The invention relates to the treatment of flat material with fluid, in particular
of printed circuit boards and conductor foils. The attachments are
u. a. dry-chemical, wet-chemical and electrolytic continuous systems
or belt systems from roll to roll with horizontal or vertical transport
of the good. During treatment in the baths
must the surface of the goods evenly
and are usually flowed with intense fluid to the
There existing diffusion layer to keep small and thus the
to accelerate the required mass transfer or material removal.
Under a fluid to subsequently liquid and gaseous
Substances are understood. In particular, these are in the sense of versatile
applicable invention general treatment liquids,
Electrolytes, etching liquids, rinsing liquids
and gases of all kinds.
the printed circuit boards and conductor foils are usually also
Through holes and blind holes. These require
a particularly targeted flow of fluid to one of
certain direction z. B. the mass transfer to the hole walls
The publication DE 197 17 512 C3
describes a device for galvanizing printed circuit boards and conductor foils. The required for the electrolytic deposition of metal flow of the material with fluid carried by fluid spray pipes near the anode outside of the electrolytic cells. The fluid is passed through passages in the anodes into the electrolytic cells into the good. These passages are congruent with the holes or nozzles of the fluid spray tubes or nozzle sticks. To position the material in the middle between the upper and lower anodes serve rotating guide elements. These can be driven or not driven. They act in the electrolytic cell as a blend body for the electric field. The anode / cathode distance must be greater than the diameter of the guide elements. This large distance plus the distance from the anode to the fluid spray pipe must overcome the inflowing fluid on the way to the surface of the material through the fluid in the working container. The inflowing fluid causes uncontrollable turbulence in the electrolytic cell in the fluid therein. These blow away the fluid jets, which should reach the estate. In addition, the outflowing fluid comes out of the work container, which also interferes with an intensive and targeted influx of the material with directed fluid jets.
The publication EP 0 534 269 A3
describes a further electroplating for printed circuit boards in the horizontal pass. Fluid supply devices reach close to the surface of the material. Likewise the Abführeinrichtungen. This allows a targeted and intense flow of fluid to the good in the area of these facilities. The disadvantage is that only a few fluid supply devices can be arranged along the transport path. Otherwise, the active anode surface would become too small along the conveyor system, which would lead to an uneconomical plant. Another disadvantage is that, especially in the area of the plant, namely under the anodes, there is no flow of the surface of the material with fluid in which the electrolytic treatment takes place.
The publication DE 100 44 209 A1
describes an invention for the electrolytic treatment of printed circuit boards with holes and blind holes. The invention can also be applied to other wet chemical treatment methods. The material passes by nozzles which periodically change the jet direction of the fluid. Again, the distance of the nozzle from the surface of the material should be small in order to fully exploit the beam effect. The distance of the nozzles should preferably approach 5 mm to 10 mm to the good. The pivotable nozzle tubes are located outside the electrolytic cell formed by the electrodes and the product. Including isolation for short-circuit prevention in the electrolytic cell, the difference in the distance between the pivoting nozzle tubes and the material is so great that the desired effect could largely be lost, in particular because the electrodes have to be flowed through. The required technical effort for the realization is to be provided.
The present invention is electrolytic and wet-chemical
Continuous plants including dry treatment plants with
Gas to describe an intense and targeted influx
the surface of the material to be treated with fluid
close proximity and with different flow directions
enable. The flow should in particular
in electrolytic plants in the vicinity of the goods with regenerated electrolyte
done in order to apply high current densities. Also
in wet chemical or dry chemical processes and z. For example
Drying of good is said to be due to the intense influx
Fluid a small exposure time can be achieved. Furthermore, should also
a safe transport, in particular of films in immersion baths,
Spray baths and dryers in the passage possible
The object is achieved by the method according to claim
1 and by the device according to claim
14. The subclaims describe advantageous details
The invention is described below by way of example len of galvanizing plants with horizontal transport of the goods described in the run. However, it is also suitable for the horizontal and vertical transport of the material in continuous flow systems for its chemical treatment and for electrolytic etching, rinsing, drying and other treatments with liquids and gases.
