE 4309056B4 DE 19934309056 DE19934309056 DE 19934309056 DE 4309056 A DE4309056 A DE 4309056A DE 4309056 B4 DE4309056 B4 DE 4309056B4
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
scattering
points
spectrum
distance
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
DE19934309056
Other languages
German (de)
Other versions
DE4309056A1 (en
Inventor
Gerd Haeusler
Juergen Herrmann
Jochen Neumann
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Carl Zeiss Meditec AG
Original Assignee
Häusler, Gerd, Prof. Dr.
Herrmann, Jürgen
Jochen Neumann
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Häusler, Gerd, Prof. Dr., Herrmann, Jürgen, Jochen Neumann filed Critical Häusler, Gerd, Prof. Dr.
Priority to DE19934309056 priority Critical patent/DE4309056B4/en
Publication of DE4309056A1 publication Critical patent/DE4309056A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE4309056B4 publication Critical patent/DE4309056B4/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • G01B11/026Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness by measuring distance between sensor and object
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/02001Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects characterised by manipulating or generating specific radiation properties
    • G01B9/02007Two or more frequencies or sources used for interferometric measurement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/02041Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects characterised by particular imaging or detection techniques
    • G01B9/02044Imaging in the frequency domain, e.g. by using a spectrometer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/0209Non-tomographic low coherence interferometers, e.g. low coherence interferometry, scanning white light interferometry, optical frequency domain interferometry or reflectometry
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0059Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence
    • A61B5/0062Arrangements for scanning
    • A61B5/0066Optical coherence imaging

Abstract

Published without abstract.

Description

  • object The patent application is an optical method and apparatus with the distance to one or more illuminated scattering Object points can be determined with high accuracy. Such Procedures are important for the automated measurement of object surfaces (shape measurement). The procedure and the device can but also used to measure volume spreaders, though Light can penetrate into the object to be measured. This is e.g. important in medical tissue diagnostics.
  • Many distance sensors are described in the literature (for example, T. Strand, "Optics for Machine Vision," Proc. SPIE 456 (1984).) Most are based on triangulation with structured illumination, either incoherent or coherent have the disadvantage that shaded areas occur due to the triangulation angle. "Coherent methods are known to limit the depth accuracy by the observation aperture (G. Häusler," Physical Limits of 3D Sensing "Proc. SPIE 1822 (1992)) Several methods are also known which do not have this limitation (A. Fercher, et al., "Rough surface interferometry with a tow-wavelength heterodyne speckle interferometer" Appl. Opt. 24 (1985) p.2181, T. Dresel, G. Häusler , "Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar " , Appl. Opt. 31 (1992) p. 919).
  • A medical application for tissue diagnostics in volume has been described by D. Huang et al, "Micron resolution ranging of cornea Anterior chamber by optical reflectometry "Lasers in surgery and medicine Vol 11, (1991) p. 419. These methods do not work with coherent Light, but require complicated heterodyne technology or mechanical Movement to scan the object in depth.
  • The subject of the application is a method and a device which manages without mechanical scanning and without heterodyne technology. It is based on white light interferometry, as described in the German patent specification by G. Häusler "Method and device for non-contact detection of the surface shape of diffuse scattering objects" 4108944 (1991). The arrangement is an interferometer. For explanation, a Michelson interferometer is used, but other interferometers are suitable. The arrangement is in 1 outlined.
  • The object 1 is in an interferometer arm. It gets over the splitter mirror 2 and lenses 7 . 8th with a broadband light source 3 , z. B. lit a light bulb or a super-luminescent diode. At the same time, the reference arm 4 over the splitter mirror 2 illuminated. About the reference mirror 5 and the splitter mirror 2 the reference light comes back and unites with that of the object 1 backscattered light at the exit 6 of the interferometer. There is the light with the help of a spectral apparatus 9 . 10 disassembled into colors. The spectrum is determined using a location-sensitive photoreceiver 11 , z. B. a photodiode array and in an evaluation 12 , z. As a computer evaluated.
  • Out the spectrum can be now determine the distance of one or more scattering points. It can be even the intensity distribution the backscatter in a volume spreader. For this purpose, the so-called Müller stripes are evaluated.
  • First, the evaluation for an object point that is at the distance z from the reference plane 13 , with an intensity i (z) scatters, explains.
  • The spectrum for Bliesen Punkt has an intensity distribution I (k, z) = 1 + i (z) cos (2kz + φ).
  • there k is the wavenumber in the spectrum, φ is a random phase, the based on that one speckle observed. φ hangs but only weakly from k and therefore can be neglected here.
  • The spectrum is thus modulated with the spatial frequency "z". The resulting light and dark stripes are called Muller's stripes. So you need to determine only the spatial frequency to determine the distance of the scattering point. That applies to rough objects only possible if certain conditions are met, which are described in the German patent specification 4108944 by G. Häusler: it is not a conventional interferometer with reflective surfaces, but in one arm there is a diffuse scattering object The light source must be so coherent in space that speckles are formed in the backscattered light, because only within a speckle the phase is approximately constant low interference contrast is visible.
  • The determination of the frequency "z" of the Müller stripes is expediently carried out by Fourier transformation of the color spectrum according to the variable k. But it is also a direct determination of the period length in the photodiode signal possible. This is easier and faster if only a few object points sprinkle.
  • One The enormous advantage of the method is that the accuracy of the Ab determination independently from the observation aperture. This is not the case when pure coherent Methods and in almost all commercial sensors.
  • The method may also determine the distance of many points lying in the volume, at different distances z, each scattering with the intensity i (z). On the photodiode line in the spectral plane, the signals are superimposed on the entire depth. That's why the line sees the signal I (k) = ∫ (1 + i (z) cos (2kz)) dz
  • The " 1 " in the integrand stresses the dynamics of the receiver, but is immaterial to the measurement. Essentially, the spectrum I (k) is the Fourier transform of i (z). By Fourier-back transformation of the signal to k, i (z) can be recovered. This makes this method a true tomographic method.
  • The Signal-to-noise ratio is cheap, because the entire signal of the photodiode array only to individual frequencies is searched with the Fourier transform. They are not mechanical moving parts needed. The exposure time can be short and thus biological activity or movement hide.
  • she is applicable to industrial objects, eg. B. Look in through Ceramics, as well as for biological objects, e.g. B. Examination for subcutaneous lesions, Breast tumors, etc.
  • The method can also be extended by "light sources " in other spectral regions that can penetrate the material under investigation, eg X-ray sources, UV sources, infrared sources, ultrasound sources.
  • The method can not be just along an axis 14 but you can also make a section perpendicular to the drawing plane and the axis 14 of the 1 measured in parallel. For this purpose, it is only necessary to illuminate not only one point of the object, but at the same time a line perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. Then, instead of a line-type photodiode array, a planar array must be used as the receiver.
  • Another modification is in 2 described. The 2 is similar to 1 , But it is also in a Interferometerarm (here as an example of the reference) a dispersion einfahrendes element, here for example a plane plate 15 , inserted. This plate 15 causes the spectrum at the output of the interferometer receives a characteristic intensity distribution, which depends on the distance z of the scattering point. The evaluation of the intensity distribution gives the distance with high accuracy.
  • The dispersion causes the interferometer to be adjusted only for a certain wavenc hawk O , namely for the wave number at which the optical path length in the reference arm and in the object arm is the same. The spectrum I (k) has the following course: I (k, k O ) = 1 + cos (2da (k 2 - k × k O )).
  • The course of the spectrum I (k, k O ) is in 3 played. The wavenumber to which the spectrum is symmetric depends on the distance z of the scattering point. The symmetry can easily, z. As determined by correlation with the mirrored function.

