Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model is for the defects that exists in the prior art, provides that a kind of working ability is strong, working (machining) efficiency and the two main shaft symmetrical expression grinding centers of the much higher planker of machining accuracy.
The purpose of this utility model realizes by the following technical solutions: the two main shaft symmetrical expression grinding centers of these many plankers comprise lathe bed seat, workbench, column, planker, horizontal wheelhead and Vertical Mill head; Slidely connect the first planker on the front lathe bed seat, described workbench is slidingly connected on the first planker, is provided with turntable in the workbench, and the first planker can slide front and back on front lathe bed seat, and workbench can horizontally slip at the first planker; The first column and second column of left-right symmetry and formation door shape are set on the rear lathe bed seat, the second planker is arranged between the first column and the second column, embrace the front and back end that formula is slidingly connected to cross the second planker in described horizontal wheelhead gantry, the second planker can drive horizontal wheelhead and slide up and down, and horizontal wheelhead also can slide front and back in the second planker; Outside symmetry at the first column and the second column slidely connects two the 3rd plankers, slidely connect respectively again left skateboard and right slide plate on two the 3rd plankers, two the 3rd plankers can slide up and down along the first column and the second column respectively, and left skateboard and right slide plate can slide front and back on two the 3rd plankers respectively again; Described Vertical Mill head is arranged at the right nose on the right the 3rd planker that the second column connects, and can 120 degree automatic rotations, and the Vertical Mill head disposes automatic tool changer; Left skateboard front end with the left side the 3rd planker on the second planker is provided with emery wheel profiling trimming device, and becomes the 35 degree elevations angle to guarantee that three-shaft linkages detect online to horizontal wheelhead and profiling is repaired.
More particularly, described emery wheel profiling trimming device comprises crushing assembly and laser detector, and the emery wheel corresponding position disposes the grindstone dust adsorbent equipment; Described crushing assembly comprises diamond pen, the leading screw that is connected with diamond pen, drives the servomotor of leading screw; Described laser detector comprises grating scale; The crushing assembly links to each other with Computerized digital control system with laser detector; Described grindstone dust adsorbent equipment comprises near the first electrode and the second electrode that is located at respectively grinding wheel spindle center and the grinding-wheel grinder bevel.
Described Vertical Mill head automatic tool changer comprises tool magazine and manipulator, solves processing request to change various emery wheels and milling cutter.
Described the first planker is provided with a plurality of the first leading screws, and the lathe bed seat is established the first servomotor and the second servomotor and driven the first planker by leading screw and move; Described the second planker is established the second leading screw, and the second leading screw connects the second servomotor; Described the first column and the second column are established a plurality of guide rails, the right between the first column and the second column is provided with transmission case, transmission case connects the 3rd servomotor and the 3rd leading screw, the 3rd leading screw is located at the second column also and the right the 3rd planker links, and the left side the 3rd planker and the second planker be the totally second leading screw; Be respectively equipped with the 4th screw mandrel on two the 3rd plankers and drive the 4th servomotor that left skateboard, right slide plate move; Each servomotor links to each other with Computerized digital control system.
Described the first planker and front lathe bed adopt two V-type rails and two flat pattern guide rails to realize that hard rail is slidingly connected, and drive the first planker with ball-screw and move.
Have a window in the middle of described the first column to guarantee the supplying left side the 3rd planker to link to each other with the second planker.
Described front lathe bed seat highly is no more than 470mm, and rear lathe bed seat highly is not less than 600mm, and workbench thickness is not less than 320mm; The deflection degree H of described the second planker is no more than 0.10mm.
Turntable in the described workbench is the static pressure type turntable, is positioned at Vertical Mill head center, and its running accuracy is μ m radially≤1, axial float≤1 μ m.
