CN202912992U - Energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment - Google Patents

Energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN202912992U
CN202912992U CN 201220627373 CN201220627373U CN202912992U CN 202912992 U CN202912992 U CN 202912992U CN 201220627373 CN201220627373 CN 201220627373 CN 201220627373 U CN201220627373 U CN 201220627373U CN 202912992 U CN202912992 U CN 202912992U
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China
Prior art keywords
equipment
reduction reaction
separating still
reaction district
temperature
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN 201220627373
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
念大路
张克强
王强
陈玉荣
由勇
王平
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Fushun Hanwang DRI Co.,Ltd.
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HANKING INDUSTRIAL GROUP Co Ltd
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Abstract

A piece of energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment belongs to the field of ferronickel production and comprises a pretreatment area, a reduction reaction area and a separation kettle; the total height of the equipment is 7.2 to 15.3 meters, and the height-diameter ratio is 3.4 to 6.3; a preheating area is 3 to 8.3 meters in height and 1.6 to 38.7 m<3> in volume, and the temperature of the top of the preheating area is 80 to 200 DEG C; negative pressure of 9.5 to 9.0 MPa is adopted for operation in a furnace; the reduction reaction area is 2 to 4.2 meters in height and 1.3 to 7.1 m<3> in volume, and the temperature of the reduction reaction area is 1100 DEG C to 1300 DEG C; the separation kettle is 0.4 to 0.8 meter in height and 0.2 to 1.6 m <3> in volume, the temperature of the bottom of the separation kettle is 1050 DEG C to 1250 DEG C, and a molten iron layer of the separation kettle is set to be 70 to 300 mm; and a tapping hole and a slag hole are distributed at the axial distance of 400 to 600 mm and form an angle of 90 degrees to 180 degrees in the radial direction. The energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment has the advantages of low manufacturing cost, good environment-friendly effect and high reduction efficiency.

