CN1877473A - Power battery management system for electric vehicle - Google Patents

Power battery management system for electric vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1877473A
CN1877473A CNA2006100319031A CN200610031903A CN1877473A CN 1877473 A CN1877473 A CN 1877473A CN A2006100319031 A CNA2006100319031 A CN A2006100319031A CN 200610031903 A CN200610031903 A CN 200610031903A CN 1877473 A CN1877473 A CN 1877473A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
battery
cell
ecu
bus
sub
Prior art date
Application number
CNA2006100319031A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
唐广笛
刘凌
汪伟
王坤俊
李雪峰
谢香梅
徐建华
李伟聪
Original Assignee
中国南车集团株洲电力机车研究所
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Application filed by 中国南车集团株洲电力机车研究所 filed Critical 中国南车集团株洲电力机车研究所
Priority to CNA2006100319031A priority Critical patent/CN1877473A/en
Publication of CN1877473A publication Critical patent/CN1877473A/en

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Classifications

    • Y02T10/7005
    • Y02T10/7044
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles

Abstract

Disclosed is an electronic vehicle driving cell management system which comprises CAN bus, a main ECU, a sub ECU and a dual RAM which are connected on the CAN bus. The main ECU samples on the cell bus voltage and bus current; calculates SOC of the cell group; and completes the analysis of the cell's status, control on charging, discharging and temperature, and management on the cell. The sub ECU includes a monolithic computer, a cell equalizer, a monomer cell voltage sampling circuit, a monomer cell temperature sampling circuit and a communication interface for expanding CAN; wherein the output interfaces of each sampling circuit are connected with the signal input terminals of the monolithic computer via sampling wires. The dual RAM accepts the cell status data transmitted by the main ECU and the sub ECU; and it can work with other components on the vehicle to transmit data via CAN bus and works as a gateway. The monomer cell voltage and temperature sampling buses are separately connected with their corresponding sub ECU ports. The inventive system collects the working parameter of the cell group, performs calculation, analysis, management and control on the vehicle cell group.

Description

A kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle

Technical field

The invention belongs to the automobile electric power supply control system, particularly a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle.

Background technology

Now, the petroleum resources critical shortage, various countries are being devoted to develop ev industry.Wherein electrokinetic cell partly is one of vitals of electric automobile, also is the bottleneck place that influences its development.Whether electrokinetic cell has reliably determined the performance of electric automobile to a great extent with safety.Electrokinetic cell is except itself will have good performance, and battery management system also is vital to the guarantee efficient, safe operation of battery, has determined the reliability and the security of electric automobile to a certain extent.At present, no matter domestic still external, for the battery management Study on Technology also all is to be in the exploratory stage, it is all not mature enough technically to have released scheme or product, function is also more single, only finishes cell voltage, electric current, temperature are done data sampling, just a battery data acquisition system, battery is not effectively managed and controlled, this all has unpredictalbe potential safety hazard for battery or even whole automobile.

Summary of the invention

In order effectively to gather voltage, electric current and the temperature data of each battery of electric battery, can in time calculate, analyze again the battery charge amount (SOC) of electric battery, thereby the car load electric battery is managed comprehensively and effectively and controlled, the invention provides a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle.

A kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle, it comprises CAN bus 1, it is characterized in that it also comprises the main ECU2 that is connected on this CAN bus 1, sub-ECU3 and dual port RAM 4, wherein:

Described main ECU2 comprises a single-chip microcomputer, memory RAM, it is to battery bus voltages, bus current sampling, and the SOC of counting cell group, finish simultaneously to the analysis of battery status with to control and fault diagnosis, battery safety management, the equalizaing charge of charging process, discharge process, battery pack temperature and manage;

The single-chip microcomputer of described main ECU2 is 32 68376 single-chip microcomputers with inner floating-point operation function, and memory RAM is the non-volatile ram of band real time clock.