Invention is based on a transport and a leadership of the
Good by means of transport as rotating wheels, rollers
or similar construction elements, based on driven
Waves or wheel waves are. For a safe transport
The shafts can also be guaranteed by foils
at the top and bottom of the transport path so close in the transport direction
be arranged consecutively, that the cogs
more or less overlapping. In the transport direction of the
Good seen the cogs on the successive
Shafts axially offset in each case so that they are on different
Railways run on the estate. In special cases, the
Reduction of the design effort between the driven
Waves also rotating but not driven cogs
Wet treatment or gas treatment occurs in a first embodiment
the invention, the fluid in the working container from fluid supply tubes,
which are provided with nozzles or openings, radiating out.
In a second embodiment of the invention, the fluid enters
from the cogwheel, which in this case from a
Hollow shaft exists.
According to the invention
the fluid jets along the side surfaces of the wheels,
the next to the function as a means of transport for the good
at the same time as a guide means or as flow channels
serve for the fluid, led to the good. This way
the fluid in the vicinity of the chemically or electrolytically
to be treated or to be dried surface of the goods.
For this purpose, flows out of the fluid supply tubes or hollow shafts,
each with nozzles, openings or openings
are provided on each wheel at least one fluid jet
laterally to the respective, turning during the transport of goods
Wheel wall. At this, the fluid jet leading
Wheel wall along, the fluid flows in the direction
to the good. In a plane wheel wall then meets the fluid jet
perpendicular to the surface of the goods. The rim of the wheel
can also be on the inside of the center of the wheel
be profiled so that the fluid jet deflected at the rim and
at a predetermined angle from very close
flowing from the rim to the surface of the
hits to be treated good. The wheel as a guide
acts as a flow channel and prevents reliable
otherwise uncontrollable blowing of the fluid jet in the
Near the surface to be treated. The fluid supply pipes or
Nozzles or hollow shafts are in a wet treatment
preferably arranged immersed in the fluid of the working container.
guiding the fluid jets according to the invention
is suitable for both dip baths, that is to
Treatment of the material under the treatment liquid,
as well as for spray baths. When spray baths are
the liquid fluid jets in gas, preferably in air,
at the not dived wheel walls up to
Surface of the goods passed to there in a predetermined
Angle to hit. In a gas treatment, the fluid jets
also led to the surface of the property.
the wheels already for reasons of transport
at the top and the bottom of the goods or the transport path
are required, is not additional to the realization of the invention
Effort for the intensive and accurate introduction of fluid jets
Required at the predetermined angle to the surface of the goods.
Even if the cogs z. B. below the level
of the liquid contained in the working container
Fluids are, the fluid jet at the cog wall
guided. The wheel wall protects the
Fluid jet against drift through the generally turbulent
Fluid in the work container.
an electrolytic treatment protrude the inventive
Cogs by the at the top and bottom of the goods
arranged electrodes therethrough. The electrodes are in these places
cut out and they can be over
or under the shafts or axles or hollow shafts of the wheels
are located. Again, the fluid from the very next
Proximity at predetermined angles to the surface
of the good flowed.
Advantageously, the invention proves in the treatment of films,
which are conveyed through the continuous flow system. The slides
are guided safely where they are intensely fluid
be streamed. This is an evasion of the film
the transport plane is not possible due to the flow,
whereby a very high transport safety is achieved.
This is especially true for the transport and the
Treatment in air, unlike a liquid
has almost no dampening effect on film movements,
as it is z. B. in gas treatments or dryers is the case.
The invention is described below with reference to the schematic and not to scale 1 to 6 described in detail.
1 shows in cross section two upper transport and guide wheels on a circuit board and a fluid supply tube and an electrode for electrolytic treatment according to the first embodiment of the invention.
2 shows upper and lower pairs of wheels in the side view on a circuit board unrolling, for wet treatment or dry treatment of the goods.
3 shows in section in the plan view of a wet chemical or electrolytic continuous system with transport as transport rollers combined with wheel shafts.
4 shows fluid supply pipes for flowing the fluid to wheels, which are located on two adjacent wheel shafts.
5 shows in cross-section on a hollow shaft upper transport and guide wheels on a circuit board rolling with a fluid supply through the hollow shaft and an electrode for electrolytic treatment according to the second embodiment of the invention.