Description

A kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment
Technical field
The utility model belongs to the ferronickel production field, relates to a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment, is applicable to smelting red clay nickel ore.
Background technology
The nickel-containing ore type mainly contains nickel sulfide ore and nickel oxide ore (also claiming red soil nickel ore), and former various countries mainly take nickel sulfide ore as raw material, pass through electrosmelting; Because the nickel sulfide ore resource has been on the verge of exhaustion, the nickel smelting enterprise of countries in the world transfers to the exploitation of nickel oxide ore resource to sight one after another and utilizes in recent years.
Smelting ferronickel from red soil nickel ore has two kinds of methods, is respectively hydrometallurgical processes and pyrometallurgical smelting process.Because the hydrometallurgical processes environmental pollution is serious, investment is large, seldom has enterprise to adopt this technique.The thermal process smelting ferronickel mainly contains blast furnace smelting process, rotary kiln+mineral hot furnace technique (RKEF) and rotary kiln to melt direct-reduction technique.At first the blast furnace smelting process investment is large, environmental pollution is serious, the coke consumption amount is large, also can't realize selective reduction, and product is nickeliferous, and market demand is few generally 3~6%, and cost is high.Next is rotary kiln+mineral hot furnace technique (RKEF), and this technology investment is large, and the construction period is long, and cost is high treatment stage of raw material; Because moisture content is the red soil nickel ore about 35% will carry out the surface water processing through drying kiln after, pass through again rotary kiln baking prereduction, and then carry out nickel-iron smelting in the input mineral hot furnace, and therefore to consume a large amount of coking coal, electric power and suitable cost of labor, product is nickeliferous about 10%.Rotary kiln to melt direct-reduction red soil nickel ore method besides, this technology utilization revolution cellar for storing things omnidistance to the nickel nodulizing dewater, roasting, the Reduction of Oxides such as NiO, FeO, metal object is assembled, and generates at last and melts the spongy slag inclusion ferronickel granule of attitude, and then carry out magnetic separation; Fusion process heat energy is from coal dust (or heavy oil) burning liberated heat.During the rotary kiln for directly reducing smelting ferronickel is produced, equipment is simple, this technique is quite lower at the actual production operating rate, comprehensive unit energy consumption consumption is high, though invest little but the nickel metal recovery rate is low, cost is high, also not overripened aspect smelting technology, be not widely used in the middle of actual production at home.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model provides a kind of take red soil nickel ore as raw material, adopts the novel red soil nickel ore smelting equipment of energy-conserving and environment-protective, realizes controlled reduced iron.Production technique employing raw ore directly drops in the stove to be smelted, and control in process of production the reduction degree of iron by control temperature of reaction and the reaction times, to solve the problems such as the investment that blast furnace technology, rotary kiln+mineral hot furnace (RKEF), rotary kiln for directly reducing smelting ferronickel method exist is large, production cost is high, take effect slow, the ferronickel grade is low.
A kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment is characterized in that device structure is comprised of separating still, reduction reaction district, pretreating zone, off-gas recovery releasing device, air-distributing disc, expanding layer, refractory brick, bottom temperature survey sensor, water loop temperature survey sensor, reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature; Elbow and diffusion valve are positioned at the equipment top, pretreating zone is positioned at the equipment middle and upper part, the reduction reaction district is positioned at the equipment middle part, separating still is positioned at device bottom, and it is outside that air-distributing disc is positioned at the reduction reaction district, and build the separating still outside refractory brick, be provided with expanding layer between refractory brick and the furnace shell, the water loop temperature survey sensor is arranged in the water cycle, and reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature is arranged in interior furnace shell outside surface, and separating still bottom temp survey sensor is positioned at 50~150mm place under the bottom refractory materials.
Reduction reaction district and separating still contact surface adopt 5~10mm asbestos plate to do packing ring, and internal surface is postponed to separating still refractory brick surface, excessively arc radius 40~60mm from bottom, reduction reaction district with fire-proof spray coating.The bottom in reduction reaction zone has configured 2-8 oxygen air outlet, and tuyere angle is 2 °~8 °, and separating still ladle heel layer is set to 70~300mm, and iron notch is apart from slag notch distance 400~600mm.
The seepage force of considering molten iron is stronger, has set up expanding layer between refractory materials and the furnace shell outside separating still, can effectively alleviate molten iron to the pressure of furnace shell.
