DE102013211871A1 - Method and device for operating a vehicle with electric drive - Google Patents

Method and device for operating a vehicle with electric drive

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Publication number
DE102013211871A1
DE102013211871A1 DE102013211871.6A DE102013211871A DE102013211871A1 DE 102013211871 A1 DE102013211871 A1 DE 102013211871A1 DE 102013211871 A DE102013211871 A DE 102013211871A DE 102013211871 A1 DE102013211871 A1 DE 102013211871A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
vehicle
range
destination
priority list
calculated
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE102013211871.6A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Heiko Schnieders
Holmer-Geert Grundmann
Frank Hagl
Hannes Lüttringhaus
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Continental Automotive GmbH
Original Assignee
Continental Automotive GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Continental Automotive GmbH filed Critical Continental Automotive GmbH
Priority to DE102013211871.6A priority Critical patent/DE102013211871A1/en
Publication of DE102013211871A1 publication Critical patent/DE102013211871A1/en
Application status is Ceased legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups G01C1/00-G01C19/00
    • G01C21/26Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups G01C1/00-G01C19/00 specially adapted for navigation in a road network
    • G01C21/34Route searching; Route guidance
    • G01C21/3453Special cost functions, i.e. other than distance or default speed limit of road segments
    • G01C21/3469Fuel consumption; Energy use; Emission aspects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L1/00Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles
    • B60L1/003Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles to auxiliary motors, e.g. for pumps, compressors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
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    • B60L1/00Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles
    • B60L1/02Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles to electric heating circuits
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    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2045Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for optimising the use of energy
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    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
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    • B60W10/24Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of energy storage means
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    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/18Propelling the vehicle
    • B60W30/188Controlling power parameters of the driveline, e.g. determining the required power
    • B60W30/1886Controlling power supply to auxiliary devices
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    • B60W50/00Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. process diagnostic or vehicle driver interfaces
    • B60W50/0097Predicting future conditions
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    • B60W50/08Interaction between the driver and the control system
    • B60W50/085Changing the parameters of the control units, e.g. changing limit values, working points by control input
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/80Technologies aiming to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions common to all road transportation technologies
    • Y02T10/84Data processing systems or methods, management, administration
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/161Navigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/161Navigation
    • Y02T90/162Position determination

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and a device for operating a vehicle with electric drive. In this case, a travel destination (15) is selected and a function and thus a power consumption of at least one vehicle component is set and a route and a driving distance are determined. A range (2) of the vehicle and a range buffer is determined and a priority list is created which describes which change in the state of the at least one vehicle component is to be performed preferentially, if the calculated range (2) is less than the calculated travel distance. A proposal for changing the operating state by a reduced power consumption is outputted or it is proposed to drive a second destination reached with the calculated range.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for operating an electric vehicle and to a computer program product for implementing the method.
  • For currently available electric vehicles, a capacity of a battery is the determining parameter for a range of the vehicle. However, the range is still influenced by other factors such as comfort and performance. In doing so, an energy stored in the battery is distributed to individual vehicle systems according to a previously defined level of comfort and performance. Thus, there arises the problem that power consumption of the vehicle can be optimized only within a triangle of comfort, range and performance.
  • For many electric vehicles, a user of the vehicle for his future mobility desire only has the opportunity to draw conclusions from the information of status indicators, such as battery capacity, average energy consumption, remaining range or other displays, which were usually calculated from past values, with regard to a realization of the mobility desire. Furthermore, it is known from the prior art to determine a remaining range of an electric vehicle and to issue a recommendation to the driver with regard to actions to be performed by him. However, if necessary, such systems can also operate independently.
  • Thus, the document discloses DE 10 2010 039 675 A1 a method in which after entering a destination is constantly checked whether the destination can be achieved with the settings made at all and if not, is switched to an emergency mode. However, such methods have the disadvantage of only inaccurately determining the range and to submit only unspecific proposals for reducing energy consumption.
  • The object of the present invention is thus to propose a method and a device with which the stated disadvantages can be overcome, which thus make it possible to reliably estimate the range that a vehicle can still cover and a restriction of energy consumption which is suitable for a driving situation propose.
  • This object is achieved by a method according to claim 1, a device according to claim 11 and a computer program product according to claim 12. Advantageous embodiments and further developments are contained in the dependent claims.