Described sub-ECU3 comprises a single-chip microcomputer, battery equalizer, monomer battery voltage sample circuit, cell temperature sampling circuit and expansion CAN communication interface, and the output terminal of each sample circuit links to each other with the sampled signal input end of single-chip microcomputer by sample line respectively;

The battery equalizer of described sub-ECU3 is made up of the Switching Power Supply of multichannel single-ended reverse exciting, and its input end is the voltage end of entire cell case, the corresponding way switch power supply of each battery in the battery case;

The single-chip microcomputer of described sub-ECU3 adopts the P89C668 that has 8KRAM and 64Kflash based on 51 frameworks, and it is the interface chip of SJA1000 that expansion CAN communication interface adopts model, as network communication; It is the temperature sensor of DS18B20 that the cell temperature sampling circuit adopts model;

Described dual port RAM 4 comprises a single-chip microcomputer and a CAN bus interface that links to each other with other parts of car load, and it accepts the battery status data of main ECU2 and sub-ECU3 transmission, can send data by the CAN bus with other parts of car load simultaneously, has gateway function;

It is the integrated circuit of AT29C040A that the single-chip microcomputer of described dual port RAM 4 adopts model;

Described sub-ECU3 comprises that two or more structures are identical and is connected in sub-ECU on the described CAN bus 1 in parallel that the voltage of the cell of each electric battery, temperature sampling the line corresponding port of the ECU corresponding with it respectively link to each other.

ECU is actually one " electronic control unit " (Electronic Control Unit), and it is made up of three parts such as input circuit, microcomputer and output circuits.The CAN data bus is the multiplex communication network technology just, with network system of ECU formation of car load.Full name of RAM (Random Access Memory) is random access memory.

The present invention is based on the CAN bus communication technology, adopt the hierarchy design.Can carry out collection, data analysis, balanced control and the protection of voltage, electric current, temperature to each electric battery and single battery thereof; effectively management and control car load electric battery can avoid battery and whole automobile to produce unpredictalbe potential safety hazard to a great extent aspect power management.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a principle of the invention schematic block diagram;

Fig. 2 is a master ECU software flow pattern of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the sub-ECU software flow pattern of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a kind of mount scheme figure of embodiment of the present invention.

Embodiment

Shown in Fig. 1-4, a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle, it comprises CAN bus 1, it is characterized in that it also comprises the main ECU2 that is connected on this CAN bus 1, sub-ECU3 and dual port RAM 4, wherein:

Described main ECU2 comprises a single-chip microcomputer, memory RAM, it is to battery bus voltages, bus current sampling, and the SOC of counting cell group, finish simultaneously to the analysis of battery status with to control and fault diagnosis, battery safety management, the equalizaing charge of charging process, discharge process, battery pack temperature and manage;

The single-chip microcomputer of described main ECU2 is 32 68376 single-chip microcomputers with inner floating-point operation function, and memory RAM is the non-volatile ram of band real time clock.

Described sub-ECU3 comprises a single-chip microcomputer, battery equalizer, monomer battery voltage sample circuit, cell temperature sampling circuit and expansion CAN communication interface, and the output terminal of each sample circuit links to each other with the sampled signal input end of single-chip microcomputer by sample line respectively;

The battery equalizer of described sub-ECU3 is made up of the Switching Power Supply of multichannel single-ended reverse exciting, and its input end is the voltage end of entire cell case, the corresponding way switch power supply of each battery in the battery case;

The single-chip microcomputer of described sub-ECU3 adopts the P89C668 that has 8KRAM and 64Kflash based on 51 frameworks, and it is the interface chip of SJA1000 that expansion CAN communication interface adopts model, as network communication; It is the temperature sensor of DS18B20 that the cell temperature sampling circuit adopts model;

Described dual port RAM 4 comprises a single-chip microcomputer and a CAN bus interface that links to each other with other parts of car load, and it accepts the battery status data of main ECU2 and sub-ECU3 transmission, can send data by the CAN bus with other parts of car load simultaneously, has gateway function;

It is the integrated circuit of AT29C040A that the single-chip microcomputer of described dual port RAM 4 adopts model;

Described sub-ECU3 comprises that two or more structures are identical and is connected in sub-ECU on the described CAN bus 1 in parallel that the voltage of the cell of each electric battery, temperature sampling the line corresponding port of the ECU corresponding with it respectively link to each other.