7.2~15.3 meters of equipment total heights, aspect ratio 3.4~6.3.Highly low, volume is little, and charge amount is few, and furnace charge is 2.5~4 hours from entering stove to going out one of ferronickel circulation time time, goes out the ferronickel frequency about 1.5~3 hours.
Preheating zone height 3~8.3M, volume 1.6~38.7M 3, the preheating zone head temperature is generally at 80~200 degree; Take negative pressure (9.5~9.0MPa) operations in the stove.
Reduction reaction district height 2~4.2M, volume 1.3~7.1M 3About, 1100 ℃~1300 ℃ of reduction zone temperature.
Separating still height 0.4~0.8M, volume 0.2~1.6M 3, 1050 ℃~1250 ℃ of separating still bottom temps).Separating still ladle heel layer is set to 70~300mm.
Iron notch and slag notch distribute at axial distance 400~600mm, radially are being 90 °~180 ° distributions (concrete angle is decided in the programming and distribution of production scene according to stove).
The reduction reaction district is provided with air-distributing disc, can well oxygen be mixed with air, forms uniform oxygen-rich mixture body and sends in the stove, and can regulate at any time the concentration of oxygen and the size of air output, to reach the purpose of control furnace reduction atmosphere.
(water temperature can not be above 75 ℃~100 ℃ by monitoring each temperature meter, reaction zone is measured temperature should be above 1100 ℃~1300 ℃, the separating still bottom temp should be above 1050 ℃~1250 ℃) regulate flow velocity in the air output, wind speed (entering in the stove), oxygen concn, water cooling system of blower fan, with the temperature of reaction in the control stove.
Separating still bottom temp survey sensor also provides information for the corrosion condition of grasping refractory materials in separating still bottom temp and the indirect reaction stove.
Bottom in the reduction reaction zone of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment has configured 2-8 oxygen air outlet, and tuyere angle is 2 °~8 °, so that better more thoroughly control reduction reaction temperature, improves the grade of ferronickel product.Stock column exists density distribution inhomogeneous in the reduction reaction zone furnace, core furnace charge density is greater than peripheral furnace charge density, add that the interior air-flow of stove is upward movement and affects the air blast effect, easily cause stock column core and edge atmosphere to differ larger, the blast orifice angle is arranged between 2 °~8 °, comes balance furnace high-temperature gas to move upward and the high atmosphere that is caused the stock column core of furnace charge core density and edge atmosphere differ larger situation with this.
For ease of better more thoroughly controlling and regulate reduction reaction atmosphere, the bosh angle in the utility model reduction reaction district is set to 3 °~10 °, can slow down the speed that air-flow rises, and makes reduction reaction more abundant.
Because smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment bosh can be corroded because of temperature, temperature variation, chemical erosion, oxidation, slag potential of hydrogen, physical disturbance etc.When metal cools equipment exposes for a long time in high furnace interior hot Gas Flow or liquid slag iron, its working face will be washed away, worn and torn and be corroded, and its life longevity is shortened.Therefore the design considers that building fire-proof spray coating by laying bricks or stones at the water cooler working face protects water cooler; thickness is 10mm~80mm; in the protection water cooler, also increased the dross ability of reduction reaction district inwall; when water circulation system is lowered the temperature to reduction reaction district bosh in addition; also reduced the temperature of slag; strengthen the dross ability of flame retardant coating, better protected water cooler, prolonged the life-span of stove.
The utility model smelting technology adopts wet bulb to enter the mode smelting red clay nickel ore of stove, negative-pressure operation, partial reduction.The pellet water content is 3kg~10kg/cm in 20%-30%, intensity 2, tap to tap time 180min~300min, 1260 ℃~1380 ℃ of smelting temperatures obtain nickeliferously all adopting negative-pressure operation greater than the 13% thick nickel pig iron in the whole smelting process stove, negative pressure value is at 9.5~9.0Mpa.
The preheating zone since fuel in the stove internal combustion, furnace charge becomes countercurrent movement with high temperature gas flow, thereby the heat exchange condition is good.Can produce in the stove when furnace charge constantly moves downward has a large amount of water vapour evaporations, fricative dust had played restraining effect when furnace charge was moved downward, add and take negative pressure (9.5~9.0MPa) operations in the stove, can control a large amount of dust can not outwards overflow, thereby reach the purpose of depositing dust dedusting, environment protecting is good.Because furnace charge moisture evaporates rear volume-diminished, so that loosening of furnace charge change increased the area that furnace charge contacts with furnace gas, improved reduction efficiency after the simultaneously moisture evaporation.
The reduction reaction district adopts flange to be connected with pretreating zone.Reduction reaction district furnace charge has become molten state, and other metals such as most of nickel and a part of iron substantially all begin to be reduced into the simple substance state in this section, flow into separating still.Main reaction has:
NiO+C→Ni+CO↑T=420℃ (1)
FeO+C→Fe+CO↑T=650℃ (2)
Cr203+C→Cr+CO↑ (3)
SiO2+C→Si+CO↑ (4)