  • A method for operating an electric vehicle comprises several steps: First, a destination is entered by a vehicle occupant via an input unit. In addition, setting of an operating state of at least one vehicle component that consumes power occurs. By adjusting the operating state, a power consumption of this vehicle component is thus also set. A driving lane and a driving distance linked to the driving distance are calculated by a computing unit, wherein a current position of the vehicle determined by a navigation unit is taken into account. The arithmetic unit furthermore calculates a range of the vehicle and takes into account the set function of the vehicle component and the power required for the functioning of the vehicle component. Furthermore, the computing unit calculates a range buffer for the range of the vehicle. In a further step, a priority list is calculated by the arithmetic unit, wherein this created priority list describes which change in the state of the at least one power-consuming vehicle component is preferably to be performed if the calculated range is less than the calculated driving distance. A first proposal for changing the operating state of the at least one vehicle component by a reduced power consumption according to the calculated priority list is finally output as a first suggestion. Alternatively or additionally, a second proposal with a second destination is issued, wherein the second destination can be achieved with the calculated range. The output of the first proposal and the second proposal is made by the arithmetic unit on an output unit when a difference between range and range buffer is less than the route.
  • The method performs an energy usage optimization that takes into account an individual mobility desire of vehicle occupants. This desire for mobility comes in the desired setting of the function of vehicle components to advantage. Using a control system approach, energy use is optimized and prioritized, whereby the vehicle occupant is integrated into the control loop and informed of deviations from the desired mobility. By taking into account the range buffer, a danger of outgoing vehicle energy is reduced and, at the same time, the desired comfort expressed by the set function of the vehicle component is maintained as far as possible. The vehicle always drives with a destination based on a selected driving profile can be predetermined, and the vehicle occupant does not have to make a complex input before starting a journey or estimate the range itself. Rather, a solution or alternative is always offered if the range is smaller than the distance still to be traveled. The vehicle occupant himself is integrated into an energy management system through the input options, without having to make a large number of settings, and the method and a system for carrying out the method are always optimized to the needs of the vehicle occupants. For this purpose, only a single vehicle component can be set, but typically a plurality of vehicle components is adjusted and changed in function as needed.
  • The current position of the vehicle can be determined by the navigation unit by a GPS signal (Global Positioning System) or another satellite-based signal. This allows a designated whereabouts with great accuracy and according to a high accuracy of the driving distance to be covered. By "inputting the destination", both an explicit, ie a direct input of the destination as well as an implicit input via a selection of the selected driving profile, in which the destination is already stored, are to be understood. Here, depending on the driving profile, for example, a home address may be adopted as the destination, or it may be possible to drive along several charging stations.
  • Preferably, the proposed changing of the operating state or the driving of the second destination, i. H. the implementation of the first proposal or the second proposal, performed only if the vehicle occupant to whom these proposals have been submitted also selects one of the suggestions via an input unit. By eliminating automatic adjustment in this embodiment of the method, the vehicle occupant, such as a driver, always retains full control of the vehicle functions. An input and an output via the input unit and the output unit can be done acoustically as well as optically or haptically in order to have several feedback channels for the detection of the feedback available. Alternatively, of course, an automatic adjustment can be made.
  • A change in the state can be statically predetermined, alternatively or additionally, a value of the range buffer can be stored as a fixed, static value. However, it can also be provided that the priority list and / or the value of the range buffer are adapted dynamically, taking into account environmental variables of the vehicle, on the basis of a statically predetermined state change or a statically predetermined fixed value of the range buffer. As a result, an adapted to the respective mobility request adaptation of the vehicle functions is guaranteed.
  • Typically, the environment variables in a dynamic priority list dynamically adjust the range buffer value include ambient brightness, ambient temperature, wind speed and wind direction, and / or ambient humidity. Thus, for example, depending on the ambient brightness, a vehicle interior lighting can be adjusted in intensity, whereas the function of an air conditioner can be adjusted depending on the ambient temperature and ambient humidity. The wind speed and wind direction can be used to more accurately estimate the consumption of the vehicle and, for example, reduce unnecessary energy consumption through open windows.
  • Preferably, the arithmetic unit is adapted to automatically set all vehicle components except for the electric drive to a minimum power consumption, if it is determined that the driving distance otherwise exceeds the range. Of course, this minimization of the power consumption can alternatively also be proposed to the driver and be carried out only after confirmation by the driver. By minimizing power consumption, it is ensured that at least emergency goals such as filling stations or charging stations can still be achieved with the vehicle without leaving the vehicle on the open track.