The two main shaft symmetrical expression grinding centers of many plankers of the present utility model adopt emery wheel profiling trimming device that horizontal wheelhead is detected and the automatic profiling finishing online, and dressing accuracy is high; Adopt rotatablely moving of all around motion relative with workbench of lathe bed seat, planker and turntable, inner circle and the Cylindrical Grinding Processes of can disposable clamping finishing plane, facade, end face, complex-curved, hemisphere face, noncircularity grinding, round-ring like workpiece, adopt Computerized digital control system to realize the online processing that detects, make machining accuracy increase the surface roughness of processing work of the present utility model＜Ra0.16 μ m.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples the utility model is described in further detail.
Referring to Fig. 1, in the present embodiment, four guide rails of two V amphiplatyans of front lathe bed seat 1 are provided with the first planker 2 of operation before and after ball-screw drives, the double V-shaped guide rail of the first planker 2 is provided with the workbench 3 of operation about leading screw drives, and is provided with the static pressure turntable 4 of 360 degree rotations in the recess in the middle of the workbench 3.
Many guide rails the first column 6 and second column 7 of left-right symmetry and formation door shape are set on the rear lathe bed seat 5, are provided with in the column gantry guide rail through the leading screw transmission and drive up and down the second planker 8 of operation.Horizontal wheelhead 9, the second plankers 8 that the formula of embracing in 8 li of the second plankers has operation before and after the leading screw transmission drives drive horizontal wheelheads 9 upper and lower slips, and horizontal wheelhead 9 also can slide in the second planker 8 interior front and back.Turntable 4 is positioned at Vertical Mill head center, and its running accuracy is μ m radially≤1, axial float≤1 μ m.Slidely connecting respectively two the 3rd plankers on two closed slides in the outside of the first column 6 and the second column 7 is left planker 10 and right planker 11, left planker 10 and right planker 11 the insides slidely connect respectively again left skateboard 12 and right slide plate 13, left planker 10 and right planker 11 slide up and down along the guide rail of the first column 6 and the second column 7 respectively, and left skateboard 12 and right slide plate 13 slide at left planker 10 and 11 li front and back of right planker respectively again.Vertical Mill head 14 is arranged on the indexable rotating disk of right slide plate 13 front ends on the right planker 11, and servomotor drives dial rotation by the turbine worm in the rotating disk, and drives the rotation that Vertical Mill head 14 is made 120 degree.Referring to Fig. 4, Vertical Mill head 14 disposes automatic tool changer 25, and Vertical Mill head automatic tool changer comprises tool magazine and manipulator, solves processing request to change various emery wheels and milling cutter.Tool magazine storage emery wheel cutter and next namely will with the emery wheel cutter deliver to exactly tool change position, finish the exchange of new and old emery wheel cutter for manipulator.Wherein, manteau formula tool magazine simple and compact for structure, emery wheel and cutter single loop arrangement, number of cutters generally are no more than 36; Tray type structure places the vertical spindle side.Driven by servomotor or mechanical type cam linkage are adopted in the driving of manipulator.On the second planker 8, be provided with emery wheel profiling trimming device with left skateboard 12 front ends, emery wheel profiling trimming device comprises crushing assembly 15 and laser detector 16, as can be seen from Fig. 1, laser detector 16 is the below that grating scale is installed on left skateboard 12 front ends.Referring to Fig. 3, crushing assembly 15 comprises diamond pen 21, the longitudinal leadscrew in the leading screw mount pad 22 that is connected with diamond pen 21, and the servomotor 23 of driving leading screw, 24 is wheel guards among the figure.Referring to Fig. 2, horizontal wheelhead corresponding position configuration grindstone dust adsorbent equipment, the grindstone dust adsorbent equipment comprises the first electrode and the second electrode that is located on grinding wheel spindle center and near the wheel guard of grinding-wheel grinder bevel, after energising in the electrode, two electrodes can form one by the outer electromagnetic field of axle center sensing, grinding particle and dust will be attracted by the electrode in the outside of emery wheel, thereby the cleaning of assurance emery wheel and smooth, guarantee that grinding surface of the work out is brighter and cleaner, among Fig. 2, the 18th, abrasive grinding wheel, the 19th, workpiece, the 20th, chemical cooling fluid.Emery wheel profiling trimming device links to each other with the counting machine digital control system, and becomes the 35 degree elevations angle to detect and the profiling finishing horizontal wheelhead is online to guarantee three-shaft linkage.