Claims (8)

  1. Interferometric method comprising: illuminating object points arranged in one arm of an interferometer with light from a broadband source, decomposing the light at the output of the interferometer into a spectrum, and determining information about the distance of the object points from the brightness distribution in the spectrum, characterized in that Object points are scattering points and are illuminated with spatially coherent light and from the brightness distribution in the spectrum information about the distance of the scattering points and on the scattering intensity of the scattering points is determined.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that that the determination of the distance and the local scattering intensity by Fourier transformation of the spectrum according to the wavelength.
  3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized that in one of the two interferometer arms additionally a dispersion-generating element added is.
  4. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized that the determination of the removal of a scattering point thereby takes place that the symmetry axis of the spectrum is determined.
  5. Device for the interferometric determination of the distance and scattering intensity of one or more scattering points ( 1 ), with: an interferometer ( 2 . 4 . 5 . 6 ), in one arm of which one or more scattering points arranged, a device with a light source ( 3 . 7 . 8th ) which is adapted to the one or more scattering points ( 1 ) with spatially coherent light, a spectral apparatus ( 9 . 10 ) for decomposing the light from the interferometer output ( 6 ), a location-sensitive photoreceiver ( 11 ), an evaluation unit ( 12 ), which is formed from the photoreceiver ( 11 ) determine the scattering intensity of the one or more scattering points and the distance of the one or more scattering points based on one or more spatial frequencies.
  6. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that that the evaluation unit is designed, the local scattering intensity of the one or the multiple scattering points through Fourier transformation of the spectrum on the wavelength to investigate.
  7. Device according to one of claims 5 or 6, characterized that in one of the two interferometer arms additionally a dispersion-generating Element inserted is.
  8. Device according to one of claims 5 to 7, characterized that the evaluation unit is formed, the removal of the one or the multiple scattering points by determining the axis of symmetry of the spectrum.
DE19934309056 1993-03-20 1993-03-20 Method and device for determining the distance and scattering intensity of scattering points Expired - Lifetime DE4309056B4 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19934309056 DE4309056B4 (en) 1993-03-20 1993-03-20 Method and device for determining the distance and scattering intensity of scattering points

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Publications (2)

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DE4309056B4 true DE4309056B4 (en) 2006-05-24

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