  • Typically, a single driving profile is adjusted by a vehicle occupant, wherein the driving profile includes defined states of multiple vehicle components. This makes it possible to set an individual mobility request, for example by setting certain functions of the air conditioner or the vehicle interior lighting as examples of vehicle components.
  • The priority list may be determined by determining a range gain of each state change of the vehicle components, and then preferably selecting that state change that least affects a given driving profile. Likewise, it is of course also possible to execute the priority list as an ascending or descending list of range gains of various state changes. This makes it possible, as far as possible adjusted by the vehicle occupant driving profile while achieving low consumption.
  • The priority list may be determined by an optimization process, the optimization process assuming an inequality that has multiple solutions and each of the solutions is characterized by a measure obtained from a utility function. The priority list includes the solutions of the inequalities in ascending order of the measures. By the utility function, the ride comfort can be expressed, whereby by linking the optimization operation taking into account the ride comfort by the utility function only those solutions are considered as efficient solutions of inequality, which ensure a corresponding level of desired ride comfort while minimizing energy consumption. Typically, the utility function describes maximum comfort or range as useful.
  • It can be provided that inputting the travel destination, inputting the operating state and output of the first suggestion and / or the second suggestion takes place in the vehicle during at least one of the steps of calculating the travel distance, calculating the range and / or calculating the Priority list is performed on a spatially separated from the vehicle computer. In the vehicle input information such as the destination or the at least one set operating state are transmitted via a data communication device, such as an antenna to the spatially separated computer, and the route, the range and or or the priority list are from the spatially separated computer to the Data communication device transmitted. As a result, a computing load on the computing unit of the vehicle is reduced and a central administration of such data is made possible.
  • Preferably, at least two, particularly preferably all of the steps calculating the route, calculating the range and / or calculating the priority list are performed on the spatially separated computer. Typically, these are the steps of calculating the range and output of the proposals. The data communication device may be configured for wireless data communication so that the data may be transferred online to a cloud computing environment.
  • An apparatus for operating an electric vehicle includes an input unit for inputting a travel destination, at least one vehicle-adjustable and power-consuming vehicle component, a navigation unit for determining a current position of the vehicle, a computing unit for calculating a travel distance and a travel distance, and a range buffer and a priority list, an output unit for displaying a suggestion of changing the operating state of the vehicle component and / or for displaying a suggestion of a second destination. The device is typically adapted to implement the previously described method.
  • A computer program product contains a command sequence which, after entering a destination and setting an operating state and thus a power consumption of at least one power-consuming vehicle component, calculates a route and a driving distance. In this case, a current position of the vehicle determined by a navigation unit is taken into account and a priority list is calculated, which describes which change in the state of the at least one vehicle component is to be performed preferentially, if the calculated range is less than the calculated driving distance. In addition, a first suggestion of changing the operating state of the vehicle component is output by a reduced power consumption of the at least one vehicle component corresponding to the calculated priority list and / or a second suggestion indicative of a second travel destination that can be achieved with the calculated range, if one Difference between a range and a range buffer is less than the distance traveled.
  • The computer program product typically implements the previously described method and may be stored on the computing unit of the apparatus previously described. Alternatively, the computer program product may also be stored on an external storage unit that can be connected to the vehicle and loads the program into a memory of the vehicle.
  • Embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the drawings and are described below with reference to the 1 to 6 explained. Show it:
  • 1 a schematic view of goals to be achieved by an optimization;
  • 2 a flowchart of a method for operating a vehicle;
  • 3 a range and route determination for achieving a single predetermined destination;
  • 4 a 3 corresponding representation schematic representation of a route with several possible destinations;
  • 5 a 3 corresponding representation of a commuter operation and
  • 6 a 3 corresponding representation of a route guidance to a specific infrastructure or a home town.
  • In 1 is shown in a schematic representation of the problem to be solved with an optimization approach of operating a vehicle with an electric drive. The goals to be achieved are arranged in each case at one of the corners of the triangle shown in the center and comprise as much as possible maximum comfort 1 , the maximum possible range 2 and maximum possible performance 3 , Solutions of the optimization problem lie on the surface of the triangle, with an increase in comfort 1 in general, a reduction in range due to increased energy consumption 2 or or and with a reduction in performance 3 accompanied.
