CN1294812A - Communication system architecture - Google Patents

Communication system architecture Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1294812A
CN1294812A CN 97181430 CN97181430A CN1294812A CN 1294812 A CN1294812 A CN 1294812A CN 97181430 CN97181430 CN 97181430 CN 97181430 A CN97181430 A CN 97181430A CN 1294812 A CN1294812 A CN 1294812A
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call
network
information
service
data
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CN 97181430
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Chinese (zh)
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I·K·埃里奥特
R·D·斯特勒
T·J·加尔文
L·L·拉夫雷尼雷
S·克里希纳斯瓦米
G·A·福尔吉
T·E·雷伊诺尔德斯
E·M·索尔布里格
V·瑟尔夫
P·格罗斯
A·J·杜甘
W·A·西姆斯
A·霍尔梅斯
R·S·史密斯二世
P·J·凯利三世
L·G·戈特利布
M·T·科利尔
A·N·维勒
J·林德
P·D·利曾伯格
D·A·图尔纳
J·J·瓦尔特斯
G·M·伊斯特普
D·D·马沙尔
R·A·普里斯
B·A·萨勒
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Mci全球通迅公司
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Abstract

通过混合网络为电话呼叫、数据和其它多媒体信息进行路由选择,包括因特网上的信息传输。 For the telephone call through the hybrid networks, data and other multimedia information routing, including transmission of information on the Internet. 媒体订单输入为用户捕获完整的用户轮廓信息。 Media order entry for the user profile information users to capture complete. 该轮廓信息自始至终由系统在行使路由选择、记帐、监控、报告和其它媒体控制功能的媒体过程中使用。 The contour information throughout the exercise routing, billing, monitoring, reporting and other media during media control function used by the system. 用户能比以前管理网络的更多方面,能从中心位置控制网络活动。 Users can more aspects than the previous management of the network, from central locations to control network activity.

Description

一种通信系统体系结构 A communication system architecture

本发明涉及因特网与电话系统的结合,更具体来说,涉及用于以因特网作为通信系统体系结构的通信主干、同时保留一批丰富的呼叫处理(call processing)特征的方法、系统和制造产品。 The present invention relates to a telephone system in conjunction with the Internet, and more particularly, relates to Internet as the communication backbone of a communication system architecture while maintaining a rich call processing method of a group (call processing) features, systems, and articles of manufacture.

本发明涉及包括电话能效的通信网络与因特网的互连。 The present invention relates to a telephone interconnect the energy efficiency of the communication network and the Internet. 因特网越来越变成用户市场首选的通信网络。 Internet users increasingly become the market of choice for communication networks. 近来,软件公司已经开始调查在因特网传输电话呼叫的问题。 Recently, software companies have begun to investigate transport issues in Internet telephone calls. 然而,用户对正常呼叫处理要求的系统特征被视为是在因特网上进行呼叫处理所不可少的。 However, the user of the system wherein the normal call processing request for call processing is regarded as being essential in the Internet. 现今,因特网上已没有了那些特征。 Today, those features have not been on the Internet.

发明概述根据本发明较佳实施例的一个主要方面,电话呼叫、数据和其它多媒体信息通过交换网络来选择路径,交换网络包括采用电话路由信息和因特网协议地址信息通过因特网传送信息。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to a principal aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, telephone calls, data and other multimedia information to select a path through the switching network, using a telephone switching network comprising routing information and internet protocol address information of the information transmitted over the Internet. 电话订单输入程序(telephony order entry procedure)捕获用户的完整用户轮廓信息(profile information)。 Phone order entry program (telephony order entry procedure) captures the full user profile information of the user (profile information). 该轮廓信息被系统在电话经历的自始至终用于路由选择、记帐、监控、报告和其它电话控制功能。 The contour information is in the system throughout the telephony experience for routing, billing, monitoring, reporting and other telephony control functions. 用户能在比以前可能的更多的方面管理网络并能在中心地点控制网络活动,与此同时仍然允许电话系统的操作员保持质量和路由选择。 Users of possible additional aspects of network management and network activity can be controlled in a central location than before, while still allowing the operator to maintain the quality of the telephone system and routing. 轮廓文件信息为传真数据在混合网络(交换网络和因特网)上提供路由选择。 Profile file information for the fax data provides routing in a hybrid network (switched network and the Internet) on. 该系统包括对用通用邮箱的目标定向的寻呼(object directedpaging)的支持和对目标过滤(object过滤器ing)的支持。 The system comprises a support and a support for a universal mailbox paging target orientation (object directedpaging) for filtering the target (object filter ing) a.

根据本发明较佳实施例的另一个主要方面,电话呼叫、数据和其它多媒体信息通过混合网络来选择路由,混合网络包括采用电话路由选择数据和因特网协议地址数据来跨因特网传送数据。 According to another broad aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, telephone calls, data and other multimedia information to select the route, using hybrid network comprising a routing telephony data and Internet protocol address data to transfer data across the Internet through the hybrid network. 用户能在比以前可能的更多的方面管理网络并能在中心地点控制网络活动,与此同时仍然允许电话系统的操作员保持质量和路由选择。 Users of possible additional aspects of network management and network activity can be controlled in a central location than before, while still allowing the operator to maintain the quality of the telephone system and routing. 系统创建关于混合网络上媒体通信的数据并将该数据存入分布式数据库。 The system creates data on media communication over a hybrid network and distributed data stored in the database. 系统也把数据划分为整个数据库中不同位置的物理子集,同时保留一个单一、相干数据库的逻辑图。 The system is also divided into data subsets of the entire database in different physical locations, while retaining a single, coherent database logical FIG. 该混合网络包括对处理受话方付费呼叫的支持。 The hybrid network including the processing of the receiving party paid support calls.

根据本发明较佳实施例的另一个主要方面,电话呼叫、数据和其它多媒体信息通过交换网络来选择路由,交换网络跨因特网传送数据。 According to another broad aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, telephone calls, data and other multimedia information is routed through the switching network, switching network to transmit data across the Internet. 该混合电信系统包括一个交换通信网络,将分组传输网络连接到该交换通信网络呼叫路由器(call router)连接到交换通信网络和该分组传输网络。 The hybrid telecommunications system includes a switched communications network, the transport network connected to the packet-switched communication networks of the calling router (call router) connected to a packet switched communication network and the transmission network. 与呼叫路由器通信的网关服务器向与交换通信网络相连的用户提供文件传送服务。 Communication with the gateway server call router provides file transfer services to a user connected to the switched communications network. 用户的身份可选择地由身份验证服务器来确认。 Alternatively, the user's identity was confirmed by an authentication server.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,一个外部分组过滤器(exterior packet filter)连接到呼叫路由器和网关服务器。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, an external packet filter (exterior packet filter) is connected to the call router and the gateway server. 外部分组过滤器被配置成接受源于预定的地址集合的通信。 External packet filter is configured to accept communications from a predetermined set of addresses.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,网关服务器被配置成仅提供只读文件传送服务。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the gateway server is configured to provide only read-only file transfer services.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,有一个生产令牌环网络(production token ring network)与网关服务器通信。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a production token ring network (production token ring network) to communicate with the gateway server. 该生产令牌环网络可选择连接到一个被配置成只接受源于预定的地址集合的通信的内部分组过滤器(interior packet filter)。 The production token ring network is selectively connected to a packet configured to accept only the internal filter (interior packet filter) for communication from a predetermined set of addresses.

根据本发明较佳实施例的另一个主要方面,电话呼叫、数据和包括音频视频的其它多媒体信息通过交换网络来选择路径,该交换网络包括跨因特网传送数据。 According to another broad aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, telephone calls, data and other multimedia information including audio and video to select a path through the switching network, which switching network comprises transmitting data across the Internet. 用户能参加电视会议呼叫(videoconference calls),其中每个参加者都能同时观看另外每个参加者的电视图象,听到所有参加者的混合声音。 Users can participate in a video conference call (videoconference calls), in which each participant can watch another at the same time each participant's TV image, hear the mixed sound of all participants. 用户还能与其它的电视会议参加者共享数据和文件。 Users can also share data and files with other video conference participants.

根据本发明较佳实施例的另一个主要方面,电话呼叫、数据和包括音频视频的其它多媒体信息通过交换网络来选择路径,交换网络包括跨因特网传送数据。 According to another broad aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, telephone calls, data and other multimedia information including audio and video to select a path through the switching network, comprising a switching network across the Internet to transmit data. 用户能将包括视频、音频和/或数据信息在内的视频邮件消息,传递到能接收这种邮件消息的用户,或者从能传递这种邮件消息的用户接收。 User can include video, audio and / or data information, including video mail message, this is transmitted to the user receives the mail message, a user can transmit or receive such a message from the message. 根据号码薄选择的要求用户还能接收存贮的视频、音频和/或数据信息。 The selection requires the user number directory also receive stored video, audio and / or data information. 用户能管理网络的比以前可能的更多的方面并能在中心地点控制网络活动,与此同时仍然允许电话系统的操作保持质量和路由选择。 Users can maintain the quality and management of the network routing operation than previously possible and can control more aspects of network activity in a central location, while still allowing telephone system.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,混合电信系统包括一个交换通信网络。 Another aspect, the hybrid telecommunications system in a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a switched communications network. 将分组传输网络连接到该交换通信网络。 The transport network connected to the packet switched communication network. 将呼叫路由器连接到该交换通信网络和该分组传输网络。 The call router is connected to the switched communications network and the packet transmission network. 将存储器连接到呼叫路由器并在其中存储一个呼叫参数数据库。 Memory coupled to the call router and having stored therein a call parameter database. 将该呼叫路由器配置成能根据呼叫参数数据库中的至少一个呼叫参数在交换通信网络和分组传输网络上为电话呼叫选择路由。 The call router is configured to be able to route the call on the telephone network and a packet switched communications transport network in accordance with at least one call parameter in the call parameter database. 将该呼叫路由器进一步配置成提供一个智能业务平台。 The call router is further configured to provide an intelligent service platform. 智能服务平台包括至少一个数据客户机。 Intelligent data services platform including at least one client. 数据服务器连接在数据客户机与存储器之间。 Data connection between the data server and the client memory.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,该智能业务平台包括多个每个都被配置成能执行所需服务逻辑的服务引擎。 In another aspect of the invention, the preferred embodiment of the present embodiment, the intelligent service platform includes a plurality of each service engine is configured to be able to perform the desired service logic. 服务选择部件连接到服务引擎以选择在服务引擎之一上运行的服务实例来处理由包含该混合电信系统的网络所提供的事务。 Service selection means coupled to the service engines to select a service instance running on one of the service engines to process transactions by a network comprising the hybrid telecommunications system is provided.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,该智能业务平台有一个中央域(central domain),该中央域包括配置成能控制和保护数据库的完整性的主控数据库服务器。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the intelligent service platform has a central domain (central domain), this central domain comprising the integrity of the master database configured to control and protect the server database. 至少一个附属域(satellite domain)包括一个数据库客户机(database client),将数据库客户机配置成能提供用户访问和更新的能效,并连接到该主控数据库服务器。 At least one accessory domain (satellite domain) comprising a client database (database client), database client configured to provide user access and update the energy efficiency, and is connected to the master database server.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,该智能业务平台有至少一个服务引擎和一个连接在该至少一个服务引擎与呼叫参数数据库之间的数据库客户机,用以为该至少一个服务引擎所支持的客户获取配置数据。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the intelligent service platform having at least one service engine and a database connected to the at least one client among the service engine and the call parameter database for at least one service engine for the support the customer acquisition configuration data.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,该智能业务平台包括一个具有多个能从单一连接得到的功能的自动应答设备(automatedresponse unit)。 Automatic answering device (automatedresponse unit) In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the intelligent service platform includes a function having a plurality of obtained from a single connector.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,至少一个服务引擎连接到呼叫路由器。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the at least one service engine coupled to the call router. 将该服务引擎配置成能执行由轮廓文件信息定义的逻辑,用以提供为与轮廓文件信息有关的用户定制的业务功能部件。 The service engine is configured to be able to perform a logic defined by the profile information file for providing information related to the profile of the file customized service features.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,电信系统的混合交换机(hybrid switch)包括至少一个交换网络接口和至少一个因特网接口。 In another aspect of the hybrid exchange, a telecommunication system of the preferred embodiment of the present invention (hybrid switch) comprising at least one switched network interface and at least one Internet interface. 用总线连接该至少一个交换网络接口和该至少一个因特网接口。 Bus connecting the at least one switched network interface and the at least one Internet interface. 主处理器与该总线相连。 The main processor is connected to the bus. 将该混合开关连接到至少一个交换网络和至少一个因特网以形成该混合电信系统。 The hybrid switch is connected to at least one switched network and at least one internet to form the hybrid telecommunications system. 在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,一种在混合交换机处处理通信的方法包括接收与混合交换机的特定端口关联的呼叫处理命令。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method of processing communications in the hybrid exchange comprising receiving port associated with a particular hybrid exchange call processing command. 在与该呼叫处理命令相联系的混合交换开关的端口,接收通信。 Mixing port associated with the exchange of call processing command switch, receiving the communication. 该呼叫处理命令中指定的适当的即插即用模块与该混合交换机的该特定端口相连以处理通信。 The call processing specified in the command module is connected to an appropriate plug and play processing of the communication with the particular port of the hybrid switch.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,一种对在包括交换通信网络和分组传输网络的混合通信系统中的呼叫定向的方法在存储器中存储呼叫参数数据库。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method of mixing a call oriented in a communication system comprising a packet switched communications network and a transmission network stores a call parameter database in a memory. 呼叫在系统上被接收。 Call is received on the system. 要确定至少一个呼叫参数,就要访问呼叫参数数据库。 To determine the at least one call parameter, it is necessary to access the call parameter database. 呼叫在交换通信网络和分组传输网络的路径选择是根据该至少一个呼叫参数而作出的。 Call selection path switched communication network and a packet transmission network based on the at least one call parameter made. 呼叫参数数据库用于为在呼叫期间所提供的服务提供数据。 Call parameter database for providing a data service provided during the call.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,提供多个服务引擎,每个服务引擎被配置成执行所需的服务逻辑。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a plurality of service engines each service engine is configured to perform the desired service logic. 选择一个在服务引擎之一上运行的服务实例(service instance)来处理由包含混合电信系统的网络所提供的事务。 Select the service instance (service instance) a service that runs on one engine to process the transaction by the network include hybrid telecommunication system has to offer.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,提供至少一个服务引擎。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided at least one service engine. 配置数据是由该至少一个服务引擎所支持的客户从呼叫参数数据库获得的。 Configuration data is obtained by the customer at least one service engine supports the call from the parameter database.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,要执行由轮廓文件信息定义的逻辑以提供为轮廓文件信息所涉及用户定制的业务功能部件。 In another aspect of the invention, the preferred embodiment of the present embodiment, the file to be executed by the profile information to provide a user-defined logical service features customized for the contour information file relates.

在本发明较佳实施例的另一个方面,提供一个自动应答设备。 In another aspect of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an automatic answering device. 从一条到自动应答设备的单一连接就能提供多个功能。 From a single connection to the automatic answering device can provide a plurality of functions.

在本发明的另一个方面,一种实现在计算机可读介质上、用于对在包括交换通信网络和分组传输网络的混合通信系统中的呼叫定向的计算机程序,包括在存储器中存储呼叫参数数据库的第一个软件。 In another aspect of the present invention, a method implemented on a computer-readable medium, the computer program directs the call in a communication system includes a hybrid network and a packet switched communication transport network, comprising storing a call parameter database in a memory the first software. 当系统接收呼叫时,第二个软件访问呼叫参数数据库,以确定至少一个呼叫参数。 When the system receives a call, a second call parameter database access software, to determine at least one call parameter. 第三个软件根据该至少一个呼叫参数为在交换通信网络和分组传输网络中的呼叫选择路由。 The third software from the at least one call parameter in the call routing communications switching network and a packet transmission network. 第四个软件提供至少一个服务引擎。 The fourth software provides at least one service engine. 第五个软件从呼叫参数数据库获取由该至少一个服务引擎所支持客户的配置数据。 The fifth software configuration data acquired by the at least one service engine supports customers from the call parameter database.

在本发明的另一个方面,第四个软件提供多个每个被配置成执行所需服务逻辑的服务引擎。 In another aspect of the present invention, each of the fourth plurality of software configured to perform the desired service logic service engine. 第五个软件选择一个在服务引擎之一上运行的服务实例来处理由包含混合电信系统的网络所提供的事务。 The fifth instance of a software selection services running on one engine to process the transaction by the service network consists of hybrid telecommunication system has to offer.

在本发明的另一方面,第四个软件用呼叫参数数据库来为在呼叫期间所提供的服务提供数据。 In another aspect of the present invention, fourth software to provide data service provided during the call with the call parameter database. 第五个软件在媒体客户机(mediaclients)与存储器之间连接一个媒体服务器(media server),媒体服务器用逻辑来在其中交换的协作话路(collaborativesession)中连接一个或多个媒体客户机。 Fifth software to connect a media server (media server) between the memory and the media client (mediaclients), to the media server collaboration session (collaborativesession) exchanged connecting one or more media client logic therein. 媒体服务器包括根据诸如支持视频、音频或声音的硬件以及网络的带宽之类的因素来动态调整伟输到媒体客户的内容的逻辑。 The media server includes dynamically adjust to the media client Wei output content according to logic such factors as bandwidth to support video, audio or sound hardware, and networks. 例如,在家中参加媒体会议的一方可能没有支持电视会议呼叫所需的硬件,但可能有充足的带宽来支持电话会议,并且可能有用于来查看合作数据的计算机。 For example, a party at home to participate in a media conference call may not support video conferencing hardware required, but may have sufficient bandwidth to support a conference call, and may have used a computer to view the data of cooperation.

在本发明的另一个方面,第四个软件提供一个中央域,中央域包括一个配置成控制和保护数据库的完整性的主控数据库服务器。 In yet another aspect of the invention, fourth software provides a central domain, a central domain including a database configured to control and protect the integrity of the master database server. 第五个软件提供至少一个附属域,附属域包括一个数据库客户机,数据库客户机被配置成能提供用户访问和更新的能效,并连接到主控数据库服务器。 Fifth software provides at least one accessory domain sub domain includes a database client, the database client configured to provide user access and update the energy efficiency, and is connected to the master database server.

在本发明的另一个方面,第四个软件执行由轮廓文件信息定义的逻辑以提供为轮廓文件信息所涉及用户定制的业务功能部件。 In yet another aspect of the invention, fourth software executing logical file defined by the profile information to provide customized service feature contour information file relates.

在本发明的另一个方面,第四个软件提供一个自动应答设备。 In yet another aspect of the invention, fourth software provides an automated answering device. 第五个软件从一条到自动应答设备的单一连接就能提供多个功能。 The fifth software from a single connection to an automatic answering device will be able to serve multiple functions.

在本发明的另一个方面,一种配备在计算机可读介质上、用于处理混合交换机处的通信的计算机程序,包括接收与交换机的特定端口关联的呼叫处理命令的第一个软件。 In another aspect of the present invention, a computer-readable medium is provided on, a computer program for processing a communication at a hybrid switch includes first software call processing command associated with a particular switch port receives. 当系统接收呼叫时,第二个软件在与呼叫处理命令关联的交换机的特定端口处接收通信。 When the system receives a call, receiving a second communication at a specific software port call processing command associated with a switch. 第三个软件将呼叫处理命令中指定的适当的即插即用模块与混合交换机的特定端口相连以处理通信。 The third specific port call processing software suitable plug and play module specified in the command hybrid switch connected to the communication process.

要更好地理解以上和其它目的、方面和优点,可参照各附图阅读以下对本发明较佳实施例的详细说明。 To better understand the above and other objects, aspects and advantages, reference is made to the accompanying drawings reading the following detailed description of embodiments of the present invention is the preferred embodiment. 附图简介:图1A是按照较佳实施例的代表性硬件环境的框图;图1B表示按照较佳实施例的典型公共信道信令系统#7(SS7)网络的体系结构的框图;图1C是按照较佳实施例的互连网电话系统的框图;图1D是按照较佳实施例的混合交换机的框图;图1E是按照较佳实施例的混合交换机的连接的框图;图1F是按照较佳实施例的混合(互连网-电话)交换机的框图; Brief Description: Figure 1A is a block diagram of a representative hardware environment in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 1B shows a block diagram of the architecture of a typical Common Channel Signaling System # 7 (SS7) network in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 1C is a block diagram of the Internet telephone system according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 1D is a block diagram of a hybrid switch in accordance with a preferred embodiment; FIG. 1E is a block diagram of the hybrid exchange of the connection according to the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 1F is a preferred embodiment in accordance with mixing (Internet - phone) is a block diagram of the switch;

图1G是表示按照较佳实施例,混合互连网电话交换机中涉及的软件过程的框图;图2是表示按照较佳实施例,在典型的SS7网络中采用PMU的框图;图3是表示较佳实施例的系统体系结构的框图;图4是表示按照较佳实施例的逻辑系统部件的高级过程流图;图5~9是表示按照较佳实施例的、图4中所示部件的详细操作的过程流图;图10A表示按照较佳实施例的公共交换电话网络(PSTN)1000,它包含本地交换通信公司(LEC)1020,呼叫方通过本地交换通信公司,用电话1021或计算机1030来访问该交换网络;图10B表示按照较佳实施例的互连网路由选择网络;图11表示按照较佳实施例的、VNET个人电脑(PC)至PC信息呼叫流(call flow);图12表示按照较佳实施例的、VNET个人电脑(PC)至网络外PC信息呼叫流;图13表示按照较佳实施例的、VNET个人电脑(PC)至网络外电话信息呼叫流;图14表示按照较 FIG 1G is a preferred embodiment according to the embodiment, a block diagram of hybrid Internet software processes involved in the telephone exchange; Figure 2 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the block diagram of the PMU employed in a typical SS7 network; FIG. 3 shows a preferred embodiment a block diagram of a system architecture embodiment; FIG. 4 is a flow diagram showing a high level procedural logic component of the preferred embodiment; FIG. 5 to 9 are according to the preferred embodiment showing in detail the operation member shown in FIG. 4 process flow diagram; Fig. 10A shows according to a public switched telephone network (PSTN) 1000 of the preferred embodiment, comprising local exchange (LEC) 1020, the caller via local exchange, a telephone 1021 or computer 1030 to access the switching network; FIG. 10B shows the interconnection network according to the preferred embodiment of a network selection; FIG. 11 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred, VNET personal computer (PC) to PC information call flow (call flow); FIG. 12 shows a preferred embodiment according to embodiment, VNET personal computer (PC) to the outer network PC information call flow; FIG. 13 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred embodiment, VNET personal computer (PC) to the outer information network telephone call flow; FIG. 14 shows more in accordance with 佳实施例的、VNET个人电脑(PC)至网络内电话信息呼叫流。 The preferred embodiment, VNET personal computer (PC) network telephony information into the call flow.

图15表示按照较佳实施例的、个人电脑至个人电脑的互连网电话呼叫;图16表示按照较佳实施例的、从个人电脑通过因特网被路由选择至电话的电话呼叫;图17表示按照较佳实施例的、电话至个人电脑的呼叫;图18表示按照较佳实施例的、互连网上的电话至电话的呼叫;图19A和19B表示按照较佳实施例的智能网络;图19C表示按照较佳实施例的视频会议的体系结构;图19D表示按照较佳实施例的视频存储和转发的体系结构;图19E表示按照较佳实施例的、用于在因特网上传输电视电话的体系结构;图19F表示按照较佳实施例的互连网电话系统的框图; 15 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the personal computer PC to the Internet phone call; FIG. 16 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred embodiment, the personal computer from the Internet is routed via a telephone call to the telephone; Fig. 17 shows according to a preferred embodiment, the telephone call to a personal computer; FIG. 18 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred interconnect to the Internet phone of the calling telephone; FIGS. 19A and 19B show an example of the intelligent network according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 19C shows according to a preferred video conference architecture according to the embodiment; FIG. 19D showing the architecture according to the preferred embodiment of the video storage and forwarding; FIG. 19E shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred, the architecture for transmitting television telephone over the Internet; FIG. 19F a block diagram of the Internet telephone system according to the preferred embodiment;

图19G表示按照较佳实施例的优先访问/路由器(prioritizingaccess/router)的框图;图20表示按照较佳实施例的网络系统的高级框图;图21表示按照较佳实施例的、图20中所示系统的一部分的功能框图;图22表示按照图21的较佳实施例的另一个高级框图;图23表示按照较佳实施例的无交换机网络系统的框图;图24是表示按照较佳实施例的图20和图23中所示系统的一部分的层次结构图;图25是表示按照较佳实施例的图24中所示系统部分的框图;图26是表示按照较佳实施例的方法的部分流图;图27~39是表示按照较佳实施例的图20和图23中所示系统的另一些方面的框图;图40是按照较佳实施例的web服务器登录的示意图;图41是按照较佳实施例的图40的登录所用的服务器目录结构(server directory structure)的示意图;图42是按照较佳实施例的图40的登录更详细的示意图;图43~50是表示 FIG. 19G showing priority access to a block diagram of an embodiment of the preferred / router (prioritizingaccess / router); Figure 20 shows a high level block diagram of the preferred embodiment of a network system according to the embodiment; FIG. 21 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred, as in FIG. 20 functional block diagram illustrating a portion of the system; FIG. 22 shows a high level block diagram of another preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment of FIG. 21; FIG. 23 shows a block diagram of a switchless network system in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 24 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with FIG hierarchy 20 and a portion of the system shown in FIG. 23; FIG. 25 is a block diagram of the system portion shown in FIG. 24 according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 26 is a partial embodiment of the method according to the preferred FIG flow; FIG. 27 to 39 is a block diagram of some other aspects of the system of the embodiment shown in FIG. 20 and FIG. 23 according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 40 is a schematic diagram of a web server logon in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 41 is in accordance with Log schematic of a preferred embodiment FIG. 40 is used in the server directory structure (server directory structure); Figure 42 is logged in accordance with the preferred embodiment of FIG. 40 a more detailed schematic diagram; FIG. 50 is a ~ 43 照较佳实施例的混合网络各部分的框图;图51表示按照较佳实施例的数据管理区(DMZ)5105的一种配置;图52A~52C表示按照较佳实施例的与拨入环境相联系的网络框图;图53是表示按照较佳实施例的传真音调检测的流图;图54A~54E是表示按照较佳实施例的用于传真和语音信箱的VFP完成过程的流图;图55A和55B表示按照较佳实施例的寻呼机终端处理器(PagerTermination processor)的操作;图56表示按照较佳实施例的从寻呼机终端调用的GetCallback例程;图57表示按照较佳实施例的用于访问联机轮廓管理的用户登录屏幕; A block diagram of portions of a hybrid network according to the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 51 shows a configuration 5105 in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the data management zone (DMZ) of the embodiment; FIG. 52A ~ 52C expressed in terms of the preferred embodiment and the dial relative to the environment a block diagram of a network link; FIG. 53 is a flow diagram showing the fax tone detection in accordance with a preferred embodiment of embodiment; FIGS. 54A ~ 54E is a flow diagram showing VFP for fax and voice mail in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the complete process; FIG. 55A 55B represents a pager terminal and a processor (PagerTermination processor) operation of the preferred embodiment; FIG. 56 shows an example of GetCallback routine called from the pager terminal according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 57 shows a preferred embodiment of an access online user profile management login screen;

图58表示按照较佳实施例的、用于设置或改变用户的呼叫路由选择指令的呼叫路由选择屏幕;图59表示按照较佳实施例的、用于建立向非帐户所有人的呼叫者呈示的客人菜单的客人菜单配置屏幕;图60表示替代路由选择(override routing)屏幕,按照较佳实施例,它使用户能将所有呼叫路由选择到选定目的地;图61表示用于按照较佳实施例来建立快速拨号的快速拨号屏幕;图62表示用于按照较佳实施例来建立语音邮件的语音邮件屏幕;图63表示用于按照较佳实施例来建立传真邮件的传真邮件屏幕;图64表示用于按照较佳实施例来建立呼叫屏蔽(callscreening)的呼叫屏蔽屏幕;图65~67表示用于按照较佳实施例的用户轮廓管理的各附加屏幕;图68的流图表示按照较佳实施例,对用户输入的快速拨号的确认是如何进行的;图69A~69AI是表示按照较佳实施例的软件实现的自 58 shows the preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, call routing for the user to set or change the call routing selection instruction screen; FIG. 59 shows the preferred embodiment according to the embodiment for establishing a non-presentation to the caller's account holder guests guest menu configuration screen menu; FIG. 60 shows an alternative routing (override routing) screen, according to the preferred embodiment, which enables the user to select all calls routed to a selected destination; FIG. 61 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with EXAMPLE established Speed ​​dial speed dial screen; FIG. 62 shows a preferred embodiment according to the established voice mail voice mail screen; FIG. 63 shows a preferred embodiment according to the fax message to establish the fax mail screen; FIG. 64 represents a preferred embodiment according to the established call Screening (callscreening) call screening screen; FIGS. 65 to 67 showing an additional screen for each user profile management in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 68 represents a flow diagram according to the preferred Example, speed dialing confirmation is input by a user how to proceed; FIGS. 69A ~ 69AI is a custom implementation of the software in accordance with the preferred embodiment 应答设备(ARU)呼叫流图;图70A~70R是进一步表示按照较佳实施例的软件实现的控制台呼叫流图;图71表示按照较佳实施例的VNET至VNET系统的典型客户机配置;图72表示按照较佳实施例的DAP的操作;图73表示按照较佳实施例的、电话通过其而连接到用于1-800呼叫处理的释放链路干线(release link trunk)的过程;图74表示按照较佳实施例的DAP过程请求的客户机侧;图75表示按照较佳实施例,交换机10530为呼叫者选择特定号码或“热线”的操作;图76表示按照较佳实施例的、通过因特网选择性地为电话呼叫选择路由的基于计算机的语音网关(voice gateway)的操作;图77表示按照较佳实施例,在中央式结构中部署的图76的VRU的操作;图78表示按照较佳实施例,在分布式结构中部署的图76的VRU的操作; TAD (the ARU) call flow diagram; FIG. 70A ~ 70R console is a call flow diagram showing a further example of a software implementation according to the preferred embodiment; FIG. 71 shows an embodiment of the VNET to VNET system typically preferred client configuration; 72 shows the operation according to the preferred embodiment of the DAP embodiment; FIG. 73 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred telephone is connected to the trunk link release procedure (release link trunk) for 1-800 call processing through which; FIG. 74 indicates that the client-side embodiment in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the DAP procedure request; FIG. 75 shows the preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, the switch 10530 to select a particular number or caller "hotline" for the operation; FIG. 76 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred, selectively through the Internet gateway computer based on a speech (voice gateway) operation in a telephone call routing; FIG. 77 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, VRU operation deployed in the center of the structure in FIG. 76; FIG. 78 shows in accordance with preferred embodiment, the operation of the VRU of FIG. 76 deployed in a distributed architecture;

图79A和79B表示按照较佳实施例,用于因特网呼叫路由选择的抽样应用(sample applications)的操作;图79B表示按照较佳实施例的许多用于主叫用户启动的消费者事务的应用。 FIGS 79A and 79B represent the preferred embodiments according to the embodiment, the operation for Internet call routing sample application (sample applications); Figure 79B represents a number of applications for the calling user according to the preferred embodiment of the consumer transaction starts.

图80表示按照较佳实施例,提供语音邮件和语音响应单元业务以及向服务提供商的互连的交换网络的配置;图81表示按照较佳实施例,具有通过数据库的数据共享的入站共享自动呼叫分配器(ACD)呼叫;图82表示按照较佳实施例的示例性电信系统的框图;图83表示按照较佳实施例的示例性计算机系统的框图;图84表示按照较佳实施例的CDR和PNR呼叫记录格式;图85(A)和85(B)共同表示按照较佳实施例的ECDR和EPNR呼叫记录格式;图86表示按照较佳实施例的OSR和POSR呼叫记录格式;图87(A)和87(B)共同表示按照较佳实施例的EOSR和EPOSR呼叫记录格式;图88表示按照较佳实施例的SER呼叫记录格式;图89(A)和89(B)的控制流图,表示按照较佳实施例,交换机使用扩展的记录格式时的情况;图90是表示按照较佳实施例的Change Time(改变时间)命令的控制流图;图91是表示按照较佳实施例的C 80 shows the preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, there is provided voice mail and voice response unit configuration switching network traffic as well as interconnection to the service provider; Figure 81 represents a preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, with the inbound data shared database shared by automatic call distributor (ACD) call; FIG. 82 shows a block diagram of an exemplary telecommunications system according to the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 83 shows a block diagram of an exemplary computer system according to the preferred embodiment according; FIG. 84 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred CDR and PNR call record format; FIG. 85 (a) and 85 (B) together represent ECDR and EPNR call record formats in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 86 shows the OSR and POSR call record format in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 87 (a) and 87 (B) together represent EOSR and EPOSR call record formats in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 88 represents the SER call record format in accordance with the preferred embodiment; FIG. 89 (a) and 89 (B) of the control flow FIG, showing the preferred embodiment according to the embodiment, when the use of extended switch recording format; FIG. 90 is a control flow diagram according to the preferred embodiment of change time (time change) command; FIG. 91 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the the C hange Daylight Savings Time(改变夏时制时间)命令的控制流图。 hange Daylight Savings Time (daylight saving time change) commands control flow of FIG.

图92是表示按照较佳实施例的网络呼叫标识符(Network CallIdentifier)(NCID)交换呼叫处理的控制流图。 FIG 92 is a diagram showing a network call identifier according to the preferred embodiment of embodiment (Network CallIdentifier) ​​(NCID) exchange of call processing control flow of FIG.

