CS265400B1 - Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process - Google Patents

Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process Download PDF

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Publication number
CS265400B1
CS265400B1 CS876868A CS686887A CS265400B1 CS 265400 B1 CS265400 B1 CS 265400B1 CS 876868 A CS876868 A CS 876868A CS 686887 A CS686887 A CS 686887A CS 265400 B1 CS265400 B1 CS 265400B1
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CS
Czechoslovakia
Prior art keywords
bell
immersion
modification
opening
additives
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Application number
CS876868A
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Czech (cs)
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CS686887A1 (en
Inventor
Jaroslav Ing Csc Polak
Vlastislav Pospisil
Original Assignee
Jaroslav Ing Csc Polak
Vlastislav Pospisil
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Jaroslav Ing Csc Polak, Vlastislav Pospisil filed Critical Jaroslav Ing Csc Polak
Priority to CS876868A priority Critical patent/CS265400B1/en
Publication of CS686887A1 publication Critical patent/CS686887A1/en
Publication of CS265400B1 publication Critical patent/CS265400B1/en

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C1/00Refining of pig-iron; Cast iron
    • C21C1/10Making spheroidal graphite cast-iron

Abstract

The method of adding vaporisable and fusible additives to molten iron alloys in a treatment ladle (8) in a pressure chamber (6) of an autoclave by means of a submersible modifying bell (1) ensures the production of spherulitic cast iron, cast iron modified with vermicular graphite or with magnesium, and/or the production of prealloys with magnesium and cerium and/or desulphurisation and deoxidation of the iron alloys by a period of at most 3 seconds of lowering the modifying bell (1) into a lower position of at most 50 mm above the bottom of the treatment ladle. The modifying bell (1) suspended on a metal holder rod (3) is provided with at least one bottom opening (4) and at least one top opening (5). The ratio of the volumetric capacity of the modifying bell (1) to the volumetric capacity of the pressure chamber (6) is 2 to 4 : 1000. The ratio of the area total of the bottom openings (4) and top openings (5) to the interior volumetric capacity of the modifying bell (1) is 1 : 100 to 1 : 200. <IMAGE>

Description

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A method for adding evaporable and molten additives to molten iron alloys in a treatment pan in an autoclave pressurized chamber, wherein the additives are placed in a submersible modification bell immersed in a melt for producing ductile or vermicular graphite cast iron or malleable cast iron and / or the production of magnesium-cerium master alloys and / or for the desulfurization and deoxidation of iron alloys, and apparatus therefor.

For introducing magnesium, cerium and other gasifying or fusible substances into molten metal alloys, it is known to use an autoclave with a pressurized chamber using the physical law that the boiling point increases with increasing pressurization. Air is injected into the plenum chamber with the melt pans in the plenum, which is proportional to the temperature of the liquid metal and hence the magnesium and dampens its evaporation. Various methods of introducing said substances are used to perform said functions. The magnesium metal is immersed mounted on a bar of cell bare or provided with insulating layers to prevent heating and evaporation, refining additives are freely thrown into the ladle, or submersible modification bells of different designs of different materials and designs are inserted into which the additives are inserted. Accordingly, the degree of utilization of magnesium and other additives and the reproducibility of these values, and hence the quality of production, vary.

It is known, for example, see the Technical Vocabulary Part I

265 400 (SNTL 1981) pp. 125 and 126, to form an autoclave whose submersible bell is provided with two rows of openings that are not superimposed on one surface. However, the method of adding vaporizable and fusible additives with respect to the times and positions of firing, as well as the issues of the pressure chamber and submersible modification bell ratios, are not addressed here. The same is true in the book Magnesiumbehandeltes Gusseisen by prof. K.J. Vaschenko and L. Sofroni (VEB Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig 1960) at pp. 130-135 and pp. 146, 157.

Similarly, from the USSR Author's Certificate No. 142 665, the known volume of the overpressure chamber of 2.7 m is known, but neither the insertion procedure nor the volume of the submersible modification bell is mentioned here.

It is apparent from the USSR 817 061 and the German Patent Application No. 1,168,458 that it is known to form a submersible modification bell with rows of openings one above the other, the openings being inclined relative to the longitudinal axis of the submersible modification bell always in the same direction, which turned out to be disadvantageous.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to overcome some of the above-mentioned drawbacks and to provide such a method and apparatus for adding vaporizable and fusible additives to molten ferrous alloys which would allow optimum process conditions to be achieved. melt and improve process controllability and reproducibility.