  • A flowchart is as system information flowchart in FIG 2 shown. Recurring features are provided with identical reference numerals in this as in the following figure. With the proposed Wegesystemansatz it should be possible for electric vehicles, for each individual ride an individual balance between the comfort 1 that range 2 and the performance 3 to find. This is to help a user of the method, for example a driver of the vehicle, to always achieve his individual mobility desire. In a critical situation where the user's desire for mobility can not be met, the system should propose a solution that will allow the user to reach his destination again. This is from a profile choice, so a number of freely selectable profiles, from which the system determines the destination or a user is asked to enter a navigation destination, always determined a destination and the drive performance, ie energy use and energy production by the electric drive determined. If a certain profile already includes the destination, it does not have to be entered again.
  • The mode of operation can be seen as a control loop, with the entire control loop describing a system of consumers, ie vehicle components, in the vehicle. A status of the consumers in the vehicle is in one step by a power tracer 5 designated unit. These consumers may be both indirect consumers, such as open windows or tires with too low tire air pressure, in which case power consumption equivalence by the powertracer 5 is determined. However, it is also possible to determine direct consumers, for example consumers on the chassis 6 , Consumer in the drive 7 such as the engine or consumer in the interior 8th like an interior lighting or a radio. The consumers mentioned are usually provided by an HMI interface (human-machine interface, human-machine interface). 4 and the configured configuration as a configuration vector 20 transmitted to consumers. The HMI interface 4 for this purpose includes a screen and a speaker as optical and acoustic output units and a keyboard as input unit. Alternatively, a touch-sensitive input surface, a voice input or a joystick can act as an input unit. Of course, such an interface may simply consist of or include switches and buttons. Via the HMI interface 4 becomes the desired comfort 1 set by the driver or another vehicle occupant.
  • First, a destination is entered via the input unit and subsequently, simultaneously or even before that, the function of the vehicle components is set. For example, a climate control or a heating system can have an energy requirement that is necessary to achieve the desired level of comfort. This energy demand is determined and the power required to hold that level to the Powertracer 5 made available. This information is provided by the Powertracer 5 to the range calculation 9 as a power vector 21 to hand over. In addition, the range calculation gets 9 external data 13 together with data of a navigation unit 12 as well as vehicle data 11 such as a weight, a state of charge of a vehicle battery or a tire pressure of vehicle tires. The mentioned data are determined by suitable sensors and the arithmetic unit as route info 23 fed. The computing unit of the vehicle, in the example shown an "Electronic Control Unit (ECU)", calculates the route and the driving distance and sets the currently determined position of the vehicle and other data of the navigation system such. B. map information or congestion warnings based. The current position of the vehicle is determined via a GPS signal obtained from the navigation system.
  • The range calculation 9 determines the possible range on the basis of a route topography 2 wherein the route topography is determined by the navigation unit based on a current position of the vehicle and an input destination and a calculated travel distance therefrom. To calculate the range 2 Finally, other parameters, such as a rolling friction, an energy requirement of the air conditioning, a measured or calculated weight of the vehicle, a traffic flow and a current weather, a behavior of the driver, a Battery capacity or a motor map used. The range calculation 9 , which is performed by the computing unit, takes into account the battery and a drive train of the vehicle via correspondingly implemented models. The result is the range calculation 9 a route-specific range 2 depending on the current battery charge, wherein different discharge thresholds, which may be dependent on a profile or by the user, are used. Additionally, in the range calculation 9 determine a possible range gain for each route for each consumer of the vehicle when this performance-consuming vehicle component in their performance 3 and thus power consumption is reduced.
  • The range calculation 9 passes to a solution algorithm 10 due to the vehicle data 11 , the navigation data 12 and the external data 13 calculated estimated range vector 22 , For this purpose, the navigation system transmits the calculated distance as a distance vector 24 to the solution algorithm 10 , In the same way as an input vector 25 inputs made by the driver to the solution algorithm 10 fed. The solution algorithm 10 now compares the estimated or calculated range 2 with the determined driving distance and trying to find a solution that allows to reach the original destination or at least not to be left, if the remaining range does not match the mobility request. The solution algorithm 10 The task here is to propose solutions to the user in critical driving situations via the HMI interface 4 so that the journey can be safely continued to the destination or at least to a charging station. Here the solution algorithm tries 10 in the 2 illustrated embodiment, first in the maintenance of the current destination and the current driving mode turn off those consumers or reduce their power consumption, which are best consistent with a selected driving profile and can solve the range problem. This is determined by the solution algorithm 10 , which is also executed by the arithmetic unit, a priority list containing changes in the state of various vehicle components and the achievable range gains and losses and comfort gains and losses.