图93是表示按照较佳实施例,处理接收的网络呼叫标识符的控制流图;图94(A)是表示按照较佳实施例,生成网络呼叫标识符的控制流图;图94(B)是表示按照较佳实施例,向呼叫记录增加网络呼叫标识符的控制流图;图95是表示按照较佳实施例,传输一个呼叫的控制流图; FIG 93 is a preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, a control flow graph of the received network identifier of the call processing; FIG. 94 (A) shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the embodiment, to generate a control flow diagram of a network call identifier; FIG. 94 (B) according to the preferred embodiment is an embodiment, increasing the control flow diagram of a network call identifier to a call record; FIG. 95 is a diagram showing the control flow diagram of a transmission in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the call;

图96表示按照较佳实施例的一个硬件部件的实施例,其允许视频操作员参加电视会议平台并提供服务,这些服务包括但不限于:监视、察看和记录任何电视会议呼叫,帮助电视会议主叫用户;图97表示按照较佳实施例,用于使视频操作员能管理电视会议呼叫的包括视频操作员控制台系统的系统;图98表示按照较佳实施例,用于使视频操作员能管理电视会议呼叫的包括视频操作员控制台系统的系统;图99表示按照较佳实施例,电视会议呼叫是如何由视频操作员启动的;图100表示按照较佳实施例,视频操作员软件系统类的类层次;图101是表示按照较佳实施例,VOCall对象的m_state变量可能发生的状态变化的状态转换图;图102是表示按照较佳实施例,VOConnection对象的m_state变量(“状态变量”)可能发生的状态变化的状态转换图;图103是表示按照较佳实施例,VOConfe FIG 96 according to an embodiment of the hardware components of a preferred embodiment of the embodiment, which allows the video operator to participate in video-conferencing platforms and provides services that include but are not limited to: monitoring, viewing and recording any video conference call, video conference master help the calling subscriber; FIG. 97 represents a preferred embodiment according to the embodiment, for a video operator to manage video conference calls video operator console system includes a system; FIG. 98 represents a preferred embodiment according to the embodiment, the video for the operator to includes a video operator console system, video conference call management system; FIG. 99 shows an example, how the video conference call initiated by the video operator in accordance with the preferred embodiment; Fig. 100 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred video operator software system class hierarchy of classes; FIG. 101 is a diagram showing a state transition, the state variable m_state VOCall objects may occur in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the change; FIG. 102 is a diagram showing, m_state variable ( "state variable" VOConnection object according to the preferred embodiment ) state changes that may occur in the state transition diagram; FIG. 103 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with, VOConfe rence对象的m_state变量(“状态变量”)可能发生的状态变化的状态转换图;图104是表示按照较佳实施例,VORecorder对象的m state变量(“状态变量”)可能发生的状态变化的状态转换图;图105是表示按照较佳实施例,VORecorder对象的m state变量(“状态变量”)可能发生的状态变化的状态转换图;图106表示按照较佳实施例,视频操作员图形用户界面(“GUI”)类的类层次;图107表示按照较佳实施例,视频操作员共享的数据库的数据库模式图;图108表示按照较佳实施例具体实现的一个Main Console(主控制台)窗口;图109表示按照较佳实施例具体实现的一个Schedule(调度)窗口;图110表示按照较佳实施例具体实现的一个Conference(会议)窗口41203,该窗口在操作员选择一个会议或回放会话时显示; M_state state variable ( "state variable") Rence object changes may occur a state transition diagram; FIG. 104 is a diagram showing, VORecorder object m state variable ( "state variable") in accordance with the preferred embodiment STATUS changes may occur conversion; Figure 105 shows a preferred embodiment in accordance with the state variables m state ( "state variable") VORecorder object changes may occur a state transition diagram; Fig. 106 shows an embodiment in accordance with the preferred, the video operator GUI class hierarchy ( "GUI") type; FIG. 107 according to the preferred embodiment showing the video operator shared database schematic view of a database; FIG. 108 represents a main console (main console) according to the specific implementation of the preferred embodiment of the window Figure 110 showing the preferred embodiment according to the specific implementation of a Conference (conference) 41203 window, the window to select a conference or playback session the operator;; FIG schedule 109 represents a preferred embodiment according to the specific implementation (scheduling) window embodiment display;

图111表示按照较佳实施例具体实现的一个视频观看(videoWatch)窗口41204,该窗口显示来自某会议连接的选定呼叫或者来自单独的输入或输出呼叫的H.320输入;图112表示按照较佳实施例具体实现的一个显示所有出错消息和报警的Console Output(控制台输出)窗口41205;图113表示按照较佳实施例的Properties(特性)对话框。 According to the preferred embodiment of FIG. 111 showing a video viewing (videoWatch) 41204 Example embodied window, the window displays the H.320 input from a selected call of a conference connection or a separate input or output from the call; according to FIG. 112 showing more show a particularly preferred embodiment of the console output achieve all error messages and alarms (console output) 41205 window; FIG. 113 represents (properties) properties dialog box in accordance with the preferred embodiment.

详细说明目录Ⅰ. Detailed Contents Ⅰ. 因特网的组成结构Ⅱ. Internet composition structure Ⅱ. 协议标准A. Standard protocol A. 因特网协议B. Internet Protocol B. 国际电信联盟-电信标准化分部(“ITU-T”)标准Ⅲ. International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector ( "ITU-T") standard Ⅲ. TCP/IP特征ⅣV. TCP / IP features ⅣV. 通讯网络中的信息传输A. A. communication of information transmission network 交换技术B. Switching Technology B. 网关和路由器C. Gateway and router C. 用网络级协议来便利用户连接D. With network-level protocols to facilitate users to connect D. 数据报和路由选择Ⅴ. And routing datagrams Ⅴ. 技术介绍A. Technology Introduction A. ATMB. ATMB. 帧中继C. Frame Relay C. ISDNⅥ.MCI智能网络A. ISDNⅥ.MCI Intelligent Network A. MCI智能网络的部件1. MCI Intelligent Network element 1. MCI交换网络2. MCI switched network 2. 网络控制系统(NCS)/数据接入点(DAP)3. Network Control System (NCS) / Data Access Point (DAP) 3. 智能业务网(ISN)44. Smart Business Network (ISN) 44. 增强语音业务(EVS)95. Advanced voice services (EVS) 95. 其它部件B. B. Other components 智能网络系统概述C. Intelligent Network System Overview C. 呼叫流的例子Ⅶ. Examples VII call flow. ISP构架A. ISP framework A. 背景1. Background 1. 宽带接入2. 2 broadband access. 因特网电话系统3. Internet telephone system 3. 功能4. Function 4. 未来业务B. B. Future Business ISP体系结构框架C. ISP Architecture Framework C. ISP功能框架D. ISP functional framework D. ISP集成网络业务E. ISP network integration services E. ISP部件F. ISP member F. 无交换机的通信业务G. No switch traffic G. 指导原则1. Guidelines 1. 体系结构原则2. Architecture principles 2. 业务功能部件原则3. Principle 3 service feature. 功能原则4. Function Principle 4. 业务创建、配置和执行原则5. Service creation, configuration and implementation of Principle 5. 资源管理模型2150原则6. Resource Management Model 2150 Principle 6. 数据管理2138原则7. Data Management 2138 Principles 7. 操作支持原则8. Operational Support Principle 8. 物理模型原则H. Physical principles model H. ISP业务模型1. 1 ISP business model. 目的2. Objective 2. 努力的范围3. Range effort 3. 业务模型概述4. Business Model Overview 4. 业务结构5. Business structure 5. 业务2200执行6. 2200 6 business execution. 业务交互7. 7 business interactions. 业务监控I. Business monitoring I. ISP数据管理模型1. ISP Data Management Model 1. 范围2. 2 range. 目的3. Objective 3. 数据管理概述4. Data Management Overview 4. 逻辑描述 Logical description

5. 5. 物理描述6. Physical Description 6. 技术选择7. Technology Select 7. 实现8. Achieve 8. 安全9. Security 9. 元数据10. Metadata 10. 标准数据库技术J. J. standard database technology ISP资源管理模型2. ISP Resource Management Model 2. 本地资源管理器(LRM)3. Local Resource Manager (LRM) 3. 全局资源管理器(GRM)21884. Global Resource Manager (GRM) 21884. 资源管理模型(RRM)5. Resource Management Model (RRM) 5. 部件交互K. Interaction member K. 操作支援模型1. Operation support model 1. 介绍2. Introduction 2. 操作支援模型3. Operating Model 3 support. 协议模型4. 4 protocol model. 物理模型5. Physical model 5. 接口点6. 6 interface points. 概述L. Overview of L. 物理网络模型1. A physical network model. 介绍2. Introduction 2. 信息流3. Information flow 3. 术语4. 4 terminology. 实体关系Ⅷ. Entity Relationship Ⅷ. 智能网络A. Intelligent Network A. 网络管理B. Network management B. 客户服务C. C. Customer Service 计费D. D. Billing 代理E. Agent E. 报告F. F. Report 安全G. Security G. 故障处理Ⅸ. Troubleshooting IX. 增强的个人业务A. Enhanced Personal Business A. Web服务器体系结构1. Web server architecture 1. 欢迎服务器4502. Welcome Server 4502. 令牌服务器4543. Token Server 4543. 应用服务器B. The application server B. Web服务器系统环境1. Web server system environment 1. 欢迎服务器2. Welcome to the server 2. 令牌服务器4543. Token Server 4543. 轮廓管理应用服务器C. Profile management application server C. 安全D. Safety D. 登录过程E. E. login process 业务选择F. Business Select F. 业务操作1. Business operations 1. NIDS服务器2. NIDS server 2. TOKEN(令牌)数据库业务3. The TOKEN (token) 3 business database. SERVERS(服务器)数据库业务4. SERVERS (server) database operations 4. HOSTILE_IP(敌意IP)数据库业务5. HOSTILE_IP (hostility IP) database service 5. TOKEN_HOSTS(令牌宿主)数据库业务6. TOKEN_HOSTS (Token host) 6 business database. SERVER_ENV数据库业务7. SERVER_ENV business database 7. 时间作业(Chron Job)G. Time job (Chron Job) G. 标准H. Standard H. 系统管理I. System Management I. 产品/增强J. Products / Enhanced J. 接口特征要求(概述)1. Requirements interface features (Overview) 1. 用户帐户轮廓2. 2 user account profile. 消息的数据库K. The database messages K. 自动应答设备(ARU)功能1. Automatic answering device (ARU) function 1. 用户接口L. The user interface L. 消息管理1. Message Management 1. 多个媒体消息通知2. 2 the plurality of multimedia message notifications. 多个媒体消息操作3. 3 a plurality of operating a media message. 文本到语音4. Text to Speech 4. 电子邮件转发到传真机 E-mail forwarded to a fax machine

5. 5. 寻呼机收到信息的通知6. Pager receives notification of 6. 话音邮件的投递确认7. Voice mail delivery confirmation 7. 消息优先化M. Message prioritization M. 信息业务N. N. Business Information 消息存储要求O. Message storage requirements O. 轮廓管理P. Profile management P. 呼叫路由选择菜单改变Q. Q. call routing menu change 二路寻呼机配置控制和对放置与寻呼(park and page)的应答R. Two-way pagers and configuration control of the placement of the paging response (park and page) of R. 个性化的问候S. Personalized greetings S. 列表管理T. List Management T. 全局消息处理Ⅹ. Global Message Handling Ⅹ. 因特网电话技术和相关业务A. Internet telephony and related services A. 因特网媒体的系统环境1. Internet media system environment 1. 硬件2. 2 hardware. 面向对象的软件工具B. Object-oriented software tools B. 因特网电话1. Internet telephony 1. 介绍2. Introduction 2. 作为商业业务的IP电话3. IP telephony as a commercial service 3. 因特网中的电话号码4. Phone number 4 Internet. 其它因特网电话通信公司5. 5 other Internet telephone communication company. 国际接入C. International Access C. 因特网电话业务D. Internet telephone service D. 呼叫处理1. 1 call processing. VNET呼叫处理2. 2 VNET call processing. 块单元的描述E. E. Description of the block unit 可再用的呼叫流框1. Reusable call flow box 1. VNET PC连接到公司内部网并登录到目录服务2. VNET PC connected to the corporate intranet and log in to the directory service 2. VNET PC向目录服务询问VNET转换3. VNET PC to the directory inquiry service VNET conversion 3. PC连接到ITG4. PC connected to ITG4. ITG连接到PC5. ITG connected to the PC5. VNET PC到PC呼叫流描述 VNET PC to PC Call Flow Description

6. 6. 为因特网上的因特网电话网关的因特网客户机选择确定最佳选择7. Internet telephony gateway to the Internet on the Internet to determine the client choose the best option 7. Vnet呼叫处理Ⅺ. Vnet call processing Ⅺ. 电信网络管理A. Telecommunications network management A. SNMS电路图B. SNMS circuit diagram B. SNMS连接图C. C. SNMS FIG connection SNMS非相邻节点图D. SNMS non-adjacent node D. FIG. SNMS LATA连接图E. SNMS LATA connected FIG E. NPA-NXX信息列表F. NPA-NXX F. List 终端局信息列表G. Bureau terminal G. List 中继线组信息列表H. Trunk Group H. List 过滤器定义窗口I. Filter Definition Window I. 故障记录窗口Ⅻ. Fault recording window Ⅻ. POTS上的视频电话A. Video on POTS telephone A. 视频电话系统的部件1. A video telephone system components. 带有ACD的DSP调制解调器池2. DSP modem pools with ACD 2. 代理3. Agent 3. 视频保持服务器4. 4 to keep the video server. 视频邮件服务器5. Video mail server 5. 视频内容引擎6. Video Content Engine 6. 预约引擎7. Booking engine 7. 视频桥B. Video Bridge B. 方案C. C. Program 连接建立D. Connection is established D. 呼叫目的地E. Call destination E. 记录视频邮件、存储与转发视频和问候F. Record video mail, store and forward video greetings and F. 检索视频邮件和视频点播G. Retrieve video mail and video on demand G. 视频会议调度ⅩⅢ. Video conference scheduling ⅩⅢ. 因特网上的视频电话A. A. video telephony on the Internet 部件1. Member 1. 目录和登记引擎2. Catalog and registration engine 2. 代理 proxy

3. 3. 视频邮件服务器4. Video mail server 4. 视频内容引擎5. Video Content Engine 5. 会议预约引擎6. 6 meeting reservation engine. MCI会议空间7. MCI 7 meeting space. 虚拟现实空间引擎B. Virtual reality space engine B. 方案C. C. Program 连接建立D. Connection is established D. 记录视频邮件、存储与转发视频和问候E. Record video mail, store and forward video greetings and E. 检索视频邮件和视频点播F. Retrieve video mail and video on demand F. 视频会议调度G. Video conference scheduling G. 虚拟现实ⅩⅣ. Virtual Reality ⅩⅣ. 视频会议体系结构A. Video conferencing architecture A. 特征B. Characteristic B. 部件1. Member 1. 终端用户终端2. 2 the end user terminal. LAN互连系统3. LAN Interconnect System 3. ITU H.323服务器4. ITU H.323 server 4. 守门设备(gatekeeper)5. Gatekeepers apparatus (gatekeeper) 5. 操作员业务模块6. The operator service module 6. 多点控制单元(MCU)7. Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) 7. 网关8. Gateway 8. 支持业务单元C. Support business unit C. 概述D. Overview D. 呼叫流举例1. Call flow example 1. 点对点呼叫2. 2-point call. 多点视频会议呼叫E. Multipoint video conference call E. 结语ⅩⅤ. Conclusion ⅩⅤ. 视频存储与转发体系结构A. Video store and forward architecture A. 特征B. Characteristic B. 体系结构C. Architecture C. 部件1. Member 1. 内容创建和代码转换。 Content creation and transcoding.

2. 2. 内容管理和投递3. Content management and delivery 3. 内容检索和显示。 Content retrieval and display.

D. D. 概述ⅩⅥ. Overview ⅩⅥ. 视频操作员A. Video operator A. 硬件体系结构B. Hardware Architecture B. 视频操作员控制台C. Video operator console C. 视频会议呼叫流D. Video conference call flow D. 视频操作员软件系统1. Video operator software system. 类层次2. 2 class hierarchy. 类和对象说明E. Class and Object Description E. 图形用户界面类1. A graphical user interface class. 类层次2. 2 class hierarchy. 类和对象说明F. Class and Object Description F. 视频操作员共享数据库1. Video operator shared database 1. 数据库模式G. Database schema G. 视频操作员控制台图形用户界面窗口1. Video Operator Console graphical user interface window 1. 主控制台窗口2. 2 main console window. 调度窗口3. Scheduling window 3. 会议窗口4. 4 conference window. 视频观察窗口5. Video observation window 5. 控制台输出窗口6. Console output window 6. 特性对话窗口ⅩⅧ. Properties dialog window ⅩⅧ. 万维网(WWW)浏览器功能A. World Wide Web (WWW) browser function A. 用户接口B. The user interface B. 性能C. C. Performance 个人主页1. Personal home page 1. 存储要求2. 2 storage requirements. 在屏帮助文本3. On-screen help text 3. 个人主页目录4. Personal home page 4. 控制条5. Control bar 5. 主页6. Home 6. 安全要求 Safety Requirements

7. 7. 在屏幕帮助文本8. In the 8-screen help text. 轮廓管理9. 9 profile management. 信息服务轮廓管理10. 10 information service profile management. 个人主页轮廓管理11. 11 profile profile management. 列表管理12. List management 12. 全局消息管理D. Global Message Management D. 消息中心1. Message Center 1. 存储要求E. E. Storage Requirements PC客户机功能1. PC client functionality 1. 用户接口2. The user interface 2. 安全3. Security 3. 消息检索4. Message retrieval 4. 消息操作F. F. Operation message 订单输入要求1. Order Entry Requirements 1. 规定与实现G. Provision and implementation G. 通信系统H. Communication system H. 定价I. Pricing I. 记帐ⅩⅧ. Accounting ⅩⅧ. 直达线路MCIA. Direct line MCIA. 概述1. Overview 1. ARU(音频应答单元)5022. The ARU (Audio response unit) 5022. VFP(话音传真平台)5043. VFP (voice fax platform) 5043. DDS(数据分配业务)506B. DDS (Data Distribution Service) 506B. 原理C. C. Principle 细节1. 1 details. 呼叫流体系结构5202. 5202 call flow architecture. 网络连接3. Network Connections 3. 呼叫流4. 4 call flow. 数据流体系结构D. Data flow architecture D. 话音传真平台(VFP)504详细体系结构1. Voice Fax Platform (VFP) 504 Detailed Architecture 1. 概述2. Overview 2. 原理 principle

3. 3. 细节E. Details E. 话音分配详细体系结构1. A detailed architecture of a voice distribution. 概述2. Overview 2. 原理F. Principle F. 登录屏G. Login screen G. 呼叫路由选择屏H. Call routing screen H. 客人菜单配置屏I. Guests menu configuration screen I. 替换路由选择屏J. J. alternate route selection screen 快速拨号屏K. Speed ​​Dial screen K. ARU呼叫流ⅩⅨ. ARU call flow ⅩⅨ. 因特网传真A. Internet Fax A. 介绍B. B. Introduction 细节ⅩⅩ. Details ⅩⅩ. 因特网交换技术A. Internet switching technology A. 实施例一B. B. Example a 实施例二ⅩⅪ. According to the second embodiment ⅩⅪ. 记帐A. Accounting A. 实施例一1. Example 1 a. 呼叫记录格式2. Call recording format 2. 网络呼叫标识符B. Network call identifier B. 实施例二1. 1 according to the second embodiment. 呼叫记录格式2. Call recording format 2. 网络呼叫标识符因特网介绍Ⅰ. Introduction Internet network call identifier Ⅰ. 因特网的组成结构因特网是一种互连物理网络的方法和一组协议,其中的协议是关于使用网络的协议,它允许符合协议的计算机交互作用。 Composition structure Internet The Internet is a method and a set of interconnected physical network a protocol, wherein the protocol is a protocol used on the network, which allows a computer to comply with the protocol interactions. 物理上来说,因特网是一个巨大的全球性网络。 Physically, the Internet is a huge global network. 根据美国GovernmentAccounting Office(GAO)的统计,因特网跨越92个国家,包含59,000个学术、商业、政府和军事网络,预计这个数字每年要翻一番。 According to the American GovernmentAccounting Office (GAO), the Internet across 92 countries, including 59,000 academic, commercial, government and military networks, this figure is expected to double every year. 此外,大约有1千万台主机、5千万用户和7万6千台万维网服务器与因特网相连。 In addition, there are about 10 million hosts, 50 million users and 70,006 thousand units a web server connected to the Internet. 因特网的主干由一系列高速通信链路组成,它们连接着美国国内以及全世界的主要超级计算机地点和教育及研究机构。 Internet backbone by a series of high-speed communication links, which are linked to major supercomputer sites and educational and research institutions in the United States and around the world.

继续介绍之前,应当澄清通常在互连网(“internet”)一词使用上的误解。 Before continuing, it should be clarified is usually in the Internet ( "internet") misunderstanding on the use of the word. 最初,该词只用作根据Internet Protocol(因特网协议)组成的网络的名称,但是现在,internet已经是用于表示一个整体网络类的一般名词。 Initially, the term is used only as the name of the network according to the Internet Protocol (Internet Protocol) consisting of, but now, internet is already a general term used to denote a whole class of network. “互连网”(internet-英文以小写字母“i”开头)是任何分立的物理网络的结合,采用某公共协议互连后形成单一的逻辑网络,而“因特网”(Internet-英文以大写字母“I”开头)则是采用因特网协议将大量的物理网络连接成单一的逻辑网络而形成的全球性互连的网络。 "Internet" (Internet- English lowercase letters "i" at the beginning) is in connection with any separate physical network, formed using a single logical network after a common interconnect protocol, and "Internet" (in English Internet- capital "I beginning ") is the use of the Internet protocol to connect a large number of physical networks into a single logical network formed by interconnected networks worldwide.

Ⅱ. Ⅱ. 协议标准A. Standard protocol A. 因特网协议协议管理因特网主干上的行为并因而为数据通信设定主要规则。 Behavior management protocol over Internet Protocol Internet backbone and thus set the main rules for the data communication. 传输控制协议/因特网协议(ITP/IP)具有开放的性质可供任何人使用,即它试图建立一个独立于计算机或网络的操作系统和体系结构差异的网络协议系统。 Properties of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (ITP / IP) having an open for anyone to use, i.e. it tries to establish a network protocol independent computer system or network operating system and architectural differences system. 因此,ITP/IP协议是以标准文献、特别是征求意见书(Request for Comments)的形式对公众开放的。 Thus, ITP / IP protocol is based on standard documents, particularly in the form of soliciting submissions (Request for Comments) are open to the public. 因特网连接的一个要求是TCP/IP,它包含数据通信协议的一个大的集合,其中就有传输控制协议和因特网协议这两个协议。 Internet connection is required to a TCP / IP, which contains a large set of data communications protocols, wherein there is a transmission control protocol and internet protocol these two protocols. 《TCP/IP例解》对有关TCP/IP和UDP/IP的详细内容有非常出色的描述(W.Richard Stevens著,Addison-Wesley出版公司,1996)。 "TCP / IP cases of the solution" to have details on TCP / IP and UDP / IP is a very good description (W.Richard Stevens forward, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996).

B. B. 国际电信联盟-通信标准化分部(“ITU-T”)标准国际电信联盟-通信标准化分部(“ITU-T”)已经建立了众多的管理用于电信设备的协议和线路编码方法的标准。 International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector ( "ITU-T") Standard ITU - Telecommunication Standardization Sector ( "ITU-T") has established standard protocols and line encoding method for managing a large number of telecommunication devices. 由于本文自始至终引用了许多这些标准,以下就有关标准的提要列举出来作为参考。 Since Throughout this paper cites many of these criteria, the following enumerated as a reference to the relevant standards of feed.

ITU G.711 3kHz音频信道的脉冲代码调制的推荐标准。 Pulse Code Modulation Recommendation ITU G.711 3kHz audio channels.

ITU G.722 64k比特/秒信道内的7kHz音频编码的推荐标准。 ITU G.722 Recommendation 7kHz Audio Coding within a 64k bit / s channel.

ITU G.723用于以5.3和6.3k比特传输的多媒体通信的双速率语音编码器的推荐标准。 ITU G.723 Recommendation for dual rate speech coder to 5.3 and 6.3k bits transmitted multimedia communication.

ITU G.728采用低延迟代码激励线性预测(LD-CELP)的16k比特/秒的速率编码语音的推荐标准。 ITU G.728 Recommendation rate coded speech using a 16k bit / s low-delay Code Excited Linear Prediction (LD-CELP) a.

ITU H.221用于音视远程服务的64至1920k比特/秒的信道的帧结构。 ITU H.221 frame structure for audiovisual remote service channels 64 to 1920k bits / sec.

ITU H.223用于低比特率多媒体终端的多路转换协议。 ITU H.223 multiplexer protocol for low bit rate multimedia terminal.

ITU H.225无保障服务质量的局域网上的介质流分组和同步的ITU推荐标准。 Media stream packet synchronization and ITU Recommendation ITU H.225 insecurity on the quality of service of the local area network.

ITU H.230用于视听系统的帧同步的控制与指示信号。 Frame synchronization control instruction signal for ITU H.230 audiovisual system.

ITU H.231采用速率达2M比特/秒的数字信道用于视听系统的多点控制单元。 ITU H.231 sampling rate of up to 2M bit / sec digital channels for multipoint audio-visual system control unit.

ITU H.242采用速率达2M比特/秒的数字信道在视听终端之间建立通信的系统。 ITU H.242 sampling rate of up to 2M bit / sec digital channels to establish a communication system between audiovisual terminals.

ITU H.243采用速率达2M比特/秒在三个或更多的视听终端之间建立通信的系统。 ITU H.243 sampling rate of up to 2M bit / s system establishing communication between three or more audiovisual terminals.

ITU H.245用于多媒体通信的控制协议的推荐标准。 ITU H.245 Recommendation for a control protocol for multimedia communication.

ITU H.261用于支持视频分辨率为352×288象素和176×144象素的视听服务的视频编码器-解码器的推荐标准。 ITU H.261 video support for 352 × 288 pixels resolution is 176 × 144 pixels and audiovisual services video encoder - Recommendations decoder.

ITU H.263用于支持视频分辨率为128×96象素、176×144象素、352×288象素、704×576象素和1408×1152象素的视听服务的视频编码器-解码器的推荐标准。 ITU H.263 video resolution is used to support 128 × 96 pixels, 176 × 144 pixels, 352 × 288 pixels, 704 × 576 pixels and 1408 × 1152 pixels of the video encoder audiovisual services - Decoder the recommended standard.

ITU H.320窄带ISDN视频电话系统的推荐标准。 Recommendation ITU H.320 narrowband ISDN video telephone system.

ITU H.321 ATM上的视频电话终端。 Video phone terminal on the ITU H.321 ATM.

ITU H.322有保障服务质量的局域网上的视频电话终端。 Video phone terminal on the ITU H.322 LAN guaranteed quality of service.

ITU H.323用于提供无保障服务质量的局域网的视频电话系统和设备的推荐标准。 ITU H.323 standard provides no guarantee for the recommended quality of service LAN video telephone systems and equipment.

ITU H.324用于拨号电话线路上低比特率(28.8Kbps)多媒体通信的终端和系统的推荐标准。 ITU H.324 dial-up telephone line for low bit rate (28.8 Kbps) and recommended standard terminal multimedia communications systems.

ITU T.120多媒体数据的传输协议。 ITU T.120 protocol transport multimedia data.

此外,本文中引用的其它几个有关标准是:ISDN综合业务数字网-在单一通信链路上传输声音、视频和数据的数字通信标准。 In addition, several other relevant standards are referenced in this article: ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network - transmit voice over a single communication link, digital video and data communications standard.

RTP实时传输协议-一种用于在单信道传播和多信道传播网络上传输声音、视频之类实时数据的因特网标准协议。 RTP Real-time Transport Protocol - an Internet protocol standard for real time data like video on a single channel for the propagation and spread of multichannel sound transmission network.

IP因特网协议-一种用于在互连计算机系统的分组交换网络上传输和传递数据分组的因特网标准协议。 IP Internet Protocol - Internet standard protocol for the transmission of data packets and transmitted over a packet-switched network of interconnected computer systems.

PPP点到点协议MPEG运动图象专家组-国际标准化组织(ISO)下的一个标准化单位,其制定了用于包括位流的数字视频和音频的压缩(但不是压缩算法)的推荐标准。 PPP Point to Point Protocol MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group - a standardized unit under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which developed recommendations for including digital video bit stream and audio compression (but not the compression algorithm).

SLIP串行线路因特网协议RSVP资源保留建立协议UDP用户数据报协议Ⅲ. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol RSVP resource reservation setup protocol UDP user datagram protocol Ⅲ. TCP/IP特征TCP/IP协议在因特网上迅速流行的原因是它们迎合了全球数据通信这个重大需要,并且有几个重要特性使它们能够迎合这种需要。 TCP / IP characteristics TCP / IP protocol on the Internet quickly became popular because they cater to this important global data communication needs, and there are several important features to enable them to cater to this need.

今天仍然在使用的这些特征包括:通用寻址方案,它允许任何运行TCP/IP的设备能唯一地寻址因特网上的任何其它设备。 These features are still in use today include: general addressing scheme that allows any running TCP / IP devices on any other device capable of uniquely addressing the Internet.

开放的协议标准-自由使用,其开发独立于任何硬件或操作系统。 Open protocol standard - free use its development independent of any hardware or operating system. 因此,TCP/IP能被用于不同的硬件和软件,即使是不需要进行因特网通信。 Thus, TCP / IP can be used for different hardware and software, even if Internet communication is not required.

对任何特定物理网络硬件的独立性,允许TCP/IP集成许多不同种类的网络。 Independence of any particular physical network hardware that allows TCP / IP integration of many different types of networks. TCP/IP能够用在以太网、令牌环网、拨号线路或者几乎任何种类的物理传输介质上。 TCP / IP can be used on Ethernet, token ring networks, dial-up line, or virtually any type of physical transmission medium.

Ⅳ. Ⅳ. 通讯网络中的信息传输A. A. communication of information transmission network 交换技术要理解当今因特网主干业务的主要运作者近来采取的行动,需要了解在通信系统中信息是如何传播的。 Switching technology to understand the operation of the main action in today's Internet backbone business recently taken, we need to understand how information is spread in a communication system. 传统类型的通信网络是线路交换式的。 Conventional type of communications network is a circuit-switched type. 美国的电话系统就采用这种线路交换技术。 US phone system on the use of such a circuit-switched technology. 当人或计算机进行电话呼叫时,电话系统内的转接设备要寻找从起源电话到接收者电话的物理路径。 When a computer or a telephone call, the switching equipment within the telephone system to find the physical path from the origin of the telephone call to the recipient. 线路交换式网络试图通过首先建立一条从起源电话开始、经过本地交换局、然后跨越中继线、到达远程交换局、最后到达目的地电话的线路,在该两点之间来建立一个专用连接。 Circuit switched network attempts to start from the origin by first establishing a telephone, through the local exchange, then across the trunk to reach the remote exchange, and finally reach the destination telephone line between the two points to establish a dedicated connection. 这个专用连接一直存在到呼叫终止。 This dedicated connection exists until the call terminates.

对于线路交换网络来说,建立一条完整路径是数据传输的前提。 For the circuit-switched network, the establishment of a complete path is a prerequisite for data transmission. 在线路适当就位之后,麦克风捕获模拟信号,信号以模拟形式在模拟环路上被传输到本地交换通信公司(LEC-Local ExehangeCarrier)中心局(CO)。 After the lines properly in place, the microphone captures analog signals, the signal is transmitted in analog form to a local exchange carrier (LEC-Local ExehangeCarrier) the central office (CO) on the analog loop. 模拟信号在到达LEC中心局之前不转换成数字形式,即使到达,也只有当设备先进得足以支持数字信息时才作转换。 Analog signals are not converted to digital form before it reaches the LEC central office, even as they arrive only when the equipment advanced enough to support digital information for conversion. 然而在ISDN实施例中,模拟信号在设备上转换成数字信号,然后以数字信息传输给LEC。 Embodiment, the analog signal is converted into a digital signal in the apparatus, and to transmit digital information to the LEC However In ISDN.

连接时,线路通过保持一个64Kbps(千比特/秒)的数据路径而保证样本能被传递并再生。 When connected, by maintaining a 64Kbps lines (kbit / s) data transfer path and ensure that the sample can be reproduced. 这个速率本身并不是发送数字化声音所要求的速率。 Send digitized voice itself is not required to rate this rate. 确切地说,64Kbps是发送用脉冲编码调制(PCM)技术数字化的声音所要求的速率。 Rather, 64Kbps is the rate of transmission by pulse code modulation (PCM) technology digitized sounds required. 有许多其它的数字化声音的方法,包括ADPCM(32Kbps)、GSM(13Kbps)、TrueSpeech8.5(8.5Kbps)、G.723(6.4Kbps或5.3Kbps)和Voxware RT29HQ(2.9Kbps)。 There are many other digitized voice, comprising ADPCM (32Kbps), GSM (13Kbps), TrueSpeech8.5 (8.5Kbps), G.723 (6.4Kbps or 5.3 Kbps) and Voxware RT29HQ (2.9Kbps). 此外,64Kbps的数据路径是从LEC中心局(CO)交换到LEC保持的,但不是端对端保持的。 Further, 64Kbps data path is switched from the LEC central office (CO) to LEC held, but not held end to end. 该模拟本地回路发送模拟信号,而不是64Kbps的数字声频。 The analog local loop transmits an analog signal, rather than the frequency of the digital audio 64Kbps. 模拟本地回路通常作为各个电话网络线路的“最后一程”,用以连接呼叫方的本地电话。 Analog local loop telephone network lines each commonly used as the "last process," to connect the caller to the local telephone.

这种能力的保障是线路交换网络的强项。 This is to protect the ability of the strengths of the line switching network. 然而,线路交换有两个显著缺点。 However, circuit switching has two significant drawbacks. 首先,建立时间可能会很长,因为呼叫信号请求可能会发现线路正忙于其它呼叫;在这种情况下,在其它连接终止以前不可能得到连接。 First, the settling time can be long, because the call signal request may find the lines busy with other calls; in this case, before the other connection termination connection can not be obtained. 其次,利用率可能低而费用高。 Secondly, utilization may be low and the high cost. 换言之,呼叫方要为呼叫期间付费并且即使没有数据传输发生(即没有人说话)也要按全部时间付费。 In other words, the calling party to pay and even if no data transmission occurs (that is, no one to speak) all have pay-per-time during the call. 利用率可能低的原因是,因为线路是专用的,所以信号传输之间的时间不能被任何其它呼叫使用。 Cause utilization may be low, because the line is dedicated, so that the time between transmission of a signal can not be used any other calls. 连接期间的任何这种未使用的带宽都浪费了。 This is not any bandwidth used during connections are wasted.

此外,整个线路交换的基础结构是围绕64Kbps的线路而建立的。 In addition, the entire infrastructure is built around 64Kbps circuit-switched lines established. 这种基础结构假设使用PCM编码技术来传输话音。 This infrastructure is assumed that PCM coding technology to transmit voice. 然而,有一些质量很高的编码一解码器用不到PCM的带宽的十分之一的带宽就能编码声音。 However, there are some very high quality encoding a decoded Used bandwidth of less than PCM voice encoding can be one-tenth the bandwidth. 但是线路交换网络却盲目地为一个端对端呼叫分配64Kbps的带宽,即使只利用了这个带宽的十分之一。 But the circuit-switched network was blindly allocating bandwidth 64Kbps call for a end to end, even if one of the bandwidth is utilized only. 此外,每个线路一般仅连接两个通话方。 Further, each of the two lines are generally connected only to the called party. 如果没有会议桥接设备(conference bridging equipment)的辅助,与电话相连的整个线路都被占用于连接一方到另一方。 If no auxiliary for a conference bridge (conference bridging equipment), the entire telephone line connected to the connector are occupied by one party to another. 线路交换没有多信道广播或多点通信的能力,除非结合会议桥接设备使用。 No circuit-switched multi-channel broadcast or communication capabilities, unless used in conjunction with conference bridging equipment.