6a shows wheel rims in the cutout with different deflection angles for the fluid on the inside of the rims.
6b shows a non-profiled wheel for guiding the fluid jet without its deflection in the vicinity of the goods.
The 1 shows in cross section a small section of a continuous system according to the invention. The material to be electroplated in this example 1 is used by means of transport as transport and guide wheels 2 transported. These are also short with cogs below 2 designated. The transport direction of the goods 1 is shown here perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. The wheels 2 are by means of hubs 5 on a cog wheel 3 attached. All wheel waves 3 a continuous system are rotated by a preferably central, not shown drive in rotation to a gleichmäßi gene and synchronized transport of the goods 1 sure. In addition, non-driven wheels can be used to guide the goods 2 or wheel waves 3 be arranged along the transport path. The wheels 2 protrude through cutouts 19 the electrode 4 which is an insoluble anode or a soluble anode plate during the plating process.
The means of transport as wheels 2 exist in an electrolytic treatment of an electrically non-conductive material, eg. B. plastic. This allows a cost-effective production of the profile according to the invention. If the wheels are used in an electrolytic treatment at the same time or exclusively as a rotating contact means, then they consist at least partially of an electrically conductive material, eg. As titanium or stainless steel. The rotating contact means can also be designed as segmented contact wheels at least on their circumference.
The lateral indentations 6 become smooth curb walls 7 limited. In the inner area of the rim 8th go the wheel wall 7 in a deflection bend 9 above. Parallel to the wheel shaft 3 , ie transversely to the transport direction, runs a Fluidzuführrohr 10 or a nozzle. In special cases, the fluid supply pipes can also be arranged in the transport direction. These tubes have in the range of the cogs 2 obliquely introduced openings 11 for radiating discharge of the fluid 12 towards the cogs 2 , The respective flow direction and its course show the fluid jets 13 or the flow arrows 13 , The amount and speed of fluid jets 13 are adjustable as needed, z. B. by fluid pumps with variable capacity. For the electrolytic treatment of the goods 1 must be the level 14 of the fluid to at least over the electrode 4 stick out. To avoid a possible foaming, it is advantageous in this case the level 14 at least over the openings 11 the upper Fluidzuführrohres 10 to raise.
At the openings 11 they can also be nozzles. Out of these openings 11 with axial directions on the wheels 2 wise, the fluid flows selectively to the side of the wheels 2 , In doing so, the fluid jet arrives 13 to the cog wall 7 and from there along this smooth wall, which forms a shallow flow channel, into the region of the electrolytic cell 15 coming from the electrode 4 and the estate 1 is formed as a counter electrode. There is the fluid jet 13 from the deflector 9 of the wheel 2 predominantly in the direction transverse to the transport direction of the goods 1 diverted. The profile angle of the deflection bend 9 determines the exit angle of the fluid jet 13 towards the estate. Because this is very close to the surface of the material to be treated 1 takes place, the fluid jet 13 not be blown and hits precisely at a predetermined angle on the surface of the goods 1 on.
In the 1 are as possible embodiments of two different deflection bends 9 on the right wheel 2 shown. Right is the deflector 9 acute and left obtuse.
By guiding the fluid jet 13 along the protective cog wall 7 , which acts as a flat rotating flow channel, remains the original, out of the opening 11 exiting fluid jet 13 largely preserved, even if the Stre from the fluid supply tube 10 to the good 1 is big, z. B. 80 mm and in this area in immersion baths turbulence of the fluid 12 available. The fluid jet 13 is inventively also by mounting parts, such. As the electrodes 4 or anodes 4 passed through without an additional space to claim and without being distracted by these components. In all cases, the fluid jet occurs 13 at the predetermined angle from the indentation 6 in the immediate vicinity of the surface of the goods to be treated. The exit angle is especially good, the holes 16 and blind holes 17 contains, important. For their mass transfer, an angle to the flow of the holes is optimal, which deviates from 90 °, ie an acute-angled angle. The optimum mass transfer also depends on the hole diameters. That's why different exit angles can be used on different wheels 2 or wheel waves 3 be realized in a continuous system along the transport path, as will be described below.
