DE4309056B4 - Method and apparatus for determining the distance and scattering intensity of the scattering points - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for determining the distance and scattering intensity of the scattering points

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Publication number
DE4309056B4
DE4309056B4 DE19934309056 DE4309056A DE4309056B4 DE 4309056 B4 DE4309056 B4 DE 4309056B4 DE 19934309056 DE19934309056 DE 19934309056 DE 4309056 A DE4309056 A DE 4309056A DE 4309056 B4 DE4309056 B4 DE 4309056B4
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scattering
points
spectrum
characterized
distance
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DE19934309056
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DE4309056A1 (en
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Gerd Haeusler
Juergen Herrmann
Jochen Neumann
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CARL ZEISS MEDITEC AG, 07745 JENA, DE
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Häusler, Gerd, Prof. Dr.
Herrmann, Jürgen
Jochen Neumann
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • G01B11/026Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness by measuring distance between sensor and object
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/02001Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects characterised by manipulating or generating specific radiation properties
    • G01B9/02007Two or more frequencies or sources used for interferometric measurement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/02041Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects characterised by particular imaging or detection techniques
    • G01B9/02044Imaging in the frequency domain, e.g. by using a spectrometer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/0209Non-tomographic low coherence interferometers, e.g. low coherence interferometry, scanning white light interferometry, optical frequency domain interferometry or reflectometry
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0059Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence
    • A61B5/0062Arrangements for scanning
    • A61B5/0066Optical coherence imaging

Abstract

Published without abstract.

Description

  • Gegenstand der Patentanmeldung sind ein optisches Verfahren und eine Vorrichtung mit dem die Entfernung zu einem oder mehreren beleuchteten streuenden Objektpunkten mit hoher Genauigkeit bestimmt werden kann. The subject of the patent application are an optical method and an apparatus with which the distance can be determined at one or more illuminated scattering object points with high accuracy. Solche Verfahren sind wichtig für die automatisierte Vermessung von Objektoberflächen (Form-Messung). Such methods are important for the automated measurement of object surfaces (shape measurement). Das Verfahren und die Vorrichtung können aber auch eingesetzt werden, um Volumenstreuer zu vermessen, wenn Licht in das zu vermessende Objekt eindringen kann. However, the method and apparatus can also be used to measure volume scattering when light can penetrate into the object to be measured. Dies ist zB in der medizinischen Gewebediagnostik wichtig. This example is important in medical tissue diagnostics.
  • Es sind in der Literatur viele Abstandssensoren beschrieben (z. B. zusammefassend bei T. Strand, "Optics for Machine Vision", Proc. SPIE 456 (1984). Die meisten beruhen auf Triangulation mit strukturierter Beleuchtung, entweder inkohärent oder kohärent. Diese Methoden haben den Nachteil, daß abgeschattete Bereiche auftreten, durch den Triangulationswinkel. Von kohärenten Verfahren ist bekannt, daß die Tiefengenauigkeit durch die Beobachtungsapertur begrenzt ist (G. Häusler, „Physical Limits of 3D-Sensing" Proc. SPIE 1822 (1992)). Es sind auch einige Verfahren bekannt, die diese Beschränkung nicht haben (A. Fercher, et al "Rough surface interferometry with a tow-wavelength heterodyne speckle interferometer" Appl. Opt. 24 (1985) p. 2181, T. Dresel, G. Häusler, "Three- dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar , Appl. Opt. 31 (1992) p. 919). There are many distance sensors described in the literature (eg. As zusammefassend T. beach, "Optics for Machine Vision", Proc. SPIE 456 (1984). Most are based on triangulation with structured illumination, either incoherent or coherent. These methods have that shaded areas occur the disadvantage, through the triangulation of coherent process. it is known that the depth accuracy is limited by the observation aperture (G. Häusler, "Physical limits of 3D-sensing" Proc. SPIE 1822 (1992)). It also, some methods are known which do not have this restriction (A. Fercher, et al "Rough surface interferometry with a tow-wavelength speckle heterodyne interferometer," Appl. opt. 24 (1985) p. 2181 T. Dresel, G. Haeusler "Three- dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar", Appl. opt. 31 (1992) p. 919).