Can find out that by reaction formula (1), (2) Ni more easily reduces than Fe, control 1010 ℃~1400 ℃ of low furnace temperature, the reduction rate of the Fe that slows down in the situation that Ni has reduced first substantially as far as possible.
Separating still ladle heel layer is set to 70~300mm, the stability action of temperature in energy better protecting bottom refractory and the stove.In order to improve product nickel content, the drastic reduction of control iron, the one, the design iron notch is apart from slag notch distance 400~600mm, reduction reaction at this fragment position Ni is substantially complete, mainly deposit approximately unreduced ferric oxide and other slags of 40%~65%, cinder notch is arranged on this position and can reaches and get rid of preferably the effect that iron stays nickel.
Adopt the energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment of the utility model, can will mainly contain in the red soil nickel ore equipment of Ni:1.52%~3.16%Fe:9.58%~39.58 and finish controlled reduction, smelt the Rhometal product that to contain Ni:13%~20%.
Production technique directly drops into smelting in the stove after adopting red soil nickel ore raw ore pressure ball, has saved the sintering process link, can significantly reduce production costs.Contain 20~30% moisture because of pellet, smelting process produces a large amount of water vapour evaporations, and (negative pressure value is 9.5~9.0Mpa), and can control a large amount of dust can not outwards overflow to add the interior formation of stove negative-pressure operation, thereby reach the purpose of depositing dust dedusting, environment protecting is good.Simultaneously because evaporation of water so that loosening of furnace charge change increased the area that furnace charge contacts with furnace gas, has improved reduction efficiency.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the utility model device structure schematic diagram,
1: separating still 2: reduction reaction district 3: pretreating zone 4: off-gas recovery releasing device 5: air-distributing disc 6: expanding layer 7: refractory brick 8: bottom temperature survey sensor 9: water loop temperature survey sensor 10: reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature.
Fig. 2 is the utility model separating still and the situation that the links schematic diagram in reduction reaction district.
Embodiment
The utility model device structure is comprised of separating still 1, reduction reaction district 2, pretreating zone 3, off-gas recovery releasing device 4, air-distributing disc 5, expanding layer 6, refractory brick 7, bottom temperature survey sensor 8, water loop temperature survey sensor 9, reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature 10.The off-gas recovery releasing device is positioned at the equipment top, pretreating zone is positioned at the equipment middle and upper part, the reduction reaction district is positioned at the equipment middle part, separating still is positioned at device bottom, it is outside that air-distributing disc is positioned at the reduction reaction district, formed by laying fireproof bricks around the separating still, be provided with expanding layer between refractory brick and the furnace shell, water loop temperature survey sensor (being arranged in the water cycle), reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature (being arranged in interior furnace shell outside surface), separating still bottom temp survey sensor (being positioned at 50~150mm place under the bottom refractory materials).
Reduction reaction district and separating still contact surface adopt 5~10mm asbestos plate to do packing ring, and internal surface is postponed to separating still refractory brick surface, excessively arc radius 40~60mm from bottom, reduction reaction district with fire-proof spray coating.The bottom in reduction reaction zone has configured 2-8 oxygen air outlet, and tuyere angle is 2 °~8 °, and separating still ladle heel layer is set to 70~300mm, and iron notch is apart from slag notch distance 400~600mm,
Energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment is considered accident blowing out, the factor such as easy to maintenance in when design, and pretreating zone, reduction reaction district and separating still are made into respectively separate component, forms the up-down structure built-up type, is the maintenance condition that facilitates.Because there is a certain amount of ladle heel layer in separating still, the anti-material in separating still bottom is subject to the erosion of alloy for a long time, therefore in bottom centre a sensor for measuring temperature is set and in time observes the variation of separating still bottom temp, can be directly acquainted with the corrosion condition of bottom refractory materials.
The utility model structural feature is:
A. design the invention total height at 7.2~15.3 meters.
B. pretreating zone height 3~8.3M, volume 1.6~38.7M 3.
C. the operation negative pressure value is 9.5~9.0Mpa in the stove
D. reduction reaction district height is 2~4.2 meters, volume 1.37~7.1M 3
E. the blast orifice angle is at 2~8 degree
F. the reduction zone bosh angle is 3~10 degree
G. iron notch and slag notch are radially becoming the 90-180 degree to distribute at axial distance 400~600mm.
The utility model can be smelted the NiFe alloy that to contain Ni13%~20% with the red soil nickel ore that contains Ni1.52%~3.16% in energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment.
The above only is the preferred practical range of the best of the present utility model, and near positive and negative several designs of extending the preferred practical range of the best also belong to this invention protection domain.