The first planker 2 is provided with a plurality of the first leading screws, and the lathe bed seat is established the first servomotor and the second servomotor and driven the first planker 2 by leading screw and move, and a kind of servomotor is used for spurring in front planker, and another kind of servomotor is used for promoting in the back planker; The second planker 8 is established the second leading screw, and the second leading screw connects the second servomotor; The first column 6 and the second column 7 are established a plurality of guide rails, the right between the first column 6 and the second column 7 is provided with transmission case 17, transmission case 17 connects the 3rd servomotor and the 3rd leading screw, the 3rd leading screw is located at the second column 7 also and the right the 3rd planker 11 links, the left side the 3rd planker 10 and the second planker 8 be the totally second leading screw, has a window in the middle of the first column 6 to guarantee the supplying left side the 3rd planker 10 to link to each other with the second planker 8.Be respectively equipped with the 4th screw mandrel on two the 3rd plankers and drive the 4th servomotor that left skateboard, right slide plate move; Each servomotor links to each other with Computerized digital control system.
Among the utility model embodiment, front lathe bed seat 1 highly is no more than 470mm, and rear lathe bed seat 5 highly is not less than 600mm, and its workbench 3 thickness are not less than 320mm.
The guide rail deflection degree H that embraces the second planker 8 of formula in its many guide rail upright columns of symmetrical expression gantry guide rail is no more than 0.10mm.
In the utility model, the left and right sides lengthwise movement axle of workbench is defined as X-axis, and the axle that moves up and down of horizontal wheelhead is defined as the Z1 axle, and the front and back transverse movement axle of horizontal wheelhead is defined as the Y1 axle; The axle that moves up and down of Vertical Mill head is defined as the Z2 axle, and the front and back transverse movement axle of Vertical Mill head is defined as the Y2 axle, and the rotating shaft that the Vertical Mill head is made 120 degree with indexable rotating disk is defined as the A axle; The rotating shaft that can make the static pressure turntable of 360 degree rotations in the middle of the workbench is defined as the C axle.Referring to Figure 12, each servomotor that drives above-mentioned seven axles is connected on the fieldbus by the servo-drive amplifying circuit, fieldbus is connected with motion controller, motion controller is connected with touch-screen, motion controller is connected on the Ethernet by switch simultaneously, like this, cooperate custom-designed control software, can realize the sevenfive axis of grinding center by Computerized digital control system.Figure 13, Figure 14, Figure 15 drive the servomotor of above-mentioned seven axles and the connection diagram of servo amplifying circuit.
Emery wheel machining accuracy control of the present utility model is the combination of the adjusting of a comprehensive system and control mode, it is not a simple technology, adopt multiple means and the usefulness such as the compensation of emery wheel track, machined parameters optimization adjusting, the adjustment of process system component links, finally reach the Comprehensive Control to machining accuracy.Numerical control grinding process medium plain emery wheel locus interference is more complicated than numerical control turning, Milling Process, and is very serious on the machining accuracy impact.Therefore consider emery wheel trajectory planning error and take into full account the Wheel Interference impact, set up effective Precision-control Measure by choose reasonable emery wheel size and emery wheel tool track and attitude.
For the abrasive wheel end face grinding, determine then definite maximum grinding wheel radius value that allows employing of amount of interference according to the mismachining tolerance that allows.
For inner sunken face, adopt emery wheel face of cylinder grinding to reduce interference between emery wheel and the surface to be machined, when processing curve for can open up ruled surface, select grinding wheel radius to be ground the curvature of curved surface radius arbitrarily less than finished surface and just can avoid locus interference fully.
For the curved surface that processing section shape remains unchanged substantially, adopt the forming grinding wheel grinding after three-shaft linkage is repaired, the emery wheel working face is meshed fully with grinding curved surface, thereby has avoided Wheel Interference.