When using insoluble anodes as electrodes 4 When galvanizing on these anodes, oxygen or other actively reacting substances is formed by a counter reaction. For procedural reasons, these should not be applied to the cathodic material 1 but immediately from the electrolytic cell 15 be discharged, among other things so as not to be flooded in the holes and blind holes or not to reduce the current efficiency. Through the described fluid leakage from the wheels 2 near the surface of the estate 1 are inventively optimal fluid dynamic conditions in the electrolytic cell 15 or at the estate 1 achieved:
The fluid is at a predetermined angle from a very short distance to the estate 1 incident flow. From there it flows in reverse through the grid-shaped electrodes 4 through back to an overflow or drain of the working container. At the same time, those at the anodes will also be affected 4 formed substances from the electrolytic cell 15 very advantageous in the process technically correct direction dissipated, ie from the surface of the goods 1 kept away.
In the treatment of inherently unstable Good, such. As foils, is also advantageous that the good 1 through the upper and lower transport and guide wheels 2 According to the invention is performed where the strongest fluid flow to the Good 1 takes place, whereby this can not be steered out of the way. In addition to increasing the transport safety of the goods, this also contributes to improving the layer thickness distribution by the possible realization of a small anode / cathode distance. For this reason, in the film treatment can be dispensed with the necessary according to the prior art insulating grid or similar measures to protect against electrical anode / cathode short circuit. This is not just a cost advantage. Such insulation measures represent in electrolytic cells shields that would have to be compensated by higher local current densities at the anodes and the estate and / or by a longer run-through facility, which is only technologically and economically possible. Also, close to the estate 1 arranged insulating grid in contact with the goods damage its sensitive surfaces by scratches what the present invention on the estate 1 rolling transport and guide wheels 2 exclude with certainty.
In the treatment of good 1 As conductor foils, it makes sense, the wheel waves 3 To arrange in the transport direction so tight that the cogs 2 from adjacent cogwheels 3 partially overlap. In the treatment of the material, the fluid passes even with very tight wheel cradles 3 and with many cogs 2 on the cogwheels at the correct angle and at the given speed by guiding the cogs 2 to the surface of the estate 1 , When overlapping transport and guide wheels 2 can be used, even with the thinnest films a very intensive wet-chemical treatment in combination with a very high transport safety allows.
In 1 are the indentations 6 of the right wheel 2 with lids 18 covered. This creates a nearly closed rotating flow channel along the rotating cog wall 7 formed, which the fluid jet 13 against possible disturbing turbulences of the fluid 12 completely protected in the working container. This improves the fluid dynamic conditions of the entire arrangement on the surface of the material, in particular, if, as in the example of 1 to do a dip.
When transporting foils, it happens that they are wet or wet wheels 2 on the rolling treads 33 adhere to the same. If not replaced in time during rotation, this leads to damage to the goods and / or to a jam of the films in the continuous system. To avoid the film adhesion to the tread 33 of the wheel 2 may be a part of the fluid jet on the wheel 2 through its rim 8th through perpendicular to the estate 1 be directed. Radial holes in the rims are used for this purpose 8th on the circumference of the cogs 2 are distributed. The fluid flowing through these holes pushes the film from the tread 33 path. For reasons of cost-effective production, this slots 20 in the rim 8th preferred, as it is the 1 on the right wheel shows.
For bilateral treatment of the goods 1 are also on the opposite side of the transport path according to the invention means of transport as a wheel 2 , z. B. arranged in mirror image. These can be used to intensively penetrate holes 16 z. B. up and down in pairs with different Umlenkbögen 9 be provided. Also adjacent cogs 2 on a cog wheel 3 can have different bends 9 exhibit the flow of fluid on the surface of the material 1 If necessary, to influence specifically.