  • If the problem can not be solved in this way, another destination can be proposed. In exceptional situations, a so-called "limp home" mode is activated. In this mode, all loads are powered up to the electric drive, i. H. the engine is switched off, or put into a mode with minimal power consumption, so that at least a ride home or to a nearest charging station or gas station or other infrastructure with power outlet is possible. A "driving profile" is to be understood here as a presetting of the functions of a plurality of vehicle components, for example a setting of the air conditioning system to 21 ° C. and a simultaneous adjustment of the interior lighting to a maximum value.
  • The of the solution algorithm 10 The solution found out is typically implemented automatically, but alternatively can also be manually selected by the driver. However, with an automatic setting as well as with a manual selection, the solution, as well as in the 2 shown embodiment, to the HMI interface 4 sent back there and presented to the vehicle occupants as a possible solution, ie the driver is on the change made via the HMI interface 4 informed. In the case of manual adjustment, the vehicle occupant then selects via the input unit whether the proposed solution, that is to say the changing of the functions of consumers, is implemented. In the case of automatic conversion, the driver is only on the adjustment made via the HMI interface 4 informed.
  • Under a "critical driving situation" by the solution algorithm 10 is solved, should be understood a driving situation in which a distance to a selected destination is greater than the range 2 , which results from the state of charge of the battery. Other relevant variables for determining and solving the critical driving situation are the range gain and the range buffer. The range gain results from an under-consumption by switching off or reducing power levels of consumers. The reach buffer reduces the range 2 in order to compensate for possible inaccuracies in the calculation and to take account of delays caused by the driver's confirmation and the switching of the consumers. Overall, the critical driving situation is thus determined by the following variables: the distance to a planned destination, the calculated range 2 , which needed or achievable range gain from switching off consumers and the range buffer, the calculated range 2 and reduces tolerance and delays.
  • As a result, a critical situation arises if Range - Range buffer <distance.
  • The solution of a critical situation thus results as follows: Range - range buffer + achievable range gain> distance.
  • A subtask and thus a constraint of the solution algorithm 10 It is, depending on the driving profile or a driving mode as well as internal and external influencing factors to find an optimized solution for the latter inequality, so to propose a solution for the range gain by switching off consumers.
  • Range gain typically results from turning off consumers in the vehicle or switching or changing one or more of the loads to a reduced power state. A state change can be defined as an action as follows:
    action (V1, Z1, Z2): consumer V1 goes from state Z1 to state Z2.
  • The action (V1, Z1, Z2) thus changes an operating state of the consumer V1 from Z1 to Z2. This state change, for example, consist in a switch off, but also a reduction of individual values, eg. B. a temperature setting of the air conditioner include. Each action can be part of the solution algorithm 10 two evaluation functions are assigned, which reflect a benefit of the action. On the one hand, an evaluation function range gain (action (V1, Z1, Z2)) can be defined, which calculates the range gain if a consumer V1 changes from the state Z1 to the state Z2, ie the said action is performed. The range gain here can be both positive and negative and be statically calculated depending on the consumer considered or determined dynamically while driving.
  • On the other hand, convenience (action (V1, Z1, Z2)) can be defined as the evaluation function, whereby the convenience is a measure which classifies the state change as a function of further parameters. The convenience gives the achievable comfort 1 at. The value of this function is between 0 and 1, where a value of 0 indicates that a change to the target state is not possible, while a value of 1 means that a change of state is in line with a selected driving profile and no losses in the Comfort 1 are to be accepted. The evaluation function "convenience" can also be static or corrected while driving.
  • The solution algorithm 10 creates at least one priority list. In order to allow different ratings per driving profile, it makes sense to define priorities for all possible state transitions of the consumers, ie the vehicle components, per driving profile. Typically, the priority list is a list of statically set priorities of the transitions, but the priorities can also be dynamic and corrected while driving. These priorities may be preset by the system or by the driver prior to performing the solution algorithm 10 be determined.
  • This results in the relationship for statically determined values 0 ≤ convenience_static (action (V1, Z1, Z2, profile) ≤ 1.