Complex-curved for opening up, determine to allow scallop-height and Programming Error design emery wheel tool track based on the mismachining tolerance that allows, generate preliminary emery wheel spatial attitude, then carry out the Wheel Interference inspection, emery wheel parameter and emery wheel attitude are further adjusted optimization.Adopt comprehensive relatively, measure or get profile analysis, with the continuous gradation color intuitively disclose the theoretical wide face of workpiece and emery wheel enveloping surface between the two error cross and cut and owe the shear law.At the position that produces error, compensation by the emery wheel track, realization is processed compensation of error, lack whole and unified plan optimization and adjustment for the track data of finding the solution out for single curved surface one by one, on the basis of the emery wheel track preliminary data that in part model geometrical analysis process, obtains, based on permanent clearance, Deng scallop-height, few (nothing) interferes, little redundant error, the methods such as minimizing idle running are further optimized the emery wheel track, set up corresponding emery wheel track adaptive path optimization algorithm and obtain also to consider the emery wheel incision in the whole best trajectory planning scheme optimization and cut out path optimization and to feed total time carrying out theoretical prediction, thereby realize the control of machining accuracy.
Process intelligent application technology further step of the present utility model is, it goes out multi-shaft interlocked software based on PLC to two spindle processing develops, and main feature is:
(1) PLC that adopts external famous brand name is as motion control core, and control accuracy is high, and reliability is strong.
(2) adopt touch-screen as man machine operation interface, simple to operation.
(3) AC servo that adopts external famous brand name is as executing agency, and control accuracy is high, and fast response time operates steadily
(4) have plane and form grinding function.
(5) has curved surface, hemisphere face, noncircularity grinding, the inner circle of round-ring like workpiece and cylindricalo grinding function.
(6) has the backlass automatic compensation function.
(7) has leading screw pitch automatic compensation function.
The special-purpose control method of many plankers symmetrical expression grinding center of the present utility model is, servomotor is connected with computer through fieldbus, connect the Ethernet forming control system through switch again, its remote computer comprises and is provided with the touch-screen hardware platform that the two CPU based on the special-purpose motion numerical control of ARM+FPGA chip make up and is provided with database, process intelligent application system, the machining software platform is directly inputted digital control system with cad data, has automatic interruption circulatory function.
Complex parts grinding automatic Programming Technology: according to the technological parameter of emery wheel, carry out postposition in conjunction with the today's numerical control system type and process, generate the numerical control machining code corresponding with digital control system.After the success of motion simulation module testing, be transferred to Digit Control Machine Tool by data communication and carry out actual grinding, thereby foundation is based on the automated programming platform of complex parts grinding.
The embedded computer digital control system, two CPU based on the special-purpose motion numerical control of ARM+FPGA chip make up the Computerized digital control system hardware platform, wherein the Main Function of ARM controller is to be responsible for spinning in the operational system and managing relevant task, is the main control CPU of system; The FPGA special sport control chip is responsible for moving large, higher to the requirement of real-time of the task tasks of operand such as interpolation computer, is exclusively used in heavy interpolation operation, alleviates the burden of arm processor.
Control system is comprised of the subsystems module section, mainly comprises leading screw compensating module, fast moving module, hand-operated moving module, backlash compensation module, plane manual grinding module, plane automatic grinding module, curved surface automatic grinding module, automatic tool changer module, scheduler module and alarm module.Parameter and leading screw error compensation parameter that PLC sets according to man-machine interface, after processing and calculating, send corresponding pulse signal to servo-driver, and indirectly measure the displacement of kinematic axis by the measured angular displacement with the coaxial mounted incremental encoder of servomotor, then feed back in the servo controller, compare with position command setting value, control each reference axis with the difference after relatively and move according to projected path.
Lubricating system is loop gravity flow automatic lubricating system; gravity flow carries out constant pressure oil supply to guide rail, solves electromagnetic pump gap fuel feeding and causes error to the switchboards of job guide rail precision, solves the shortcoming of the lack of lubrication of again starting shooting after starting shooting; thereby reduce maintenance, guarantee the normal operation of lathe.