The 2 shows a small section of a continuous system for wet treatment or dry treatment of good in the side view. The wheels are rolling 3 are in this example in the transport direction so far apart that the cogs 2 do not overlap. This is at plates to be treated for a safe transport of the goods 1 sufficient. This view shows that the fluid jet 13 from the fluid supply pipe 10 through the opening 11 flows. The fluid jet hits according to the flow arrows 13 in the middle of half of a wheel 2 on the cog wall 7 on. At the deflection arc is inside the rim 8th the fluid jet 13 partly in the transport direction of the goods 1 and deflected transversely to the transport direction, but with the common essential component towards the surface of the product 1 , All these portions of the inflowing fluid are due to the design of the wheel 2 , in particular structurally predetermined by the deflection bend. The change in pressure in the fluid supply pipe 10 by means of z. B. variable-speed pump drives, as well as the size of the tubes, nozzles or openings 11 offer further possibilities for adjusting the fluid dynamic conditions on the surface of the material 1 ,
The 3 shows in plan view an inventive arrangement of Fluidzuführrohren 10 and wheel waves 3 in a continuous flow system. Three wheel waves 3 with overlapping cogs 2 are located between two massive roller-shaped means of transport 21 , These funds have cuts 22 into which the cogs 2 protrude overlapping. For electrolytic treatment of the goods, the transport roller 21 at the same time assume the function, not shown, of a contact roller.
At the bottom of the fluid supply pipes 10 are the openings shown in dashed lines 11 , These are inclined in the walls of Fluidzuführrohre 10 introduced in such a way that the outflowing fluid jet 13 the wheel wall 7 at the intended location of the indentation 6 meets. In place of the fluid supply pipes 10 can be used in this first embodiment of the invention, other fluid supply means, for. B. hollow body or boxes with a corresponding number of openings or nozzles.
On the three cogwheels 3 are the wheels 2 each arranged axially offset so that different paths on the estate 1 result. This will be the surface of the goods including the holes 16 and the blind holes 17 evenly treated in a long flow system. The cuts 22 the transport or contact rollers 21 can also be profiled laterally as the cogs 2 , In this case, also in the field of transport rollers fluid to the good 1 be directed. This can be prevented during transport and adhesion of films to these rolls.
The 4 shows in side view wheel waves 3 and fluid supply pipes 10 , These construction elements are arranged to each other so that from a Fluidzuführrohr 10 with two openings 11 or two rows of openings 11 , in the depth of 4 seen, two cogwheels 3 or their cogs 2 supplied with fluid, that can be flowed. This reduces the technical complexity of the continuous system. In the right fluid feed tube 10 are in a row the openings 11 inserted so obliquely that the fluid jet can flow directly towards the good. Is shown in this 4 a dip for wet treatment with the level 14 above the openings 11 , This arrangement of the invention is also suitable for undimmed treatment in spray baths, dryers or for gas treatment.
The 5 shows in cross section a wet or dry to be treated good 1 , on the top of which means of transport 2 roll. Also at the bottom of the property 1 If necessary, the arrangement according to the invention can be arranged in mirror image. These same counterparts and possibly required support wheels are not shown in this figure and in the other figures.
The transport and guide wheels 2 have in this second embodiment of the invention on both end faces a printing area 24 , one from each on the hollow shaft 25 non-rotatably mounted lid 18 and the cog wall 7 of the transport wheel 2 is limited. This pressure range 24 acts as a flow channel. The transport wheel 2 is on the rotating hollow shaft 25 attached. The hollow shaft 25 is powered by a drive 26 to transport the goods 1 set in rotation. The transport direction is shown here perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. So that the stored, but unpaved on the hollow shaft 25 located lid 18 can not turn, they are by a fixed point 27 secured against rotation. By means of a pump, not shown, or a compressor is on the way via a rotary joint 28 in the hollow shaft 25 generates an overpressure. The hollow shaft 25 is with breakthroughs 29 provided in the printing area 24 of the means of transport 2 lead. This is also in the printing area 24 generates an overpressure. This pushes the lid 18 in the direction of the attacks 30 on the hollow shaft 25 , which largely dense pressure chambers 24 on both sides of the transport wheel 2 arise. These have only in the area of the surface of the goods 1 an exit 31 , The front edge of the rotating rim 8th slides on the static lid 18 along. In place of the attacks 30 can also use spacer tubes from cover 18 to cover 18 to limit the same on the hollow shaft 25 to be ordered.