Claims (7)

1. an energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment is characterized in that device structure is comprised of separating still (1), reduction reaction district (2), pretreating zone (3), off-gas recovery releasing device (4), air-distributing disc (5), expanding layer (6), refractory brick (7), bottom temperature survey sensor (8), water loop temperature survey sensor (9), reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature (10); The off-gas recovery releasing device is positioned at the equipment top, and pretreating zone is positioned at the equipment middle and upper part, and the reduction reaction district is positioned at the equipment middle part, separating still is positioned at device bottom, it is outside that air-distributing disc is positioned at the reduction reaction district, and build the separating still outside refractory brick, is provided with expanding layer between refractory brick and the furnace shell; The water loop temperature survey sensor is arranged in the water cycle, and reduction reaction district sensor for measuring temperature is arranged in interior furnace shell outside surface, and separating still bottom temp survey sensor is positioned at 50~150mm place under the bottom refractory materials.
2. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that 7.2~15.3 meters of equipment total heights, aspect ratio 3.4~6.3;
Preheating zone height 3~8.3M, volume 1.6~38.7M 3, the preheating zone head temperature is 80~200 ℃;
Reduction reaction district height 2~4.2M, volume 1.3~7.1M 3, 1100 ℃~1300 ℃ of reduction zone temperature;
Separating still height 0.4~0.8M, volume 0.2~1.6M 3, 1050 ℃~1250 ℃ of separating still bottom temps, separating still ladle heel layer is set to 70~300mm.
3. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that iron notch and slag notch distribute at axial distance 400~600mm, are radially becoming 90 °~180 ° distributions.
4. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that reduction reaction district and separating still contact surface adopt 5~10mm asbestos plate to do packing ring, internal surface is postponed to separating still refractory brick surface, excessively arc radius 40~60mm from bottom, reduction reaction district with fire-proof spray coating.
5. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the bottom in the reduction reaction zone of equipment has configured 2-8 oxygen air outlet, and tuyere angle is 2 °~8 °.
6. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the bosh angle in reduction reaction district is set to 3 °~10 °.
7. a kind of energy saving and environment friendly smelting laterite-nickel ores equipment as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that having built fire-proof spray coating by laying bricks or stones at the water cooler working face, and thickness is 10mm~80mm.
CN 201220627373 2012-11-26 2012-11-26 Energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment Expired - Fee Related CN202912992U (en)

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CN 201220627373 CN202912992U (en) 2012-11-26 2012-11-26 Energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN 201220627373 CN202912992U (en) 2012-11-26 2012-11-26 Energy-saving and environment-friendly laterite nickel ore smelting equipment

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105420514A (en) * 2015-11-30 2016-03-23 钱国庆 Method and equipment for smelting ferronickel
EP3165619A4 (en) * 2014-08-01 2017-08-23 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Method for smelting nickel oxide ore
US10323297B2 (en) 2014-07-15 2019-06-18 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Method for producing pellet and method for smelting nickel oxide ore

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10323297B2 (en) 2014-07-15 2019-06-18 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Method for producing pellet and method for smelting nickel oxide ore
EP3165619A4 (en) * 2014-08-01 2017-08-23 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Method for smelting nickel oxide ore
US10041144B2 (en) 2014-08-01 2018-08-07 Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Method for smelting nickel oxide ore
CN105420514A (en) * 2015-11-30 2016-03-23 钱国庆 Method and equipment for smelting ferronickel

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C14 Grant of patent or utility model
GR01 Patent grant
C41 Transfer of patent application or patent right or utility model
TR01 Transfer of patent right

Effective date of registration: 20151203

Address after: 113122 Liaoning city in Fushun Province Economic Development Zone Economic Zone Lagucun Laguna

Patentee after: Fushun Hanwang DRI Co.,Ltd.

Address before: Shenhe Youth Street District of Shenyang City, Liaoning province 110016 No. 227 building Hanking

Patentee before: Hanking Industrial Group Co., Ltd.

CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20130501

Termination date: 20161126