Machine tool structure of the present utility model can satisfy multiple shape technology and uninterrupted finishing, and the grinding adsorbent equipment in wheel-guard can improve machined surface quality; Increased the automated programming platform of complex parts grinding technique intelligent use technology and grinding, this control technology system belongs to domestic initiation.Solved three-dimension curved surface machining accuracy and the surface quality of complex parts, reduced repeated clamping, enhanced productivity and processing stability, simplified the technological process of production, reduced production costs.
The utility model is used in effective travel and the lathe height that low early and high after lathe bed seat mainly solves horizontal wheelhead, the first planker that moves forward and backward is set on four guide rails of two V amphiplatyans, can satisfy horizontal geometric accuracy and the heavy stability of lathe, the workbench that left and right sides back and forth movement is arranged on the first planker, in the recess in the middle of the dedicated static pressure turntable is arranged, solve the requirement of vertical grinding, parallel suspend horizontal wheelhead below the second planker of armful formula in the column gantry guide rail of the many guide rails of symmetrical expression, can satisfy the plane, the general processing of curve generating and guide pass, two closed slides are established for about the planker of the connection left and right sides in the left and right sides of the many guide rail upright columns of symmetrical expression, the left and right sides slide plate that left and right sides planker control moves forward and backward, the supporting Vertical Mill head that arranges of 120 degree turntables on right slide plate, mainly satisfy hemisphere face, the noncircularity grinding, the inner circle of round-ring like workpiece and Cylindrical Grinding Processes, the second planker is being controlled left planker, grating scale and dresser are housed on the left skateboard in the left planker, make it have every processing request, widened the range of work.
The lathe bed seat that the utility model is low early and high after and the first planker all adopt four guide rails of two V amphiplatyans to cooperate, and the static pressure unloading plastic-sticking guiding rail operates steadily and precision height, good rigidly, good anti-vibration; The many guide rail upright columns of symmetrical expression are fit to balance and the function allocation of lathe.
The utility model reference axis adopts ultralow lathe bed seat center of gravity drive principle, has greatly improved grinding work quality and lathe service life.
The utility model is fit to multiple high-grade grinding equipment, is particularly suitable for doing the high-precision intelligent numerical control equipment for grinding of three-dimensional processing request.
Fig. 5 is the utility model intelligence control system hardware block diagram, by man-machine interface controlled working central motion, movement instruction is dealt among the PLC, and PLC drives servo-driver, and then the control motor rotation, servomotor band encoder and SERVO CONTROL realize closed-loop control.
Fig. 6 is correlation block diagram between each module of the utility model intelligence control system.
Fig. 7 is automatic grinding module flow chart.After the circulation beginning, Y-axis, Z axis move automatically according to setup parameter, finish the stock removal of setting after, circulation finishes automatically.
Fig. 8 is plane automatic grinding module flow chart.The plane automatic grinding be divided into corase grind, the correct grinding and without the feeding grinding; After finishing without the feeding grinding, circulation finishes automatically.
Fig. 9 is curved surface automatic grinding module flow chart.After automatic grinding begins, if the Y-axis target location greater than the Y-axis extreme lower position, Y-axis, Z axis carry out interpolation operation automatically, then carry out pulse output according to operation result; If the Y-axis target location is less than the Y-axis extreme lower position, curve surface grinding finishes automatically.
Figure 10 is hand-operated moving module flow chart.
Figure 11 is top control module, i.e. the scheduler module schematic diagram.
The below introduces the main performance index of one of the utility model embodiment:
But the Breadth Maximum of grinding: 800 * 1500
But the maximum height of grinding: 800
The roughness of workpiece grinding skin: Ra0.16
The workpiece grinding skin is to the depth of parallelism of basal plane: 500/0.004
But the maximum height difference of grinding-shaping curved surface: 150
Hemisphere face, noncircularity grinding, 630
Cover class cylindrical, 630
Cover class inner circle, 130
Numerical control resolution ratio: 0.001MM
Digital control system interpolation cycle: 4ms
Machine Tool Positioning Accuracy: X (mm) 0.005/1500
Repetitive positioning accuracy: X, Y1, Y2, Z1, Z2 (mm) 0.003