  • It is also possible to adapt such a preset basic setting of static values by the driver. For power-consuming vehicle components whose power consumption is described by a continuous quantity, intervals are defined within which the function is to be restricted. So z. For example, the heating or cooling of the vehicle interior can be reduced or increased in increments of 1 ° C, or a maximum speed of the vehicle can be reduced in increments of 10 km / h or 20 km / h. The activation of such a restriction is then just the state transition of the consumer.
  • A dynamic adaptation of the state changes may be necessary, for example due to external influences. These external influences make the statically defined evaluation of one of the consumers during the journey obsolete, for example by the lighting of the vehicle interior increasing or decreasing as a function of a brightness in the vehicle exterior. Likewise, a heating power or cooling power may increase or decrease depending on an external ambient temperature, d. H. the importance of this point increase or decrease and the method will adjust the function of the vehicle component accordingly.
  • Likewise, in further embodiments, internal system dependencies between the state transitions by the solution algorithm 10 to find the solution. If the heating or cooling works approximately automatically, it can be provided that a manual adjustment of the heating power or the cooling power is blocked or at least not proposed to the driver. In another example, a seat heater may be disabled or turned on together only for the driver and a passenger.
  • In addition to the static priorities, these rules can be used to consider internal and external dependencies separately in a memory be stored and managed and by the solution algorithm 10 be used as a constraint to the solution. It follows: 0 ≤ Ri (P1, P2, convenience_static (action (V1, Z1, Z2, profile))) ≤ 1, which then indicates the value of convenience (V1, Z1, Z2, profile) modified by rule Ri. P1 and P2 are external factors or internal states of other consumers.
  • A dynamic prioritization during the drive then results from the static prioritization of the state transitions and the application of the stored rules convenience_dynamic (action (V1, Z1, Z2), P1, P2) = Ri (P1, P2, convenience_static (action (V1, Z1, Z2, profile)))
  • In the latter case, the evaluation function "convenience_dynamic" would then be used as a constraint for the solution algorithm 10 used to find solution.
  • The range buffer itself is typically a fixed value, for example 10 km, 20 km or 50 km can be the buffer of the calculated range 2 be taken into account. However, it can also be provided that the range buffer is adapted dynamically, that is, for example initially assumed only by a buffer of 10 km and then reduced while driving to reaching the destination to 0, as soon as half a distance to the destination less than The range buffer is because at the destination itself no buffer is needed.
  • The actual finding of the solution through the solution algorithm 10 takes into account the total range gain, which is just the sum of the individual range gains of the state transitions of the consumers V1, ..., VN. Thus: Total range gain = sum (range gain (action (Vi, Zij, Zik, Profile)))
  • Here, i and j indicate running indices between 1 and N, ie 1 ≦ i ≦ N for consumers of the chosen solution and 1 ≦ j ≦ M for consumers of another solution. Overall, a priority list is thus obtained in which possible state changes of consumers are listed. Depending on the driving profile, the possible priority lists may contain different prioritizations, that is, for example, an evaluation factor with which the range gain is multiplied in order to arrive at a range profile-specific range gain. So in one on the comfort 1 aligned driving profile of a change in the set indoor temperature on the air conditioning system are assigned a high value, so that such a change is avoided if possible.
  • Subsequently, in the method, the size "total range gain" and the corresponding action is determined as the solution that satisfies the inequality Range - range buffer + achievable range gain> distance solves. Subsequently, from the set of possible solutions of the above inequality those are selected whose evaluation function "convenience" is smaller than that of the selected solution, ie Sum (convenience (action (Vi, Zip, Ziq, Profile)))> Sum (convenience (Vj, Zjp, Zjq, Profile)))
  • In the illustrated embodiment, for solution finding, starting from a list sorted in ascending or descending order of priority of the values of the evaluation function "convenience" of individual solutions, it is searched until a solution is found which satisfies all the constraints. The disadvantage of this is that a variety of possible combinations must be searched until a solution is found, which is time consuming, but an optimal solution is found first. It can also be found based on the sorted list of reach gains a solution. This is much less time consuming, d. H. All possible solutions are quickly found, but then a solution must still be selected.
  • Another constraint to consider is that each consumer may only be included in the solution with one state transition. Determining the solution through the solution algorithm 10 then takes place depending on the selected driving profile with each profile-specific prioritization of individual consumers that contribute to range problem. Objective of the solution algorithm 10 Finally, it is to solve the range problem with the minimum comfort loss valid for the chosen problem.