Specifically, sub-ECU3 carries out voltage sample, temperature employing, management balanced device, sends battery datas by CAN bus 1 to dual port RAM 4 simultaneously each electric battery; Main ECU2 is then to battery bus voltages, bus current sampling, and the SOC of counting cell group (battery charge amount).Accept the battery status data that each sub-ECU sends simultaneously, analyze data, and then take concrete operating strategy, comprise charging process control, discharge process control, battery pack temperature control, fault diagnosis, battery safety management, equalizaing charge management etc.The same with sub-ECU, also can send battery data to dual port RAM 4 by CAN bus 1.4 of dual port RAMs are accepted the battery status data that main ECU2 and each sub-ECU send, simultaneously can with other parts of car load by additional C AN bus transmission data, such as entire car controller etc., have gateway function.In sub-ECU balanced device is arranged, its effect is a balancing battery, and both that electric weight is more battery power sends to the less battery of electric weight, makes between each battery the consistance that keeps each parameter.

The hardware of main ECU2 is made of 32 68376 of Motorola Inc., it has inner floating-point operation function, helps realizing than complex calculations, has expanded the non-volatile ram of band real time clock simultaneously, and this is that calculating SOC is necessary, has also improved the accuracy of parameter greatly.Simultaneously battery data is recorded in the assessment that also helps the battery operation state is carried out off-line in the non-volatile ram.

High precision electric current transducer, hardware second-order filter, software quadravalence medium filtering are adopted in the principal current sampling.Sampling period 20HZ, sample range-400A-400A, sampling precision ± 0.4A.

Determine electric battery SOC initial value by OCV (open-circuit voltage), change battery SOC dynamically, when battery quits work, revise the SOC value dynamically according to cell voltage and working temperature according to the time integral of working current.

Sub-ECU samples to monomer battery voltage and temperature, has adopted linear light lotus root method.The linear light lotus root is battery-powered, realizes the isolation to the battery high pressure.Simultaneously, by the linearity that potentiometer is regulated the light lotus root, adopted value is carried out real-time adjustment, error is less than 0.1%.Because temperature sampling point is a lot of and dispersion,, thereby cause error to the diagnosis of battery if adopt the temperature sensor of simulation will have very big error.We have adopted this temperature sensor of DS18B20, guarantee that long temperature apart from multiple spot adopts.The CPU of sub-ECU has adopted the P89C668 based on 51 frameworks, and it has 8KRAM, and 64Kflash, thereby need not to extend out data and the program space brings great convenience to use.We have also extended out the interface chip SJA1000 of a CAN communication simultaneously, as network communication.The CAN communication interface and the sub-ECU that are carried by CPU form the battery management subnet, receive each cell work information that each sub-ECU sends, and carry out data analysis and handle, send the necessary control order, and battery is managed.The CAN interface that extends out is the job information of the node of car load control net to entire car controller transmission whole battery group, has gateway function.Sub-ECU3 can have extensibility according to the quantity decision of actual battery and battery case.

Battery equalizer is actually by the Switching Power Supply of multichannel single-ended reverse exciting to be formed.Be input as the voltage of entire cell case, corresponding way switch power supply of each battery in the battery case when battery management system detects certain road cell voltage when low, is promptly opened balanced device this road battery is charged with ging up to normal level until its voltage.

Dual port RAM 4 has mainly adopted AT29C040A, receives the battery status data that main ECU and each sub-ECU send, and can send data by the CAN bus with other parts of car load simultaneously, for example sends the SOC value to entire car controller, uses for integrated vehicle control tactics etc.

The CAN network that we claim the battery management system internal communication to use is the CAN1 network.The CAN network that other parts communication of dual port RAM and car load is used is the CAN2 network.Shell must satisfy the standard of the degree of protection IP45 of GB4942.2-85 regulation.

The CAN1 network gets rid of single line to the compartment, is used to connect the display screen that shows that battery information is used.24V working power wire harness is provided by the car load wiring.U+, G-connect after the series connection of each batteries always just and total negative.Each ECU and dual port RAM and inside battery line directly get final product inserting according to standard interface.The software program of each ECU and dual port RAM can be downloaded by serial ports.Like this, a cover battery management system is installation.