  • Eine medizinische Anwendung zur Gewebediagnostik im Volumen wurde beschrieben von D. Huang et al, "Micron resolution ranging of cornea Anterior chamber by optical reflectometry" Lasers in Surgery and medicine Vol 11, (1991) p. A medical application for tissue diagnosis in the volume described by D. Huang et al, "Micron resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry" Lasers in Surgery and medicine Vol 11, (1991) p. 419. Diese Methoden arbeiten nicht mit kohärentem Licht, erfordern aber komplizierte Heterodyn-Technologie oder mechanische Bewegung, um das Objekt in der Tiefe abzutasten. 419. These methods do not work with coherent light, but require complex heterodyne technology or mechanical motion to scan the object in depth.
  • Gegenstand der Anmeldung ein Verfahren und eine Vorrichtung, das ohne mechanische Abtastung und ohne Heterodyn-Technologie auskommt. Subject of the application, a method and a device which does not require mechanical scanning and without heterodyne technology. Es beruht auf der Weißlichtinterferometrie, wie in der Deutschen Patentschrift von G. Häusler "Verfahren und Einrichtung zur berührungslosen Erfassung der Oberflächengestalt von diffus streuenden Objekten" 4108944 (1991) beschrieben. It is based on the described white light interferometry, as disclosed in German Patent G. Haeusler "Method and device for contactless detection of the surface configuration of diffusely scattering objects" 4108944 (1991). Die Anordnung ist ein Interferometer. The arrangement is an interferometer. Zur Erklärung wird ein Michelson-Interferometer benutzt, aber auch andere Interferometer sind geeignet. To explain a Michelson interferometer is used, but other interferometers are suitable. Die Anordnung ist in The arrangement is in 1 1 skizziert. outlined.
  • Das Objekt The object 1 1 steht in einem Interferometerarm. stands in a interferometer. Es wird über den Teilerspiegel It is through the beam splitter 2 2 und Linsen and lentils 7 7 , . 8 8th mit einer breitbandigen Lichtquelle with a broadband light source 3 3 , z. Such. B. einer Glühlampe oder einer Superlumineszenzdiode beleuchtet. As an incandescent lamp or a super luminescent diode illuminates. Gleichzeitig wird der Referenzarm Simultaneously, the reference arm is 4 4 über den Teilerspiegel via the divider mirror 2 2 beleuchtet. illuminated. Über den Referenzspiegel About the reference mirror 5 5 und den Teilerspiegel and the splitter mirror 2 2 kommt das Referenzlicht zurück und vereinigt sich mit dem vom Objekt the reference light comes back and joins the from the object 1 1 rückgestreuten Licht am Ausgang backscattered light at the output 6 6 des Interferometers. the interferometer. Dort wird das Licht mit Hilfe eines Spektralapparates There is the light with the help of a spectral 9 9 , . 10 10 in Farben zerlegt. broken down into colors. Das Spektrum wird mit Hilfe eines ortsempfindlichen Photoempfängers The spectrum is measured using a position-sensitive photodetector 11 11 , z. Such. B. einer Photodiodenzeile aufgefangen und in einer Auswerteeinheit B. a row of photodiodes and collected in an evaluation unit 12 12 , z. Such. B. einem Computer, ausgewertet. As a computer evaluated.
  • Aus dem Spektrum läßt sich nun die Entfernung eines oder mehrerer streuender Punkte ermitteln. Now the removal of one or more stray points can be determined from the spectrum. Es läßt sich sogar die Intensitätsverteilung der Rückstreuung in einem Volumenstreuer ermitteln. It is possible to determine even the intensity distribution of backscatter in a volume spreader. Hierzu werden die sog. Müller'schen Streifen ausgewertet. For this, the so-called. Müller'schen strips are evaluated.
  • Zunächst wird die Auswertung für einen Objektpunkt, der in der Entfernung z gegenüber der Referenzebene First, the evaluation for an object point, is in the distance z from the reference level 13 13 , mit einer Intensität i(z) streut, erklärt. , Sprinkled with an intensity i (z), explained.
  • Das Spektrum für Bliesen Punkt hat eine Intensitätsverteilung The spectrum for Bliesen point has an intensity distribution I(k,z) = 1 + i(z)cos(2kz + φ). I (k, z) = 1 + i (z) cos (φ + 2kz).
  • Dabei ist k die Wellenzahl im Spektrum, φ ist eine Zufallsphase, die darauf beruht, daß man Speckle beobachtet. Here k is the wave number in the spectrum, φ is a random phase which is based on the fact that observed speckle. φ hängt aber nur schwach von k ab und kann deshalb hier vernachlässigt werden. but φ depends only weakly on k and can therefore be neglected.