This object is achieved by the method according to the invention, which consists in that the time of lowering of the submerged modifying bell in the melt to the lower position, which is within 50 mm above the bottom of the treatment pan, is at most 3 seconds.

265 400

The device according to the invention is characterized in that, on the one hand, the ratio of the effective volume of the immersion modification bell, the effective volume of the immersion modification bell is calculated from the diameter of the immersion modification bell D n and the effective height I е The ratio of the sum of the areas of the at least one lower aperture and the at least one upper aperture to the internal volume of the immersion modifier is between 1: 100 and 1: 200. Another advantageous embodiment of the device according to the invention consists in the effective height between at least one lower aperture. and wherein the at least one upper aperture of the dip modifier bell is equal to or less than the inner diameter of the submerged modifying bell, in that the total area of the at least one lower aperture of the dip modifier bell is equal to or greater than the total area of the at least one and wherein at least one upper hole of the dip modification bell is inclined towards the bottom of the dip modification bell with its inner end and at least one bottom hole of the dip modification bell is inclined towards the bottom of the dip modification bell at its outer end . Another advantageous embodiment of the device according to the invention consists in that the ratio of the inner diameter of the treatment pan bottom to the inner diameter of the immersion modification bell is 2: 1 to 4: 1. Finally, according to the last preferred embodiment of the invention provided with a through hole for the metal rod and a concentric larger blind hole for the protective tube, the lower end of the metal rod including the securing in the inner part of the upper bottom of the immersion modification bell being covered by a protective sleeve.

The main advantages of the method and apparatus according to the invention are that perfect conditions are created for the entire technological process, that is to say, to allow maximum utilization of all ingredients, to ensure the best possible

265 400

- 4 mixing the ingredients with the melt to improve the controllability of the process and to allow very good reproducibility. Evaporation at the optimum speed is also ensured, and to ensure maximum utilization of the additives in the melt, the time to lower the immersion modifier to the lowest position in the pan is equal to or less than three seconds because the additives pass through the melt before being heated to the evaporation temperature. do not evaporate when immersing the submersible modification bell. In this process, the bottom of the immersion modification bell should not be more than 50 mm from the bottom of the treatment pan. This causes the additives to evaporate in the lowest position and utilizes the longest possible path of gasified magnesium, cerium and refining substances through the metal. In addition, simultaneous modification and refining of the iron alloy will be ensured. The modification process generates a significant amount of magnesium and cerium reaction products. These are, for example, MgO, MgS, Mg-Mn-Fe-silicates, which, when they enter the castings, reduce their mechanical and other properties and can lead to scrapping. The addition of liquefaction agents which dissolve or evaporate simultaneously with magnesium and cerium and are vapor dispersed throughout the metal volume, acts to liquefy and coagulate the flue gases of the reaction, which then flow more readily to the surface of the slag and are removed therefrom. Furthermore, it is ensured that the evaporation of the inserted ingredients is carried out at an optimum speed which guarantees their maximum utilization and that the mixing function is fulfilled as best as possible. The advantages will be even better exemplified by the following. During immersion, the free spaces of the immersion modification bell are filled, unless they are filled with liquid metal additives. The size of the bell must, therefore, be such as to accommodate all the necessary ingredients for the modification, but not to create unnecessarily large spaces where too much metal would penetrate already during immersion, which would prematurely heat the contents to the evaporation temperatures. Even in the next modification process, it is not desirable that there be unnecessarily large spaces in the immersion modification bell which would lead to considerable metal accumulation and undesirable

- 5 265 400 reaction acceleration. Thus, the size of the immersion modification bell can fulfill its function flawlessly if the autoclave is at a certain ratio to the size of the plenum chamber. Then, the modification process can be controlled and good and reproducible results can be obtained. For the same reason, the sizes of the openings are chosen for the penetration of the metal into the immersion modification bell and the escape of gaseous fumes so that the whole process proceeds with a certain intensity and is well controllable. The use of additives is the higher the longer the metal path it has to pass through its evaporation or melting. It is therefore important that the maximum amount of these additives reach the metal as low as possible in the ladle. For this reason, it is proposed to provide the immersion modifier so that its effective height, i.e. the height from the lower row of holes to the upper row of holes, is equal to or less than the inner diameter of the immersion modification bell. For the same reason, it is proposed that the total area of the lower openings be greater than the total area of the upper openings, because this creates less resistance in the lower openings for escaping the vapor from the submerged modification bell into the metal. The penetration of gases as low as possible into the metal also helps the inclination of the bottom openings with their inner end towards the bottom. On the other hand, holes are provided in the upper part of the immersion modification bell shell, inclined by the outer end to the bottom of the immersion modification bell, so as not to create a gas cushion which would not allow metal to penetrate to the bottom and melt the ingredients. here leaking fully involved in the modification process and intense metal swirl. In order to form a high column of metal through which the gasified or molten additives pass, a modifying ladle is designed to be reasonably lean, i.e. with an inside diameter of the bottom of the conditioning pan to the inside diameter of the dip modifier bell in a ratio of 2: 1 to 4: 1. the modification bell is provided with a through hole for the metal rod and a concentric shoulder. A refractory tube is inserted into this shoulder and sealed completely so that the metal rod is protected from immersion