呼叫建立时间长的其它原因包括呼叫建立中涉及到不同的信令网络以及纯粹是导致传输延迟的距离。 Other reasons for long call setup time comprising call set-up involved different signaling networks and the sheer distance result in transmission delay. 在低带宽链路上从端站发往中心局的模拟信号也能延迟呼叫建立。 On the low bandwidth analog link to send signals from the central office end station also delay call setup. 还有,呼叫建立数据在信令网络上要经过很长的距离,而信令网络并非总是以光速传输数据。 Also, the call set-up data on the signaling network to go through a long distance, while the signaling network is not always the speed of light to transmit data. 当呼叫是国际的时,信令网络的差异就增大,处理呼叫建立的设备通常没有调制解调器装置(modem setup)那样快,而距离更长,所以呼叫建立更加慢。 When the call is international, the difference of the signaling network is increased, the processing device generally no call setup modem device (modem setup) as fast, the distance is longer, so the call set-up more slowly. 此外,一般来说,面向连接的虚拟或物理线路装置-诸如线路交换,由于通话双方之间要求端对端握手,在连接建立时比可比的无连接技术需要更长的时间。 Further, in general, physical or virtual circuit connection-oriented devices - such as circuit switching, due to the required end-handshake between call parties, when the connection establishment than comparable connectionless techniques take longer.

消息交换(message switching)是人们考虑过的另一种交换策略。 Message exchange (message switching) people considered another exchange strategy. 如果采用这种交换形式,就不提前在发送者与接收者之间建立物理路径;相反,每当发送者有数据码组(block of data)要发送时,数据码组就先被存储在第一个交换局,检错之后再传输到下一个交换点。 With this form of switching, no physical path is established in advance between the sender and the receiver; instead, whenever the sender has a set of data symbols (block of data) is to be transmitted, on the first set of data symbols are stored at the a switching office, and then transmitted to the next switching point after error detection. 消息交换对码组大小不设限制,因此要求交换站必须有磁盘来缓存长数据码组;还有,一个单一码组可能占用线路数分钟,使消息交换变得对交互式业务(interactive traffic)无用。 Message exchange code block size does not limit, thus requiring the exchange must have disks to buffer long groups of data symbols; Also, a single line code group may take a few minutes, so that becomes message exchange (interactive traffic) for interactive services useless.

分组交换网络在计算机网络业中占据着优势。 Packet-switched networks occupy advantage in the computer networking industry. 分组交换网络将数据划分成称为分组的小数据片,多路复用到高容量的机器间连接上。 Packet-switched network the data into small pieces called packets of data, multiplexed connections between the high-capacity machines. 分组是一个数据码组,有严格的码组大小上限,携带着为向其目的地传递而必需的足够标识。 Packet is a data code group, code group have strict size limit, carrying enough to pass to its destination identifier necessary. 这种分组一般含有数百个字节的数据,只占用给定传输线路数十毫秒的时间。 Such packets typically contain several hundred bytes of data and occupy a given transmission line is only several tens of milliseconds. 通过分组交换来传递更大的文件要求将文件分解成许多小分组,从一个机器向另一个机器每次发送一个。 File to pass through the larger packet switched requirements document will decompose into many small packets, each time a transmission from one machine to another machine. 网络硬件将这些分组传递到指定目的地,而软件则将它们重新组装成一个单一文件。 Network hardware these packets to the specified destination, and the software will re-assemble them into a single file.

分组交换由于其数据传输效率而被几乎所有计算机互连所使用。 Due to its packet-switched data transmission efficiency is used by virtually all computer interconnections. 分组交换网络按需要使用线路上的带宽,这就允许其它传输在该期间穿过线路。 Bandwidth on the packet switched network requires the use of lines, which allows through other transmission lines in the period. 此外还提高了通量,这是因为事实上路由器或交换局能迅速地将其接收大文件的给定分组或一部分,远在该文件的其它分组到达之前就转发到下一站。 In addition, increased throughput, is due to the fact that a router or switching office can quickly it receives a large file or a portion of a given packet, it is forwarded to the next stop well before the other packets of the file is reached. 在消息交换中,中间路由器则必须要等到整个码组被传递后才能转发。 In message switching, the intermediate router can forward it must wait until after the entire code blocks are transmitted. 现今,由于分组交换的优越性,计算机网络中已不再使用消息交换。 Today, due to the advantages of packet switched computer network is no longer used in the exchange of messages.

将因特网对照电话系统作个比较有助于更好地理解因特网。 The Internet telephone system to make a comparison control contribute to a better understanding of the Internet. 公共交换电话网的设计目标是传输多多少少能识别出来的人类话音。 Designed public switched telephone network is able to transmit more or less recognizable human voice. 为适用于计算机至计算机的通信,已经对它们作了改进,但仍然远非最优。 Is suitable for computer to computer communication, they have been improved, but still far from optimal. 在两个计算机之间的电缆能以每秒数百兆位甚至千兆位的速度传输数据。 Cable between the two computers to the data can be even hundreds of megabits per second transmission speed Gigabit. 在这些速度下,差的误码率只是每天一个错误。 At these speeds, the difference between the error rate is just a mistake every day. 可是,采用标准电话线的拨号线路的最大数据速率是每秒数千位,而误码率则更高。 However, a standard telephone line maximum data rate dial line thousands bits per second, while the error rate is higher. 事实上,本地电缆的组合位速率乘以误码率性能可能比音频级电话线好11个数量级。 In fact, a combination of the bit rate multiplied by the local cable may be better BER performance of 11 orders of magnitude than the audio level phone line. 然而,新技术一直在改善这些线路的性能。 However, new technology has been improving the performance of these lines.

B. B. 网关和路由器因特网由大量的个别网络组成,它们一起形成了数千个计算机系统的全球性连接。 Internet gateways and routers by a large number of individual networks, which are connected to form a global system of thousands of computers together. 在知道机器是连接到各个网络之后,我们就能探究网络是如何连接在一起形成网际(internetwork)或因特网的。 After know the machine is connected to each network, we can explore how the network is linked together to form the Internet (internetwork) or the Internet. 此时,因特网网关和因特网路由器就出场亮相了。 At this point, the Internet gateway and Internet router on a debut appearance.

就体系结构而言,两个给定网络是由与它们二者相连的计算机连接的。 In terms of architecture, two given networks are connected by a computer connected to both of them. 因特网网关和路由器提供为在网络之间发送分组所必需的那些链路并因此使连接成为可能。 Internet gateways and routers provide those links to transmit packets between the network and thus the necessary connections possible. 没有这些链路,经过因特网的数据通信就不可能,因为信息要么不会抵达目的地,要么会在到达时变得不可理解。 Without these links, data communication through the Internet can not, either because the information did not reach the destination, or will become unintelligible on arrival. 网关可被看作是通向某通信网络的入口,它执行两个原本不兼容的网络之间的代码和协议的转换。 The gateway may be considered as leading to an inlet of a communication network that performs code and protocol conversion between two otherwise incompatible networks. 例如,网关在互连网上的网络之间传输电子邮件和数据文件。 For example, the transmission of e-mail gateway and data files between the Internet network interconnection.

IP路由器也是连接网络的计算机,是销售商喜欢的更新的名词。 IP router is connected to a computer network, the vendor is like an updated term. 这些路由器必须通过使用不断更新的路由选择表来决定如何将其接收的数据分组发送到目的地。 These routers must decide how to send the packet to its destination data received by using the updated routing table. 路由器通过分析分组的目的地网络地址(destination network address),作出这些决定。 By analyzing network router destination address (destination network address) packets, making these decisions. 重要的是,路由器一般不需要决定哪个主机或终端用户将接收分组;相反,路由器只寻找目的地网络,因此只跟踪足以到达适当网络而不必是适当终端用户的信息。 Importantly, the routers generally do not need to decide which host or end user will receive a packet; rather, only to find the destination network router, so only sufficient to reach the appropriate tracking information network without appropriate end user. 因此,路由器不必是庞大的超级计算系统而经常只是带小型主存储器和小型磁盘存储器的机器。 Therefore, the router does not have to be large supercomputing systems and often only with a small main memory and mini-disk storage machines. 网关与路由器的区别细微,当前的用法使区别界限模糊不清到了这两个术语经常互换使用的程度。 Gateway and router subtle difference, the difference between the current usage boundaries blurred to the extent that the terms are often used interchangeably. 在当前的术语中,网关在不同协议之间移动数据,而路由器在不同网络之间移动数据。 In current terminology, a gateway moves data between different protocols and a router moves data between different networks. 所以,在TCP/IP与OSI之间移动邮件的系统是网关,而传统的(连接不同的网络的)IP网关则是路由器。 Therefore, to move messages between TCP / IP and OSI is a gateway system, traditional (connecting different networks) IP gateway is a router.

现在来简单考察一下传统电话系统中的路由选择是有用的。 Now let's look at a simple routing of traditional phone systems is useful. 电话系统被构造成高度冗余的多级层次结构。 The telephone system is configured to highly redundant multi-level hierarchy. 每个电话有两根外出铜线,直接连接到电话公司最近的终端局(end office),也称本地中央局。 Each phone has two out copper wire, connected directly to the nearest telephone company end office (end office), also known as local central office. 距离通常不到10公里,仅在美国就有大约2万个终端局。 Usually less than 10 km away, in the United States alone, approximately 20,000 terminals Bureau. 地区码与电话号码前三位的并置,唯一地指定某个终端局并帮助确定费率和记帐结构。 Area code and telephone number of the top three juxtaposed uniquely specify a terminal station and help determine the rates and billing structures.

每个用户的电话与终端局之间的双线连接称为本地回路(localloop)。 Lane between each user's telephone connection with the called end office local loop (localloop). 如果附属于给定终端局的用户呼叫附属于同一终端局的另一个用户,终端局内的交换机构就在这两个回路之间建立一个直接的电子连接。 If attached to a given end office calls a user attached to the terminal of another user of the same office, end office switching mechanism is established in a direct electronic connection between the two circuits. 由于前文讨论过的线路交换技术,这种连接在呼叫期间保持完好。 Since we discussed earlier before circuit-switched technology, which remains intact during the call connection.

如果附属于给定终端局的用户呼叫附属于不同终端局的用户,就要在呼叫的路由选择中做更多的工作。 If the user is attached to a given end office calls affiliated with a different user terminal office, it is necessary to do more work in the routing of calls. 第一,每个终端局都有许多外出的线路连接一个或多个附近的交换中心,称为长途电话局。 First, each end office has a number of outgoing lines is connected to one or more nearby switching centers, called toll office. 这些线路称为长途连接中继线。 These lines are called toll connecting trunks. 如果呼叫者和接收者双方的终端局恰巧都有长途连接中继线到同一个长途电话局,则连接就可以在该长途电话局内建立。 If both the caller and the receiver terminal station happens to have the same long-distance trunk is connected to a toll office, the connection can be established within the toll office. 如果呼叫者和呼叫的接收者不共享同一个长途电话局,则路径就将必须在层次结构中更高的某个地方建立。 If the caller and the recipient of the call does not share the same long-distance telephone office, somewhere in the path it will be higher in the hierarchy established. 有形成网络的地区性和区域性电话局,长途电话局通过网络连接。 There are forming a network of local and regional telephone office, toll office network connection. 长途、地区和区域交换局彼此之间通过高带宽的长途中继线间的主干线路通讯。 Between long-distance, local and regional exchange with each other through the trunk line communication between the trunk line high bandwidth. 不同种类的交换中心的数量和它们的特定拓扑结构因国家而异,取决该国的电话密度。 The number and their specific topologies of different types of switching centers vary by country, depending on telephone density in the country.

C. C. 用网络层通信便利进行用户连接除了因特网的数据传输功能之外,TCP/IP也寻求使用户相信因特网是唯一的虚拟网络。 User convenient communication connection with the network layer in addition to data transmission capabilities of the Internet, TCP / IP also seek to make users believe the Internet is the only virtual networks. TCP/IP完成这个目的的方法是提供机器间的通用互连,它独立于主机和用户终端附接的特定网络。 TCP / IP to accomplish this purpose is to provide a universal interconnection among machines, it is independent of the particular network host and the user terminal attached. 除了物理网络的路由器互连,每个主机上还要求有软件来允许应用程序像使用单一的真实物理网络那样地使用因特网。 In addition to the physical interconnection network router, there is also required on each host to allow application software to use the Internet as a real physical network as a single ground.

D. D. 数据报和路由选择因特网业务的基础是由路由器运行的一个基础的无连接的分组传递系统,基本传输单位是分组。 Datagrams and routing Internet traffic is based on a packet delivery system run by routers based connectionless, is a basic transmission unit of packet. 在运行TCP/IP的互连网中,诸如因特网主干中,将这些分组称为数据报。 In the Internet running TCP / IP, such as the Internet backbone, these packets called datagrams. 本节将简要讨论如何为数据报在因特网中选择路由。 This section will briefly discuss how to route data packets on the Internet.

在分组交换系统中,路由选择是一个对在其上发送分组的路径进行选择的过程。 In the packet switching system, a process of routing packets in a transmission path on which the selection. 如上所述,路由器就是进行这种选择的计算机。 As mentioned above, this router is the computer of choice. 对于从网络内的一个主机到同一网络内的另一个主机的信息的路由选择来说,被发送的数据报实际上并不到达因特网主干。 For routing information from one host to another host within the network into the same network, the datagrams are sent do not actually reach the Internet backbone. 这是内部路由选择的一例,它在网络内部是完全自包容的。 This is an example of internal routing, in which the internal network is completely self-contained. 网络外部的机器不参与这些内部路由选择决定。 External network devices that do not participate in these internal routing decisions.

现在应当对直接传递和间接传递加以区分。 It should now be passed to distinguish between direct and indirect transfer. 直接传递是始于一个机器、跨越一个单一物理网络、到达同一物理网络上另一个机器的数据传输。 Direct delivery is started in a machine across a single physical network and arriving at the data transmission on the same physical network to another machine. 这种传递不牵涉路由器。 This transfer does not involve router. 相反,发送者将数据报封装在物理帧中,标注地址,然后将该帧直接发送到目的机器。 Instead, the sender of the datagram encapsulated in a physical frame, the address label, and then transmits it directly to the destination machine.

当涉及一个以上的物理网络时,特别是当一个网络中的机器希望与另一个网络中的机器通信时,间接传递是必要的。 When referring to more than one physical network, especially when a desired machine network communication with the machine in another network, the indirect transfer is necessary. 这种通信类型就是当我们说到跨因特网主干选择信息路由时所想到的通信类型。 This type of communication is when we talk about the type of communication across the Internet backbone routing selection information can think of. 间接传递是需要路由器的。 Indirect transfer requires a router. 要发送数据报,发送者必须标识一个该数据报能发往的一个路由器,该路由器然后向目的地网络转发该数据报。 To send a datagram, the sender must identify a router that the packets destined for the router and then forwards the packets to the destination network. 回忆一下,路由器一般并不跟踪个别主机地址(有数百万个),而是只跟踪物理网络(有数千个)。 Recall that the router generally does not track individual host addresses (several million), but only tracks physical network (there are thousands). 实际上,因特网中的路由器形成一个合作的互连结构,数据报跨主干从路由器传到路由器,直到到达一个能直接传递数据报的路由器。 Indeed, the Internet routers forming an interconnect structure in a cooperative, packets transmitted from the router across the backbone routers, until it reaches a direct pass datagrams router.

Ⅴ. Ⅴ. 技术介绍因特网世界的变化面貌吸引了新的系统和技术的流入。 Change the face of Internet technology introduced the world to attract the inflow of new systems and technologies. 以下三项新技术-每项都有可能在不久的未来更加流行,可用来引入该技术领域:A. The following three new technologies - each are likely to be more prevalent in the near future, it is used to introduce the art: A. ATM异步传输模式(ATM)是采用高速的面向连接的系统的联网技术,用于局域网和广域网两种网络。 ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a networking technology using a high-speed connection-oriented system for both networks LAN and WAN. ATM网络要求的现代硬件包括:·高速交换,能以每秒千兆位(1012位)的速度处理来自许多计算机的通信量;·光纤,(与铜线相比)提供高数据传输速率,具有以100或155Mbps(百万位/秒)的速率运行的主机-ATM交换连接; ATM networks require modern hardware including: a high-speed switching can be processed at a rate of gigabits per second (1012) of the traffic from many computers; Optical fiber, provides a high data rate (compared to the copper wire), having host -ATM at 100 or 155Mbps (one million / sec) running switched connection;

·固定大小的信元(cell),每个包括53个字节。 · Fixed-size cell (cell), each comprising 53 bytes.

ATM融合了分组交换和线路交换二者的特征,因为它是设计用于除了数据之外还传输语音、视频和电视信号。 ATM packet switching combines features of both circuit-switched and, because it is also designed for data transmission in addition to voice, video, and television signals. 纯粹的分组交换技术无助于进行语音传输,因为语音传输要求更稳定的带宽。 Pure packet switching technology is not conducive to voice transmission, voice transmission requires more stable because the bandwidth.

B. B. 帧中继帧中继系统采用分组交换技术,但是比传统系统效率更高。 Frame Relay Frame Relay packet switching technology, but a higher efficiency than conventional systems. 这种效率的部分原因实际是帧中继系统比传统的X.25分组交换业务执行更少的差错检验。 Part of this is the actual efficiency than the traditional Frame Relay X.25 packet switching service execution less error checking. 事实上,许多中间节点很少或者根本不作差错检验而只处理路由选择,将差错检验留给系统的更高层。 In fact, many intermediate nodes for little or no error checking and deal only with routing, error checking will be left to higher-level systems. 由于现今的传输可靠性更高,以前进行的差错检验大都变得无足轻重了。 Due to the higher transmission reliability today, error checking previously conducted mostly become insignificant. 因此,帧中继与传统系统相比具有更高的性能。 Thus, the conventional frame relay system has higher performance compared.

C. C. ISDN综合业务数字网是一种“在数字线路上传输语音、视频和数据的国际电信标准”,主要以64K位/秒的速率运行。 ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network is a "line in the digital transmission of voice, video and data telecommunications international standards", mainly running at 64K bit / sec. 传统的电话网络传输语音的速率只有4K位/秒。 Traditional telephone networks transmit voice rate only 4K bits / sec. 要采用ISDN,终端用户或公司必须升级ISDN终端设备、中心局硬件、和中心局软件。 ISDN to be used, the end-user or the company must upgrade ISDN terminal equipment, central office hardware, software and the central office. ISDN的明显目标包括以下各点:1. ISDN obvious target include the following: 1. 提供用于语音、数据和信令的国际接受的标准;2. International accepted standard for voice, data and signaling; 2. 使所有传输线路成为端对端数字型线路(end-to-enddigital);3. All transmission lines become a digital line-end (end-to-enddigital); 3. 采用标准的带外信令系统;以及为桌面带来显著增加的带宽。 Standard band signaling system; and bring a significant increase in bandwidth for the desktop.

Ⅵ. Ⅵ. MCI智能网络MCI智能网络是一种处理语音、传真和有关业务的呼叫处理体系结构。 MCI MCI Intelligent Network is an intelligent network handling voice, fax and call processing architecture-related business. 智能网络包含一个具有特殊功能的专用桥接交换机(bridgeswitch)和一组具有一个自动呼叫分配器(ACD)的通用计算机。 Intelligent network comprising a bridge having a special dedicated function switch (bridgeswitch) and a set of general purpose computer having an automatic call distributor (ACD) is. 呼叫处理包括号码转换服务、自动或人工操作员服务、确认服务和数据库服务,这些服务是由专门一组具有专业软件的通用计算机执行的。 Call processing includes a number translation service, automatic or manual operator services, validation services and database services, those services are performed by a dedicated computer with a common set of professional software. 通过以简单而成本-高效的方式增强软件,能够很容易地将新的增值服务集成到该系统中。 By a simple and cost - effective way to enhance the software can easily be integrated into new value-added services in the system.

进一步展开之前,确定一些术语的含义是有帮助的。 Before further expansion, to determine the meaning of some terms is helpful. ISP 智能业务平台NCS 网络控制系统DAP 数据接入点ACD 自动呼叫分配器ISN 智能业务网络(智能网络)ISNAP 智能业务网络附属处理器MTOC 人工电信操作员控制台ARU 音频应答器ACP 自动呼叫处理器NAS 网络音频服务器EVS 增强性语音业务POTS 普通老式电话系统ATN 异步传输模式智能网络体系结构特征丰富,非常灵活。 ISP business intelligence platform NCS Network Control System DAP data access point ACD automatic call distributor ISN intelligent network services (intelligent network) ISNAP intelligent service network-attached processors MTOC artificial telecommunications operator console ARU audio transponder ACP automated call handler NAS network audio server EVS-enhancing voice services POTS plain old telephone system ATN ATM intelligent network architecture features rich, very flexible. 增添新特征和服务的方法简单而且迅速。 Method to add new features and services simple and fast. 用在通用计算机上运行的专用软件来扩展这些特征和服务。 With special software running on a general purpose computer to expand these features and services. 增添新特征和服务涉及升级专用软件,成本-效能比合算。 Add new features and services related to special software upgrade, the cost - effectiveness ratio cost-effective.

智能网络的特征和服务包括:·呼叫类型标识;·呼叫路由选择和选择性终端;·操作员选择和呼叫保持;·人工和自动操作员;·语音识别和自动、交互式应答;·客户和客户轮廓的验证和确认;·语音邮件;·呼叫确认和数据库;·电话会议预约;·电视会议预约;·传真传递和广播;·客户记帐;·欺诈监控;·运行测量和使用统计报告;以及交换接口和控制。 Intelligent network features and services include: call type identification; - call routing and selective terminal; * Operator selection and call holding; - manual and automated operators; - and automatic speech recognition, an interactive response; and · Customer customer profile verification and validation; · voice mail; · call confirmation and databases; · conference telephone booking; reservations and video-conferencing; · fax transmission and broadcasting; • customer billing; · fraud monitoring; · operational measurements and usage statistics reports; and switching and control interfaces.

A. A. MCI智能网络的各部件图19A表示按照较佳实施例的一个智能网络。 MCI Intelligent Network Each member of FIG 19A shows an intelligent network according to the preferred embodiment of FIG. MCI智能网络由许多部件组成。 MCI intelligent network consists of many parts. MCI智能网络的主要部件包括: The main components of MCI Intelligent Network include:

·MCI交换网络2·网络控制系统(NCS)/数据接入点(DAP)3·ISN-智能业务网络4·EVS-增强性语音业务91. MCI-switched network 2. Network Control System (NCS) / Data Access Point (DAP) 3 · ISN- intelligent service network 4 · EVS- enhancing voice services 91. MCI交换网络MCI交换网络由专用桥接交换机(bridging switches)2组成。 MCI MCI switching network by a dedicated network switching bridge switch (bridging switches) 2 composition. 这些桥接开关2在呼叫被智能业务网络4确认之后,为呼叫和被呼叫方选择路由并连接双方。 These bridging switches 2 after the call is confirmed 4 intelligent network service, the call is routed and connected to both the calling party and. 桥接交换机具有有限的编程功能,在智能业务网络(ISN)4的控制下提供基本的交换服务。 Bridging switches have limited programming capabilities, provides the basic switching services under the control of an intelligent service network (ISN) 4 in.

2. 2. 网络控制系统/数据接入点(NCS/DAP)NCS/DAP 3是MCI智能网络的组成部分。 Network Control System / Data Access Point (NCS / DAP) NCS / DAP 3 is an integral part of the MCI Intelligent Network. DAP提供号码转换之类的各种数据库服务,也为标识一个呼叫的终端号码的交换机ID和中继线ID提供服务。 DAP offers a variety of database services like number of conversion, the terminal identification number is also a switch ID and trunk call service ID.

NCS/DAP 3提供的不同服务包括:·800、900、VNET号码的号码转换;·范围限制,用于限制长途电话选择和高级参数路由选择,这些高级参数路由选择包括时间、星期、日期、起源点和多个地点上的百分比分配;·信息数据库,包括给定呼叫的终端号码的交换机ID和中继线ID;·远程查询客户数据库;·VNET/950卡确认服务;·VNET ANI/DAL确认服务。 Different services NCS / DAP 3 include: · 800,900, VNET number of number translation; · limit the scope for limiting the long-distance call routing options and advanced parameters, these advanced routing parameters include time, day, date, origin and the percentage distribution of the plurality of point locations; * information database, comprising a switch ID and trunk ID of the terminal number of a given call; * remote customer database query; · VNET / 950 card validation services; · VNET ANI / DAL confirmation service.

3. 3. 智能业务网络(ISN)4ISN 4包括为呼叫选择路由的自动呼叫分配器(ACD)。 Intelligent Service Network (ISN) 4ISN 4 comprises a call routing for automatic call distributor (ACD). ACD与智能交换网络附属处理器(ISNA)5通信并将呼叫传递给不同的人工或自动代理(agents)。 ACD switching network and intelligent adjunct processor (ISNA) 5 and a communication call delivery to different manual or automated agents (agents). ISN包括ISNAP 5和操作员网络中心(ONC)。 ISN including ISNAP 5 and the operator network center (ONC). ISNAP 5负责呼叫路由选择的组选择(Group Select)和操作员选择(Operator Select)。 Select group (Group Select) ISNAP 5 is responsible for call routing and select the operator (Operator Select). ISNAP与ACD通信以向不同代理传递呼叫。 ISNAP communicates with the ACD call to transfer to a different agent. ISNAP也负责为操作员辅助的呼叫协调数据和语音。 ISNAP also responsible for the operator-assisted call coordination of data and voice. ONC的组成是服务器、数据库和代理,代理包括活操作员或音频应答器(ARU),后者包括自动呼叫处理器(ACP)、MTOC和关联的NAS 7。 ONC is composed of servers, databases and agents, including agents live operator or audio transponder (the ARU), which includes an automatic call processor (ACP), MTOC and associated NAS 7. 这些系统在Eternet LAN网上彼此通信,为呼叫处理提供各种服务。 These systems communicate with each other online Eternet LAN, to provide various services for call processing.

ONC提供的各种服务包括:·确认服务-包括呼叫类型标识、呼叫验证和呼叫限制(若有的话);·操作员服务-人工或自动的,用于帮助客户;·各种数据库查阅的数据库服务;·呼叫扩展功能;·呼叫桥接功能;·提示用户输入;·播放语音消息。 ONC services provided include: confirmation services - including call type identification, call validation and call restriction (if any); * Operator Services - manual or automatic, to help customers; · various databases accessible database services; • call extensions; • call bridging function; * prompt the user; * play a voice message.

4. 4. 增强性语音业务(EVS)9增强性语音业务除了许多增值特征外还提供基于菜单的路由选择服务。 Enhancement of voice services (EVS) 9 enhancement of voice services in addition to the many value-added features also provides a menu-based routing services. EVS系统提示用户输入并根据用户输入选择呼叫路由,或者为语音邮件和传真路由选择提供专门服务。 EVS system prompts the user to enter and route calls based on user input, or choose to provide specialized services for voice mail and fax routing. 作为MCI智能网络的EVS部件的一部分提供的不同服务包括:·播放客户特定的语音消息;·提示用户输入;·基于用户输入的信息存取;·呼叫扩展功能;·呼叫桥接功能;·电话会议功能;·呼叫传输功能;·记录用户语音消息;·所记录语音的远程更新;·接-发传真。 Different parts of the EVS service as part of MCI Intelligent Network include: • Play customer-specific voice messages; · prompt the user; * Based on the information entered by the user access; • Call extensions; • Call bridging function; · Conference Call function; • call transfer function; · record user voice messages; · remotely update the recorded voice; · access - fax.

5. 5. 其它部件除了上述部件之外,MCI智能网络中还配备了一组其它部件。 Other components in addition to the member, MCI Intelligent Network is also equipped with a group of other components. 这些部件是:·智能呼叫路由选择(ICR)服务的提供,用于根据在呼叫期间或更早时候从呼叫方获得的数据进行专门的呼叫路由选择。 These components are: Intelligent Call Routing (ICR) services for specialized call routing based on the data during a call or even earlier obtained from the calling party. 也根据物理和逻辑网络布局的了解来选择路由。 Also be routed based on knowledge of the physical and logical network layout. 也提供其它根据时间的智能路由选择服务、根据忙路由器的备用路由选择。 Also provide other intelligent routing based on service time, alternate routing busy router based.

·记帐是MCI智能网络的一个关键部件。 · Accounting is a key component of the MCI Intelligent Network. 记帐部件提供根据呼叫类型和呼叫延续时间的用户记帐服务。 The billing component provides user call type and call duration billing service. 还额外地为象800受方付费电话之类的增值服务提供专门的记帐服务。 Additionally to the recipient as 800 toll-like value-added services to provide specialized accounting services.

·欺诈监控部件是MCI智能网络的一个关键部件,它提供防止因他人欺诈和非法使用网络而损失利润的服务。 · Fraud monitoring component is a key component of the MCI Intelligent Network, which provides services to prevent fraud and illegal use others networks and loss of profits.

·运行测量包括为分析产品性能进行数据收集。 · Operational measurements including data collection for the analysis of product performance. 对广告宣传反应的分析、产生专门报告的呼叫模式(call patterns)产生于运行测量。 Analysis of the reaction advertising, specialized report generation mode call (call patterns) generated in the measuring operation. 所收集的信息也用于未来的产品计划和预测基础结构需求。 The information collected is also used to predict future product plans and infrastructure needs.

·使用统计报告包括从操作数据库和记帐信息中收集信息来生成使用的报告。 Use statistical reports including reports to gather information from the operational database and generate billing information used. 使用统计报告用于研究呼叫模式、加载模式(loadpatterns)以及人口统计的信息。 Usage reports for study call mode, loading mode (loadpatterns), and demographic information. 这些报告用于未来产品计划和市场营销的输入。 These reports are used to enter future product plans and marketing.

B. B. 智能网络系统概述MCI呼叫处理体系结构是在许多重要部件上建立的,这些部件包括MCI交换网络、网络控制系统、增强性语音业务系统和智能业务网络。 Intelligent Network System Overview MCI call processing architecture is based on a number of important components that include MCI switched networks, network control system, enhancing voice business systems and intelligent network services. 呼叫处理完全是在一组通用计算机和由其产生、构成MCI智能网络的基础的一些专用处理器上执行的。 Call processing is entirely generated therefrom and a set of general purpose computer, special purpose processors perform some basic configuration of the MCI Intelligent Network. 交换机(Switch)是一种具有有限编程能力和复杂接口的专用桥接交换机。 Switch (Switch) having a limited programming capabilities and complex interface dedicated bridging switch. 在交换机上添加新的服务非常困难,有时根本不可能。 Very difficult to add new services on the switch, and sometimes impossible. 首先要查验MCI交换机(MCI Switch)上的呼叫是否需要号码转换(例如是800号码时的情况)。 First, check to switch MCI (MCI Switch) call on the need for number translation (for example, the case when the 800 number). 如果需要号码转换,则要么在交换机本身处根据内部表(internal table)完成转换,要么将转换请求发往DAP,DAP是一个通用计算机,具有能够进行号码转换、也能确定终端号码的中继线ID和交换机ID的软件。 If necessary number translation, then either the complete switch itself at the internal table (internal table) conversion, or the conversion requests to DAP, DAP is a general purpose computer, capable number translations, it can be determined trunk ID of the terminal number and the software switch ID.

呼叫能被路由选择到ACD,ACD将呼叫传递到各种呼叫处理代理,诸如活操作员或ARU。 Calls can be routed to the ACD, ACD call is transmitted to the various call processing agents, such as live operator or ARU. ACD与ISNAP通信,后者进行组选择来确定哪一组代理负责该呼叫以及哪一个代理有空处理该呼叫。 ISNAP communication with ACD, which group selection to determine which group of agents are responsible for this call and which agent is free to handle the call.

代理通过与NIDS(网络信息分布式业务)服务器通信处理接收的呼叫。 Agent received by the NIDS (Network Information Distributed Services) Server communication process the call. NIDS服务器是确认或数据库服务器,具有由ISN提供的各种服务所必需的数据库。 NIDS server or database server is confirmed, with various services offered by ISN necessary database. 一旦呼叫被该服务器上的呼叫处理确认,代理就将该状态发送回ACD。 Once the call is confirmed on the call processing server, the agent sends the status back to the ACD. ACD于是拨打终端号码并桥接具有终端号码的输入呼叫,并对所有回到该交换机的路径执行释放链路中继线(RLT)命令,将呼叫释放。 Thus ACD call the terminal number and bridges the incoming call with the terminal number, and performs a release link trunk (the RLT) command to all of the switch back path, the call is released. 代理也生成记帐名细记录(BDR)命令以记帐数据。 Acting also generate billing name detail records (BDR) command to accounting data. 当呼叫完成时,交换机就生成操作服务记录(OSR)命令,后者以后要与对应的BDR匹配以创建完整的记帐数据。 When the call is completed, the switch generates an operation service record (OSR) command, to be matched with the corresponding BDR to create a complete after the latter accounting data. 新的增值服务的添加非常简单,新的特征可由其它软件和ISP中不同计算系统的配置来添加。 Add a new value-added services is very simple, new features by other ISP software and configuration of different computing systems to add. 下面解释一个典型的呼叫流(call flow)情况。 The following explains a typical call flow (call flow) conditions.

C. C. 呼叫流的举例本呼叫流例解释了从图19A的电话1到电话10的800号码受方付费电话的处理。 Call flow examples according to the present embodiment explained a call flow of FIG. 19A from 1-800 number telephone phone 10 calls the recipient a payment process. 当呼叫方拨打1-800-COLLECT,向被呼叫方电话10进行受方付费呼叫时,呼叫开始。 When a caller dials 1-800-COLLECT, carried out by the recipient to pay a call to the called party telephone 10, call begins. 该呼叫被呼叫方的区域贝尔营业公司(RBOC)(它清楚这是MCI拥有的号码)路由选择到最近的MCI交换机装置,到达MCI交换机2。 The call is the calling party's Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) (it is clear that this number has MCI) routed to the nearest MCI switch means, the switch 2 reaches the MCI.

交换机2检测出这是一个800号码的服务,于是就根据交换机中的参考表进行800号码转换,或者请求数据接入点(DAP)3用数据库查找来提供号码转换服务。 2 switch 800 detects this is a service number, then proceeds number converter 800 according to a reference table in the switch or requests data access point (DAP) 3 to provide a number translation database lookup service.