  • Das Spektrum ist also mit der Ortsfrequenz "z moduliert. Die entstehenden hellen und dunklen Streifen bezeichnet man als Müller'sche Streifen. Man braucht also nur die Ortsfrequenz zu bestimmen, um die Entfernung des streuenden Punktes zu bestimmen. Dies ist aber bei rauhen Objekten nur möglich, wenn bestimmte Bedingungen eingehalten werden, die in der Deutschen Patentschrift 4108944 von G. Häusler beschrieben werden: es handelt sich hier nicht um ein konventionelles Interferometer mit spiegelnden Oberflächen, sondern in einem Arm befindet sich ein diffus streuendes Objekt. Daraus folgt: die Lichtquelle muß räumlich so kohärent sein, daß im rückgestreuten Licht Speckle entstehen. Denn nur dann ist Interferenz möglich. Denn nur innerhalb eines Speckles ist die Phase annähernd konstant. Weiterhin darf jede Photodiode des Empfängerarrays nicht größer als der Speckledurchmesser sein, da sonst kein oder nur geringer Interferenzkontrast sichtbar ist. The spectrum is thus modulated with the spatial frequency "z". The resulting light and dark stripes are called Muller's strip. We need therefore to determine only the spatial frequency to determine the distance of the scattering point. But this is in rough objects only possible if certain conditions are met, which are described in German Patent No. 4108944 by G. Häusler. it is not about a conventional interferometer with reflective surfaces, but in one arm is a diffusely scattering object Implications: the light source must be spatially coherent, that arise in the back-scattered light speckle. only then interference is possible. It is only within a speckles the phase is approximately constant. in addition, must not be each photodiode of the receiver array is greater than the Speckledurchmesser, otherwise no or only less interference contrast is visible.
  • Die Ermittlung der Frequenz "z" der Müller-Streifen erfolgt zweckmäßig durch Fourier-Transformation des Farbspektrums nach der Variablen k. The determination of the rate "z" of the Mueller strips suitably by Fourier transformation of the color spectrum for the variable k. Aber es ist auch eine direkte Bestimmung der Periodenlänge im Photodiodensignal möglich. But it is also a direct determination of the period length in the photodiode signal possible. Dies ist einfacher und schneller, wenn nur wenige Objektpunkte streuen. This is easier and faster if sprinkle a few object points.
  • Ein enormer Vorteil des Verfahrens ist, daß die Genauigkeit der Ab standsbestimmung unabhängig von der Beobachtungsapertur ist. is a tremendous advantage of the method is that the accuracy of the Ab is intended stand independently of the observation aperture. Dies ist nicht der Fall, bei rein kohärenten Methoden und bei fast allen kommerziellen Sensoren. This is not the case in purely coherent methods and in almost all commercial sensors.
  • Das Verfahren kann auch die Entfernung vieler im Volumen liegender Punkte, in verschiedenen Abständen z, bestimmen, die jeweils mit der Intensität i(z) streuen. The method may also include the removal of many lying in the volume of points at different distances z, determine the scatter in each case to the intensity i (z). Auf der Photodiodenzeile in der Spektralebene überlagern sich die Signale aus der gesamten Tiefe. On the photodiode array in the spectral plane, the signals from the entire depth of overlap. Deshalb sieht die Zeile das Signal Therefore, the line looks like the signal I(k) = ∫(1 + i(z) cos(2kz))dz I (k) = ∫ (1 + i (z) cos (2kz)) dz
  • Die 1 im Integranden belastet die Dynamik des Empfängers, ist jedoch für die Messung unwesentlich. The "1" in the integrand charged the dynamics of the receiver, however, is immaterial to the measurement. Im wesentlichen ist das Spektrum I(k) die Fouriertransformierte von i(z). Is substantially the spectrum I (k) is the Fourier transform of i (z). Durch Fourier-Rück-Transformation des Signals nach k läßt sich i(z) rückgewinnen. By inverse Fourier transform of the signal by k can be i (z) recover. Damit ist diese Methode eine echte tomographische Methode. Thus, this method is a true tomographic method.