265 400 by contact with molten metal · Protective coating also protects the rod lock in the inner part of the immersion modification bell. The insulating ability of the refractory protection is selected so as to withstand the immersion, buoyancy and vibration stresses and to withstand the bending stresses induced by the total weight of the immersion modifier bell fixed in the horizontal position. In this position, the immersion modification bell can be filled.

The invention is explained in more detail below by way of example with reference to the drawing.

Fig. 1 schematically shows a dip modifier with pan modifiers according to the invention; Fig. 2 schematically illustrates on a smaller scale a device according to the invention with a pressurized chamber autoclave with pan modifiers and a dip modifier.

The immersion modification bell 1 is hinged on a metal rod 6 which is embedded in the protective tube 2. This protective tube 2 passes through the cover of the autoclave chamber 6. The submersible modification bell 1 is provided with a through hole for the metal rod in its upper bottom and a concentric upper blind hole for the protective tube 2, with the lower end of the metal rod 3 including the locking, such as a nut, covered in the inner part of the upper bottom of the submersible modification bell. The submersible modification bell 1 is provided with at least one, but preferably a plurality of upper openings 4 and lower openings 4. These lower openings 4 and upper openings 5 are, on the one hand, arranged in different surfaces of the submerged modification bell 6, i.e. The upper openings 5 are inclined to the bottom of the immersion modification bell 1 with their inner end and the lower openings 4 are inclined to the bottom of the immersion modification bell 6 with their outer end. Here, the ratio of the sum of the areas of the lower openings 4 and the upper ones

265 400 holes 5 to the internal volume of the immersion modifier 1 have a value of 1: 100 to 1: 200 and the effective height between the lower apertures 4 and the upper apertures 5 is equal to or smaller than the inner diameter j) of the immersion modifier L apertures such that the total area of the lower apertures 4 is equal to or greater than the total area of the upper apertures 5 of the immersion modification bell. At the bottom of the pressure chamber 6, the lid of which passes through the metal rod 3 for lowering and lifting the immersion modification bell 1, is provided a treatment pan 8, into which the immersion modification bell 1 is retractable, the ratio of effective volume of immersion modification bell it has a value of 2 to 4: 1000 and preferably the ratio of the inner diameter of the bottom of the treatment pan 8 to the inner diameter D n of the immersion modification bell 1 is 2: 1 to 4: 1.

The immersion modification bell 1, filled with the respective evaporable or fusible additive, for example magnesium, is lowered by the metal rod 3 into the treatment pan 8, the pressure in the autoclave plenum 6 being the required pressure. In order to ensure evaporation at optimum speed and to ensure maximum utilization of the additives in the melt, the lowering time of the dip modifier 1 is selected to the lowest position in the treatment pan 8 equal to or less than three seconds as the additives pass through the melt before being heated to the evaporation temperature, so that they do not evaporate when the immersion modification bell 1 is immersed. In this process, the bottom of the immersion modification bell 11 should not be more than 50 mm from the bottom of the treatment pan 8. This causes the additives to evaporate in the lowest position and utilizes the longest possible path of gasified magnesium, cerium and refining substances through the metal. The immersion modification bell 4 is removed from the melt after the treatment process and is filled with a new batch of additive in the autoclave plenum 6, ready for reuse. This filling is generally carried out in the horizontal position of the immersion modification bell 1.