现在通过自动呼叫分配器(ACD)4将该呼叫处理委托给一组智能计算系统。 Now delegated to a set of intelligent computing systems through an automatic call distributor (ACD) 4 The call processing. 本例中,由于是受方付费电话,呼叫方要首先联系人工或自动操作员,然后,该呼叫才能得到进一步的处理。 In this example, because it is the recipient pay phone, the caller should first contact the operator manually or automatically, then the call can be further processed. 呼叫从交换机被传输到能与智能业务网络附属处理器(ISNAP)5一起运行的ACD 4。 Call can be transmitted from the switch to the adjunct processor and the intelligent network service (ISNAP) ACD 5 run with 4. ISNAP 5根据呼叫的类型来确定哪组代理能够处理该呼叫。 ISNAP 5 to determine which group of agents capable of processing the call based on the type of call. 这个操作被称为组选择。 This operation is referred to as a selected group. 能够进行呼叫处理的代理包括人工电信操作员控制台(MTOC)6或者带有关联的网络音频服务器(NAS)7a的自动呼叫处理器(ACP)7。 Agents capable of call processing include manual telecommunications operator console (MTOC) 6 or a network server with associated audio (NAS) 7a of the automated call handler (ACP) 7. ISNAP 5确定哪一个代理有空处理该呼叫,并将该语音呼叫路由选择到特定的代理。 ISNAP 5 determines which agent is free to handle the call, and select the voice call is routed to a specific agent.

代理是用先进的呼叫处理软件建立的。 Acting with advanced call processing software created. 代理从呼叫方收集包括被呼叫方电话号码的所有有关信息。 The agent collects all relevant information, including the caller's phone number from the caller. 代理然后用一组数据库查找请求与数据库服务器通信。 Agent search request to the database server and then communicate with a set of databases. 数据库查找请求包括查询呼叫的类型、根据呼叫方和被呼叫方的电话号码的呼叫确认以及呼叫限制(若有的话)-包括根据呼叫和被呼叫双方电话号码的呼叫阻塞(call blocking)限制。 Find a database query request includes the type of call, according to the caller and the call confirmation and call restriction (if any) of the calling party's telephone number - including restrictions based on the calling and called parties telephone number of call blocking (call blocking). 代理然后向ISNAP-ACD组合发信号,要求让呼叫方等待,并拨打被呼叫方和连接被叫方。 Agent then sends the combined signal to the ISNAP-ACD, waiting requires the calling party, and dial the called party and the called party is connected. 代理然后向被呼叫方通报呼叫方以及请求受方付费电话的情况。 Agent then informed the caller to the called party and a request by the parties of pay phones. 代理从被呼叫方收集应答,然后进一步处理该呼叫。 Proxy response is collected from the calling party, and then further processing the call.

如果被呼叫方同意接收该呼叫,代理就向ISNAP-ACD组合发信号,要求桥接被呼叫方和呼叫方。 If the called party agreed to receive the call, the Agent signals the ISNAP-ACD combination requires that the bridge and the called party caller. 代理然后切换一个用于与由交换机生成的对应OSR(操作服务记录)匹配以创建完整记帐数据的BDR(记帐名细记录)。 Then the switching agent for the OSR generated by the switch corresponding to the (operating service record) matching to create a complete accounting data the BDR (thin billing record name). ISNAP-ACD组合然后桥接被呼叫方和呼叫方,然后通过执行释放中继线(RLT)命令而将线路释放返还交换机。 ISNAP-ACD combination then bridges the calling party and the called party, and then the return line is released by performing the release switch trunk (the RLT) command. 呼叫方与被呼叫方现在就能通过交换机进行通话。 Calling party and the called party is now able to make calls through the switch. 在无论由哪一方终止通话时,交换机生成一个OSR,它将与早些时候生成的BDR匹配以创建该呼叫的完整记帐数据。 When matter which party terminates the call, a switch generates the OSR, it matches with the BDR generated earlier to create complete billing of the call data. 如果被呼叫方拒绝接受该受方付费电话,代理就向ACD-ISNAP组合发信号,要求将等待的呼叫方重新连接回代理。 If the recipient is rejected payphone, the Agent signals the ACD-ISNAP combination to, requires the caller to wait for the calling party to reconnect back to the proxy. 最后,代理向呼叫方通报被呼叫方的应答,生成一个BDR后就终止该呼叫。 Finally, the agent answers the call party is informed to the caller, after generating a BDR terminates the call.

MCI智能网络是一种可缩放的和高效的呼叫处理网络体系结构,它的基础是一组具有专用软件、专用桥接交换机和ACD的智能处理器。 MCI Intelligent Network is a scalable and efficient call handling network architecture, which is based on a set of intelligent processors with specialized software, special purpose bridging switches and ACD's. 智能网络是与MCI交换网络共存的叠加网络,由大量的、与交换网络交互作用进行呼叫处理的专用处理器组成。 MCI Intelligent Network is an overlay network coexisting switched network, performed by a large number of call processing, and exchange interaction network dedicated processors. 智能网络的一个实施例是完全以音频为中心的(audio-centric)。 One embodiment of Intelligent Network is completely audio-centric (audio-centric). 数据和传真是如语音呼叫一样地用一些专门、专用特征和增值服务来处理的。 Data such as voice calls and fax are the same way with a number of specialized, value-added services and special features to deal with.

在另一个实施例中,智能网络被改造得适应新兴技术,包括基于POTS的电视电话和用于语音和视频的互连网电话。 Embodiment, the Intelligent Network have been modified to adapt to emerging technologies In another embodiment, including Internet-based telephone and a TV telephone POTS for voice and video. 以下各节详细说明在新兴技术基础上的体系结构、特征和服务。 The following sections detail the architecture based on emerging technologies, features and services.

ISN与新兴技术的兼容性以下各节详细描述建立在一些新兴技术基础上的体系结构、特征和服务,它们都能被集成到智能网络中。 Each ISN compatibility with emerging technologies in the following sections describe in detail based on some of the architecture, features, and services on the basis of new technology, they can be integrated into the intelligent network.

Ⅶ. Ⅶ. ISP构架A. ISP framework A. 背景ISP由若干毫不相同的系统组成。 BACKGROUND ISP by the system without the same number of components. 随着ISP集成的进展,以前独立的系统现在已经变成更大整体的一部分,与之相随的是ISP所有领域内的分析、测试、调度和培训水平的提高。 With the integration of ISP progress, previously independent systems has now become part of a larger whole, it is The accompanying analysis, testing, scheduling, and improve the level of training in all areas of the ISP.

1. 1. 宽带接入(broadband access)较佳实施例支持一个范围的高带宽业务。 Broadband access (broadband access) preferred embodiment supports a range of high-bandwidth services. 这些服务包括:视频点播、会议、远程教学、远程医疗。 These services include: video on demand, conferencing, distance learning, telemedicine.

ATM(异步传输模式)将网络控制推进到网络的外围,避免了传统基于线路的电话的中继线和交换模型。 ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) network control proceeds to the perimeter network, to avoid the traditional telephone line based on the trunk and switching models. 预计将被广泛采用以适应这些高带宽业务。 It expected to be widely adopted to accommodate these high-bandwidth services.

2. 2. 因特网电话系统因特网以及与因特网一起的万维网(World Wide Web)提供容易的用户接入、广泛的商业机会,并为成功的电信公司培育了新的功用。 Internet telephone system with the Internet and the World Wide Web and the Internet (World Wide Web) provides users easy access to a wide range of business opportunities, and foster a new function for a successful telecommunications company. ISP平台提供了从电话到因特网都能应用和再应用的许多特征。 ISP platform provides a number of features can be applied from the telephone to the Internet and re-applied. 这些特征包括接入、用户设备、个人帐户、记帐、营销(和广告)数据或应用内容,甚至是基本的电话业务。 These features include access, user equipment, personal accounts, billing, marketing (and advertising) content data or applications, or even basic telephone service.

电信业是因特网的主要传输供应商。 The telecommunications industry is a major supplier of Internet transmission. 为因特网用户提供来自电话环境的许多特征的较佳实施例是最优的。 It provides many features from telephony environments for Internet users preferred embodiment is optimal.

图19F是按照较佳实施例的因特网电话系统的框图。 19F is a block diagram of an Internet telephony system according to the preferred embodiment. 许多计算机1900、1901、1902、1903在防火墙1905后面通过以太网(Ethernet)或其它网络连接而连接到因特网1910。 Many computers behind a firewall 1900,1901,1902,1903 1905 and 1910 connected to the Internet via Ethernet (Ethernet) or other network connection. 域名系统1906将名字映射到因特网1910中的IP地址。 1906 Domain Name System mapping names to IP addresses in the Internet 1910. 用于记帐1920、供应1922、目录服务1934、诸如语音消息传递1932的消息传递业务1930等各个系统都是通过通信链路附接到因特网1910的。 1920 for billing, supply 1922, directory services 1934, such as a voice messaging service message 1932 to 1930 and other delivery systems are attached to the Internet via a communication link 1910. 也采用另一个通信链路来方便与用于向各种机顶设备1941~1943发送信息的卫星设备1940的通信。 Another also be employed to facilitate communications with a communication link to a variety of satellite set-top device transmits device information of 1941 ~ 19431940. web服务器1944为订单输入系统(order entry system)1945提供到因特网1910的接入。 web server 1944 for an order entry system (order entry system) 1945 1910 provides access to the Internet.

实施例中,订单输入系统1945为给定的电话号码生成完整的轮廓信息,包括名称、地址、传真号码、秘书的号码、妻子的电话号码、寻呼机、营业地址、电子邮件地址、IP地址和电话邮件(phonemail)地址。 Embodiment, the order entry system 1945 to generate a complete profile information for a given phone number, including the number name, address, fax number, secretary, his wife's telephone number, pager, business address, email address, IP address, and phone Mail (phonemail) address. 这个信息保存在能被网络中有权访问的每个人访问的数据库中。 This information is stored in a database that everyone can have access to the network access. 在一个可替代实施例中,订单输入系统利用万维网接口(webinterface)来访问现存的目录服务数据库1934以便为轮廓提供用于补充用户输入信息的信息。 In an alternative embodiment, the order entry system interface to the World Wide Web (webinterface) to access an existing directory service database 1934 to provide information for the user to input information for the supplementary profile.

因特网1910通过网关1950连接公共交换网络(PSTN)1960。 Internet 1910 is connected a public switched network (PSTN) 1960 through the gateway 1950. 较佳实施例中的网关1950提供从PSTN 1960中的线路交换呼叫到因特网1910中的某个实体的虚拟连接。 The preferred embodiment provides a virtual gateway 1950 connected to PSTN 1960 to switch from the line to a calling entity 1910 of the Internet.

PSTN 1960附接有各种系统,包括直接拨号输入1970、用于方便800号码处理和便于例如公司专用线路(tieline)的虚拟网络(VNET)处理的数据接入点(DAP)1972。 PSTN 1960 has a variety of systems attached, including a direct-dial input 1970 for facilitating 800 number processing and facilitate an access point, for example, company-specific data line (tieline) virtual network (VNET) processing (DAP) 1972. 专用小交换机(PBX)1980也通过通信链路附接,以便于PSTN 1960与诸如传真机1981、电话1982、调制解调器1983的各种计算机设备之间的通信。 A private branch exchange (PBX) 1980 is also attached via a communication link to the PSTN 1960 to 1981 such as a facsimile, a communication between the telephone 1982, a modem 1983 of various computer equipment. 操作员1973可选择地还能连接呼叫,以帮助接通出入PSTN 1960或因特网1910的呼叫或会议呼叫。 The operator can selectively connect the call 1973, it turned out to help PSTN 1960 or 1910 of the Internet or conference call.

各种服务都是通过各个通信链路连接到PSTN的,这些通信链路包括智能业务网络(ISN)1990、直接拨号计划(direct-dial plan)1991、供应(provisioning)1974、订单输入1975、记帐1976、目录服务1977、会议服务1978和授权/验证服务1979的附件。 Various services are connected through respective communication links to the PSTN, these communication links, including intelligent service network (ISN) 1990, direct dialing plan (direct-dial plan) 1991, supply (provisioning) 1974, 1975 order entry, record Post 1976, the service catalog 1977, 1978 and conference services authorization / authentication service 1979 of the annex. 所有这些业务都能通过网关1950用PSTN 1960和因特网1910在它们自己之间通信。 All of these services can communicate through gateways with PSTN 1960 1950 1910 Internet and among themselves. ISN 1990和DA1972的功能能被与因特网1910连接的设备使用。 ISN 1990 and DA1972 equipment features 1910 can be connected to the Internet.

图19G是表示按照较佳实施例的优先接入/路由器的框图。 FIG 19G is a block diagram illustrating the access priority embodiment in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the / router. 优先接入/路由器(PAR)的设计综合了因特网接入设备和因特网协议(IP)路由器的特征。 Priority access / router (PAR) is designed to combine Internet access devices and Internet protocol features (IP) router. 它能使拨号调制解调器通过执行基本的调制解调器与PPP/SLIP到IP和反向的IP到PPP/SLIP转换,接入因特网。 It enables dial-up modem to perform basic modem PPP / SLIP to IP and the reverse IP to PPP / SLIP conversion, access to the Internet. 它也分析IP分组的源/目的地地址和UPD或TCP端口并为每个分组选择适当的外出网络接口。 It also analyzes IP packet source / destination addresses and UPD or TCP ports and selects appropriate outgoing network interfaces for each packet. 最后,它用优先路由选择技术赋予发往特定网络接口的分组比发往其它网络接口的分组更高的优先权。 Finally, it selects packets destined for a specific technology gives network interface than packets destined for other network interfaces higher priority by the priority route.

优先接入/路由器的设计目标是将实时通信与因特网上其余的最佳尝试(best-effort)数据通信分离。 Priority access / router is designed to separate the remaining best attempt (best-effort) data on a real-time communication with the Internet communication. 在因特网的接入点,最好将实时和交互式多媒体通信与没有实时约束的通信分离,以便能取得对服务质量的更大控制。 Internet access point, the best real-time and interactive multimedia is not communicating with a separate real-time constraints in order to achieve greater control over the quality of service. 下面接合图19G来说明优先接入/路由器采用的过程。 Priority access procedure will be explained / router using the following engaging FIG 19G.

首先,在步骤2010,计算机通过调制解调器拨号PAR。 First, at step 2010, the computer through modem dial PAR. 计算机调制解调器与PAR调制解调器协商确定数据传输速率和调制解调器协议参数。 The computer determines the data transmission rate modem and modem protocol parameters with the PAR modem negotiation. 计算机在公共交换电话网(PSTN)连接上用调制解调器-调制解调器连接来建立一个与PAR的点对点协议(PPP)会话。 The computer is connected with the modem public switched telephone network (PSTN) - to establish a modem connection to PAR-Point Protocol (PPP) session.

计算机用调制解调器连接将点对点(PPP)分组传输给PAR。 The computer modem connection point (PPP) packets transmitted to the PAR. PAR调制解调器2010通过调制解调器至主处理器接口2080将PPP分组传输给PPP至IP转换过程2020。 PAR modem 2010 through the modem interface to the main processor 2080 is transmitted to the PPP PPP packet to the IP conversion process 2020. 调制解调器至主处理器接口可以是任何现有的或有待发明的物理接口。 The modem to host processor interface can be any existing or yet to be invented physical interface. 一些现有接口的例子是ISA、EISA、VME、SCbus、MVIP总线、存储器通道(Memory Channle)和TDM总线。 Some examples of existing interfaces are ISA, EISA, VME, SCbus, MVIP bus, memory channel (Memory Channle) and the TDM bus. 采用诸如这里提及的分时多路复用总线的多路复用总线具有一定的优点,因为能把容量用于特定数据流,保持了确定性的性能。 As referred to herein using the time division multiplexed bus multiplexed bus has certain advantages, as can the capacity for a particular data stream, holding the deterministic performance.

PPP至IP转换过程2020将PPP分组转换成IP分组,并将转换后的IP分组通过过程至过程接口2085传输给分组分类器2050。 PPP to IP conversion process 2020 converts PPP packets to IP packets, and the IP packet after the conversion process interface 2085 transmitted to the packet classifier 2050 via the process to. 过程至过程接口既可以是专用处理器硬件之间的物理接口,也可以是软件接口。 Process to process interface can be either a physical interface between dedicated processor hardware, or may be a software interface. 过程至过程软件接口的一些例子包括函数或子例程调用、消息队列、共享内存、直接内存访问(DMA)和邮箱。 Some examples of process to process software interfaces include function or subroutine calls, message queues, shared memory, direct memory access (DMA), and mailboxes.

分组分类器2085判断该分组是否属于任何特定的优先组。 Packet classifier 2085 determines whether the packet belongs to any specific priority group. 分组分类器保留一个流说明表(table of flow specifications),其由下述内容定义:目的地IP地址源IP地址组合的源/目的地IP地址组合的目的地IP地址/UDP端口组合的目的地IP地址/TCP端口组合的源IP地址/UDP端口组合的源IP地址/TCP端口组合的源IP地址和带目的地IP地址的TCP或UDP端口组合的目的地IP地址和带源IP地址的TCP或UDP端口组合的源IP地址和带目的地IP地址的TCP或UDP端口和TCP/UDP端口。 Packet classifier keeps a table described stream (table of flow specifications), which is defined by the following: Destination IP address Destination IP address of the destination source IP address combined source / destination IP address combined / UDP port combinations TCP source IP address of the source IP address of the source IP address of the IP address / port combination TCP / UDP port combination / TCP destination port combination and the TCP or UDP port with a combination of destination IP address with the IP address and the source IP address or a combination of source IP address and UDP port TCP or UDP port with destination IP address and the TCP / UDP port.

分组分类器对照分组中使用的IP地址和UDP或TCP端口检查其流说明表。 Control packet classifier IP address and UDP or TCP ports used in the packet checks the flow description table. 如果发现匹配,该分组就被分类为属于某优先流(priorityflow)并被加上优先标记(priority tag)。 If a match is found, the packet is classified as belonging to a priority flow (priorityflow) and adding the priority tag (priority tag). 可以采用资源保存建立协议(Resource Reservation Setup Protocol)技术来执行这个分组分类器步骤。 Resources can be used to save setup protocol (Resource Reservation Setup Protocol) technology to perform the packet classifier step.

分组分类器2050通过过程至过程接口(90)将有优先标记和无优先标记的分组分发给分组调度器(packet scheduler)2060。 The packet classifier 2050 via the process to process interface (90) will mark the packet priority and non-priority mark distributed packet scheduler (packet scheduler) 2060. 过程至过程接口2090不必等同于过程至过程接口2085,但是可以有相同的技术选择。 Process to process interface 2090 need not identical to the process to process interface 2085, but the same technique can be selected. 分组调度器2060用诸如加权公平队列的优先队列技术来帮助保证(由分组分类器标识的)优先分组接收更高优先级并能被放置在外出网络接口队列中比竞争的最佳尝试(best-effort)业务量靠前的位置。 The packet scheduler 2060 used a priority queue WFQ technique to help ensure that such (identified by the packet classifier) ​​receive a higher priority packet priority and egress network interface can be placed in the queue than the best competitive attempts (BEST- effort) traffic forward position.

分组调度器2060通过主处理器-外围总线2095将分组按优先顺序分发到任何外出网络接口(2010、2070、2071或2072)。 The peripheral bus 2095 to packet distribution to prioritize any outgoing network interface (2010,2070,2071 or 2072) - packet scheduler 2060 through the main processor. 可以使用任何数量的外出网络接口。 You can use any number of outgoing network interface.

IP分组能通过非调制解调器接口(2070、2071和2072)到达PAR。 IP packets via the non-modem interface (2070,2071 and 2072) to the PAR. 这些接口的一些例子包括以太网、快速以太网、FDDI、ATM和帧中继。 Some examples of these interfaces, including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, FDDI, ATM, and Frame Relay. 这些分组与通过调制解调器PPP接口到达的IP分组经历相同的步骤。 PPP modem via the same interface to the IP packet subjected to the step of the packets.

优先流说明(priority flow specifications)是通过控制器过程2030管理的。 Preferential Flow Description (priority flow specifications) by the controller 2030 process management. 控制器过程能通过外部控制应用程序接口2040来接受外置的优先保留(priority reservations)。 The controller can process the external control application program interface 2040 to receive external retention priority (priority reservations). 控制器对照允许控制过程和策略过程来为特定流确认优先保留,如果该保留是被允许的,就通过过程至过程接口2065将该流说明登入分组调度器2050中的流说明表。 The controller allows the control process control strategies and procedures to assure that a particular flow is preferentially retained, if the reservation is permitted, the interface 2065 to the flow process description sign the packet scheduler 2050 via the process flow to be described table. 过程至过程接口2065不必等同于过程至过程接口2085,但是可以有相同的技术选择。 Process to process interface 2065 need not identical to the process to process interface 2085, but the same technique can be selected.

现在转向图20,该图表示本发明所用的智能业务平台(ISP)2100的结构性构架。 Turning now to FIG. 20, which shows the present invention used in the Intelligent Service Platform (ISP) 2100 structural framework. ISP 2100的体系结构旨在定义一种集成方法,用于向ISP所有部件上的MCI网络提供和交付智能业务。 Architecture ISP 2100 is intended to define an integrated approach for the provision and delivery of intelligent network services to MCI ISP on all parts.

现存的各通信网络系统都有自己的一套方法来提供业务管理、资源管理、数据管理、安全、分布式处理、网络控制或运作支持。 The existing communication network systems each have their own set of methods to provide business management, resource management, data management, security, distributed processing, network control or operational support. ISP2100的体系结构定义了一个覆盖这些领域的单一的相干结构性框架。 ISP2100 architecture defines a single coherent structural frame cover these areas. 该体系结构集中于取得以下目标:·开发全球的功能;·提供增强的未来业务;·有效利用资源;·改善营销机会;·降低维护和运作费用;·提高整体产品质量·引入向上向下的功能缩放。 The architecture is focused on achieving the following objectives: to develop a global function; Provide enhanced future business; · efficient use of resources; - improved marketing opportunities; · lower maintenance and operating costs; · improve the overall quality of products introduced up-down zoom function.

人们设想ISP 2100的目标能力是为非常多的业务提供基本的构造部件。 It is envisaged that the target ISP 2100 is the ability to provide basic structural member to a lot of business. 这些服务的特征都是提供更高的带宽、更大的客户控制或个人灵活性以及大为缩短、甚至瞬间的提供周期。 Characteristics of these services is to provide higher bandwidth, greater customer flexibility and personal control or much shorter period even offer instant.

3. 3. 容量ISP 2100遍及全球,无所不在。 Capacity ISP 2100 throughout the world, everywhere. 地理上,它将通过同盟伙伴的网络到达每个国家;广度上,它通过有线或无线接入到达所有商务和居民场所。 Geographically, it will reach every country by the coalition partners of the network; breadth, it reaches all business and residential premises via a wired or wireless access.

4. 4. 未来业务上述能力将用于提供:·超过我们现在的电话技术和消息传递业务;·正在出现的视频和多媒体提供;·强大的数据业务,包括增强性专用网络;·使终端用户能获得对他们的业务有完全控制的软件和设备。 Future business will be used to provide the above capabilities: · more than our current telephony and messaging services; · emerging video and multimedia offer; · Powerful data services, including enhancing private network; · the end user can get to them business software and devices have full control.

ISP 2100提供的业务将包括广告、农业、教育、娱乐、金融、政府、法律、制造业、医疗、网络传输、房地产、研究、零售、造船、电信、旅游、批发和许多其它领域所需的服务。 ISP 2100 to provide the required services will include advertising, agriculture, education, entertainment, finance, government, legal, manufacturing, medical, network transport, real estate, research, retailing, shipbuilding, telecommunications, tourism, and many other areas of wholesale services .

业务:·用户可定制的:用户能按他们的需要来定制业务项目。 Business: * User-customizable: users can customize according to their needs to the business project.

·用户管理的:用户能直接(网络侧)介入对他们业务的管理和控制。 · User management: users can directly (network side) involved in the management and control of their business.

·松散连接的:业务仅当需要时才获取和使用网络资源;用户只为他们使用的东西付费。 · Loosely connected: business only when needed to access and use the network resources; users pay only for what they use. 带宽可根据要求使用,不必预先分配。 The bandwidth requirements of use, do not pre-assigned.

·安全和私密:用户隐私和秘密在网络世界是至高无上的。 · Security and privacy: user privacy and confidentiality is paramount in the online world. 商业利益受到保证,事务处理安全、保密。 Business interests are guaranteed transaction security and confidentiality. 要辨认和验证用户和客户,保护网络不被捣乱和破坏。 To identify and authenticate users and customers, protect the network from trouble and destruction.

B. B. ISP体系结构框架下一节描述ISP平台2100在提供用户业务中的作用。 ISP Architecture Framework The following section describes the role of the ISP Platform 2100 in providing user services.

ISP 2100通过智能业务基础结构提供客户业务。 ISP 2100 to provide customer service through intelligent service infrastructure. 基础结构包括提供商网络设施2102、公共网络设施2104和客户设备2106。 Infrastructure including network infrastructure provider 2102, 2104 public network infrastructure and client devices 2106. 业务基础结构保证客户服务的端对端质量和可用性。 Business infrastructure to ensure the quality and availability of end-customer service.

下一节描述ISP平台2100与在提供商内部和外部的各种外部系统的关系。 The next section describes the relationship between ISP platform 2100 with various external systems in the internal and external providers.

图20中的提供商部件2108是:·智能业务2100-负责业务提供、业务交付、业务保障,包括内部数据通信网络2102。 Provider components in FIG. 20 2108 is: Intelligent Business 2100- responsible for service provision, service delivery, service assurance, including internal data communication network 2102. 这代表了ISP的作用。 This represents the role of the ISP.

·收入管理2112-负责客户业务的金融方面。 · 2112- Revenue Management is responsible for the customer's business finance.

·网络管理2114-负责物理网络2102的开发和操作。 · Network Management 2114- responsible for the physical network development and operation of 2102.

·产品管理2116-负责客户业务的创建和营销。 · Create marketing and product management 2116- responsible for customer service.

图20中所示的ISP 2100的外部实体是:·网络2104-这代表所有网络连接和由客户为业务而使用的接入方法。 ISP 2100 external entities shown in FIG. 20 are: - Network 2104- this represents all the network connections and access methods used by the customer traffic. 这包括提供商的线路交换网络、分组交换网络、内部扩展的广域网、互连网、提供商的无线伙伴的网络、提供商的全球同盟和国家伙伴网络、宽带网络、以及附接在这些网络上的客户处设备2118。 This includes the provider's circuit-switched network, a packet-switched network, internal expansion of WAN, the Internet, a provider of wireless network partner, provider of global alliance partners and national networks, broadband networks, and these networks attached to the customer equipment 2118.

·第三方业务提供商2120-这代表那些通过提供商的智能业务平台2100向客户分发业务的外部组织。 Third-party service providers 2120- this on behalf of those outside the organization to distribute service to customers through intelligent service platform provider in 2100.

·业务转卖商2122-这代表那些有使用设施2100的客户的组织。 · Business resellers 2122- behalf of those organizations that have clients use the facilities of 2100.

·全球同盟伙伴2124-有共享设施和交换他们网络和业务基础结构的能力的组织。 · 2124- Global Alliance partner organizations have shared facilities and their ability to network and exchange business foundation structure.

C. C. ISP功能框架图21更详细地表示了ISP 2100的部件。 ISP 21 shows functional framework member ISP 2100 in more detail. 图中显示的是包含ISP2100体系结构的逻辑部件集合。 The figure shows the logical components comprising ISP2100 set architecture. 这些部件没有一个是单一的物理实体;每个部件通常都在多个地点多次出现。 None of these components is a single physical entity; each member typically occurs multiple times in multiple locations. 各部件合作提供一个无缝隙的智能业务2110环境。 Each component provides a seamless cooperation of intelligence services 2110 environment. 这个环境不是固定的,它被设想是一个能增添新业务、采纳成熟公开新技术的灵活的进化平台。 This environment is not fixed, it is envisaged that a new business can add, adopt mature open and flexible platform for the evolution of new technologies. 平台部件是通过包括内部分布式处理基础结构的一个或多个网络连接而链接的。 It comprises an inner platform member by a distributed processing network infrastructure, or a plurality of connecting links.

ISP 2100功能部件是:·入站和外出网关2126-允许访问由其它提供商提供的业务,并允许其它提供商访问该提供商的业务。 ISP 2100 features are: Inbound and outbound gateway 2126- allow access services provided by other providers, and allows other providers to access the provider's service.

·销售性业务网关2128-与提供商销售的业务的三层(three-tier)业务创建环境的接口。 · Layer 3 services and sales of the business gateway 2128- provider of sales (three-tier) service create an interface environment. 业务是通过销售性业务网关2128调度和更新的。 Business is business through the sale of Gateway 2128 schedule and updates. 这实际上与管理业务网关2130并无不同,区别只是,通过这里创建和调度的服务是用于外部客户的。 This is actually the business management gateway 2130 is no different, the difference is only through this creation and scheduling services for external customers.

·管理业务网关2130-展示的是应用到平台的管理的业务创建概念以及业务逻辑。 · Management Business Gateway 2130- show is applied to the management platform to create business concepts and business logic. 管理业务是通过管理业务网关2130调度和管理的。 Management business management business gateways through 2130 scheduling and management. 连接ISP 2100外部的管理系统的接口也是通过管理业务网关2130实现的。 ISP 2100 connected to an external interface management system is managed by the service gateway 2130 implementation. 管理业务的一些例子包括收集、暂存和可记帐的(billable)网络事件的转发。 Some examples of forward management services including collection, temporary storage and accounting (billable) network events. 其它业务包括收集、过滤来自ISP 2100的报警信息,然后转发给网络管理2132。 Other operations include collecting, filtering alarm information from the ISP 2100, and then forwarded to the 2132 network management.

·业务引擎2134-一种用于销售性业务或管理业务的业务逻辑执行环境。 · 2134- engine business logic execution environment for business sales or management of business operations. 业务引擎2134执行在客户特定的轮廓中含有的逻辑以便提供独特的定制业务功能部件。 Engine Business logic 2134 performs customer profile contained in a particular order to provide unique customized service features.

·业务创建环境2136-创建和调度管理业务以及销售性业务和它们的基础特征和能力。 · Service Creation Environment 2136- create and schedule management business and sales of businesses and their basic features and capabilities.

·数据管理2138-使用所有客户和业务的轮廓信息的地方。 Data management 2138- using the local profile information of all customers and businesses. 数据被高速缓存在业务引擎2134、统计服务器2140、呼叫上下文服务器2142、分析服务器2144和其它需要ISP 2100数据的专用应用或服务器2146。 Data is cached service engine 2134, the statistical server 2140, the call context server 2142, server 2144 and other needs analysis ISP 2100 data server 2146 or in a dedicated application.

·业务选择2148-无论业务是通过线路交换、分组交换或信元交换的窄带或宽带网络中的哪种网络接入的,业务都是提供业务选择功能2148获得的。 · Select 2148- whether service business is switched through the line, which is a packet switched network access or cell switching narrowband or broadband network, the service providing service selection function 2148 are obtained. 业务选择2148是业务引擎2134的专用版本,是专门为选择一个或数个要执行的业务而设计的。 Business Select 2148 is a dedicated service engine version of 2134, it is designed for one or several selected to perform business and design.

·资源管理器2150-管理所有资源,包括特殊资源2152和在业务引擎2134上运行的业务实例,以及在ISP 2100中需要管理和分配的任何其它种类的资源。 · Resource Manager 2150- management of all resources, including special resources and business 2152 instance running on the service engine 2134, as well as any other kind of need to manage and allocate resources in the ISP 2100.

·特殊资源2152-图中把特殊的基于网络的功能(因特网到语音转换、DTMF-检测、传真、语音识别等等)表示为特殊资源2152。 * Special resources to FIG 2152- special function of the network-based (Internet to voice conversion, DTMF-detection, fax, voice recognition, etc.) represents special resources 2152.

·呼叫上下文服务器2142-接受实时的网络事件记录和业务事件记录并允许对数据查询。 • Call the context of real-time network server accepts 2142- event logging and recording business events and allows data queries. 一旦某呼叫(或任何种类的其它网络事务)的所有事件都被生成,组合的事件信息就被全部传递给收入管理功能2154。 Once a call (or any other kind of network transactions) of all events are generated, the combined event information is passed to all the revenue management function 2154. 数据是短期存储的。 Short-term storage of data.

·统计服务器2140-接受来自业务引擎的统计事件、执行上滚(rollups)并允许对数据查询。 · Statistics Server 2140- accepts events from business statistics engine, roll on the Executive (rollups) and allows data queries. 数据是短期存储的。 Short-term storage of data.

·基于客户的能力2156-用户处的软件和专业硬件,能实现基于客户处的功能,诸如ANI屏蔽、因特网接入、压缩、交互式游戏、电视会议、零售接入,如此等等。 · Based on the customer's hardware, software and professional capacity of 2156- at the user, client-based functions can be achieved at such ANI screen, Internet access, compression, interactive games, video conferencing, retail access, and so on.

·分析服务器2144-一种不是在网络接入基础上、而是在根据实时或接近实时的网络统计或呼叫上下文信息的增值基础上建立的特殊业务引擎。 Special service engine · Analysis Server 2144- one kind of not in the network access based on the value-added basis but in real-time or near real-time network statistics or on call context information according to established. 例子包括欺诈检测和客户通信量统计。 Examples include fraud detection and customer traffic statistics.

·其它特殊业务2146-要求其它形式的、可能是或可能不是在业务引擎模型的基础上建立的应用或服务器。 · Other special requirements other forms of business 2146-, may or may not establish or server application on the basis of the business model of the engine. 这些部件提供其它计算资源和可以在业务交付、监控或管理中使用的低层次功能能力。 These components provide additional computing resources and service delivery can, monitoring or management of the use of low-level functional capabilities.

D. D. ISP集成网络业务图22表示ISP体系结构2100是如何通过不同网络提供业务的。 Integrated ISP network traffic FIG. 22 shows how the ISP architecture 2100 to provide services via different networks. 所示网络包括因特网2160、公共交换电话网(PSTN)2162、城域接入环(Metro access rings)2164和无线2166、此外,人们预计诸如ATM或ISOEthernet等的新的“无交换机”宽带网络体系结构2168和2170会取代当前的PSTN网络2162。 2160 illustrated network includes the Internet, a public switched telephone network (PSTN) 2162, Metro access rings (Metro access rings) 2164 and 2166 wireless, moreover, it is expected the new "no switches," such as an ATM broadband network system or the like of ISOEthernet structure 2168 and 2170 will replace the current PSTN network 2162.

这种体系结构适应非基本的PSTN 2162的网络的原因是,这些可替换网络模型经常以具有预计降低费用的结构支持在基本PSTN上不能提供的业务。 The reason for this architecture to adapt to non-basic PSTN 2162 network, these can often replace the network model structure is expected to reduce the cost of support on the PSTN can not provide basic services. 图22中在逻辑上表示了这些网络。 Figure 22 shows the logic of these networks.