The overpressure chamber 24 is at the surface of the goods 1 clever place to form an exit 31 by shortening the lid 18 opened in a gap. Through this gap 32 the fluid is used to treat the material 1 from the hyperbaric chamber 24 to the surface of the goods 1 directed.
The rims 8th the transport wheels 2 are preferably by means of a deflection arc 9 profiled in such a way that the pressure effect is directed almost completely parallel to the surface of the goods, whereby a secure film transport is achieved. Transport congestion of the thin material in the flow system are thereby avoided.
In exceptional cases, especially when rigid material is to be treated as plates, can on the deflector 9 on the rim 8th be waived. The end walls of the transport wheel 2 are in this case plan to tread 33 , The lids 18 are in this case in the tread area 33 Angled, causing pressure areas again 24 be formed.
The combination of means of transport 2 and pressure means for the fluid on a driven shaft further has the great advantage that no additional space is needed for the pressure medium, as seen in the transport direction. This results in contrast to the prior art, a particularly short flow system, which is always desirable for economic reasons.
The first and second embodiments of the invention can be combined in particular in a horizontal continuous system. For this purpose, at the bottom of the first embodiment with fluid supply pipes 10 and at the top of the goods, the second embodiment with a fluid supply through hollow shafts 25 respectively. This is a particularly easy accessibility of the treatment areas of the continuous system and in the electrolytic cells 15 reached.
The 6a shows in the neck variously profiled transport and guide wheels 2 on a circuit board 1 , The structurally predetermined profile angle 23 of the deflection arc 9 determines the direction of fluid flow to the material 1 , The profile angle a is acute. The fluid jet 13 meets almost perpendicular to the surface of the goods 1 on. The profile angle d is dull. Here, the fluid occurs almost parallel to the surface of the material 1 out of the cog 2 out. The profile angles b and c represent intermediate values.
In a plant can cogs 2 with different profile angles 23 be used. That's how the wheels can be 2 in the direction of transport and on a cog wheel 3 or hollow shafts 25 alternating profile angles transversely to the transport direction 23 exhibit. This allows calmed zones or particularly turbulent zones in the fluid near the surface of the material 1 produce.
The wheels 2 You can also change the profile angles on the circumference 23 exhibit. One angle glides over into another. The length of a profile angle on the circumference of the wheel can be chosen so short that the fluid jet constantly repeating in a different direction laterally from the wheel 2 exit. This corresponds to an additional movement of the fluid jets 13 on the surface of the estate 1 , which contributes to the further reduction of the thickness of the diffusion layer at the surface and in the holes and to increased mass transfer or fabric removal. As a length of a constant profile angle 23 on the circumference of the wheel can z. B. 10 mm can be assumed. In combination with the adjacent wheels, all with their profile angles in the usual in continuous systems gear drives the wheel shafts 3 or hollow shafts 25 are in a constant phase relationship to each other, can be realized on the surface of the goods both in immersion baths as well as in spray different fluid flow patterns. The invention is thus versatile in wet chemical, dry chemical and electrolytic continuous systems. Likewise, it is suitable for rinsing and drying of good. The wheels 2 As a rule, they also serve to transport the goods 1 , This is a complete synchronization of the fluid flow images different profile angle without additional technical equipment overhead 23 given with the transport speed of the continuous system.
The 6b shows a not profiled wheel 2 which is particularly easy to produce. Also with this wheel 2 the fluid flows along the cog wall 7 as a flat flow channel to the estate 1 , There it is largely perpendicular to the surface of the property 1 on what z. B. may be advantageous when rinsing.
PCB, conductor foil
Transport and guide wheels, means of transport,
- wheel shaft
- Wheel wall
Sidewall, shallow flow channel
- reversing curve
- fluid supply pipe,
Treatment liquid, treatment gas, electrolyte
- Flow arrow,
of the fluid
- Transport roller,
- profile angle
- Pressure range, overpressure chamber
- hollow shaft
- fixed point
- rotary joint
QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
The documents listed by the applicant have been automated
generated and is solely for better information
recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German
Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over
no liability for any errors or omissions.
Cited patent literature
- - DE 19717512 C3 
- - EP 0534269 A3 
- - DE 10044209 A1