Claims (7)

  1. A method of adding evaporable and fusible additives to molten iron alloys in a treatment pan in an autoclave plenum, wherein the additives are placed in a submerged modification bell immersed in a melt for the production of ductile or vermicular graphite cast iron or malleable iron modified cast iron or for the production of magnesium-cerium master alloys and / or for the desulphurisation and deoxidation of iron alloys, characterized in that the lowering time of the immersion modification bell in the melt, up to 50 mm above the bottom of the treatment pan, is at most 3 seconds ·
  2. Apparatus for carrying out the method according to claim 1, characterized in that, on the one hand, the ratio of the effective volume of the immersion modifier bell (1) to the volume of the plenum chamber (6) is 2 to 4: 1000; and at least one upper opening (5) to the internal volume of the immersion modifier bell (1) has a value of 1: 100 to 1: 200 ·
  3. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that the effective height (νθ ^) between at least one lower opening (4) and at least one upper opening (5) of the immersion modification bell (1) is equal to or smaller than the inner diameter (D n ) of the immersion modification bell (1).
  4. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that the total area of the at least one lower opening (4) of the immersion modification bell (1) is equal to or greater than the total area of the at least one upper opening (5) of the immersion modification bell (1).
  5. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that at least one upper opening (5) of the immersion modification bell (1) is
    - 9 265 400 with its inner end inclined towards the bottom of the submersible modifying bell (1) and at least one lower opening (4) of the submersible modification bell (1) is inclined towards the bottom of the submersible modifying bell (1) with its outer end.
  6. 6. Apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that the ratio of the inner diameter of the bottom of the treatment pan (S) to the inner diameter (D r ) of the immersion modification bell (1) is from 2 to 1.
    That made the score 4 - 1.
  7. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that the immersion modification bell (1) is provided in the upper bottom with a through hole for the metal rod (3) and a concentric larger blind hole for the protective tube (2), the lower end of the metal rod (3). it is covered with protective sleeve (7) including the securing in the inner part of the upper bottom of the immersion modifying bell (1).
CS876868A 1987-09-24 1987-09-24 Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process CS265400B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CS876868A CS265400B1 (en) 1987-09-24 1987-09-24 Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CS876868A CS265400B1 (en) 1987-09-24 1987-09-24 Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process
EP88114526A EP0309781A1 (en) 1987-09-24 1988-09-06 Process for adding fusibles and evaporable additives to molten iron alloys, and installation for its realization
YU01705/88A YU170588A (en) 1987-09-24 1988-09-08 Device for adding vapourous and soluble additions into molten iron alloys
FI884199A FI884199A (en) 1987-09-24 1988-09-13 Foerfarande foer infoerande av laettflyktiga och smaeltbara tillsatsaemnen i smaelta jaernlegeringar och foer tillaempning av detta anvaendbar anordning.
PL27486188A PL274861A1 (en) 1987-09-24 1988-09-23 Method introducing vapourizable and smeltable additives into molten ferrous alloy bodies and apparatus therefor
NO88884241A NO884241L (en) 1987-09-24 1988-09-23 Method and apparatus for the addition of additives to molten iron alloys.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CS686887A1 CS686887A1 (en) 1989-02-10
CS265400B1 true CS265400B1 (en) 1989-10-13

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CS876868A CS265400B1 (en) 1987-09-24 1987-09-24 Process for adding evaporable and meltable additives in melt ferrous alloys and device for making this process

Country Status (6)

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EP (1) EP0309781A1 (en)
CS (1) CS265400B1 (en)
FI (1) FI884199A (en)
NO (1) NO884241L (en)
PL (1) PL274861A1 (en)
YU (1) YU170588A (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5714117A (en) * 1996-01-31 1998-02-03 Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc. Air melting of Cu-Cr alloys

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1547409A (en) * 1967-05-09 1968-11-29 Ct De Rech S De Pont A Mousson An improved method of processing the font
DE1939140A1 (en) * 1968-08-14 1970-02-19 Allegheny Ludlum Steel Means for adding substances to a vessel with molten metal
GB1404011A (en) * 1972-06-21 1975-08-28 Foseco Int Apparatus for introducing volatile materials into metal melts
CH638242A5 (en) * 1978-01-06 1983-09-15 Fischer Ag Georg Method for desulfuring large quantities of melting iron, steel or cast iron.
DE3021707A1 (en) * 1980-06-10 1981-12-17 Kloeckner Humboldt Deutz Ag Device for importing highly reactive additives into a metal melt

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NO884241D0 (en) 1988-09-23
FI884199D0 (en)
CS686887A1 (en) 1989-02-10
PL274861A1 (en) 1989-05-30
FI884199A0 (en) 1988-09-13
EP0309781A1 (en) 1989-04-05
NO884241L (en) 1989-03-28
FI884199A (en) 1989-03-25
YU170588A (en) 1990-04-30

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