每个这些新网络都被设想以同样方式与ISP 2100共同操作。 Each of these new networks have been conceived in the same manner as interoperable with ISP 2100. 呼叫(或事务)起源于网络中的用户业务请求。 Calls (or transactions) originating from the network user service request. ISP接收该事务并提供服务,提供服务的方法是首先识别用户,然后将事务转发给通用化的业务引擎2174。 Methods ISP receives the transaction and to provide services to provide services is to first identify the user, and then forwards the transaction to the universal service engine 2174. 业务引擎确定需要什么业务功能部件,然后为所需的特征采用必需的逻辑或利用自身特殊的网络资源。 Service engine needs to determine what service feature, then the logic necessary for the desired use characteristics or use its own specific network resources.

ISP 2100本身处于一系列资源管理器和管理与监控机构的控制之下。 ISP 2100 itself under the control of a series of management and organization management and monitoring of resources. 通过并发使用公用信息库,能实现一个单一系统映象。 By the concurrent use of a common information base, to achieve a single system image. 信息库保存由ISP使用或生成的所有用户、业务、网络和资源信息。 Repository holds all the users, services, and network resource information is used by the ISP or generated. 其它外部应用(来自MCI内部、有时来自MCI的外部)被授权通过网关、中间体,以及有时直接地访问相同的信息库。 Other external applications (from within MCI, sometimes from outside MCI) is authorized by the gateway, intermediates, and a data bank may directly access the same.

图22中的每个实体表示ISP的一个单一逻辑部件。 Each entity in FIG. 22 represents a single logical component of the ISP. 预计这些实体每个都被部署在多个地点处的多个实例中。 Each of these entities is expected to be deployed in multiple instances at multiple locations in.

E. E. ISP部件Ext App 2176-一个外部应用;APP 2178-一个内部ISP应用(诸如欺诈分析);Dc 2180-数据客户机-提供本地数据副本的ISP信息库的一个客户机; ISP member Ext App 2176- an external application; APP 2178- an internal ISP application (such as Fraud Analysis); Dc 2180- Data client - providing a local copy of the data repository ISP one client;

Ds 2182-数据服务器-ISP信息的主副本之一;Admin 2184-ISP管理性功能(用于配置和维护);Mon 2186-ISP监控功能(用于出错、性能和会计);GRM 2188-选定资源的全局资源管理图;LRM 2190-选定资源的本地资源管理图;SR 2192-专业资源(诸如视频服务器、端口、语音识别)池;SE 2134-执行所希望业务逻辑的通用化业务引擎;业务选择2194-选择(在业务引擎2134上运行的)应当处理从网络提供的事务的业务实例的功能。 Ds 2182- the primary copy of the data server -ISP information; Admin 2184-ISP administrative functions (for configuring and maintenance); Mon 2186-ISP monitoring functions (for error, performance, and accounting); GRM 2188- Selected FIG global resource management resources; LRM 2190- the local resource managers FIG selected resource; SR 2192- specialized resources (such as video servers, ports, speech recognition) pool; SE 2134- executing the business logic engines want universal service; 2194- selected service selection (running on a service engine 2134) should be an example of transaction processing services provided from the network.

F. F. 无交换机的通信业务无交换机网络2168用来指信元交换或分组交换技术在数据和等时多媒体通信服务上的应用。 No switch No switch network traffic application 2168 used to refer to multimedia communication service on the cell switching data or packet switching technology and the like. 过去,线路交换是传输时间敏感的等时话音的唯一可行的技术。 In the past, circuit switching was the only viable technology to transmit time-sensitive isochronous voice. 现在,随着提供服务质量保证的异步传输模式信元交换网络的发展,能实现用单一网络基础结构来服务等时和脉冲数据服务二者。 Now, with the ATM cell to provide guaranteed quality of service switching network development, to achieve both with a single network infrastructure for isochronous services and data services pulses.

预期无交换机网络能提供比线路交换体系结构费用更低的模型的理由是:·能灵活地为每个应用准确提供所需带宽,当没有数据传输时能节省带宽。 No reason to switch network model is expected to provide a lower cost than circuit-switched architecture of are: the flexibility to provide the required bandwidth for each application accurately, when there is no data transmission can save bandwidth. 并不是为每个呼叫自动分配最低56Kbps的线路。 Not automatically assigned the lowest 56Kbps line for each call.

·适应于压缩技术,进一步降低了每个网络会话的带宽要求。 · Suitable for compression technology, further reducing network bandwidth requirements for each session.

·专业化资源设备的费用降低,因为事实上并非必须提供模拟端口来获得特殊DSP能力诸如话音识别或会议。 · Reduce the cost of specialized equipment resources, because in fact does not have to provide an analog port to get special DSP capabilities such as voice recognition or meeting. 一个单一高带宽网络端口能同时地服务数百个“呼叫”。 A single high-bandwidth network ports can simultaneously serve hundreds of "Call."

·无交换机网络可应用于和容易被改造得适用于先进的高带宽业务-诸如电视会议、按需即时培训、远程专家、集成的视频/话音/传真/电子邮件、以及信息业务。 · No switch network can easily be adapted and applied to get for advanced high-bandwidth services - such as video conferencing, on-demand real-time training, remote specialists, an integrated video / voice / fax / e-mail, and information services. 图23表示按照较佳实施例的无交换机网络2168的示例。 23 shows an example of the non-switch network according to the preferred embodiment is 2168.

G. G. 指导原则1. Guidelines 1. 结构原则本节含有构成了该体系结构的基础的如下一览子体系结构原则。 This section contains the structure principle constitute a list structure follows the principle based on the sub-system architecture.

业务原则:1. Business principles: 1. 业务模型必须支持新的与现有业务的无缝集成。 The new business model must support seamless integration with existing businesses.

2. 2. 业务是从公用的、提供无缝的业务图的业务创建环境(SCE)中创建的。 Business is from public, providing seamless business graph business creation environment (SCE) was created.

3. 3. 所有业务都在公用的业务逻辑执行环境(SLEE)中执行,这种环境在引入新的业务时不要求软件改变。 All businesses in public service logic execution environment (SLEE) in execution, this environment does not require software changes when introducing new services.

4. 4. 所有服务都是从一个或多个业务功能部件中创建的。 All services are created from one or more business functions components.

5. 5. 可以用在ISP数据服务器中一个单一客户轮廓中存储的数据来驱动多个业务。 Data may be stored in a single customer profile in the ISP Data Server to drive a plurality of services.

6. 6. 业务模型必须支持对每个业务的业务参数质量的说明和完成。 Business model must support and complete description of the quality of service parameters of each service. 这些业务参数质量整体上构成了与每个客户的业务级协议。 The quality of service parameters as a whole constitutes a service level agreement with each customer. 业务调度必须考虑到规定的服务参数质量。 Service scheduling must take into account the quality of service parameters specified.

2. 2. 业务功能部件(feature)原则1. Service feature (feature) Principle 1. 所有业务功能部件都由一个或多个功能的组合来描述。 Or by a combination of a plurality of functions for all service features to be described.

2. 2. 所有业务功能部件都能由有限数量的功能来定义。 All service features can be defined by a limited number of functions.

3. 3. 个别的业务功能部件必须要用标准方法来定义,以便使业务设计者对功能有共同的理解。 Individual business feature must use the standard method to define, in order to make the business designers have a common understanding of the function. 每个业务功能部件都必须载明它们的输入、输出、误差值、显示特性和潜在的业务应用。 Each service feature must set out their inputs, outputs, error values, display characteristics and potential service applications.

4. 4. 物理实体在网络实现中的交互作用不要被业务功能部件的用户通过业务功能部件接口看到。 Interaction physical entity in the network is not implemented in the user interface service feature through the service feature seen.

5. 5. 每个业务功能部件都应当有统一、稳定的外部接口。 Each business feature should have a unified, stable external interfaces. 接口被描述成一组操作以及每个操作所要求和提供的数据。 Interface is described as a set of operations for each operation and the data required and provided.

6. 6. 业务功能部件并不是由它们自己部署到网络中的。 Business features are not deployed by themselves to the network. 业务功能部件只是作为调用该业务功能部件的业务逻辑程序的一部分被调度的(参看图21)。 Part of service logic programs service functions only as a member of the service feature call is scheduled (see FIG. 21). 所以,业务功能部件是静态地链接到服务逻辑程序中的,而功能则是动态地链接到业务逻辑程序中的。 Therefore, the service feature is statically linked to the service logic program, and the function is dynamically linked to the service logic program. 这就是达到资源与业务的松散连接所在。 This is the reach and resources of loosely coupled business is located.

3. 3. 功能原则1. Function principle 1. 对功能的定义完全不考虑任何物理或逻辑实现(独立于网络实现的)。 Definition of the function without considering any physical or logical implementation (network implementation independent).

2. 2. 每个功能都应当有统一、稳定的外部接口。 Each function should have a unified, stable external interfaces. 接口被描述成一组操作以及由每个操作所要求和提供的数据。 Interface is described as a set of operations and the data required and provided by each operation.

3. 3. 单个的功能必须要用标准方法来定义,以便使业务设计者对功能有共同的理解。 The individual functions must use the standard method to define, in order to make the business designers have a common understanding of the function. 每个功能都必须载明它们的输入、输出、误差值、显示特性和潜在的业务应用。 Each function must be set out their inputs, outputs, error values, display characteristics and potential service applications.

4. 4. 物理实体在网络实现中的交互作用不要被功能的用户通过功能接口看到。 Physical entity in networks of interaction Do not be seen by the user interface function function.

5. 5. 功能可以组合形成高级功能。 Functions can be combined to form advanced features.

6. 6. 一个对功能的操作定义一个完整的活动。 Operational definition of a function of a full event. 一个对功能的操作有一个逻辑开始点和一个或多个逻辑结束点。 A logical starting point and the end point of the one or more logical operation function.

7. 7. 功能可以在网络实现中的一个或多个物理硬件或软件中实现。 Functionality may be implemented in the network implementation, one or more physical hardware or software.

8. 8. 每个功能操作所需的数据都是由功能操作支持数据参数和用户实例数据参数定义的。 Data operations are required for each function to support data parameters and user instance data parameters defined by functional operation.

9. 9. 功能向网络中的部署独立于任何业务。 Functionality to be deployed in the network independent of any business.

10. 10. 功能本质上是全局的,业务设计者不必考虑它们的位置,因为从业务设计者的观点看来,整个网络被视作一个单一的实体。 The function is global in nature, designer business regardless of their position, because the designers from the business point of view, the entire network is regarded as a single entity.

11. 11. 功能是能再使用的。 Function is used again. 它们不加修改就能用于其它业务。 They can be used without modification other services.

4. 4. 服务创建、调度和执行原则1. Service creation, scheduling and execution principles 1. 每个业务引擎2134都支持一个客户库(customer base)子集。 Each business engine 2134 supports a client library (customer base) subset. 由某业务引擎支持的客户的清单是由ISP数据服务器2182上存储的配置数据驱动的。 By a business engine supports client list is driven by configuration data stored on the ISP data server 2182.

2. 2. 每个业务引擎2134在启动时从ISP数据服务器2152获得其配置数据。 Each business when you start the engine 2134 2152 to obtain its configuration data from the ISP data server.

3. 3. 业务引擎2134用ISP数据库客户机2180(参看本说明书的数据管理一节)来高速缓存支持为该业务引擎2134配置的客户所必需的数据。 Business engine 2134 with the ISP database clients 2180 (see the data management section of this description) to cache the support for the customer service engine 2134 necessary configuration data. 高速缓存可以由ISP数据库服务器2182控制,或者由ISP数据库服务器2182的数据库控制。 Cache 2182 may be controlled by the ISP database server, or a database controlled by the ISP database server 2182. 如果认为从数据服务器2182频繁加载数据的开销太大,则可以在业务引擎2134(磁盘或内存中)半永久地高速缓存数据。 If you think the cost to load data from a data server 2182 too frequently, it can be semi-permanently cached data service engine 2134 (disk or memory).

4. 4. 业务引擎2134预期能执行某客户的所有业务,或者该客户的业务的一个子集。 Business Engine 2134 is expected to perform all of a customer's business, or a subset of the customer's business. 然而,在业务交互作用的情况下,一个业务引擎2134在任何给定时刻必须总是掌握着某业务的执行。 However, in the case of business interaction, a business engine 2134 must always hold the execution of a business at any given moment. 业务引擎可以在业务执行的过程中将控制转交给其它业务引擎。 Service engine can be controlled in the course of service execution engine is transferred to the other services.

5. 5. 业务引擎不拥有任何数据,甚至不拥有配置数据。 Business engine does not own any data, you do not even have the configuration data.

6. 6. 业务引擎2134不是数据部署(deployment of dara)的目标。 Business Data Engine 2134 is not deployed (deployment of dara) goals. 数据服务器2182是数据部署的目标。 2182 data is the target data server deployment.

5. 5. 资源管理模型2150原则1. Resource Management Model 2150 Principle 1. 资源2152应当能被从网络的任何地方访问。 2152 resources should be accessed from anywhere in the network.

2. 2. 资源不是业务特定的,需要时能被所有业务共享。 Resources are not business-specific, need to be all business when shared.

3. 3. 相同类型的资源应当分成组管理。 It should be the same type into groups of resource management.

4. 4. 资源管理模型2150应当有足够的灵活性,能适应各种管理策略,包括最低成本、循环、最近最少使用的、最易得到的、首先遇到的、使用直到出故障和独占使用直到出故障。 Resource Management Model 2150 should be flexible enough to adapt to a variety of management strategies, including the lowest cost, circulation, the least recently used, most readily available, the first encounter, until failure and the use of exclusive use until the fault.

5. 5. 资源管理模型2150应当优化资源分配,可能的话偏重某选定的策略。 Resource Management Model 2150 should optimize resource allocation, if possible, an emphasis on selected policies.

6. 6. RM 2150必须允许应用一系列资源分配技术-范围从静态配置至逐个事务地在事务上对资源的完全动态分配。 RM 2150 must be allowed to apply a series of resource allocation techniques - ranging from static configuration to a transaction by transaction completely dynamic allocation of resources in the transaction.

7. 7. 资源管理模型2150必须允许实施资源使用策略,诸如资源超时和按优先权的优先再分配。 Resource Management Model 2150 must allow the implementation of resource use policies, such as timeouts and resources according to priority priority redistribution.

8. 8. 资源管理模型2150必须能检测和访问资源池(resourcepool)中资源的状态、使用和健全状况。 2150 state resource management model must be able to detect and access the resource pool (resourcepool) in resource use and improve the situation.

9. 9. 所有资源2152都必须按被管理对象对待。 2152 All resources must be treated by managed objects.

10. 10. 所有资源2152必须能用RM 2150登记以进入池(pool),解除登记以离开池。 All resources must be able to RM 2150 2152 to register to enter the pool (pool), deregistration to leave the pool.

11. 11. 请求、获得和释放资源2152的唯一途径是通过RM 2150。 Request, obtain, and the only way to free up resources by 2152 is RM 2150.

12. 12. 资源之间的关系不应当固定,相反,给定资源的各个实例应当根据需要或按需求从登记的池中分配。 The relationship between resources should not be fixed, instead, to the respective instances of a given resource should be allocated as needed by the pool or from the registration requirements.

13. 13. 所有专门资源2152必须是从统一的平台范围观点看来是可管理的。 All specialized resources 2152 must be from a unified platform coverage point of view it is manageable.

14. 14. 所有专门资源2152必须直接地或通过代理而提供SNMP或CMIP代理功能。 2152 all dedicated resources must be provided either directly or via SNMP or CMIP agent function agent.

15. 15. 每个专门资源2152都要在公用的管理信息库中被表示。 Each specialized resources 2152 must be expressed in public in the MIB.

16. 16. 所有专门资源应当支持标准的查询、探测、开始或停止工作以及测试项目的操作集合。 All resources should be dedicated to support standard queries, detection, start or stop working and operation of a set of test items.

17. 17. 所有专门资源2152都应提供一个通过标准SNMP或CMIP管理接口控制的自测试功能的基本集合。 All specialized resources 2152 should provide a basic set via standard SNMP or CMIP management interface control for self-testing.

6. 6. 数据管理2138原则1. Data Management 2138 Principles 1. 允许任何数据项有多个副本。 It allows multiple copies of any data item.

2. 2. 某数据项的值可能有多个版本,但其中一种被视为是主版本。 A value of the data item may have multiple versions, but is considered one of the primary version.

3. 3. 给定数据项的主版本只有一个归属。 Given to the master version of the data item only one home.

4. 4. 允许多个用户同时存取同一数据。 It allows multiple users to access the same data.

5. 5. 在ISP 2100上应用商业规则必须有统一性,以保证所有数据改变的有效性。 ISP 2100 on the application of business rules must have unity, in order to ensure the validity of all data changes.

6. 6. 用户对本地的数据副本工作;数据存取独立于位置并且是透明的。 Users working on the local data copy; data access independent of location and is transparent.

7. 7. 从数据管理的观点来看,用户是应用或其它软件部件。 From the data management point of view, users are applications or other software components.

8. 8. 数据存取应当符合一个在ISP 2100上标准化了的存取方法的单一集合。 Data access should conform to a single set of standardized ISP 2100 in the access method.

9. 9. 本地数据库中允许有专用数据,但专用数据不能共享或分配。 Local database allows private data, but the data can not be shared or dedicated allocation.

10. 10. 只有主数据能被共享或分配。 Only master data can be shared or distributed.

11. 11. 本地数据库中允许共享数据项有专用格式。 Local database items are allowed to share data in a proprietary format.

12. 12. 事务处理能力可随端点用户的意思在商业规则允许的范围内削弱。 Transaction capabilities may weaken with the end user's business rules within the meaning of the range allowed.

13. 13. 基于规则的逻辑和其它元数据控制提供灵活的手段来应用策略。 Rule-based logic and other metadata control provides a flexible means to apply the policy.

14. 14. 数据复制通过数据源的复制而提供可靠性。 Copying data reliability provided by copying the data source.

15. 15. 数据库分区通过减少任何特定数据存储的大小以及通过降低对任何特定数据存储的事务处理速率而提供可伸缩性。 By reducing the size of the database partition of any particular data store and provide scalability by decreasing the transaction rate against any particular data store.

16. 16. 数据管理2138必须允许数据资源的静态和动态配置。 2138 data management must allow static and dynamic configuration data resources.

17. 17. 应当采用公用数据模型和公用方案。 It uses the common program and common data model.

18. 18. 逻辑的数据应用图与物理的数据操作分离,后者诸如文件的重定位、数据库的再加载或数据存储的重新格式化。 FIG relocation data application logic and physical separation operation data, such as which files, reloading of databases, or reformatting of data stores.

19. 19. 完备的问题解决方案需要审计追踪(audit trails)和事件历史。 A complete solution to the problem requires an audit trail (audit trails) and event history.

20. 20. 要保证数据完整性,需要联机数据审计和调解。 To ensure data integrity, data audit and reconciliation needs online.

21. twenty one. 需要实时地进行故障数据库的数据恢复。 The need for data recovery failed database in real time.

22. twenty two. 需要有数据测量(metrics)用于监控、趋势分析(trending)和控制等目的。 Measurement data are required (metrics) for monitoring, trending (Trending) and control purposes.

23. twenty three. 要求有99.9999可用性的7乘24操作。 7 by 24 operation requires the availability of 99.9999.

24. twenty four. 数据管理2138机构必须按高增长水平确定比例。 2138 data management agency must determine the proportion of high levels of growth.

25. 25. 数据管理2138机构必须为大规模和小规模的部署都提供成本-高效的解决方案。 Effective solution - data management and large-scale deployment of 2138 agencies must provide small cost.

26. 26. 数据管理机构必须妥善地处置超载情况。 Data managers must properly dispose of overloading.

27. 27. 数据处理和数据同步必须实时进行以满足我们的商业需要。 Data processing and data synchronization must be performed in real time to meet our business needs.

28. 28. 可靠的订单输入(trusted order entry)和业务创建要尽可能地直接在ISP数据库上而不是通过中间应用进行。 Reliable Order Entry (trusted order entry) and business to create as much as possible directly on the ISP database applications through the middle instead.

29. 29. 所有数据必须受到保护;此外,客户数据是专用的,必须保密。 All data must be protected; in addition, customer-specific data must be kept confidential.

30. 30. 配置、操作设置和运行参数在ISP MIB(管理信息库)中控制。 Configuration, operation, control parameters set up and run in ISP MIB (Management Information Base).

31. 31. 只要可能,就应当采用现成的数据解决方案来满足数据管理需要。 Whenever possible, you should use a ready-made data solutions to meet the data management needs.

以下是从面向对象的观点陈述的原则:32. The following is a statement from the principles of object-oriented point of view: 32. 数据项是最低的永久对象的集合;这些对象封装一个单一数据值。 Data items are the lowest set of persistent objects; these objects encapsulating a single data value.

33. 33. 数据项可以有一个用户定义的类型。 Data items may have a user-defined type.

34. 34. 数据项可以创建和删除。 Data entry can be created and deleted.

35. 35. 数据项只有一个单一的读取和设置方法。 Only a single data item reading and setting methods.

36. 36. 数据项的内部值受到范围限制和规则的限制。 Internal value of the data item is restricted range limits and rules.

37. 37. 处于无效状态的数据项不得对用户开放。 Data entry is inactive may not be open to the user.

7. 7. 操作支持原则1. Operational Support Principle 1. 通用视图(view)-所有ISP 2100操作支持用户接口应当有相同的外观。 General view (view) - All ISP 2100 Operational Support User Interface should have the same appearance.

2. 2. 功能通用性-对象的管理在整个ISP操作支持环境中是以相同方式表示的。 Functional versatility - managed objects in the entire ISP operations support environment is expressed in the same way.

3. 3. 单一视图-分布式被管理对象在ISP操作支持用户接口有单一的表示,分配是自动的。 Single View - Distributed managed objects to support the ISP operated with a single user interface, said assignment is automatic.

4. 4. OS/DM域-操作支持域内的数据应当用ISP数据管理2138机构管理。 OS / DM Domain - Data within the Operational Support should ISP Data Management 2138 mechanisms by management.

5. 5. 全局MIB-有一个代表整个ISP中资源的逻辑的全局MIB。 Global MIB- have a representative of the entire global ISP logic resources MIB.

6. 6. 外部MIB-作为被管理部件一部分的各内置MIB都是与操作支持和数据管理没有关系的,这类MIB要由中间设备表示给OS。 MIB- managed as the external part of each member are not related to the built-MIB and the data management operation support, such MIB to be represented by an intermediary OS.

7. 7. 系统一致性-通过各中间层(Mediation Layers)获得符合ISP OS标准的系统一致性。 System Conformance - System conformance to obtain ISP OS standards compliance by each of the intermediate layers (Mediation Layers).

8. 8. 操作功能-操作人员为物理和逻辑资源处理网络层和单元管理。 Operation function - the operator of physical and logical resources and processing network element management layer.

9. 9. 管理功能-管理人员处理计划与业务管理。 Management - management staff to handle planning and business management.

10. 10. 轮廓域-服务和客户轮廓数据库是由管理人员按照数据管理系统的域来管理的。 Domain profile - services and customer profile database by management in accordance with the domain data management system to manage.

11. 11. 电信管理网络(TMN)一致性-通过连接任何TMN系统的网关获得TMN一致性。 Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) consistency - consistency is obtained by connecting any TMN TMN system gateway.

12. 12. 并发性-多个操作员和管理员必须能同时地从ISP OS接口执行操作。 Concurrency - multiple operators and administrators must be able to perform operations from ISP OS interfaces simultaneously.

8. 8. 物理模型原则1. Physical principles of Model 1. 兼容性:物理网络模型提供对现有电信硬件和软件的后向兼容。 Compatibility: The physical network model provides backward compatibility with existing telecom hardware and software.

2. 2. 可伸缩性:物理网络模型是可伸缩的,能适应范围广大的客户群和业务要求。 Scalability: The physical network model is scalable and can adapt to a wide range of customer base and business requirements.

3. 3. 冗余性:物理网络模型提供横跨两个网络单元之间的多个信息流通路。 Redundancy: physical network model provides the flow of information across a plurality of paths between two network elements. 消除了单一故障点。 Eliminating single points of failure.

4. 4. 透明性:网络单元对基础的网络冗余是透明的。 Transparency: the network element is transparent to the underlying network redundancy. 如果发生故障,就自动切换到冗余链路。 If a failure occurs, it is automatically switched to the redundant link.

5. 5. 适度降级:物理网络模型在发生多个网络故障时能够提供逐渐降低容量的可用业务。 Graceful degradation: when a plurality of physical network model can provide a network failure occurs reduces the capacity available services.

6. 6. 互操作性:物理网络模型允许具有不同特性的网络与不同的网络单元互相操作。 Interoperability: The physical network model allows networks with different network elements having different characteristics to interoperate.

7. 7. 安全性:物理网络模型要求并提供安全的信息传输。 Security: The physical network model requires and provides secure transmission of information. 它也有能力保证安全访问网络单元。 It also has the ability to ensure secure access to network elements.

8. 8. 监控:物理网络模型提供严格定义的接口和访问方法来监控网络上的通信。 Monitoring: The physical network model provides strict definition of interfaces and access methods to monitor communications on the network. 集成了安全功能(见上文)以防止对敏感数据的非授权访问。 Integrated security features (see above) to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data.

9. 9. 可划分性:物理网络模型(逻辑上)可划分成各独立管理的域。 Can be divided into: the physical network model is (logically) may be divided into domains each independently managed.

10. 10. 业务质量:物理网络模型提供的QOS(服务质量)措施诸如有广的质量范围、充足的传统应用(legacy applications)QOS、阻塞管理(congestion)和用户可选择的QOS。 Quality of Service: QOS (Quality of Service) network model provides physical measures, such as there is a wide range of quality, plenty of legacy applications (legacy applications) QOS, congestion management (congestion) and user-selectable QOS.

11. 11. 普遍接入:物理网络模型不因为网络单元在网络中的位置而阻止对其的接入。 Universal Access: The physical network model does not because the location network elements in the network while preventing access thereto. 业务能访问网络上的任何资源。 Business can access any resources on the network.

12. 12. 规章意识:物理网络模型在所有层次都能改变以适应规则环境中的突然变化。 Regulations consciousness: physical network model can be changed to accommodate sudden changes in the regulatory environment at all levels.

13. 13. 成本-高效:物理网络模型由于不依赖单一销售商平台或特定的功能标准而允许成本-高效的实现。 Cost - efficiency: The physical network model because they do not rely on a single platform or vendor-specific functionality of the standard allows cost - effective implementation.

H. H. ISP业务模型本节描述智能业务平台网络体系结构框架的业务模型。 ISP business model This section describes the business model framework of intelligent network service platform system.

1. 1. 目的ISP业务模型为服务开发建立的框架支持:·快速的业务建立和部署;·有效的业务执行;·对用户业务的完全定制化控制;·形成无缝客户业务图的全部业务集成;·通过功能的松散结合而改进的对ISP功能的再使用;·降低业务实现的成本;·对销售商的独立性。 The purpose framework supports ISP business model for service development: · rapid service creation and deployment; · effective business execution; · fully customized control over user traffic; · form all business customers seamless integration of business graph; · by loosely bound function and improve reuse of ISP capabilities; * reduce the cost of service implementation; · independence from vendors.

2. 2. 努力的范围ISP业务模型支持与业务关联的所有活动,包括以下各方面:·供应;·创建;·部署;·预订;·更新;·监控;·执行;·测试或模拟; Range effort ISP business model supports all activities associated with the business, including the following: · Supply; · creation; · deployment; · reservation; · update; • Monitoring; • Perform; · test or simulation;

·客户支持和故障诊断;·记帐;·故障标签(trouble ticket)处理;·操作支持。 · Customer support and troubleshooting; · billing; · fault label (trouble ticket) process; · operational support.

这个模型适用于销售性业务和管理服务两个方面。 This model is applicable to sales of both business and management services.

·销售性业务是由我们的客户购买的业务·管理业务是MCI网络运作的一部分,不向客户出售。 · Sales of the business is purchased by our client service manager business is part of MCI's network operations, not for sale to customers.

服务模型也定义与ISP体系结构的其它部分的交互作用,它们包括数据管理、资源管理和操作支持。 Service model also defines the interaction with other parts of the ISP architecture, which includes data management, resource management and operational support.

3. 3. 业务模型概述智能业务平台的中心是业务2200的交付(图24)。 Business Model Overview Center Smart Business platform is the delivery business 2200 (Figure 24). 业务是电信服务提供商赚取利润的能力的最关键的方面。 Business is the most critical aspect of telecommunications service providers the ability to earn a profit of. 以下的业务定义用于该整个业务模型:业务2200是与适当定义的逻辑结构和商业过程组合的功能的集合,当通过公开的接口访问它时,它能代表用户产生希望和预期的结果。 The following traffic model is defined for the entire business: Business set 2200 is suitably defined logic structures and business processes of the function in combination, the interface when accessing it via disclosed, can represent the user to produce the desired and expected results.

业务2200和应用2176或2178(图22)之间的一个主要区别是,业务2200包括支持业务的销售、操作和维护的商业过程。 Business 2200 and 2176 or 2178 applications a major difference between (Figure 22), the 2200 business operations including sales support, operation, and maintenance of business processes. 开发业务的关键任务是定义什么是能自动的,并清晰地描述人类如何与业务交互作用。 The key task of developing business is to define what is automatically and clearly describe how humans interact with the business.

4. 4. 业务结构我们将用于描述业务的词汇包括业务本身、业务功能部件和功能。 Vocabulary for business structure we will describe service includes service itself, service features and functionality. 这些内容被配置在图24中所示的三层层次结构中。 These contents are arranged in three hierarchical structure shown in FIG. 24.

业务2200是一个在本说明书前文所述的面向对象的对象的意义上的对象。 2200 business object in the sense of object-oriented object present in front of a specification herein. 业务220的实例含有其它对象一称为业务功能部件2202。 Examples include other business objects 220 called a service feature 2202. 业务功能部件2202提供一个适当定义的接口,该接口代表业务概括了ISP业务框架中一个或多个功能2204的被控制的交互作用。 Service feature 2202 provides a well defined interface to the ISP interface represents a business service framework outlined in the interaction of one or more functions to be controlled 2204.

业务功能部件2202则使用各种功能2204对象。 Service feature 2202 2204 objects use the various functions. 功能2204是标准的、可再用的、网络范围的构造模块,用于创建业务功能部件2202。 Function 2204 is a standard, reusable, network-wide building blocks used to create service features 2202. 业务创建的关键要求是,生产基本功能对象的工程师要保证每个功能对象都能在许多不同业务中按需要再次使用。 Create a key requirement for business is the production of basic functional objects engineers to ensure each functional object can be used again as needed in a number of different businesses.

a)业务2200 a) Business 2200

业务2200用“业务逻辑”来描述,业务逻辑根本上来说是用非常高级的程序设计语言编写的或用图形用户界面描述的一个程序。 Business 2200 with the "business logic" to describe the business logic is fundamentally a very high-level programming language or a program with a graphical user interface described. 这些业务逻辑程序标识:·什么业务功能部件被使用;·业务功能部件被调用的顺序;·输入业务数据的源;·输出业务数据的目的地;·误差值和误差处理;·其它业务2200的调用;·与其它业务的交互作用;·与其它业务的多个交互作用;业务逻辑本身一般不足以执行网络中的业务2200。 These service logic programs identify: what service features * is used; Sequence for the invoked service feature; source-data input traffic; Output destination service data; · error value and the error processing; other services 2200 * call; · interaction with other services; · a plurality of interaction with other services; service logic itself is generally not sufficient to perform the service network 2200. 一般需要客户数据来为业务中定义的机动点定义值,或者定制符合客户特定需要的业务。 General customer data required to define the value of the business to maneuver point defined or customized to meet the specific needs of business customers. 管理业务和销售性业务二者都是同一业务模型的一部分。 Both business management and marketing of the business are part of the same business model. 由于管理业务和销售性业务有类似之处,所以功能可以共享。 As the management of the business and sales business were similar, so the function can be shared. 管理业务和销售性业务也代表同一网络的两个观点:管理业务代表网络的操作观点,销售性业务代表网络的外部终端用户观点。 Management of business and sales operations also represent two views of the same network: Management agent network operator point of view, the external view of the end user sales representative of the network. 两种业务都依赖公用地保存的网络数据。 Both services are dependent on the preservation of public data network.

每个销售性业务都有让客户预定业务的装置、记帐机构、一些操作支持能力和服务监控能力。 Each sale of the business to allow customers to have a predetermined device, accounting agency business, a number of operational support capabilities and service monitoring capabilities. 管理业务提供用于平台维护的过程和支持能力。 Providing business process management and support capabilities for platform maintenance.

b)业务功能部件2202业务功能部件2202提供适当定义的函数调用接口。 b) 2202 business feature service feature 2202 provides a well defined function call interface. 业务功能部件能在许多不同业务2200中再使用,正如功能2204能在许多不同业务功能部件2202中再使用一样。 Service features can be reused in many different services 2200, just as in the 2202 function 2204 can re-use many different service features. 业务功能部件有特定的数据输入要求,它们是由基础功能的数据输入要求导出的。 Service features have specific data input requirements, which are basic functions of data input requirements derived. 业务功能部件的数据输出特性是由该业务功能部件的创建者根据可从基础功能获得的数据而定义的。 Output of data by the service feature is the creator of the service feature according to the data available from the defined basis functions. 业务功能部件2202不依赖于任何物理资源的存在,相反,它们调用功能2204来执行这些函数,如图25中所示。 Business function member 2202 does not depend on the existence of any physical resource, rather, they function call 2204 to perform these functions, shown in Figure 25.

业务功能部件的一些例子是:·基于时间的路由选择-在诸如日历、日期/时间和呼叫对象的功能的基础上,这个功能部件允许根据时间选择到不同位置的路由。 Some examples of service features are: Time-based Routing - based on such as a calendar, date / time, and call a function on the object, this feature allows selection of different positions depending on the time of routing.

·验证-在诸如比较和数据库查找的功能的基础上,这个函数可用于通过提示输入卡号和/或访问号(个人身份号)来确认呼叫卡使用,或者确认对虚拟专用网络的接入。 · Verification - on the basis of such comparison and database lookup function on, this function can be used to confirm the calling card use, or to confirm access to virtual private networks through prompt enter the card number and / or access number (personal identification number).

·自动用户交互作用-在诸如话音对象(用于话音的记录和回放)、呼叫对象(用于传输和桥接呼叫到专门资源)、DTMF对象(用于DTMF数字的收集或输出脉冲)、词汇对象(用于语音识别)的功能的基础上,这个功能部件允许与业务的用户进行自动的交互作用。 Automatic user interaction - such as voice objects (for recording and playback of voice), call objects (for transmitting and bridging calls to specialized resources), DTMF objects (for collection of DTMF digits or the output pulses), vocabulary objects the basic functions (for speech recognition) on, this feature allows automated interaction with the user traffic. 这个业务功能部件对象能扩展到也包括与用户的视频交互作用的能力。 This feature business objects can be extended to also include the ability to interact with the user's video.

c)功能2204功能2204是一个对象,就是说,一个功能有内部的专用状态数据和适当定义的用于创建、删除和使用功能的实例的接口。 c) function 2204 function 2204 is an object, that is, a state function data inside the interface-specific and well defined for creating, deleting, and an example of use function. 调用功能2204是通过调用它的一个接口操作来完成的。 2204 function calls by calling one of its interface operation to complete. 功能2204是为再使用而建立的。 2204 function is to reuse established. 所以,功能对输入输出结构有明确定义的数据要求。 Therefore, a function defined data requirements for input and output structures. 功能也有明确定义的错误处理例程。 Function also has a well-defined error-handling routines.