  • By the in 2 The control process shown becomes the problem that arises and that of the solution algorithm 10 found solution proposal to the user, so typically the driver, via the HMI interface 4 presented on the output unit. The user can then decide which solution he wants to use. Of course, in other embodiments as well an automatic selection of the solution take place. The automatically or manually selected solution is then implemented by the system without any additional user interaction. In addition, a change of profile or the individual adaptation of consumers by the user is possible. These adjustments then have a direct influence on the status of the consumers, which closes the control loop. As soon as the system recognizes that the remaining range is again greater than the distance to the destination of mobility, this is the driver via the output unit, typically a screen, the HMI interface 4 communicated. Through the HMI interface 4 If the driver is afraid of staying put, he is always informed about the reachability of the target and is supported by solutions to the range problem.
  • If there is no solution that can still achieve the goal by reducing the consumption of the vehicle components, it is first proposed by the arithmetic unit to control a nearby charging station as an alternative further destination. This proposal is submitted to the driver on the output unit and the driver can select whether he now wants to follow this new route. If no charging station or petrol station can be reached, the computing unit activates the driving profile "Limp Home". In this driving profile are all for the comfort 1 Required consumers such as air conditioning or heated seats switched off and only safety-critical systems continue to provide power. In addition, drive power is kept to a minimum, which allows low speed driving but no large accelerations. In addition, the driver is guided via the navigation unit to the nearest gas station, charging station or other infrastructure with a socket, whereby a stay is practically impossible. Rather, the driver can trust to always reach at least one charging station or gas station. Especially in electric vehicles, the future energy consumption can be very different from the previous energy consumption.
  • This in 2 The method illustrated as a control loop is typically stored as a program on the computing unit of the vehicle and is performed by the latter. Alternatively, the program can also be stored on an external memory such as a CD, a DVD or a USB stick or stored on a server that can be reached via wireless communication and loaded onto the computing unit of the vehicle for execution.
  • In 3 schematically a user profile for achieving a single predetermined destination is shown. A current location 14 is determined by the navigation unit and is used as a starting point for calculating the range 2 to a destination 15 used. The driving distance is in the in 3 first shown as an air line 16 calculated and then coupled with information of a map, such as existing and passable roads, so that the actual driving distance 17 on one of the streets. Alternatively, the driving distance can also be calculated directly along the route, ie no air-line calculation is carried out. By entering a travel profile "Travel", a system performance of the vehicle is optimized for long ranges. This typically occurs when the distance to be covered is more than 100 km. By entering a driving profile "city", the destination is a home address and the system performance is based on comfort 1 optimized.
  • In 4 is in one 3 corresponding representation based on the current whereabouts 14 a plurality of currently available with the remaining energy charging station 18a . 18b and 18c determined. The distance is first by air 16 determined and then the actual distance supplemented by map information. Such a determination is important in a "fun" driving profile in which system performance is optimized in terms of driving performance and thus there is an increased risk of stagnation due to increased energy requirements. Again, the distance along the route is determined, based on the nearest of the charging stations 18a . 18b and 18c the range is forecasted. You can drive in this driving profile without entering an explicit destination. Due to the range calculation to the next charging station, the risk of staying still banned.
  • In the driving profile "travel" an explicit destination input (ie a destination is entered), whereas in the driving profiles "city" and "fun" an implicit destination input takes place (ie, that the home address or a nearest charging station is already stored as a destination and by selection the driving profile is controlled).
  • 5 shows in one 3 corresponding representation of a route, where the destination 15 to be approached and then back to the starting point, the current location 14 at the beginning of the journey corresponds, should be returned. This can be achieved by a driving profile "commuter", in which an identical route is routed regularly and the system performance on the comfort 1 was optimized. This profile is automatically detected and proposed in the illustrated embodiment, when the system detects a regular trip due to the route traveled.
  • A 3 corresponding representation of a route, at the current location 14 from a nearest gas station or charging station 19 or the home town is to be reached is in 6 shown. This can be done in the driving profile "Limp Home", in which the system performance is minimized while optimizing the achievement of the next charging station, such as a charging socket.
  • The computing unit of the vehicle, in the example shown, an "Electronic Control Unit (ECU)" calculates the route and the driving distance and sets the currently determined position of the vehicle and other data of the navigation system such. B. map information or congestion warnings based.