In service at car, battery management system can be done following management to vehicle-mounted Ni-MH battery: 1) when battery the temperature inside the box is higher than 20 ℃, start the battery blower fan; When temperature is lower than 20 ℃, stop blower fan.Too high or too low for temperature, all influential to Ni-MH battery, so the intelligent temperature control blower fan is necessary to battery, and also save vehicle-mounted electric energy.When 2) car quickens, battery discharge, when discharge current was higher than 300A, battery stopped discharge; When car slows down, battery charge, when charging current was higher than 100A, battery stopped charging.This be because electric current to fill the battery infringement of being rivals in a contest greatly greatly very big, so overcurrent protection is extremely important, can prolong the serviceable life of battery.3) when any joint or a few batteries in the battery case when going wrong, as temperature too high (battery can explode) etc., management system can be sent corresponding failure warning, and carries monitoring interface and show, guarantees the safety of battery and car load.4) charging occurs when unbalanced when any joint or a few batteries, the balanced management device can make and every batteries equalizaing charge in order to avoid have voltage difference between each batteries, influences the charging of each batteries by regulating control.5) current state information of battery can show at monitoring interface, comprises that total voltage, total current, output power, SOC (battery charge amount), NEC (net energy change amount), each monomer voltage, each road temperature, monomer voltage assembly histogram, each road temperature assembly hold figure, catch value (monomer voltage, each road temperature, charging current, discharge current), failure message etc.7) transmit information to entire car controller,, formulate control strategy for it and use as the SOC value.Write down all image data, for Technical Reference and analysis in the future.

The present invention has following advantage and characteristics: 1) in the CAN bus communication technology, this technology be on the automobile Commonly used, so that the present invention has the versatility advantage. 2) quantity of administration battery pack according to actual needs, expansion Subsystem, and need not to change hardware. 3) collection data acquisition, data analysis, fault diagnosis, field control, The functions such as remote detection are in one. 4) adopt layering CPU to carry out piecemeal control, the upper strata can be to information of lower layer altogether Enjoy centralized management. 5) current sample adopts high precision electric current transducer, hardware second-order filter, software quadravalence Medium filtering, sampling precision ± 0.4A. 6) positive and negative terminal of each battery is introduced height and enters resistance (100k Ω), Multiple filter, linear light lotus root high pressure isolation sample circuit, and utilize in 10 bit slices and carry A/D, in the software quadravalence Value filtering, sampling error are 0.1V. For each ECU accurately carries out data analysis, control and management provides guarantee.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle, it comprises CAN bus (1), it is characterized in that it also comprises main ECU (2), sub-ECU (3) and the dual port RAM (4) that is connected on this CAN bus (1), wherein:
Described main ECU (2) comprises a single-chip microcomputer, memory RAM, it is to battery bus voltages, bus current sampling, and the battery charge amount SOC of counting cell group, finish simultaneously to the analysis of battery status with to control and fault diagnosis, battery safety management, the equalizaing charge of charging process, discharge process, battery pack temperature and manage;
Described sub-ECU (3) comprises a single-chip microcomputer, battery equalizer, monomer battery voltage sample circuit, cell temperature sampling circuit and expansion CAN communication interface, and the output terminal of each sample circuit links to each other with the sampled signal input end of single-chip microcomputer by sample line respectively;
Described dual port RAM (4) comprises a single-chip microcomputer and a CAN bus interface that links to each other with other parts of car load, it accepts the battery status data of main ECU (2) and sub-ECU (3) transmission, can send data by the CAN bus with other parts of car load simultaneously, have gateway function;
Described sub-ECU (3) comprises that two or more structures are identical and is connected in sub-ECU on the described CAN bus (1) in parallel that the voltage of the cell of each electric battery, temperature sampling the line corresponding port of the ECU corresponding with it respectively link to each other.
2, a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle as claimed in claim 1, the single-chip microcomputer that it is characterized in that described main ECU (2) are 32 68376 single-chip microcomputers with inner floating-point operation function, and memory RAM is the non-volatile ram of band real time clock.
3, as a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle of claim 1 or 2, the battery equalizer that it is characterized in that described sub-ECU (3) is made up of the Switching Power Supply of multichannel single-ended reverse exciting, its input end is the voltage end of entire cell case, the corresponding way switch power supply of each battery in the battery case;
The single-chip microcomputer of described sub-ECU (3) adopts the P89C668 that has 8KRAM and 64Kflash based on 51 frameworks, and it is the interface chip of SJA1000 that expansion CAN communication interface adopts model, as network communication; It is the temperature sensor of DS18B20 that the cell temperature sampling circuit adopts model.
4,, it is characterized in that the single-chip microcomputer employing model of described dual port RAM 4 is the integrated circuit of AT29C040A as a kind of power battery management system that is used for electric vehicle of claim 1 or 2.
CNA2006100319031A 2006-06-30 2006-06-30 Power battery management system for electric vehicle CN1877473A (en)

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