功能可以用面向对象的类层次结构来定义,在这种层次结构中一个通用功能能被若干其它功能继承。 Function can be defined in an object oriented class hierarchy, a common feature of several other functions can be inherited in this hierarchy.

基于网络的功能对象的一些例子是:·话音(用于记录和回放)、·呼叫(用于桥接、传输、转发、拨出等)、·DTMF(用于收集或输出脉冲(outpulsing))、·传真(用于接收、发送或广播)。 Some examples of objects based on features of a network are: voice (for recording and playback), - call (for bridging, transferring, forwarding, dial-out, etc.), - the DTMF (for collection or output pulse (outpulsing)), · Fax (for receive, transmit or broadcast).

有些功能不是基于网络的,而是纯粹基于已经在我们的平台中部署的数据的。 Some features are not web-based, but purely based on data already deployed in our platform. 这些功能的一些例子是:·日历(以确定星期几或几月几号)、·比较(以比较数字串或字符串)、·转换(以将数据类型转换成另一种格式)、·分配(以根据百分比分布选择一个结果)。 Some examples of these functions are: a calendar (or a few months to determine the number of several weeks), comparison (to compare strings or numeric string), - converting (to convert the data into another format type), - distribution (The results to select a percentage distribution).

d)业务数据业务执行时有三个数据源:·在业务模板中定义的静态数据,包括某给定业务调用的缺省值。 d) when there are three sources of business data service execution: Define the business template static data, including default values ​​for a given service call.

·在业务执行时获得的交互式数据,可以是显式的用户输入或者是从基础网络连接导出的数据。 · Interactive data obtained during service execution, may be explicit user inputs or derived from the underlying network connection data.

·用户轮廓中定义的客户数据,当业务被请求时(即创建时)由客户或客户的代表定义。 · User-defined customer profile data, when the service is requested (that is created when) is defined by the customer or on behalf of clients.

5. 5. 业务2200执行业务2200在业务逻辑执行环境(SLEE)中执行。 2200 2200 performs traffic operations performed in the service logic execution environment (the SLEE) in. SLEE是允许任何被调度到ISP 2100中的业务得到执行的可执行软件。 It allows any SLEE is executable software is scheduled to the ISP 2100 in the business has been performed. 在ISP体系结构中,业务引擎2134(图21)提供这些执行环境。 In the ISP architecture, service engine 2134 (FIG. 21) provide these execution environments. 业务引擎2134只执行调度到它们之上的服务2200。 Business engine performs scheduling to 2134 2200 on their services.

业务模板和它们支持的轮廓被调度到数据库服务器2182上(图22)。 Business templates and their support is scheduled to outline the database server 2182 (Figure 22). 当SLEE在业务引擎2134上启动时,它从数据库服务器2134中检索其配置。 When SLEE service engine is started on 2134, it retrieves its configuration from the database server 2134. 该配置指示SLEE去执行一系列业务2200。 This configuration indicates SLEE 2200 to perform a series of operations. 执行这些业务的软件是部署在数据库服务器上的业务模板的一部分。 Software implementation of these services are part of the deployment on the database server business template. 如果软件还不在业务引擎2134上,就从数据库服务器2182检索该软件。 If the software is not in the business engine 2134, 2182 to retrieve the software from the database server. 该软件执行时,业务200就开始运行。 The software executed 200 business began to run.

大多数情况中,业务2200首先调用业务功能部件2202(图24),后者让业务在资源管理器2188或2190自我登记。 In most cases, the first call Business 2200 business feature 2202 (Figure 24), which lets business in 2188 or 2190 Explorer self-registration. 一旦登记,服务就能开始接受事务。 Once registered, the service will be able to begin to accept the transaction. 下一步,业务2200将调用等待启动行动的业务功能部件2202。 Next, wait for the call to start the 2200 business operations business feature 2202. 这个动作可以是从因特网登录、到800呼叫、到销售点卡确认数据事务的任何事件。 This action can log on from the Internet, to the 800 call, any event to confirm the sales point card transaction data. 一旦启动动作在网络发生,业务选择功能2148(图21)就用资源管理器2150功能去寻找要调用的执行业务2200的实例。 Once started the action occurs in the network, service selection function 2148 (Fig. 21) on the use of the resource manager 2150 function to be called to find an instance of execution of business 2200. 启动行动然后被交付给业务2200实例,业务逻辑(来自业务模板)然后通过调用其它业务功能部件2202来确定后继行动。 Start action is then delivered to the business instance of 2200, the business logic (from business template) and then to determine the follow-up to 2202 by calling other business features.

在业务2200执行期间,轮廓信息被用于确定业务功能部件2202的特性。 During service 2200 execution, profile information is used to determine the characteristics of the service feature 2202. 根据业务性能要求,可以将某业务所需的轮廓信息的部分或全部从ISP 2100数据库服务器2182高速缓存到业务引擎2134,用于防止费用昂贵的远程数据库查阅。 According to the performance requirements can be part of the contour information required for a business or all of the cache from the ISP 2100 database server 2182 to 2134 business engine to prevent costly access to remote databases. 随着业务的执行,信息可能由业务功能部件2134生成并存储到上下文数据库。 With the implementation of the service, business information may be generated by the 2134 and stored in the feature database context. 这个信息被用一个网络事务标识符唯一地标识。 This information is an identifier that uniquely identifies a network with the transaction. 如果是线路交换的呼叫,则将已经定义的网络呼叫标识符用作事务标识符。 If a circuit-switched call, then the call identifier has been defined as a network transaction identifier. 网络设备也可能生成其它信息,这些信息也能存储到上下文数据库,也能用相同的唯一事务标识符来索引。 Network devices may also generate additional information, which can be stored in the context database, also use the same unique transaction identifier index. 事务涉及的最后网络单元将一些事务结束信息存储到上下文数据库。 Finally, the network elements involved in the affairs of some end of the transaction information stored in the context database. 采用链接表策略来确定特定事务的信息何时都已经存储到上下文数据库中。 Link information table using policies to determine when a particular transaction have been stored in the context database. 一旦所有信息都已经到达,就生成一个事件给任何已经预订了这种事件的业务,业务然后就可以对上下文数据库中的数据进行操作。 Once all the information has arrived, it generates an event to anyone already booked this event business, then business can operate on data in the database context. 这种操作包括从上下文数据库提取数据并将其交付给记帐系统或欺诈分析系统。 Such operations include extracting the data from the context database and the billing system or fraud analysis systems to deliver it.

6. 6. 业务交互作用在网络事务的过程中,可以有一个以上的业务被网络调用。 Business interaction in the process of network transaction, you can have more than one network service is invoked. 有时,一个业务的指令会与另一个业务的指令冲突。 Sometimes, the instruction of a business conflict with another service instructions. 下面是一例这种冲突:某VNET呼叫者有一个不允许该呼叫者接通国际电话的业务。 Here is an example of this conflict: a VNET caller is not allowed to have a phone caller turned international business. VNET呼叫者拨叫另一个有允许拨打国际电话的业务的VNET用户的号码,被呼叫的VNET用户接通国际电话,然后将第一个呼叫者桥接到国际电话。 VNET caller dials the other for allowing international calls VNET service subscriber's number, the called VNET user turned on international calls, and the first bridge to the international telephone caller. 于是,原来的用户照样能通过第三方接通国际电话,尽管其公司存心不让该用户拨打国际电话。 Thus, the original third-party users can still turn on international calls, although the company deliberately let the user make an international call. 在这种情况下,有必要允许这两个业务彼此交互作用,来确定是否允许桥接国际电话这种操作。 In this case, it is necessary to allow the two services interact with each other, to determine whether to allow bridging international calls this operation.

ISP业务模型必须能使业务2200与其它业务交互作用。 ISP business model must allow interaction with other business operations 2200. 业务2200必须有若干种方式能与其它业务交互作用(参看图26):·控制转移2210:业务完成其执行路径后将控制转移给另一个业务;·同步交互作用2212:业务调用另一个业务并等待答复;·异步交互作用2214:业务调用另一个业务,执行一些其它行动,然后等待其它业务完成和答复;·单向交互作用2216:一个业务调用另一个业务,但是不等待答复。 Business 2200 There are several ways to be able to interact with other services (see Figure 26): Transfer Control * 2210: after completing their service execution path to transfer control to another service; Synchronous Interaction 2212: a service invokes another service and waiting for a reply; · asynchronous interaction 2214: business calling another business, perform some other action, then wait and complete other business reply; * one-way interaction 2216: a business call another business, but do not wait for a reply.

在上述交互作用的VNET业务的例子中,终结VNET业务可能会用异步业务交互作用功能询问过起始VNET业务。 In the example of interaction VNET service, the service may ask the end VNET asynchronous service functions through the interaction between starting VNET service. 这种想法的有趣转折是,业务逻辑可以既部署到基于网络的平台又部署到用户处设备上。 Interesting twist this idea is that business logic can be deployed to both web-based platform and deployed to the user of the device. 这意味着业务交互作用必须在基于网络的业务和基于客户的业务之间发生。 This means that business interactions must occur between network services and client-based business based.

7. 7. 业务监控业务2200必须受到来自用户观点和网络观点的监控。 2200 Business monitoring service must be monitored from the user point of view and the point of view of the network. 监控按照两种形式的其中之一: Monitoring in accordance with one of two forms:

·业务2200能生成详细的逐个事件的信息用于交付给事务上下文数据库·业务能生成统计信息用于定期交付给统计数据库或由统计数据库按需检索。 Transaction Context database · Business · Business-by-2200 can generate detailed event information for delivery to be able to generate statistics for statistics are regularly delivered to the database or retrieval by the statistical database on demand.

分析业务能用统计数据库或上下文数据库来进行实时或近乎实时的数据分析业务。 Statistical analysis of business use context database or database for real-time or near real-time data analysis services.

上下文数据库收集关于网络事务的所有事件信息。 Context event database to collect all information about the network transaction. 这种信息将构成网络故障诊断、记帐或网络监控所需的全部信息。 This information will form a network troubleshooting, billing or all of the information required for network monitoring.

I. I. ISP数据管理模型本节描述智能业务平台(ISP)2100目标体系结构的数据管理2138方面1. ISP Data Management Model This section describes the Smart Business Architecture (ISP) data 2100 2138 target architecture management aspects 1. 范围ISP数据管理2138体系结构旨在建立一个覆盖在ISP 2100的生产环境中数据的创建、维护和使用,包括所有跨ISP边界的信息传输的模型。 The scope of ISP Data Management 2138 Architecture aims to establish a covered ISP 2100 to create the data in the production environment, maintenance and use, including models for all transmission of information across ISP boundaries.

数据管理2138体系结构覆盖所有永久数据、ISP内这种数据的任何副本或流以及跨ISP边界的所有数据流。 2138 data management architecture covering all permanent data flow within the ISP or any copy of such data as well as all data flows across ISP boundaries. 这个模型定义了用于数据存取、数据分区、数据安全、数据完整、数据操作以及数据库管理的角色。 This model defines for data access, data partitioning, data security, data integrity, data manipulation, and the role of database management. 它也适当地概括了管理策略。 It also outlines management strategies as appropriate.

2. 2. 目的该体系结构的目的是:·创建一个用来管理数据的公用ISP功能模型;·将数据与应用程序分离;·建立数据系统的设计模式;·提供系统部署的规则;·指导未来技术选择;·减少冗余的开发和冗余的数据存储。 Purpose The purpose of this architecture are: to create a common data model management function ISP is used; · the separation of data and applications; Establish design pattern data systems; Provide regular system deployment; · guide future technology choices; · reduce redundant development and redundant data storage.

该目标体系结构的其它目的是:·保证数据灵活性;·便于数据共享;·建立ISP范围的数据控制和完整性;·建立数据安全和保护; Other objects of the target architecture are: to ensure that data flexibility; · facilitate data sharing; • Establish a data control and integrity ISP range; Establish data security and protection;

·允许数据存取和使用;·提供高的数据性能和可靠性;·实施数据分区;·实现简便操作。 Allowing data access and use; Provide high data performance and reliability; * data partitioning implementation; * achieve simple operation.

3. 3. 数据管理概述在一个实施例中,数据管理体系结构是一个描述各种系统部件、系统交互作用的方式以及各部件的预期特性的框架。 Data management Overview In one embodiment, the data management architecture is a framework for various system components, systems, methods and interaction of the components of the desired properties described. 在该实施例中,数据同时在许多位置存储,但是某个特定数据和它所有的复制副本逻辑上都被视为一个单一项。 In this embodiment, the data store simultaneously at many positions, but on a particular data and all its replica is considered a single logic one. 本实施例中的一个关键差异是,用户(或终端用户)决定什么数据要下载或在本地存储。 A key difference in the present embodiment, the user (or end user) determines what data to be downloaded or stored locally.

a)域(Domain)数据和数据存取的特征在于两个域2220和2222,如图27中所示。 a) field (the Domain) data and wherein data access two domains 2220 and 2222, shown in Figure 27. 每个域内都可以有多个数据副本。 Each domain can have multiple copies of data. 这两个域在一起就生成了一个能横跨国际边界的单一的逻辑的全局数据库。 These two fields together, we can generate a single logical global database across international borders are. 下面的域定义的主要方面是,所有数据存取都是一样的。 The main aspects of the domain definitions below is that all data access is the same. 来自呼叫处理查找或网络侧数据更新的订单输入馈给没有差别。 Call Processing lookup or orders from the network side to update the input data fed to no difference.

中央域2220控制和保护系统的完整性。 The central domain integrity and protection control system 2220. 这只是一个逻辑描绘,不是物理实体。 This is only a logical drawing, not a physical entity. 附属域(satellite domain)2222提供用户存取和更新的能力。 A subsidiary domain (satellite domain) 2222 provides user access and update capabilities. 这只是一个逻辑描绘,不是物理实体。 This is only a logical drawing, not a physical entity.

b)分区一般来说,数据是同时在许多位置存储的,但是特定数据段和它所有的复制副本逻辑上都被视为一个单一项。 b) general partition, while the data is stored on a number of locations, but the particular piece of data and all its replica is considered a single logic one. 任一个这些副本都可被划分为若干物理子集,使得所有数据项不必处于一个地点。 A copy of any of these may be divided into several physical subsets, so that all data items need not be in a location. 然而,分区保留了仅仅一个单一数据库的逻辑视图。 However, partitions retained only a single logical view of the database.

c)体系结构体系结构是具有以下功能的分布式数据库和分布式数据存取的体系结构:·复制和同步;·数据文件的分区;·并发控制·事务处理能力·共享的公用模式。 c) Architecture architecture is architecture has the following features distributed database and distributed data access: · replication and synchronization; * partition data file; · · transaction concurrency control common mode handling capacity-sharing.

图28表示逻辑系统部件和高级信息流。 28 shows logical system components and high-level information flows. 图中的部件都不是物理部件。 Components in the figures are not physical components. 每个部件在体系结构中都有多个实例。 Each member has a plurality of instances in the architecture.

图28中各单元是:·NETWK 2224一从网络侧对ISP 2100的外部接入;·SVC I/F 2226-连接ISP的网络接口;·SYSTMS 2228-外部应用,诸如订单输入;·G/W 2230-用于外部应用的连接ISP 2100的网关;·dbAppl 2232-要求数据存取或更新能力的角色;·dbClient2234-附属域的主要角色;·dbServer 2236-中央域的主要角色;·dbAdmin 2238-用于数据的管理性角色;·dbMon 2240-监控角色;·I/F Admin 2242-用于接口的管理性角色;·Ops 2244-操作控制台;d)信息流图28中描述的流是逻辑的抽象;它们旨在刻划在逻辑部件之间传送的信息的类型。 In Figure 28 each unit are: · NETWK 2224 from a network external access to the ISP 2100; · SVC I / F 2226- connection to the ISP network interface; · SYSTMS 2228- an external application such as Order Entry; · G / W 2230- gateway for external connection to the application of the ISP 2100; · dbAppl 2232- data access or update capabilities required roles; main character · dbClient2234- affiliated domain; · dbServer 2236- the primary role of the central domain; · dbAdmin 2238- role for managing data; · dbMon 2240- monitoring role; · I / F Admin 2242- administrative role for interfaces; · Ops 2244- operations console; described in stream 28 d) of the flow of information is a logical abstract; they are intended scored information transferred between the logical components of a type.

以上所示的流是:·Rest-来自外部系统的向ISP的请求;·Resp-ISP对外部系统的应答;·Access-ISP内部应用进行的数据检索;·Updates-ISP内部应用进行的数据更新;·Evts-发往监控器的数据相关事件;·Meas-发往监控器的数据相关量度;·New Data-向ISP主数据的添加;·Changed Data-对ISP主数据的改变;·Views-检索ISP主数据;·Subsciptions-异步的ISP主数据流;·Cache Copies-ISP主数据的瞬态副本;·Actions-任何控制活动;·Controls-任何控制数据。 Stream shown above are: · Rest- from an external system request to the ISP; · Resp-ISP response to external systems; data retrieval · Access-ISP interior of applications; · Updates-ISP data inside updated applications ; · Evts- data sent to monitor relevant events; · Meas- data sent to monitor the relevant measure; · New Data- added to the ISP master data; · changed Data- change of ISP master data; · Views- retrieving ISP master data; · Subsciptions- asynchronous stream of ISP master data; transient replica · Cache copies-ISP master data; · Actions- any control activity; · Controls- any control data.

e)域关联(Domain Associations) e) associated with the domain (Domain Associations)

数据管理2138的附属域2222一般包含:·ISP应用;·外部系统;·网络接口2226和系统网关2230;·数据库客户机(dbClient)2234。 Data management subsidiary 2138 2222 domain typically includes: · ISP application; External System; * network interface system gateway 2230 and 2226; · database client (dbClient) 2234.

数据管理2138的中央域包含:·监控(dbMon)2240;·管理(dbAdmin)2238;·主数据库(dbServer)2236。 2138 data management center field contains: • Monitoring (dbMon) 2240; · Management (dbAdmin) 2238; · main database (dbServer) 2236.

4. 4. 逻辑描述下面单独描述各个体系结构部件的特性:a)数据应用(dbAppl)2232这包括要求数据库访问的任何ISP应用。 The following description describes the separate identity of the logical structure of each system component: a) Data Applications (dbAppl) 2232 This includes any ISP applications require database access. 例子是ISN NIDS服务器和DAP事务服务器,该应用通过附接到期望的数据库并提供任何所需的策略指令而从数据库客户机2234获得它们所需数据。 Examples are ISN NIDS servers and DAP Transaction Server, which is attached to the desired application by the database and provide any required policy instructions 2234 to obtain their required data from the database client. 这些应用也代表诸如订单输入或交换机请求转换的外部系统或网络单元来提供数据库访问。 These applications also represent external systems or network element such as Order Entry or Switch requested conversion to provide database access. 数据应用支持以下功能:·更新:允许应用插入、更新或删除ISP数据库中的数据。 Data application supports the following features: * Update: allow applications to insert, update or delete data ISP database.

·访问请求允许应用检索数据、列举多个数据项、从数据列表或集合中选择数据项、或者重复经过集合的成员。 * Allows an application to retrieve a data access request, include a plurality of data items, selecting data items from a list or set, or repeatedly through the members of the collection.

·事件与测量(Events and Measurements)是以监控功能(dbMon)2240为目标的特殊形式的更新。 · Event and measurement (Events and Measurements) is a special form of monitoring (dbMon) 2240 as the target date.

b)数据管理2138(1)客户数据库(dbClient)2234dbClient代表数据的附属副本。 Affiliated copy b) Data Management 2138 (1) customer database (dbClient) 2234dbClient represent the data. 这是应用系统ISP数据的唯一途径。 This is the only way to use the ISP's system data. 附属数据副本不必与dbServer 2236上存储的数据的格式匹配。 Affiliated copy of the data does not have to match the format and stored on dbServer 2236 data.

dbClient向主数据库(dbServer)2236登记要求预订(Subscriptions)或高速缓存数据副本。 dbClient 2236 reservation registration request to the master database (dbServer) (Subscriptions) or cache copies of data. 预订是由dbServer 2236自动维护的,但是高速缓存副本在版本过时时必须更新。 A subscription is automatically maintained by the dbServer 2236, but a cached copy must be updated at the time of release date.

dbClient 2234的主要方面是要保证由应用进行的数据更新串行化并与由dbServer 2236保存的主副本同步。 dbClient major aspects of 2234 is to ensure that the applications of data update and synchronize with serialized save by dbServer 2236 master copy. 然而,dbClient接受更新,以后只将变化与dbServer同步(此时,可能有例外通知传回到起始应用),这也同样是合理的。 However, dbClient accept the update, only after the change dbServer synchronization (At this point, there may be exceptions to the notification back to the initial application), it is equally reasonable. 选择在锁定步骤(lock-step)中进行更新与否,是应用策略的事情而不是数据管理2138的事情。 Select the update or not in lock step (lock-step), the application is a matter of strategy rather than data management 2138 thing.

只有对dbServer主副本的改变才被转发到其它dbClients。 Only changes to the master copy of dbServer are forwarded to other dbClients.

如果dbClient 2234变得不活动或者与dbServer失去联络,它就必须再与主数据库同步。 If dbClient 2234 becomes inactive or lost contact with dbServer, it must be re-synchronized with the primary database. 情况严重时,可能需要操作员的干预,来重新加载数据库或选定的子集。 In severe cases, it may require operator intervention, to reload the database or a selected subset.

dbClient 2234提供下列接口操作:·通过授权的应用附接到特定的数据集合;·要由授权的应用来设置的策略优先(policy preferences);·选择本地数据副本的特定视图(view);·插入、更新或删除本地数据副本;·将预订的数据(subscibed data)与dbServer同步;·来自dbServer的对高速缓存数据的过期通知。 dbClient 2234 offers the following interface operations: · attached by authorized application-specific data set; • To policy priority (policy preferences) provided by the application to the authorization; - selecting a particular view of the local copy of the data (View); - insertion , update or delete local copy of the data; synchronization · subscription data (subscibed data) and dbServer; · expiration notification for caching data from the dbServer.

此外,dbClient还向监控器(dbMon)2240提交运行记录(logs)或报告和发出问题信号。 In addition, dbClient also submitted log (logs) to monitor (dbMon) 2240 or report issues and send out a signal.

(2)主数据库(dbServer)2236dbServer 2236在数据保护中起着中心作用。 (2) primary database (dbServer) 2236dbServer 2236 plays a central role in the protection of data. 它是数据“被拥有”、主控副本被保持的地方。 It is the data "owned", where the master copy is maintained. 出于可靠性的考虑,至少要保持主数据的两个副本。 For reliability, to keep at least two copies of master data. 还可以部署其它主数据的副本来提高数据性能。 You can also deploy a copy of the other master data to improve data performance.

这些副本是在锁定步骤中同步的。 These copies are synchronized in lock-step. 就是说,要求每个更新都要获得相应的主锁定(master-lock)以防止更新冲突。 That is, each update to be required to obtain the corresponding primary locking (master-lock) to prevent update conflicts. 严格的实现策略可以有差异,但是一般来说,所有主副本都必须保留串行的更新顺序,并提供与任何其它主副本相同的数据视图和相同的完整性强制(integrity enforcement)。 Strict implementation strategies may differ, but in general, must retain copies of all master update serial order, and provide the same to any other master copies of the same data views and integrity mandatory (integrity enforcement). 内部的数据副本对dbClients 2234是透明的。 A copy of the internal data of dbClients 2234 is transparent.

dbServer 2236包括商业规则层,这些规则描述并执行(enforce)数据项之间的关系,限制特定的数据值或格式。 dbServer 2236 includes a layer of business rules, the implementation of these rules and describe the relationship between (Enforce) data items, the particular data value or limit format. 每个数据更新都必须通过这些规则,否则就被拒绝。 Each data update must be, otherwise it is rejected by those rules. 这样,dbServer就保证所有数据都按单一副本那样管理,所有商业规则都统一地收集和应用。 In this way, dbServer ensures that all data is managed as a single copy, all business rules are uniformly applied and collected.

dbServer 2236跟踪何时进行数据改变、进行哪类数据改变,并向监控器(dbMon)2240提交运行记录和统计。 dbServer 2236 track when the data change, a change in the types of data, submitted to the 2240 operation records and statistics monitor (dbMon). 此外,这些改变还被转发给任何活动的预订,高速缓存副本则通过过期消息而被标记为过期。 In addition, these changes also forwarded to book any activity, cache copy is expired by the message is marked as expired.

dbServer还提供安全检查和验证,并保证将选择的数据项加密后再存储。 dbServer also provides security checks and verification and to ensure that data is stored encrypted and then selected.

DbServer支持下列接口操作:·从dbServer察看选择的数据;·从dbServer预约选择的数据;·将选择的数据拷贝到dbClient 2234的高速缓存副本;·按需用当前副本刷新dbClient高速缓存;·在所有dbServer主副本进行新数据插入;·在所有dbServer副本上改变数据属性;·取消以前的预约,消去数据的高速缓存副本。 DbServer Interface supports the following operations: View selected data from dbserver; * reservation data selected from dbserver; * copy the selected data to the cache copy dbClient 2234; On-demand refresh the cache with the current copy dbclient; * in all master copy dbServer new data into; * change data attributes on all dbServer copies; · cancel previous reservations, eliminate cached copy of the data.

(3)数据管理(dbAdmin)2238数据管理(dbAdmin)2238涉及设置数据策略、管理数据库逻辑和物理方面、保障并配置数据管理2138域的功能部件。 (3) Data Management (dbAdmin) 2238 Data Management (dbAdmin) 2238 involves setting data policy, managing the logical and physical aspect of the databases, security and data management features 2138 arranged domains. 数据管理策略包括安全、分配、完整性规则、性能要求、复制和分区的控制。 Data management policies including security, distribution, integrity rules, performance requirements, and control copy partitions. dbAdmin 2238包括数据资源的物理控制,诸如确定数据位置、分配物理存储器、分配内存、加载数据存储、优化访问路径、解决数据库问题。 dbAdmin 2238 include a physical control data resources, such as determining position data, to allocate physical memory, allocating memory, loading data stores, optimizing access paths, solving the problem database. dbAdmin 2238也提供数据的逻辑控制,数据的逻辑控制诸如有审计、协调、迁移、编目和转换数据。 dbAdmin 2238 also provides logical control data, the logical data such as auditing control, coordinate, migrating, cataloging, and converting data.

dbAdmin 2238支持以下接口操作:·定义数据类型的特性;·创建给定维的逻辑容器;·通过关联操作将两个或更多的容器关联;·通过条件触发器和动作来限制数据值或关系;·将数据的物理容器放置在给定位置;·将数据的物理容器移动到新位置;·移出物理容器和它们的数据;·从一个容器向另一个容器加载数据;·清除容器的数据内容;·查验或协调容器的数据内容。 dbAdmin 2238 supports the following interface operations: Define the characteristics of the data type; * create a logical container of given dimensions; - the association operation associated with the container by two or more; - to restrict data values ​​or relations through conditional triggers and actions ; - physical data container is placed in a given position; - the container to move data to a new physical location; * out of physical containers and their data; · loading data from one container to another container; * clear the data contents of the container ; content-inspection data coordination or container.

(4)数据监控器(dbMon)2240 (4) Data monitor (dbMon) 2240

dbMon 2240代表一个监控功能,它捕获来自ISP边界网关、各dbClient 2234和各dbServer 2236的所有数据相关事件和统计测量。 dbMon 2240 on behalf of a monitoring function, which captures from the ISP border gateway, each dbClient all data related events and statistical measures of 2234 and each dbServer 2236. dbMon 2240机构用于创建审计追踪和运行记录。 dbMon 2240 mechanism for creating an audit trail and operating records.

dbMon通常代表一个被动接口;数据被馈送到该接口。 dbMon usually represents a passive interfaces; data is supplied to the interface. 然而,监控是一个层次性的活动,dbMon内还进一步进行分析和上滚(将按诸如每分钟的间隔时间收集的数据编辑成诸如以小时或天数计的更长时间段的数据)操作。 However, the monitoring is a hierarchical activity and further analysis on the roll DBMON (such data will be collected every minute intervals compiled into such data in hours or in days longer period of time) operations. 此外,dbMon还会在达到某些阀值或条件时发送报警信号。 Further, dbMon will send an alarm signal upon reaching a certain threshold or condition.

有各种各样量度的速率和计数用于评估服务质量(QOS)、数据性能和其它业务水平协议。 There are various metrics for evaluating the counting rate and the quality of service (QOS), performance data, and other services level agreements. 所有例外和数据错误都要记录并发送到dbMon供作检查、存储和上滚。 All data errors and exceptions should be recorded and sent to dbMon made for inspection, storage, and on the roll.

dbMon 2240支持以下接口操作:·设置监控器控制、过滤和阀值;·数据相关活动的记录;·报告状态、量度或审计结果;·发出警报或报警信号。 dbMon 2240 supports the following interface operations: · Set the monitor control, filtering, and a threshold; a data recording and related activities; * report status, metrics, or audit results; - an alarm or warning signal.

(5)数据管理操作(Ops)2244操作控制台(Ops)2244为人员监控、管理或其它方式管理系统提供工作站接口。 (5) Data Management operations (Ops) 2244 Operations Console (Ops) 2244 for the personnel monitoring, managing, or otherwise manage the system provides the workstation interface. Ops控制台提供向上述的dbMon 2240、dbAdmin2238和dbServer 2236的操作接口的访问。 Ops consoles provide access to the above-described dbMon 2240, dbAdmin2238 and dbServer 2236 the operator interface. Ops控制台2244也支持通过各种系统、接口和数据管理域2138内的应用的基于图符的图象来显示动态状态。 Ops consoles 2244 also support a variety of systems, based on the image of the icon displayed in a dynamic state of an application interface 2138 and data management domain.

5. 5. 物理描述本节描述数据管理2138的物理体系结构。 Physical Description This section describes the Data Management 2138 physical architecture. 它描述如何来配置一组部件。 It describes how to configure a set of components. 图29中表示了一个概括性的配置图。 FIG. 29 shows a general configuration of FIG. 图29中:·圆圈用来代表物理地点、·方框或组合方框用来代表计算机节点、·各功能角色由缩写词指示。 FIG 29: circles are used to represent physical locations ·, · block or combinations of blocks used to represent computer node, - each function is indicated by the abbreviations role.

图29中所用缩写词的意思是:·OE-订单输入系统2250;·GW-ISP网关2230;·APP-应用(dbAppl)2232 FIG 29 used abbreviations mean: · OE- order entry systems 2250; · GW-ISP gateway 2230; · APP- application (dbAppl) 2232

·CL-dbClient 2234;·SVR-dbServer 2236;·ADM-dbAdmin部件2238;·MON-dbMon部件2240;·Ops-操作控制台。 · CL-dbClient 2234; · SVR-dbServer 2236; · ADM-dbAdmin member 2238; · MON-dbMon component 2240; · Ops- operating console.

上文已经结合图28描述过这些单元的功能角色(参看目标体系结构的逻辑描述)。 As already described in conjunction with FIG. 28 functional role (the logic described with reference to the target architecture) of these units.

图29中所示的每个地点通常通过广域网(WAN)链路与一个或多个其它地点链接。 Each location is generally illustrated in FIG. 29 (WAN) links with one or more other locations via the WAN links. 精确的网络配置和大小是详细的工程设计任务。 Accurate network configuration and size are detailed engineering design tasks. 将某个数据库副本分配给订单输入(OE)地点2251并不常见,但是在本体系结构中,输入地点被视为等同于附属地点,将含有dbClient功能。 Assign a copy of the database to the Order Entry (OE) Location 2251 is not common, but in this architecture, the input location is considered equivalent to affiliated sites containing dbClient function.

在ISP 2100的网络侧,附属地点2252每个也都含有dbClient2234。 On the network side of the ISP 2100, 2252 each affiliated site also contains dbClient2234. 这些地点通常运行局域网(LAN)。 These sites typically run a local area network (LAN). dbClient为诸如ISN操作员控制台、各ARU或NCS交换机请求转换等网络或系统应用程序起着本地储存库的作用。 dbClient ISN operator consoles, such as, or NCS switch requested each ARU plays a role in the local repository conversion network or system applications.

中央地点2254提供冗余的数据存储和通向各dbClient 2234的访问路径。 2254 central location provides redundant data storage and access paths leading to each dbClient 2234. 中央地点2254也提供上滚监控(dbMon)功能-尽管也能在中央地点2254部署dbMon部件2240以提高性能。 2254 also provides a central location on the roll monitoring (DBMON) functions - although 2254 can be deployed in a central location DBMON member 2240 to improve performance.

管理性功能位于任何期望的操作或管理地点2254,但不必非要与dbMon的位置相同。 Management function or operation is located in any desired location management 2254, but do not have the same position as dbMon. 管理性功能要求有dbAdmin 2238和操作控制台2244用于命令和控制。 Management function requires dbAdmin 2238 and 2244 operating console for command and control. 远程操作地点能从广域或局域连接访问dbAdmin节点2238。 Operating from a remote location to access a wide area or local area connection node dbAdmin 2238. 每个地点都被其它地点的复制功能部件备份并由不同的冗余链路连接。 Each location is backup copied features other locations by different redundant links.

6. 6. 技术选择下一节描述应当考虑的各种技术选择。 Technical Options The following section describes the various technology options should be considered. 数据管理2138体系结构的运行不要求任何特定技术,但是不同的技术选择会影响系统的结果性能。 2138 operating data management architecture does not require any particular technology, but the results will affect the performance of different selection systems technology.

图30表示一组能提供很高性能环境的技术。 30 shows a set of very high performance can provide environmentally friendly technologies. 特定应用要求将决定可接受性能的最低水平。 Specific application requirements will determine the minimum level of acceptable performance. 表示了三种通用环境。 It shows three general environment.

·在图的上部,多协议路由选择的网络2260将外部和远程单元与中央数据地点连接。 · In the top of the figure, multi-protocol routing 2260 network and the external data the remote unit is connected to the central location. 图中显示了管理终端和中小范围的计算机以及诸如订单输入的高可用性应用平台。 The figure shows a terminal management computers and small range and high availability applications such as order entry platforms.

·中部是具有大型数据存储器的大规模高性能机器2262。 · Central is a large-scale high-performance machine with a large data memory 2262. 这些代表着主数据库和数据处理、以及诸如dbServer 2236和dbMon 2240的数据捕获/跟踪功能。 These represent the primary database and data processing, and data such as dbServer 2236 and dbMon 2240 capture / tracking.