  • Instead of performing the specified calculations and solutions on the computing unit of the vehicle, they can also be performed on a server of a cloud computing environment. For this purpose, the entered destination 15 and transmits the settings of the operating conditions via an antenna of the vehicle wirelessly to the server, which performs the described method and also transmits the proposals for changing the operating state or for starting the second destination wirelessly to the vehicle. After the antenna has received this information from the server, it is forwarded to the arithmetic unit and to the driver on the screen of the HMI interface 4 output.
  • Only features disclosed in the embodiments of the various embodiments can be combined and claimed individually.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102010039675 A1 [0004]

Claims (12)

  1. A method of operating an electric vehicle, comprising the steps of: a) inputting a destination ( 15 ) by a vehicle occupant via an input unit; b) setting an operating state and thus a power consumption of at least one power-consuming vehicle component ( 6 . 7 . 8th ); c) calculating a driving pitch ( 17 ) and a driving distance by a computing unit taking into account a current position determined by a navigation unit ( 14 ) of the vehicle; d) calculating a range ( 2 ) of the vehicle and a range buffer by the computing unit taking into account the set desired function and the power required for this purpose; e) calculating a priority list by the computing unit, the priority list describing which change of the state of the at least one vehicle component is to be performed preferentially if the calculated range ( 2 ) is less than the calculated driving distance; f) outputting a first proposal of changing the operating state of the vehicle component by a reduced power consumption of the at least one vehicle component according to the calculated priority list and / or outputting a second proposal of a second destination that corresponds to the calculated range ( 2 ) can be achieved by the arithmetic unit on an output unit when a difference from the range ( 2 ) and the range buffer is less than the route ( 17 ).
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the proposed changing of the operating state or the second destination is performed when the vehicle occupant selects this via an input unit.
  3. A method according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that a change in the state and / or a value of the range buffer are statically predetermined or the priority list and / or the value of the range buffer based on statically predetermined state changes and / or a statically predetermined value of the range buffer is adjusted dynamically taking into account environment variables of the vehicle.
  4. A method according to claim 3, characterized in that the environment variables in a dynamic priority list include an ambient brightness, an ambient temperature, a wind speed and a wind direction and / or an ambient humidity.
  5. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the arithmetic unit automatically adjusts all vehicle components except for the electric drive to a minimum Leistungsver consumption, if it is determined that the driving distance otherwise the range ( 2 ) exceeds.
  6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a driving profile is set, wherein the driving profile includes defined states of several vehicle components.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the priority list is determined by a range gain of each state change is determined and preferably that state change is selected, which affects a predetermined driving profile least.
  8. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the priority list is determined by an optimization procedure on the basis of an inequality, wherein the inequality has several solutions and each of the solutions is characterized by an index obtained from a utility function, the priority list comprising the solutions in ascending order Order of the key figures.
  9. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the utility function describes a maximum comfort or a maximum range as a benefit.
  10. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the entering of the travel destination, entering the operating state and the output of the first proposal and / or the second proposal in the vehicle and at least one, preferably at least two, more preferably all of the steps calculating the Travel distance, calculating the range and / or calculating the priority list are performed on a spatially separated from the vehicle computer, wherein information input in the vehicle via a data communication device, preferably a wireless data communication device, are transmitted to the spatially separated computer and the route, the range and / or the priority list are transmitted from the spatially separated computer to the data communication device.
  11. An apparatus for operating an electric vehicle, comprising an input unit for inputting a destination ( 15 ), at least one adjustable in its operating state and power consuming vehicle component, a Navigation unit for determining a current position ( 14 ) of the vehicle, a computing unit for calculating a route ( 17 ) and a travel distance and a range buffer and a priority list, an output unit for displaying a proposal of changing the operating state of the vehicle component and / or for displaying a proposal of a second destination.
  12. A computer program product comprising a sequence of instructions that after entry of a destination ( 15 ) and setting an operating state and a power consumption of at least one power-consuming vehicle component calculates a driving distance and a driving distance, wherein a position determined by a navigation unit ( 14 ), as well as a priority list which describes which change of the state of the at least one vehicle component is to be performed preferentially, if the calculated range ( 2 ) is less than the calculated travel distance and outputs a first suggestion of changing the operating state of the vehicle component by a reduced power consumption of the at least one vehicle component according to the calculated priority list and / or a second proposal having a second travel destination corresponding to the calculated range ( 2 ) can be achieved if a difference from a range ( 2 ) and a range buffer is less than the distance traveled.
DE102013211871.6A 2013-06-21 2013-06-21 Method and device for operating a vehicle with electric drive Ceased DE102013211871A1 (en)

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