  • Das Signal-Rausch-Verhältnis ist günstig, weil das gesamte Signal der Photodiodenzeile nur nach einzelenen Frequenzen durchsucht wird, mit der Fourier-Transformation. The signal-to-noise ratio is favorable because the entire signal from the photodiode array is scanned only after einzelenen frequencies with the Fourier transform. Es sind keine mechanisch bewegten Teile nötig. There are no moving parts needed. Die Belichtungszeit kann kurz sein und damit biologische Aktivität oder Bewegung ausblenden. The exposure time may be short and thereby hide biological activity or movement.
  • Sie ist anwendbar auf industrielle Objekte, z. It is applicable to industrial objects such. B. Blick in durch scheinde Keramik, ebenso wie für biologische Objekte, z. B. Looking in through scheinde ceramics, as well as for biological objects such. B. Untersuchung auf subkutane Hautveränderungen, Brusttumore, etc. B. Investigation of subcutaneous lesions, breast tumors, etc.
  • Das Verfahren ist auch erweiterbar, durch "Lichtquellen in anderen Spektralbereichen, die das zu untersuchende Material durchdringen können. ZB Röntgenquellen, UV-Quellen, Infrarotquellen, Ultraschallquellen. The process is also extended by "light sources" in other spectral regions, which can penetrate the material to be tested. For example, X-ray sources, ultraviolet sources, infrared sources, ultrasound sources.
  • Das Verfahren läßt sich sich nicht nur entlang einer Achse The method not only can be located along an axis 14 14 anwenden, sondern man kann auch einen Schnitt senkrecht zur Zeichenebene und der Achse apply, but one may also have a section perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and the axis 14 14 der the 1 1 parallel vermessen. measured parallel. Dazu ist nur notwendig, nicht nur einen Punkt des Objektes zu beleuchten, sondern gleichzeitig eine Linie senkrecht zur Zeichenebene. For this is only necessary not only to illuminate a point of the object, but also a line perpendicular to the plane. Dann muß als Empfänger statt eines linienhaften Photodiodenarrays ein flächenhaftes Array verwendet werden. Then a planar array must be used as a receiver instead of a line-type photodiode arrays.
  • Eine weitere Modifikation ist in Another modification is in 2 2 beschrieben. described. Die The 2 2 ist ähnlich wie is similar to 1 1 . , Aber es ist zusätzlich in einem Interferometerarm (hier als Beispiel der Referenzarm) ein Dispersion einfahrendes Element, hier beispielsweise eine Planplatte But it is also in an interferometer (here as an example of the reference arm), a dispersion einfahrendes element, here for example a plane plate 15 15 , eingefügt. Inserted. Diese Platte this plate 15 15 bewirkt, daß das Spektrum am Ausgang des Interferometers eine charakteristische Intensitätsverteilung erhält, die vom Abstand z des Streupunktes abhängt. causes the spectrum obtained a characteristic intensity distribution at the output of the interferometer, which depends on the distance z of the scattering point. Die Auswertung der Intensitätsverteilung ergibt mit hoher Genauigkeit den Abstand. The evaluation of the intensity distribution provides the distance with high accuracy.
  • Die Dispersion bewirkt, daß das Interferometer nur für eine be stimmte Wellenzaha k O abgeglichen ist, nämlich für die Wellenzahl, bei der die optische Weglänge im Referenzarm und im Objektarm gleich ist. The dispersion causes the interferometer is adjusted for only one be agreed Wellenzaha O k, namely for the wave number at which the optical path length in the reference arm and the object arm in the same. Das Spektrum I(k) hat folgenden Verlauf: The spectrum I (k) has the following course: I(k,k O ) = 1 + cos(2da(k 2 – k × k O )). I (k, k O) = 1 + cos (2da (k 2 - k × k O)).
  • Der Verlauf des Spektrums I(k,k O ) ist in The course of the spectrum I (k, k O) is in 3 3 wiedergegeben. played. Die Wellenzahl, zu der das Spektrum symmetrisch ist, hängt vom Abstand z des Streupunktes ab. The wave number at which the spectrum is symmetric, depends on the distance z of the scattering point. Die Symmetrie kann auf einfache Weise, z. Symmetry can easily such. B. durch Korrelation mit der gespiegelten Funktion, ermittelt werden. B. be determined by correlation with the mirrored function.