·图的底部是本地处理和网络接口2264,诸如ISN操作员中心或DAP地点。 · The bottom of FIG local processing and network interfaces 2264, such as the ISN operator centers or DAP sites.

7. 7. 实现关于当前的ISP数据系统尽管人们知道许多,但要决定任何实现还需要其它详细要求。 Realization of ISP data on the current system even though many people know, but also need to implement the decision of any other detailed requirements. 这些要求必须包括现存的ISN、NCS、EVS、NIA和TMN系统需要,加上所有预见用于宽带、因特网和无交换机应用系统的新产品。 These requirements must include existing ISN, NCS, EVS, NIA and TMN system needs, plus all foreseen for broadband, Internet and free exchange of new product applications.

8. 8. 安全ISP数据是受保护的共同的资源。 ISP data security is a shared resource protected. 数据访问受到限制和查验。 Data access is restricted and inspection. 数据相关的活动受到跟踪和审计。 Data related activities by tracking and auditing. 所有存储的口令字、PINS(个人身份号)、私人人事记录和选择的金融、商业和用户信息,都要求数据加密。 All stored passwords, PINS (personal identification number), private personnel records and selected financial, commercial and user information, require data encryption. 保密数据不得以明文的形式传输。 Transmission of confidential data may not be in the clear.

9. 9. 元数据元数据是一种包含数据驱动逻辑的规则的数据形式。 Metadata data format comprising a data-driven logic rules. 元数据用于描述和管理(即操纵)数据的操作形式。 Metadata is used to describe and manage the operation form (i.e., manipulation) data. 在这个体系结构下,控制要尽可能多地由元数据驱动。 Under this architecture, as much control should be driven by the metadata. 元数据(或数据驱动的逻辑)一般提供最灵活的运行时选择。 Metadata (or data-driven logic) generally provides the most flexible run-time selection. 元数据通常处于系统管理员的控制之下。 Metadata is generally under the control of the system administrator.

10. 10. 标准数据库技术建议数据管理体系结构的实施应当尽可能地利用可通过商业途径获得的产品。 Implementation of standard database technology proposed data management architecture should use the product commercially available as much as possible. 销售商提供数据库技术、复制服务、规则系统、监控设施、控制台环境和许多其它吸引人的东西。 Vendors to provide database technology, copy services, rules systems, monitoring facilities, console environment, and many other goodies.

J. J. ISP资源管理模型本节描述资源管理2150模型,因为它与ISP 2100体系结构有关。 ISP Resource Management Model 2150 This section describes the resource management model, as it relates to ISP 2100 architecture.

a)范围资源管理模型就需要资源的过程与资源本身之间的关系而言涉及资源分配和去分配的周期。 a) the scope of resource management model involves a cycle of resource allocation and deallocation regard to the relationship between the process itself and the resources needed resources. 该周期始于资源登记和去登记,然后继续到资源请求、资源获得、资源交互作用和资源释放。 The cycle begins with registration of resources and to register, and then continue to request resources, access to resources, resource interactions and resource release.

b)目的资源管理2150模型旨在为ISP开发社团、特别是ISP体系结构定义共同的结构准则。 b) the purpose of resource management for the 2150 model is intended ISP development community, in particular ISP structure defines a common structure standards system.

c)目标在现存的传统ISP体系结构中,业务控制和管理它们自己的物理和逻辑资源。 c) a target in the existing traditional ISP architecture, services control and manage their own physical and logical resources. 迁移到一个从业务抽取资源的体系结构,就要求定义一个管理业务与资源之间关系和交互作用的管理功能。 Migrating to the architecture of a resource drawn from business, it requires a definition of the relationship between business and resource management and interaction management capabilities. 这个功能由资源管理2150模型来代表。 This function is represented by a 2150 Explorer model.

资源管理模型的目的旨在适应全网络的资源管理以及优化资源使用、允许在网络上共享资源:·从业务抽取资源;·提供对资源状态的实时访问;·简化添加和去除资源的过程;·提供安全、简单的资源访问;·提供公平的资源获取,使得任何资源用户都不能垄断资源的使用。 The purpose of resource management model is designed to adapt to network-wide resource management and optimize the use of resources, allowing shared resources on the network: · extract resources from business; Provides real-time access to state resources; · simplify the process of adding and removing resources; · provide safe, easy access to resources; • provide equitable access to resources so that any user can not monopolize the resource use of resources.

d)背景概念一般来说,资源管理2150模型管理资源与使用这些资源的过程之间的关系和交互作用。 d) the concept of general background, between 2150 resource management model management of resources and processes using these resources relationships and interactions. 在表示该模型之前,首先应当掌握用于解释该模型的基本术语和概念。 Before it represents the model should first master basic terms and concepts used to explain the model. 以下列举了这些术语和概念:(1)定义·资源:一个在被外部过程调用时提供特定和适当定义的功能的基本工作单元。 These include the following terms and concepts: (1) Definition and resources: providing a basic unit of work in a specific and well defined function is invoked when an external procedure. 可将资源分类为逻辑资源和物理资源,前者如业务引擎和语音识别算法,后者如CPU、存储器和交换机端口。 Resources can be classified as logical and physical resources, such as the former business engine and voice recognition algorithms, the latter such as CPU, memory and switch ports. 资源可以是共享的-如同ATM链路带宽或磁盘空间,或者是专用的-如VRU或交换机端口。 It may be shared resource - like an ATM link bandwidth or disk space, or a dedicated - The switch port or VRU.

·资源池:共享共同功能的注册的资源成员的集合。 · Resource pool: a common set of shared resources functions registered members.

·业务:对网络资源用户与资源本身之间的所有活动和交互作用流的一种逻辑描述。 · Business: a logical description of all network activity between the user and resource own resources and interactions flows.

·策略:管理对资源分配与去分配、资源池大小阈值和资源使用阈值采取的动作的规则集合。 • Policy: a set of rules to manage the allocation and distribution of resources, resource pools, and resource size threshold using the threshold to take action.

(2)概念 (2) the concept of

·资源管理模型是一种管理和允许一个功能集合通过适当定义的过程和策略向资源池请求、获取资源或将资源释放给资源池的机制。 · Resource management model is a management feature set and allows a defined process and through appropriate policy request to the resource pool, access to resources or mechanisms to release resources to the resource pool. 资源分配与去分配过程有三个阶段:·资源请求:在该阶段中,过程向资源管理器2150请求资源。 Resource allocation and de-allocation process has three stages: · resource request: At this stage, the process 2150 requesting resources to the resource manager.

·资源获得:如果所请求资源可用并且提出请求的过程有权请求,资源管理器2150就授予该过程该资源,该过程就可以使用该资源。 · Resource Acquisition: process if the requested resource is available and requesting the right to request, the resource manager 2150 to grant the process of the resource, the process can use the resource. 否则,过程就要选择要么放弃该资源分配过程,以后再试,要么请求资源管理器2150在资源一旦可用时或者在特定的时间内授予其资源。 Otherwise, the process must choose to either abandon the resource allocation process, try again later, or request the resource manager 2150 or granted resource within a specific time when resources once available.

·资源释放:被分配的资源在过程不再需要时应当放回资源池。 · Release of resources: resources are allocated when the procedure is no longer needed should be returned to the resource pool. 根据资源的类型,过程要么释放资源并由资源向资源管理器通知其新状态,要么过程本身向资源管理器通知该资源的可用性。 Depending on the type of resources, process or release of resources by the resource to its new status to the resource manager, or the process itself notify the availability of the resource to the resource manager. 无论哪种情况,资源管理器都将该资源恢复到资源池中。 In either case, the resource manager can restore the resource to the resource pool.

资源管理模型适于创建资源池、制定管理资源池的策略。 Resource management model adapted to create a resource pool, resource pool management to develop strategies. 资源管理模型允许资源登记为资源池的合法成员或者解除登记。 Resource management model allows resources to register as a legitimate member of a resource pool or deregistration.

资源管理模型的策略实行负荷平衡、无故障(failover)和最少成本算法并禁止服务对资源垄断。 Policy Resource management model implemented load balancing, fault-free (failover) and least-cost algorithm and prohibits the monopoly service resources. 资源管理模型追踪资源的使用情况,当资源池不足以满足需要时自动采取适当的行动。 Resource management model to track resource usage, automatically take appropriate action when the resource pool are insufficient to meet needs. 任何业务都应当能访问和使用网络上的任何可用资源-只要该业务有这种权利。 Any business should be able to access and use any available resources on the network - as long as the business got that right.

资源管理模型采用OSI面向对象的方法来建立资源模型。 OSI resource management model using object-oriented way to create resource models. 这个模型下的每个资源都体现为一个被管理对象(MO)。 Each resource in the model are reflected as a managed object (MO). 每个MO是按以下各方面定义的:·属性:MO的属性代表其性质,用于描述其特性和当前状态。 Each MO is defined by the following aspects: · attributes: MO attribute representative of its nature, is used to describe its characteristics and current state. 每个属性与一个值关联,例如,某MO的CURRENT_STATE(当前状态)属性的值可能是IDLE(空闲)。 Each attribute is associated with a value, e.g., an MO, current_state (current status) value of the property may be IDLE (idle).

·操作:每个MO都有一个允许以其作为操作对象的操作的集合。 · Operation: Each MO has a collection of objects in its operation as the operation permits. 这些操作是:·创建:创建新的MO。 These operations are: • Create: Create a new MO.

·删除:删除现有的MO。 · Delete: Delete the existing MO.

·动作:执行一个特定操作,诸如SHUTDOWN(关闭)。 · Action: to perform a specific operation, such as the SHUTDOWN (off).

·读取值:获取一个特定的MO属性值。 • Read Value: Get a specific MO attribute values.

·增加值:增加一个特定的MO属性值。 · Value Added: MO increase a specific attribute values.

·去除值:将一个特定的MO属性值从值的集合删除。 · The removal of value: the value of a specific MO attribute is removed from the set of values.

·替换值:用新值替换现有的MO属性值。 · Replace value: replace the existing MO attribute values ​​with new values.

·设置值:将特定的MO属性设置为缺省值。 • Set value: a specific MO attribute set to the default value.

·通知:每个MO都能向管理实体报告或通知其状态。 · Notification: Each MO can report to the management entity or notify its status. 通知可能会被视为触发器(triggers)或陷井(traps)。 Notification may be considered the trigger (triggers) or trap (traps).

·特性:MO的特性体现为它如何对特定操作作出反应以及对这种反应施加的限制。 · Characteristics: MO features reflect how to respond to specific operations and for its reaction to such restrictions applied. MO可以对外部刺激或内部刺激作出反应。 MO may react to external stimuli or internal stimuli. 外部刺激体现为传输一个操作的消息。 External stimulus embodied as a message transmission operation. 而内部刺激则是MO遇到的内部事件,如定时器的到时。 The internal stimuli is an internal event MO encountered, such as when the timer. 通过规定定时器到时多少次后MO才能报告,可以向MO应如何对过时定时器作出反应施加限制。 After the timer by specifying how many times to report to the MO, how can react to impose restrictions on outdated MO timer.

所有需要使用、操作或监控某资源的单元都要将其作为MO来对待,通过上述定义的操作来访问该资源。 All required, or monitoring the operation of a resource unit should be treated as an MO, to access the resource defined by the above operation. 需要知道某资源的状态的有关单元,需要知道如何接收并对该资源生成的事件作出反应。 We need to know about the state of a resource unit, need to know how to receive and respond to the events generated resources.

全局和本地资源管理资源管理模型是层次结构的,有至少两个管理层次:本地资源管理器(LRM)2190和全局资源管理器(GRM)2188。 Global and local resource management resource management model is a hierarchy, there are at least two management levels: local Resource Manager (LRM) 2190 and Global Resource Manager (GRM) 2188. 本地和全局RM每个都有自己的域和功能:2. Local and global RM each with their own domain and function: 2. 本地资源管理器(LRM):·域:LRM的域限于属于网络某特定地点的特定资源池(RP)。 Local Resource Manager (LRM): · Domain: LRM is limited to a specific domain resource pool belong to a particular place network (RP). 在一个单一地点可能存在多个LRM,每个LRM可能负责管理一个特定资源池。 There are multiple possible LRM in a single location, each LRM may be responsible for managing a particular resource pool.

·功能:LRM的主要功能是为过程与资源之间按照资源管理模型准则进行的资源分配和解除分配过程提供方便。 • Function: The main function of LRM is to facilitate allocation of resources between processes and resources in accordance with the model guidelines for resource management and deallocation process.

3. 3. 全局资源管理器(GRM)2188:·域:GRM2188的域涉及网络上所有资源池中所有的注册资源。 Global Resource Manager (GRM) 2188: · Domain: GRM2188 involve all registered domain resource pool all resources on the network.

·功能:GRM的主要功能是帮助LRM 2190定位一个在LRM域不可得到的资源。 • Function: The main function is to help GRM LRM 2190 LRM locate resources in a domain can not be obtained.

图31表示网络2270内GRM 2188和LRM 2190的域。 31 shows the network 2270 GRM 2188 and LRM 2190 domains FIG.

4. 4. 资源管理模型(RMM)资源管理模型是在与静态配置相对的动态资源分配概念的基础上建立的。 Resource Management Model (RMM) resource management model is built on the basis of the concept of dynamic resource allocation opposed to the static configuration. 动态资源分配概念暗示,在资源与使用资源的过程之间没有预定的静态关系。 Dynamic resource allocation concept implies, there is no predefined static relationship between resource and process the use of resources. 分配与解除分配基于的是供给与需求。 Allocation and deallocation is based on supply and demand. 资源管理器2150要清楚资源的存在,需要资源的过程可通过资源管理器2150来获得资源。 Explorer 2150 to make it clear there is a resource, the process requires resources can be access to resources by 2150 Explorer. 而静态配置则暗示,在每个资源与需要该资源的过程之间存在一个预定的关系。 The static configuration implies, there is a predetermined relationship between each process and resource needs of the resource. 这样,就不需要用一个管理实体来管理这些资源。 Thus, you do not need a management entity to manage these resources. 与资源相关的过程可以直接管理。 Process-related resources can be managed directly. 动态资源分配和静态配置代表着资源管理范例的两个极端。 Dynamic resource allocation and static configuration examples represent the two extremes of resource management. 在这两个极端之间也可以存在其它范例。 Other examples may also exist between these two extremes.

资源管理模型描述LRM 2190和GRM 2188的特性以及它们之间的逻辑关系和交互作用。 Resource management model to describe the characteristics of the LRM 2190 and GRM 2188 and the logical relationships and interactions between them. 它还描述管理LRM/GRM与需要资源的过程之间的资源分配和解除分配过程的规则和策略。 It also describes manage resource allocation and deallocation process rules and policies between GRM process LRM / needs and resources.

a)简单资源管理模型由于资源分配和解除分配可能涉及复杂的过程,这里用这个过程的简单形式来介绍实际模型。 a) a simple model of resource management due to resource allocation and deallocation may involve a complex process, where a simple form of this process to introduce the actual model. 简单的资源分配和解除分配是通过6个步骤实现的。 Simple resource allocation and deallocation is achieved through six steps. 图32表示了这些步骤。 32 shows these steps.

1. 1. 过程2271从资源管理器2150请求资源2173。 22,712,150 2173 process to request resources from the resource manager.

2. 2. 资源管理器2150分配资源2173。 Explorer 2150 2173 allocation of resources.

3. 3. 资源管理器2150将分配的资源2173授权给请求的过程2271。 Process Resource Explorer 2150 will be allocated to the 2173 authorization request of 2271.

4. 4. 过程2271与资源2273交互作用。 2271 and 2273 the process of resource interactions.

5. 5. 过程2271结束使用资源2273时,通知该资源。 When the process is finished using the resources 2271 2273, notify the resource.

6. 6. 资源2273将自己释放回资源管理器2150。 2273 will be the release of their resources back into the Explorer 2150.

b)资源管理模型逻辑单元:资源管理模型体现为一个逻辑单元集合,这些逻辑单元交互作用、互相合作,以实现上述的目的。 b) Resource Management Model Logical Unit: Resource Management Model is represented as a set of logical units, a logical unit which interact, cooperate with each other, in order to achieve the above object. 这些单元如图33中所示,它们包括:资源池(RP)2272、LRM 2190、GRM 2188和资源管理信息库(RMIB)2274。 The unit shown in FIG. 33, they include: Resource Pool (RP) 2272, LRM 2190, GRM 2188 and Resource Management Information Base (RMIB) 2274.

(1)资源池(RP)2272所有类型相同、有共同属性或提供相同功能、位于相同网络站点的资源都可以在逻辑上分组在一起形成一个资源池(RP)2272。 (1) Resource Pool (RP) 2272 All the same type, with common attributes or provide the same function, located at the same site network resources may be grouped together to form a Resource Pool (RP) 2272 logically. 每个RP将有自己的LRM2190。 Each RP will have its own LRM2190.

(2)本地资源管理器(LRM)2190LRM2190是负责管理特定RP2272的单元。 (2) Local Resource Manager (LRM) 2190LRM2190 RP2272 is responsible for the management of specific units. 所有需要使用由某LRM管理的RP中的资源的过程都要通过该LRM并用上述的简单资源管理模型来访问该资源。 All require the use of resources by the process of RP in a LRM management and should use the above simple resource management model to access the resource by the LRM.

(3)全局资源管理器(GRM)2188GRM2188是具有在网络上各资源池的全局视图的实体。 (3) The Global Resource Manager (GRM) 2188GRM2188 having a global view of the network entity for each resource pool. GRM是通过各LRM2190获得这个全局视图的。 GRM is to get through this global view of each LRM2190. 所有LRM用RP2272状态和统计来更新GRM。 All LRM with RP2272 status and statistics to update the GRM. 有时候某个LRM不能分配资源,因为所有本地资源都忙或者所请求资源属于另一个站点。 Sometimes an LRM can not allocate resources, because all local resources are busy or requested resource belongs to another site. 在这种情况下,LRM可以与GRM协商,以在网络上定位所请求资源。 In this case, LRM can consult with the GRM, to locate the requested resource across the network.

(4)资源管理信息库(RMIB)2274如上所述,所有资源都是按被管理对象(MO)对待的。 (4) Resource MIB (RMIB) 2274 mentioned above, all the resources are managed by the object (MO) treated. RMIB2274是含有关于网络上所有MO的信息的数据库。 RMIB2274 is a database containing information about all of the MO on the network. MO信息包括对象定义、状态、操作等等。 MO information includes object definition, status, operation and the like. RMIB是ISP数据管理模型的一部分。 RMIB is part of the ISP Data Management Model. 所有LRM和GRM都能访问RMIB,并能有自己的MO信息视图和通过ISP数据管理模型对MO信息的访问特权。 All LRM and GRM can access RMIB, and to have their views and information on MO MO access privileges to information through ISP Data Management Model.

5. 5. 部件交互作用为了执行它们的任务,资源管理模型各单元必须在资源管理模型的规则、策略和准则范围内交互作用和协作。 Components interact to perform their tasks, resource management model of each unit must interact and collaborate within the rules of resource management model, policies, and guidelines range. 下一节解释这些实体是如何互相交互作用的。 The next section explains how these entities are interacting with each other.

a)实体关系(ER)图(图33)图33中,每个矩形代表一个实体,“<>”之间的动词暗示两个实体之间的关系,方括号“[]”暗示这种关系的方向是从带括号的数字趋向无括号数字。 a) Entity Relationship (ER) (Figure 33) in FIG. 33, each rectangle represents one entity, "& lt; & gt;" verb implied relationship between the two entities, between brackets "[]" implies that relationships in the direction of the trend is no parentheses from digital parentheses. 数字暗示关系是一对一、一对多或者多对多。 Digital implied relationship is one to one, one to many or many to many.

图33可读作:1. FIG read as 33: 1. 一个LRM2190管理一个RP2272。 A LRM2190 a management RP2272.

2. 2. 许多LRM2190访问RMIB2274。 Many LRM2190 access RMIB2274.

3. 3. 许多LRM2190访问多个GRM2188。 Many LRM2190 access multiple GRM2188.

4. 4. 许多GRM2188访问RMIB2274。 Many GRM2188 access RMIB2274.

b)登记与解除登记资源登记与解除登记只适用于必须动态管理的资源集合。 b) Registration and Deregistration Resource Registration and Deregistration only applicable to dynamic management of resources must be set. 有的情况下资源是静态分配的。 Resources are statically allocated in some cases.

各LRM2190对资源池2272操作,其中每个资源池含有一个资源成员集合。 Each resource pool LRM2190 operation 2272, where each resource pool contains a set of resource members. 为了让LRM管理某个资源,该资源要向该LRM通知其存在及状态。 To make LRM manage a resource, which would like to inform the LRM its existence and status. GRM2188也需要清楚网络上各资源的可用性,以便能够定位某个资源。 GRM2188 also need to know the availability of each resource on the network, in order to be able to locate a resource. 以下登记与解除登记准则应当应用于所有要动态管理的资源上:·所有资源必须向它们的LRM2190登记作为特定资源池2272的成员。 Registration and Deregistration The following guidelines should be applied to all resource dynamic management of: • All resources must be registered as a member of a particular resource pool 2272 to their LRM2190.

·所有资源,如果因为任何原因需要关闭或退出业务,必须从它们的LRM2190中解除登记。 · All resources, if for any reason you need to close or exit the business, registration must be lifted from their LRM2190 in.

·所有资源必须向它们的LRM2190报告它们的可用性状态。 · All resources must state their availability to their LRM2190 report.

. 所有LRM必须用根据登记的和解除登记的资源得出的最新资源可用性情况更新GRM2188。 All LRM must be updated according to the latest resources GRM2188 registration and deregistration of resource availability resulting situation.

C)GRM、LRM和RP的交互作用每个RP2272将由LRM2190管理。 C) GRM, LRM and RP each RP2272 will LRM2190 interaction management. 每个需要特定资源类型的过程都被分配一个将为资源访问提供方便的LRM。 Each process requires a specific type of resource is assigned a LRM will provide easy access to resources. 当过程需要某资源时,它必须通过分配给它的LRM来提出请求。 When the process requires a resource, it must be requested by assigning to it LRM. 当LRM接收对资源的请求时,可能发生两种情况:1. When the LRM receives a request for a resource, two cases may occur: 1. 资源可用:在这种情况下,LRM分配资源池中的一个资源成员并向该过程传送资源句柄(handle)。 Resources available: In this case, LRM a member of resource allocation resource pool of resources to handle the transfer process (handle). 过程与资源交互作用,直到使用完毕。 Processes and Resource interaction until after use. 根据资源类型,一旦过程使用资源完毕,过程要么向资源通知其使用资源完毕,由资源本身向通知LRM其可用性,要么释放资源并向LRM通知其不再使用该资源。 According to the resource type, resource use once the process is completed, process or notification to the resources they use resources completed by the resource itself LRM to notify its availability, or free up resources and LRM notice that it no longer uses the resource.

2. 2. 资源不可用:在这种情况下,LRM2190与GRM2188协商要求一个含有所请求资源的外部资源池。 Resource is not available: In this case, LRM2190 GRM2188 consultation with a requested external resource pool containing the requested resource. 如果没有外部资源可用,LRM就向请求的过程通知没有资源可用。 If no external resources are available, LRM will inform the process of requesting no resources are available. 在这种情况下,请求的过程可能:·放弃然后重试、·请求LRM在资源一旦可用时分配资源,或者·请求LRM如果资源在特定时间内变得可用时分配资源。 In this case, the requesting process may: give up and try again ·, · request to the LRM allocates resources once the available resources, or if the resource-requesting LRM allocates resources become available within a certain time.

如果有外部资源可用,GRM2188就将位置和访问信息传送给LRM2190。 If there are external resources available, GRM2188 location and access information will be sent to LRM2190. 然后LRM:·要么代表请求过程分配并向其传送资源句柄(在这种情况下,通过GRM的资源分配对于过程是透明的),·要么劝告请求过程与管理被定位资源的LRM联络。 Then LRM: · either request process on behalf of its distribution and transmission resource handle (in this case, through resource allocation GRM is transparent to the process), · advice or request process and management of resources are located LRM contact.

d)GRM、LRM和RMIB的交互作用 d) GRM, LRM and interaction RMIB

RMIB2274含有网络上所有被管理资源的信息和状态。 RMIB2274 contain information and status of all managed resources on the network. 每个LRM2190将有一个与它管理的RP2272对应的RMIB2274图。 Each will have RMIB2274 FIG LRM2190 it manages a corresponding RP2272. 而GRM2188则有网络上所有资源的全部视图。 And then there are all GRM2188 view of all resources on the network. 这个视图由所有LRM视图组成。 This view consists of all LRM view. GRM的全部视图使其能够定位网络上的资源。 View all the GRM enable them to locate resources on the network.

为了使RMIB2274保持精确的资源信息,每个LRM2190都必须用最新的资源状态来更新RMIB。 To make RMIB2274 maintain accurate resource information, each LRM2190 RMIB must be updated with the latest resource state. 这包括添加资源、去除资源和更新资源状态。 This includes adding resources, removing resources and update the resource status.

LRM2190和GRM2188都能通过ISP数据管理实体访问和察看RMIB2274。 LRM2190 and GRM2188 able to access and view RMIB2274 by ISP data management entity. RMIB数据的实际管理属于ISP数据管理实体。 The actual management RMIB data belonging to ISP data management entity. LRM和GRM只负责更新RMIB。 LRM and GRM is only responsible for updating RMIB.

k. k. 操作支持模型1. Operational Support Model 1. 介绍现有的ISP服务平台大多数都是独立开发的,每个有自己的一套操作支持特征。 Introduce existing ISP service platform mostly developed independently, each operation has its own set of support features. 随着平台数量的增加,学习如何操作给定一组平台所需的时间也在增加。 As the number of platforms and learn how to operate given the time required for a set of platform is also increasing. ISP服务平台需要转移到一种具有适合其所有产品的所有操作支持功能部件的公用模型。 ISP service platforms need to be transferred to a kind suitable for all operating utility model supports all the features of its products. 这就要求定义一个既要支持当前需要又要经得起将来发生的变化的模型。 This requires the definition of a need not only to support but also to withstand the current model changes occurring in the future. 操作支持模型(OSM)定义了一种管理支持ISP2100的实现框架。 Operational Support Model (OSM) defines a management support ISP2100 implementation framework.

a)目的操作支持模型的目的是:·通过集成用于各ISP资源的平台而简化操作;·通过提供公用管理基础结构而减少管理人员的学习时间;·通过减少重叠的管理系统的开发而降低管理系统的成本;·通过提供用于所有ISP业务和网络单元的公用管理基础结构来改善ISP业务的推向市场的时间;·提供一个管理ISP物理资源(硬件)和逻辑资源(软件)的框架。 Object of a) Purpose Operational Support Model is to: - the integrated platform for ISP resources of each operation is simplified; - by providing a common management infrastructure reduces the learning time management; - is reduced by reducing overlapping management system development cost management system; - to improve the time to market of the ISP business by providing a common management infrastructure for all of the ISP services and network elements; • providing a physical frame ISP resources (hardware) and logical resources (software) of a management .

b)范围这里所描述的OSM适合ISP物理网络单元和在它们上运行的业务的分布式管理。 b) the range described herein for OSM ISP physical network elements and running on the distributed management of their operations. 本文所描述的管理框架也能扩展到逻辑(软件)资源的管理。 Management framework described herein could also be extended to management of logical (software) resources. 然而,这里表示的体系结构有助于将物理资源的使用和错误与它们对业务产生的影响映射起来。 However, the architecture represented here can help to map up the physical resource usage and errors and their impact on your business.

管理业务在四个层内发生:·计划,·业务管理,·网络层、·网络单元。 Business management occurs within four layers: · plan · Business management, network-layer-network unit.

各层内的信息分为四个功能范围:·配置管理,·错误管理,·资源测量,·会计。 Information is divided into four functional range within each layer: · configuration management, fault management ·, · resource measurement, · accounting.

适合所有ISP的公用操作支持模型的使用,将增强ISP的操作,简化ISP内未来产品和业务的设计。 Suitable for all ISP support the use of common operating model, will enhance the operation of the ISP, ISP simplify the design in the future products and services. 这种操作支持体系结构是与ITU电信管理网络(TMN)标准相一致的。 This operation is supported architecture with the ITU Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) with consistent standards.

c)定义被管理对象:被一个或多个管理系统监视和控制的资源。 c) definition of managed objects: one or more management system monitoring and control resources. 被管理对象位于被管理系统内并可内嵌在其它被管理对象中。 Managed objects are located and embedded in other managed objects in the managed system. 被管理对象可以是逻辑或物理资源,一个资源可以体现为一个以上的被管理对象(一个以上的对象视图)。 Managed object may be a logical or physical resources, a resource may be embodied as one or more managed object (more than one view of the object).

被管理系统:一个或多个被管理对象。 Managed System: One or more managed objects.

管理子域:全部位于父管理域内的管理域。 Management subdomains: all located in the parent administrative domain management domain.

管理系统:启动对被管理对象的监视和控制功能的管理域内和/或管理子域内的应用过程。 Management: Start of managed objects of monitoring and control functions within the management and / or application process management sub-domain.

管理信息库:MIB(管理信息库)含有关于被管理对象的信息。 MIB: MIB (Management Information Base) contains information about the managed object.

管理域:一个或多个管理系统加上零个或多个被管理系统和管理子域的集合。 Management domains: one or more management systems plus a set of zero or more managed systems and management sub-domains.

网络单元:电信网络由许多种类的模拟和数字电信设备以及关联的支持设备组成,这些设备诸如是传输系统、交换系统、多路复用、信令终端、前端处理机、主机、群集控制器、文件服务器、局域网、广域网、路由器、桥路、网关、以太网交换机、集线器、x.25链路、SS7链路等等。 Network element: a telecommunication network devices supported by many kinds of analog and digital telecommunications equipment and associated compositions, these devices are such as transmission systems, switching systems, multiplexes, signaling terminals, front end processor, the host, the cluster controller, file servers, LANs, WANs, routers, bridges, gateways, Ethernet switches, hubs, x.25 link, SS7 links and so on. 被管理时,这些设备一般被称为网络单元(NE)。 When managed, such equipment is generally referred to as network elements (NE).

域:管理环境可以各种方法划分,诸如功能性(错误、业务…)、地理性、组织结构等等。 Domain: environmental management can be divided in various ways, such as functional (error, business ...), geographical, organizational structure, and so on.

操作系统:管理功能存驻在操作系统中。 Operating system: memory management functions in the operating system.

2. 2. 操作支持模型图34表示网络单元2310上操作支持模型2308的四个管理层2300、2302、2304、2306。 Operational Support Model Figure 34 shows the operation of the network unit 2310 Support Model 2308 four management 2300,2302,2304,2306. 操作支持模型2308支持ISP2100的日常管理。 Operational Support Model 2308 supports the daily management of the ISP2100. 该模型是沿三维组织的。 The model is organized along three-dimensional. 这些维是各层2300-2306、这些层内的功能区、提供管理业务的活动。 These dimensions are layers 2300-2306, functional areas within these layers, provides management business activities. 被管理对象(资源)被管理系统监视、控制和修改。 Managed objects (resources) management system is to monitor, control and modify.

a)功能模型以下各节描述管理层2300-2306内的功能区。 a) The Functional Model The following sections describe the functional areas within the management 2300-2306.

(1)计划ISP计划层2300是被收集的关于ISP2100的数据的储存库,是数据要提供附加值的地方。 (1) Plan ISP plan layer 2300 is a repository of data about the ISP2100 is collected, the data is to provide value-added areas.

·配置管理2312:策略和目标的设置。 · Configuration Management 2312: set policies and goals.

·错误管理2314:故障平均时间的预测。 · Error Management 2314: average predicted failure time.

·资源测量2316:预测将来资源需要(趋向、容量、业务协议的一致、维护协议、劳动力)。 · Resource Measurement 2316: forecast future resource requirements (consistent trend, capacity, service agreements, maintenance agreements, labor).

·会计:确定提供业务的成本以便支持业务定价决定。 • Accounting: determining the cost of providing services to support business pricing decisions.

(2)业务管理业务预定、部署、提供、业务质量协议和业务质量监控位于ISP业务管理层2302。 (2) business management business book, deploy, provision, service quality and service quality monitoring protocol is located in ISP business management 2302. 客户将能有限制地察看SM(业务管理)层2302以监控和控制它们的业务。 Customers will be able to view a limited basis SM (Service Management) 2302 to monitor and control their business. SM层提供与NLM中的代理交互作用的管理器。 SM layer provides the interaction with the agent in the NLM manager. SM层也提供与计划层2300中的管理器交互作用的代理。 SM layer also provides interaction with the planned layer 2300 Manager agent. SM层内的管理器也可以与SM层中的其它管理器交互作用。 SM manager within the SM layer may also interact with other managers in the layer. 在这种情况下,存在时等层次的管理器-代理关系。 In this case, there is a hierarchy of managers, etc. - agency relationship.

·配置管理2320:业务定义、业务启动、客户定义、客户启动、业务特性、客户特性、硬件提供、软件提供、其它数据或其它资源的提供。 · Configuration Management 2320: business definition, business startup, customer-defined, client startup, service features, customer characteristics, providing hardware, software, provide other data or other resources.

·错误管理2322:监控和报告业务协议的违反。 · Error Management 2322: Violation of monitoring and reporting services agreement. 测试。 test.

·资源测量2324:预测业务协议的违反并标志潜在的资源短缺。 · Resource Measurement 2324: violation and flag potential resource shortages forecast business agreement. 预测当前和将来(趋向)的业务需要。 Predict the current and future (tendency) business needs.

·会计2326:处理和转发会计信息。 • Accounting 2326: processing and forwarding of accounting information.

网络层管理 Network layer management

ISP网络层管理(NLM)层2304负有管理所有网络单元的责任,体现为个别的或一组单元管理。 ISP Network Layer Management (the NLM) Layer 2304 bears all responsibility for managing network elements, embodied as an individual or a group of cells managed. 它不关心特定单元在内部是如何提供业务的。 It does not care how a specific unit within services provided. NLM层2304提供与各EM2306中的代理交互作用的管理器。 NLM layer 2304 provides the interaction with the EM2306 proxy manager. NLM层也提供与SM层2302中的管理器交互作用的代理。 NLM layer 2302 also provides the interaction with the layer manager SM agent. NLM层2304内的管理器也可以与NLM层中的其它管理器交互作用。 Manager in the NLM layer 2304 may also interact with other managers in the NLM layer device. 在这种情况下,存在对等层次的管理器-代理关系。 In this case, there is a peer-level manager - agent relationship.

·配置管理2328:提供从整个网络的角度定义本地和远程资源和业务的特性的功能。 · Configuration Management 2328: provide the functionality defined local and remote resources and services from the perspective of the entire network characteristics.

·错误管理2330:提供检测、报告、隔离和修正在多个NE上发生的错误的功能。 · Error Management 2330: The function provides error detection, reporting, isolation and correction occurring on multiple NE.