Claims (8)

  1. Interferometrisches Verfahren mit: Beleuchten von in einem Arm eines Interferometers angeordneten Objektpunkten mit Licht aus einer breitbandigen Quelle, Zerlegen des Lichts am Ausgang des Interferometers in ein Spektrum und Ermitteln von Information über die Entfernung der Objektpunkte aus der Helligkeitsverteilung im Spektrum, dadurch gekennzeichnet , dass die Objektpunkte streuende Punkte sind und mit räumlich kohärentem Licht beleuchtet werden und aus der Helligkeitsverteilung im Spektrum Information über die Entfernung der streuenden Punkte und über die Streuintensität der streuenden Punkte ermittelt wird. Interferometric method comprising: illuminating arranged in one arm of an interferometer object points with light from a broadband source, decomposing the light at the output of the interferometer into a spectrum, and detecting information on the distance of the object points from the brightness distribution in the spectrum, characterized in that object points are scattering points are illuminated with spatially coherent light, and information on the distance of the scattering points and the scattering intensity of the scattering points is determined from the brightness distribution in the spectrum.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Ermittlung der Entfernung und der lokalen Streuintensität durch Fourier-Tansformation des Spektrums nach der Wellenlänge erfolgt. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the determination of the distance and local scattering intensity of the spectrum by Fourier Tansformation performed according to the wavelength.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in einem der beiden Interferometerarme zusätzlich ein dispersionerzeugendes Element eingefügt ist. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in one of the two interferometer in addition, a dispersion-generating element is inserted.
  4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Ermittlung der Entfernung eines Streupunktes dadurch erfolgt, dass die Symmetrieachse des Spektrums bestimmt wird. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the determination of the distance of a scattering point is characterized in that the axis of symmetry of the spectrum is determined.
  5. Vorrichtung zur interferometrischen Bestimmung von Entfernung und Streuintensität eines oder mehrer streuender Punkte ( Apparatus for the interferometric determination of distance and scattering intensity of one or more scattering points ( 1 1 ), mit: einem Interferometer ( (An interferometer:), with 2 2 , . 4 4 , . 5 5 , . 6 6 ), in dessen einem Arm der eine oder die mehreren streuenden Punkte angeordnet sind, einer Einrichtung mit einer Lichtquelle ( (), In which one arm of the one or more scattering points are arranged, a device with a light source 3 3 , . 7 7 , . 8 8th ), die ausgebildet ist, den einen oder die mehreren streuenden Punkte ( ), Which is adapted to the (one or more scattering points 1 1 ) mit räumlich kohärenten Licht zu beleuchten, einem Spektralapparat ( to light) with spatially coherent light, (a spectroscope 9 9 , . 10 10 ) zur Zerlegung des Lichts von dem Interferometerausgäng ( ) For the separation of light (from the Interferometerausgäng 6 6 ), einem ortsempfindlichen Photoempfänger ( (), A position-sensitive photoreceiver 11 11 ), einer Auswerteeinheit ( (), An evaluation unit 12 12 ), die ausgebildet ist, aus der vom Photoempfänger ( ), Which is formed from (the photoreceiver 11 11 ) erfassten Helligkeitsverteilung die Streuintensität des einen oder der mehreren streuenden Punkte und die Entfernung des einen oder der mehreren streuenden Punkte auf der Grundlage einer oder mehrerer Ortsfrequenzen zu bestimmen. ) Brightness distribution detected to determine the scattering intensity of the one or more scattering points and the removal of the one or more scattering points on the basis of one or more spatial frequencies.
  6. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Auswerteeinheit ausgebildet ist, die lokale Streuintensität des einen oder der mehreren streuenden Punkte durch Fourier-Transformation des Spektrums nach der Wellenlänge zu ermitteln. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that the evaluation unit is designed to determine the local scattering intensity of the one or more scattering points by Fourier transformation of the spectrum according to the wavelength.
  7. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 oder 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in einem der beiden Interferometerarme zusätzlich ein Dispersion erzeugendes Element eingefügt ist. Device according to one of claims 5 or 6, characterized in that in one of the two interferometer in addition, a dispersion is generating element inserted.
  8. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Auswerteeinheit ausgebildet ist, die Entfernung des einen oder der mehreren streuenden Punkte durch Bestimmung der Symmetrieachse des Spektrums zu ermitteln. Device according to one of claims 5 to 7, characterized in that the evaluation unit is designed to determine the removal of one or more scattering points by determining the axis of symmetry of the spectrum.
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