·资源测量2332:适合从容量角度对全网络的资源使用进行测量、分析和报告。 · Resource Measurement 2332: suitable for measuring the use of resources from the whole network capacity perspective, analysis and reporting.

·会计2334:合并来自多个信息源的会计信息。 • Accounting 2334: Consolidated financial information from multiple sources.

(3)单元管理单元管理层2306负责逐个的NE2310并支持由NE提供的功能的提取。 (3) management unit management unit 2306 individually responsible for the NE2310 and support functions provided by the NE extraction. EM层2306提供与各NE中的代理交互作用的管理器。 EM layer 2306 provides interaction with each NE proxy manager. EM层也提供与NLM层2304中的管理器交互作用的代理。 EM layer also provides interaction with the NLM layer 2304 of the manager agent. EM层2306内的管理器也可以与EM层中的其它管理器交互作用。 Manager in the EM layer 2306 may also interact with other managers in the EM layer device. 在这种情况下,存在对等层次的管理器-代理关系。 In this case, there is a peer-level manager - agent relationship.

·配置管理2336:提供定义本地和远程资源和业务的特性的功能。 · Configuration Management 2336: provides functionality that defines the characteristics of local and remote resources and services.

·错误管理2338:提供检测、报告、隔离和修正错误的功能。 · Error Management 2338: to provide detection, reporting, isolation and error correction functions.

·资源测量2340:适合从容量角度对资源使用进行测量、分析和报告。 · Resource Measurement 2340: suitable for measurement, analysis and reporting of the use of resources from the capacity point of view.

·会计2342:适合从会计角度对资源使用进行测量、分析和报告。 • Accounting 2342: suitable for measurement of resource use from an accounting point of view, analysis and reporting.

b)网络单元计算机、过程、交换机、VRU、互连网网关以及其它提供网络能力的设备都是网络单元2310。 b) the network unit of a computer, process, switch, The VRU, Internet gateway, and other equipment to provide network capabilities are network 2310. NE以单元管理层2306的名义提供代理执行操作。 NE to provide agents to perform operations on behalf of management unit 2306.

c)信息模型图35表示管理器-代理交互作用。 c) Fig. 35 shows the information model Manager - agent interaction. 电信网络管理是一个分布式的信息应用过程。 Telecommunications network is a distributed information management application process. 它涉及在分布的管理应用过程集合之间交换管理信息,用于监视和控制网络资源(NE)2310。 It involves the exchange of management information between a distributed set management application process, for monitoring and controlling network resources (NE) 2310. 为了进行这种信息交换,管理过程要担当管理器2350或者代理2352的角色。 For this exchange of information, management process to play the role of Agent Manager 2350 or 2352. 管理器2350的作用是将管理操作请求送到代理2352,接收操作的结果、接收事件通知、处理接收的信息。 Action manager 2350. The management operation request is sent to the proxy 2352, receives the result of the operation, receive event notification, processing the received information. 代理2352的作用是通过对被管理对象2354执行适当操作来响应管理器的请求,将任何应答或通知送至管理器。 2352 is a request proxy role by performing a suitable operation on the managed objects 2354 in response to the manager, or any response to the notification manager. 一个管理器2350可以与许多代理2352交互作用,代理可以与一个以上的管理器交互作用。 2350 may be a manager with many agents interact 2352, agents can interact with more than one manager. 管理器可以是分级的,较高层次的管理器通过较低层次的管理器作用于被管理对象。 Manager can be hierarchical, higher levels of management action by the lower level manager objects to be managed. 在这种情况下,较低层次的管理器起着管理器和代理的双重角色。 In this case, the lower-level managers play a dual role of manager and agent.

3. 3. 协议模型a)协议管理器与代理之间的信息交换依赖一组通信协议。 Protocol Model a) exchange of information between the protocol manager and agent relies on a set of communication protocols. TMN提供了一个良好的模型,它使用的是推荐标准X.710和X.711中定义的公共管理信息业务(CMIS)和公共管理信息协议(CMIP)。 TMN provides a good model, it uses a common management information service (CMIS) and Common Management Information Protocol Recommendation X.710 and X.711 defined (CMIP). 这提供了一个基于ITU的应用公共业务单元(x.217服务描述和X.227协议描述)和远程操作业务单元(x.219业务描述和X.229协议描述)的对等通信协议。 This provides a peer to peer communications protocol based on ITU public service application unit (x.217 X.227 protocol description and service description), and the remote operation service element (X.219 and X.229 service description protocol description) of. FTAM也被支持作为上层协议用于文件传输。 FTAM is also supported as an upper layer protocol for file transfer. 推荐标准X.812中描述了这些上层协议的使用。 Recommendation X.812 describes the use of these upper-layer protocols. 传输协议在推荐标准X.81l中描述。 In the preferred transport protocol is described in the standard X.81l. 推荐标准X.811也描述了在不同的较低层协议之间的互相配合。 Recommendation X.811 also describes the interworking between different lower layer protocols. 这组协议被称为Q3。 This set of protocols is called Q3.

b)共同的上下文为了在过程之间共享信息,需要所交换信息的解释有共同的理解。 b) Common context In order to share information between processes, the need to interpret the information exchanged common understanding. 带BER的ASN.1(X.209)可用于为所有在管理过程(管理器/代理)之间交换的PDU开发这种共同理解。 ASN.1 (X.209) with BER can be used for all management between processes (manager / agent) PDU exchange develop this common understanding.

c)上层的业务以下标识业务层要求的最低业务,并按照TMN CMIS业务建立模型。 c) the upper layer of business services identified below the minimum required business and business model in accordance with the TMN CMIS.

SET:增加、去除或替换属性的值。 SET: added, removed or replaced attribute.

GET:读取属性的值。 GET: read the value of the property.

CANCEL-GET:取消前面发出的GET。 CANCEL-GET: GET cancel earlier issued.

ACTION:请求对象执行某个操作。 ACTION: Request object to perform an action.

CREATE:创建一个对象。 CREATE: to create an object.

DELETE:去除一个对象。 DELETE: to remove an object.

EVENT-REPORT:允许网络资源宣布一个事件。 EVENT-REPORT: allows network resources to announce an event.

4. 4. 物理模型图35表示ISP 2100的物理模型。 35 shows a physical model of the ISP 2100 physical model.

5. 5. 接口点中间设备2360提供从一种信息模型向ISP信息模型的转换。 Interface point intermediate device 2360 provides conversion from one information model to the ISP information model. 网关2362用于连接ISP外部的管理系统。 ISP gateway 2362 is used to connect an external management system. 这些网关向ISP一致的系统和不一致的系统提供操作所必须的功能。 These gateways provide the functions necessary for the operation of the system consistent and inconsistent ISP system. 网关可以含有中间设备2360。 Gateway 2360 may contain an intermediate device. 图36标识了9个接口点。 Figure 36 identifies nine interface points. 与这些接口点关联的协议是:1. Protocol associated with those interface points are: 1. 有两个上层协议。 There are two upper-layer protocol. 与工作站通信的协议和所有其它操作支持通信的ISP上层。 Protocol to communicate with the workstation and the ISP upper layer for all other operational support communications. 低层是以太网上的TCP/IP。 Is a low-level TCP / IP over Ethernet.

2. 2. 上层是与工作站2364通信的协议。 2364 is the upper layer protocol and the communication between workstations. 低层是以太网上的TCP/IP。 Is a low-level TCP / IP over Ethernet.

3、4. 3,4. 上层是ISP上层。 The upper layer is the top ISP. 低层是以太网上的TCP/IP。 Is a low-level TCP / IP over Ethernet.

5. 5. 专有协议是与被支持接口不兼容的传统系统的协议。 Proprietary protocol is a protocol with the support of incompatible interfaces legacy systems. 提供简单网络管理协议(SNMP)接口的设备将被用中间设备支持。 Providing SNMP (SNMP) interface will be supported by the intermediate device.

6、7、8、9. 6,7,8,9. 网关本质上将支持ISP一致的和不一致的接口。 Gateway will support the consistent nature of ISP and inconsistent interfaces. 连接企业内部系统的网关可包括诸如订单输入系统或者企业的广TMN系统。 Gateway connects internal systems may include information such as order entry system or enterprise wide TMN system.

操作支持模型的ISP实现图37表示操作支持实现。 ISP Operational Support Model implemented in support of FIG. 37 indicates the operation.

6. 6. 概述操作支持模型为构造操作支持系统提供了一个概念性框架。 Overview of operational support model provides a conceptual framework for the construction operations support systems. 图37表示这个概念性模型的ISP实现。 37 shows a conceptual model of the ISP achieved. 在该模型的这个实现中,所有ISP网络单元都要被管理信息库(MIB)2370和作用于MIB中对象的代理过程表示给操作支持系统。 In this implementation of the model, all ISP network elements must be MIB (MIB) 2370 and the role of operational support system to represent the proxy process to the MIB objects.

现场支持人员有两个管理ISP2100的层次。 Field support personnel management ISP2100 has two levels.

1. 1. 为了查找故障,网络层管理器2372为现场支持给出ISP的整体图。 For troubleshooting, network layer manager 2372 for on-site support gives an overall view of the ISP. 检测、隔离和更正问题的过程就是从那里开始。 Detect, isolate and correct the problem is the process from there. 从该层,可以将问题隔离到单一网络单元。 From this layer, the problem can be isolated to a single network element. 各个网络单元都是能从网络单元管理器2374访问的,允许进行更详细的监视、控制、配置和测试。 Each network element from the network element manager is accessed 2374, allow for more detailed monitoring, control, configuration and testing. 今天的ISP已经缺少了ISP的中心图,但许多人认识其重要性。 Today's ISP ISP has been the lack of a center of the plot, but many people recognize its importance.

为了配置,网络层管理器2370提供全ISP图,并与网络单元管理器2374交互作用以便以一致的方式配置网络单元。 To configure the network layer manager 2370 provides full FIG ISP, and the interaction between the network element manager to configure the network element 2374 in a consistent manner. 这将有助于保证ISP配置在所有平台上是一致的。 This will help ensure ISP configuration is the same on all platforms. 改变一个地方的一条信息并使之在全ISP上自动传播的能力是一种当前ISP管理框架不可能有的强大工具。 A place to change a piece of information and make it the ability to automatically spread over the whole current ISP ISP is a management framework can not be some powerful tools.

一旦从业务创建环境2376创建了一个业务定义,就用业务管理器2378将其放置到ISP网络中,并将该网络用于新业务。 Once the service creation environment to create a service definition 2376, a service manager 2378 to be placed into the ISP network, and the network for the new service. 一个业务的客户是通过业务管理器2378得到供给的。 A customer service was supplied by the service manager 2378. 作为提供客户业务的一部分,业务管理器要预测资源的使用,确定是否需要增加新资源来处理客户的业务的使用。 As part of providing customer service, business manager to predict the use of resources, determine the need for increased use of new resources to deal with the customer's business. 它用当前使用统计作为进行这种确定的一个基础。 It uses statistics as a basis for this determination is carried out with the current. 一旦某客户被启动,业务管理器就监视该客户的业务的使用以确定业务质量协议是否得到执行。 Once a client is started, the business manager to monitor the use of the customer's business to determine the quality of service protocols are implemented. 随着客户的业务使用的增加,业务管理器2378要预测是否需要向ISP网络增加资源。 With increasing use of the customer's business, operations manager 2378 to predict the need for additional resources to the ISP network. 这种业务管理加上适当的限制后,能被作为另一个业务扩展到客户。 After this kind of business management with appropriate restrictions, it can be extended to customers as another business. 尽管业务创建是IN世界的话题,它需要一个与系统的其它部分集成的业务管理器,而这就是该模型的目的之一。 Although the topic of business creation is IN the world, it requires a system to integrate with other parts of the business manager, and this is one of the purposes of the model.

最后,计划管理器2380为计划人员(非现场支持)分析全ISP的资源使用以确定将来的需要,并将向不同的业务分摊成本以便确定业务的成本,作为将来业务定价的基础。 Finally, the program manager 2380 planners (non-site support) analysis using the resources of the whole ISP to determine future needs, and to share the cost of different services in order to determine the cost of service as a basis for future business pricing.

L. L. 物理网络模型1. A physical network model. 介绍本节描述智能业务平台(ISP)2100体系结构的物理网络方面。 Introduction This section describes the Smart Business Architecture (ISP) 2100 physical network architecture aspects.

a)用途物理网络模型涵括:·逻辑结构映射;·信息流;·体系结构的生产环境中的平台部署。 a) Physical Network Model covers the use of: - logical structure mapping; * stream; · production of the architecture of platform deployment.

b)范围该模型定义与物理网络相关联的术语,描述各种域之间的交互作用,提供体系结构的实现的例子。 The term & b) The model defines the range of the physical network associated with the described interaction between the various domains, provide examples of the implementation architecture.

c)目的该模型的目的是:·创建一个标识各种网络平台的模型;·将信息流分类;·提供标准的术语;·提供系统部署的规则;·指导将来的技术选择。 Objective c) The purpose of this model is to: • Create a model for a variety of network platforms identity; · the information flow classification; · provide standard terminology; Provide system deployment rules; · guide future technology options.

2. 2. 信息流智能网络(IN)的重要方面之一是网络中建立的各种平台上的信息流。 One important aspect of information flow Intelligent Network (IN) is the flow of information on a variety of platforms in the network established. 通过标识信息的类型并将它们分类,网络服务IN的需要。 By identifying information types and their classification, network services IN needs.

客户在一系列的呼叫流中与IN交互作用。 In a series of customer interaction and call flows in IN. 呼叫可以是音频中心的(如常规ISP产品中的那样)、基于多媒体的(如使用web浏览器的internetMCI用户中的那样)、基于视频的(如视频点播中的那样)或者是各种内容的组合。 May be audio call center (e.g., as in the conventional ISP products), multimedia-based (internetMCI users, such as using a web browser as), based on various content (such as video on Demand) or a video combination.

信息可作如下分类:·内容;·信令;或·数据。 Information can be classified as follows: - content; - signaling; OR data.

通常,与智能网络交互作用的客户将要求所有三种类型的信息流。 In general, customer interaction and intelligent network will require all three types of information flow.

a)内容内容流(content flow)含有正在传输的主要信息。 a) contents stream (content flow) contain the primary information being transmitted. 内容流的例子是模拟话音、分组交换数据、流式视频(streamed video)和租用线路业务(leased line traffic)。 Examples of the content stream are analog voice, packet switched data, streaming video (streamed video) and leased line services (leased line traffic). 内容流是客户的财产,IN必须以最小损耗、最短延迟、最优成本来传递。 Content stream is the customer's property, IN must be a minimum loss, minimum delay, to deliver optimal cost. IN单元是标准化的,所以传输结构(transport fabric)支持更多的连接站点,以便允许内容与其它信息的流在相同的信道中流动。 IN unit are standardized, the transmission structure (transport fabric) additional connectivity sites, to allow the contents of the flow channels of the flow of other information in the same.

b)信令信令流(signaling flow)含有由网络单元使用的控制信息。 b) Signaling Signaling flows (signaling flow) contain control information used by network elements. ISUP RLT/IMT、TCP/IP域名查阅和ISDN Q.931都是信令流的实例。 ISUP RLT / IMT, TCP / IP domain access and ISDN Q.931 are instances stream signaling. IN要求、使用并生成这种信息。 IN requires, uses and generates this information. 信令流与各种网络平台协调,允许网络上的智能呼叫流。 Signaling flow coordination with various network platforms, allows intelligent call flow on the network. 实际上,在基于SCE的IN中,业务部署也将要求跨该传输结构(fabric)的信令信息流。 In fact, in a SCE-based IN, the service deployment will also be required signaling traffic across the transmission structure (Fabric) a.

c)数据数据流含有由呼叫流产生的信息,包括经常是由该该传输结构和某些网络平台产生的关键的记帐数据记录。 c) data stream containing information generated by a call flow, including crucial billing data is often generated by the recording of the transport structures and certain network platforms.

3. 3. 术语网络:能够传输内容、信令和/或数据的互连的网络单元的集合。 The term network: the ability to deliver content, a set of interconnected network elements signaling and / or data. MCI的IXC交换传输结构(switch fabric)、ISP扩展的WAN以及因特网主干都是网络的经典例子。 MCI IXC switched transmission of structure (switch fabric), a classic example of ISP extended WAN, and the network is the Internet backbone. 当前的设备倾向在不同的网络上传输不同的内容,每种网络专用于特定内容的传输。 The current tendency in the device on a different network different transmission content, each network dedicated to the transmission of particular content. 技术和客户(对所需的高带宽的)要求都要求电信经营者用更统一的网络来完成大多数通信。 Technology and customer (high bandwidth required for) requirement requires telecommunications operators to complete most of the communication with a more unified network. 这就要求该传输结构能适应在相同信道上的不同内容特性和协议。 This requires the transmission structure to adapt to different content characteristics and protocols on the same channel. 这个要求的另一个方面将是更统一的内容独立的信令。 Another aspect of this requirement will be more unified content separate signaling.

站点(site):在局部地理区域并置的物理实体的集合。 Set in the local geographic area juxtaposed physical entities: the site (site). 在当前的ISP体系结构中,站点的实例是操作中心、ISNAP站点(它也有ARU的)和EVS站点。 In the current ISP architecture, instances of sites are site operations center and EVS, iSNAP site (which also has ARU's). 严格按定义来讲,NT和DSC交换机并不属站点。 Strictly speaking, by definition, NT, and DSC switch does not belong to the site. 相反,它们属传输网络(参看下文)。 Rather, they belong to the transport network (see below). 在该体系结构中,一组(地理上并置的)业务引擎(SE)、特殊资源(SR)、数据服务器(DS)、以及网络接口与链路形成一个站点。 In this architecture, a group of (geographically collocated) Service Engine (SE), Special Resources (the SR), the data server (the DS), and a network interface to form a link with the station.

网络单元:通过网络接口连接到传输网络的物理实体。 The network element: the physical entities connected to the transport network through the network interface. 它的例子是ACP、EVS SIP、MTOC、电视会议预定服务器、DAP事务服务器和NAS。 It is an example of ACP, EVS SIP, MTOC, scheduled video conference server, DAP transaction servers and NAS. 以后若干年内,诸如web服务器、话音验证服务器、视频流线化器(streamer)和网络呼叫记录存储器都将加入当前的网络单元家族。 After a number of years, such as web servers, voice authentication servers, video streaming line homogenizer (Streamer) and network call record will be added to the current memory cell family network.

网络接口:能使网络单元连接到传输网络的设备。 Network Interface: enables devices connected to a network element of a transport network. DS1 CUS/DSU、10BaseT以太网接口卡和ACD端口都是网络接口。 DS1 CUS / DSU, 10BaseT Ethernet interface cards and network interface ports are ACD. 采用较佳实施例的体系结构后,网络接口将为通信提供一个容易明白的统一的API集。 With the architecture of the preferred embodiment, communications network interface will provide a unified set of API readily apparent.

链路:位于不同站点的两个或更多网络单元之间的连接。 Link: connection located between two or more network elements of different sites. 链路可以是一段OC-12 SONET光纤或100mbps双环(dual ring)FDDI段。 Link may be (dual ring) FDDI of paragraphs OC-12 SONET Fiber or bicyclic 100mbps. 在今后几年中,IN必须处理诸如ISO以太网WAN中枢链路和千兆位率OC-48的网络链路。 In the coming years, IN must handle such as ISO Ethernet WAN hub links and gigabit rate OC-48 network link.

连接:位于相同站点的两个或更多网络接口的相连。 Connection: the network is connected to two or more interfaces at the same site.

图38表示的是一个物理网络2400的示意图。 FIG 38 is a view showing a physical network 2400. 网络2401含有位于站点2404的网络单元2402,它们通过网络接口2406和一个或多个网关2408互连。 2401 2404 located on the site network comprising network elements 2402, and 2406 are one or more gateways through a network interface 2408 interconnects.

4. 4. 实体关系图39所示的实体关系是物理网络模型建立规则的一部分。 Entity relationship shown in FIG. 39 is an entity-relationship of the physical part of establishing the rule network model. 这些规则中有些是为了适应将来的要求而进行概括,有些则为避免冲突而对定义进行限制。 Some of these rules in order to meet future requirements and to generalize, some was to avoid conflict and to define the limit.

1. 1. 网络2401跨一个或多个站点2404,并含有一个或多个网络单元2402。 2401 network across one or more sites 2404, and contains one or more network cells 2402.

2. 2. 站点2404含有一个或多个网络单元2402。 Site 2404 contains one or more network elements 2402.

3. 3. 网络单元2402只位于一个站点2404。 The network element 2402 located at one site 2404.

4. 4. 链路2420连接两个或更多的站点2404。 2420 link to connect two or more sites 2404.

5. 5. 连接2422连接两个或更多的网络单元。 Connection 2422 connects two or more network elements.

6. 6. 网络单元2402含有一个或多个网络接口2406。 Network unit 2402 comprises one or more network interfaces 2406.

较佳实施例为MCI的商业用户集成了产品和业务内容。 MCI preferred embodiment is a commercial product and integrated user service content. 最初的实施例集中于有限的产品集合。 The first embodiment focuses on a limited product set. 已经为利用这些服务的集成确定了对接口的要求。 Has determined that the requirements for the interface for integrated use of these services. 这种接口提供了用户对功能部件、分配清单能力和中央消息数据库的可管理能力。 This interface provides the user the ability to manage features, distribution list capabilities, and a central message database.

Ⅷ. Ⅷ. 智能网络所有的平台的支持业务都已经被合并到一个平台上。 All of the intelligent network platform to support the business have been merged into a single platform. 平台的合并使得能够共享服务的功能部件/功能以对各功能部件产生共同的外观和感觉。 The combined platform enables to share the features and services / functions to the various functional components to generate a common look and feel.

A. A. 网络管理这个体系结构的设计,使得它能被一个MCI操作支持组远程监视。 The design of network management architecture, so that it can be a remote monitoring MCI operations support group. 这种远程监视能力则为MCI提供了以下能力:·标识在下述位置之间的退化或中断了的连接:-必须向“通用收件箱(inbox)”传送信息(即对象)的平台、服务器或节点、-负责检索消息和传递消息的平台、服务器或节点、-“通用收件箱”和PC客户机消息传递接口、-“通用收件箱”和消息中心接口、-必须向轮廓传送轮廓信息的平台、服务器或节点、 This remote monitoring capability, compared with MCI provides the following capabilities: • Identify degradation or interruption in the connection between the following positions: - must be to transfer information (ie, objects) "universal inbox (inbox)" platform server or nodes, - responsible for retrieving messages and message delivery platform, server or node, - "universal inbox" and PC client messaging Interface, - "universal inbox" and the message Center interface - must outline the contours transfer information platform, server, or node,

-必须向ARU传送轮廓信息的平台、服务器或节点;·标识退化的应用过程并隔离退化的过程;·标识硬件故障;·为所有应用过程、硬件或接口故障生成能被内部MCI监视组探测并接收的报警。 - the ARU must platform, or node server transmits profile information; * application process identification and isolation of degradation of the process of degradation; * identifies a hardware failure; for all application process, hardware or interface failures can be generated to detect an internal MCI monitoring group and received alarms.

此外,还向远程监视和支持组提供了远程访问系统体系结构部件的能力以便它们能执行远程诊断,确定问题的原因。 In addition, to provide remote monitoring and support groups the ability to remotely access the system architecture components of the system so that they can perform remote diagnostics to determine the cause of the problem.

B. B. 客户业务客户业务组支持所有业务。 Customer service customer service group supports all business. 以无缝的方式向客户提供客户支援,包含完整的产品生命周期,包括:·α测试;·β测试;·商业性发行;·设法加强解决客户反馈或其它用户支援要求。 In a seamless manner to provide customers with customer support, it includes the entire product life cycle, including: · α test; · β test; · commercial release; · seek to strengthen the resolve customer feedback or other user support requirements.

综合和协调的支持过程保证自始至终的完全客户支援。 Integrated and coordinated support throughout the process to ensure complete customer support. 客户业务的提供从帐户组提交命令开始,直到用户撤销帐户。 Provide customer service to submit the command to start from the account set until the user cancel your account. 综合和协调的客户支持程序必须做到以下:·有一次作业(one-stop)、直接访问的用户业务组支持ARU或VRU问题、WWW浏览器问题或PC客户机问题。 Integrated and coordinated customer support program must do the following: · One time jobs (one-stop), business users direct access to the support group ARU or VRU problems, WWW browser client PC problem or issue.

·有一支在与访问(ARU、WWW浏览器或PC客户机)、用户界面(ARU、WWW浏览器或PC客户机)、应用(消息中心或轮廓管理)或后端系统接口(通用收件箱、直达线MCI(directlineMCI)语音邮件/传真邮件平台、传真广播系统、SkyTel寻呼服务器、订单输入系统、记帐系统等等)相关联的问题诊断上训练有素的人员队伍。 · Have a visit with (ARU, WWW browser or PC client), user interface (ARU, WWW browser or PC client), application (Message Center or profile management) or back-end system interface (universal inbox , direct line MCI (directlineMCI) voice mail / fax messaging platform, fax broadcast system, SkyTel paging server, order entry systems, billing systems, etc.) trained on diagnosing problems associated staff.

·有一支能联机访问含有关于ARU或VRU能力、WWW浏览器能力、标识的硬件问题和标识的应用问题的信息的数据库的人员队伍。 · There is an online access can contain, staff database application problems of WWW browser capabilities, hardware problems identified and identification information about the ARU or VRU capacity.

·7×24客户支持·直接接触客户业务组的单一免费号码(800或888)·对大多数问题无缝的第1、第2和第3级支援,其中:-第1级支持是接听电话的最初支持代表。 · 7 × 24 customer support Direct contact with a single toll-free number the customer service group (800 or 888) · On most matters seamless 1st, 2nd and 3rd level support, including: - Level 1 support is to answer the call the initial support representative. 他们应当能解决最通常的提问和客户报告的问题。 They should be able to solve the most common questions and problems reported by customers. 这些提问和问题通常涉及接入类型(ARU、WWW浏览器、PC客户机)、WWW浏览器或PC客户机的拨号通信、设备或基本的计算机(PC、工作站、终端)硬件问题。 These questions and issues generally relate to the access type (ARU, WWW Browser, PC Client), the WWW browser of the client PC or dial-up communications, computer equipment or substantially (PC, workstation, terminal) hardware questions. 此外,他们还能开具和更新故障记录单(trouble ticket),重新启动用户的口令字。 In addition, they can be issued and update recording single fault (trouble ticket), restart the user's password.

-第2级支援是在客户支持组内提供的,这时需要求助于更有经验的技术专家。 - Level 2 support is provided within the customer support group, then the need to resort to more experienced technical experts.

-第3级支援可能涉及外部销售商为客户或内部MCI工程或支持组进行现场硬件支持,具体视问题的性质而定。 - Level 3 support may involve external vendors for customers or internal MCI engineering or support group on-site hardware support, depending on the nature of the problem may be. 客户支持组将能跟踪客户访问的状态并将检查出的问题添加到客户数据库中。 Customer Support Group will be able to track the status of customer visits and check out the problem added to the customer database.

-第4级将继续由系统工程程序员提供。 - Level 4 will continue to be provided by the systems engineering programmer.

·提供可接受的客户等待时间和放弃率的人员配备级。 · Provide acceptable customer wait times and abandon rates with staff level.

·能联机访问订单输入和记帐系统的工作人员。 · Staff can access the online order entry and accounting systems.

·自动生成周报告,周报告详细记录进行呼叫的量、接收呼叫的量、呼叫的平均等待时间和开具/关闭/增加的故障记录单的数量。 Automatic generation weekly report, weekly report the amount of call detail records, the amount of receiving a call, the average waiting time and prescribe / off of a single fault record number / call increases.

C. C. 会计根据当前的MCI程序支持会计。 Accounting Support accounting based on the current MCI procedures.

D. D. 代理根据当前的MCI程序支持代理。 Proxy support agents based on the current MCI procedures.

E. E. 报告要求报告收入记录(revenue tracking)、内部和外部客户设备/销售、使用和产品/业务性能。 Reporting requirements Reports Record Revenue (revenue tracking), internal and external customer equipment / sales, use, and product / service performance. 完成机构(fulfilment house)需要按周和按月的完成报告。 Completion (fulfilment house) required weekly and monthly basis to complete the report. 这些完成报告要将收到的订单数与交付的订单数比较。 To complete the report, these orders received compared with the number of orders delivered. 此外,报告要标明不同用户通过WWW站点访问轮廓管理或消息中心的数量。 In addition, the report should indicate the number of users to access different profile or message center management through WWW site.

F. F. 安全按照MCI为因特网安全公布的政策和过程采取安全措施。 Security measures taken in accordance with security policies and procedures for the Internet security MCI announced. 此外,还在WWW浏览器和ARU接口选择中设计了安全措施,以验证和确认用户对directlineMCI轮廓、消息中心、个人主页面日历和个人主页面配置的访问。 In addition, also WWW browser and interface selection ARU security measures designed to verify and confirm the user, message center, personal calendars, and personal home page home page to configure access to directlineMCI profile.

G. G. 故障处理问题的故障报告在一个单一数据库中记载和跟踪。 Troubleshooting issues fault reporting and tracking of records in a single database. 所有故障都按照网络服务故障处理系统(NSTHS)准则得到支持。 All faults are supported according to the network service fault management system (NSTHS) guidelines. 在MCI组织之间定义的任何业务层协议(SLA)的结构都支持NSTHS。 Layer structure of any business agreement (SLA) between MCI Organization defines support NSTHS.

任何需要软件修复的故障都被封闭在故障报告数据库中,并在问题跟踪系统中作为问题报告(PR)打开。 Any failure requires repair software have been closed in the fault reporting database, and as a matter of reporting (PR) in the issue tracking system open. 这个问题跟踪系统在所有测试阶段被使用,可被所有工程和支持组织访问。 The issue tracking system is used in all stages of testing, can be accessed by all engineering and support organizations.

Ⅸ. Ⅸ. 增强的个人业务在这个说明中要使用以下术语:术语 代表服务器 硬件平台和TCP业务二者Web服务器 运行Netscape Commerce Server HTTP的AIX4.2系统HTTP守护程序欢迎服务器应用服务器作为欢迎服务器运行的Web服务器将以安全及正常模式运行Netscape Commerce Server HTTP守护程序。 Enhanced personal business in this description to be used in the following terms: The term represents the server hardware platform and TCP traffic both a Web server running Netscape Commerce Server HTTP The HTTP daemon welcome AIX4.2 system server application server as a Web server running the server welcome safe and normal mode Netscape Commerce Server HTTP daemon. 作为各种应用服务器运行的Web服务器将只以安全模式运行这个守护程序。 Web server running as a variety of application servers will only run the daemon in safe mode. 安全模式使用SSLv2。 Safe Mode using SSLv2.

A. A. Web服务器体系结构Web服务器位于DMZ中。 Web server architecture Web server in the DMZ. DMZ中安装了Web服务器和所需的有关联的数据库客户机。 Installed in the DMZ Web server and associated database required for the client. 数据库客户机不保存任何数据,但是提供一个连接公司防火墙背后的数据储存库的接口。 Database client does not store any data, but provides an interface to the company behind the firewall data repositories.

Web空间将循环式寻址用于名字解析。 Web space for addressing the circulating name resolution. 域名是分配的galileo.mci.com域的子网化(内部自治的)地址空间。 Domain names are assigned subnet of galileo.mci.com domain (internal autonomy) address space. 以向mci.com域的管理员登记的,图40表示导致一个成功登录的事件序列。 To register the domain administrator mci.com, Figure 40 shows the sequence of events leading to a successful login.

1. 1. 欢迎服务器450这个Web服务器运行安全的和正常的HTTP守护程序。 Welcome to the Web server 450 and the safe operation of regular HTTP daemon server. 这个服务器的主要功能是在登录时验证用户452。 The main function of this server is to authenticate a user when logging 452. 验证需要使用Java和从正常向安全模式的操作的转换。 Java and verification requires a transition from the normal operating mode of the security. DMZ中有一个或多个欢迎服务器450。 DMZ in one or more Welcome servers 450. 欢迎服务器450所提供的信息是无状态的。 Welcome to the information provided by the server 450 is stateless. 无状态的意思是没有必要同步多个欢迎服务器450。 Stateless means that there is no need to synchronize multiple servers to welcome 450.

欢迎服务器的首要任务是验证用户。 Welcome to the server's primary task is to authenticate the user. 这要求使用单用令牌(TOKENS)、口令码验证和敌对IP过滤。 This requires the use of a single token (TOKENS), the passcode authentication and Hostile IP filtering. 前者是用令牌服务器454完成的,其它两个则要用直接数据库456存取来完成。 The former token server 454 is completed, then use the other two directly access the database 456 is done.

如果验证失败,用户452就被显示一个屏幕,屏幕上列举登录试图之失败的所有原因(除了敌对的IP)。 If the authentication fails, the user 452 is displayed on a screen, for all the reasons cited failed login attempt on the screen (except hostile IP). 这个屏幕自动引导用户返回到初始的登录屏。 The screen automatically guide the user returns to the initial login screen.

欢迎服务器450在成功验证之后的最后任务是向用户452发送一个业务选择屏。 Welcome to the last task server 450 after successful verification is a service selection screen 452 is sent to the user. 服务选择屏指引用户到适当的应用服务器。 Service selection screen guide the user to the appropriate application server. 用户选择该应用,但是服务器分段页中的HTML文件确定应用服务器。 The user selects the application, but the server segment page HTML file to determine the application server. 这就允许欢迎服务器450去进行初步负荷平衡。 This allows the server 450 to welcome a preliminary load balancing.

DMZ中的欢迎服务器450被映射到www.galileo.mci.com。 Welcome to the DMZ server 450 is mapped to www.galileo.mci.com. DNS的实现也允许galileo.mci.com映射到www.galileo.mci.com。 DNS implementations also allow galileo.mci.com mapped to www.galileo.mci.com.

2. 2. 令牌服务器454这是一个数据库客户机而不是Web服务器。 454 This is a token server database client instead of the Web server. 令牌服务器454被欢迎服务器450用于向登录企图发布一个令牌。 Welcome to the token server 454 is the server 450 to issue a token attempt to log on. 发布的令牌一旦被确认,就被应用服务器用于跟踪某个连接的状态信息。 Once issued the token is confirmed, the application server was used to track the status of a connection. 令牌信息被保持在公司防火墙背后的数据库服务器456上的数据库(储存库)中。 Token information is retained in the database server behind the corporate firewall database (repository) on 456.

令牌服务器454执行下列任务:1. Token server 454 performs the following tasks: 1. 在验证阶段发布单用令牌。 Published alone token validation phase.

2. 2. 确认单用令牌(将之标记为多用)。 Confirmation with the token (the use of a multi-labeled).

3. 3. 确认多用令牌。 Multi-use confirmation token.

4. 4. 再确认多用令牌。 Reconfirmation multi tokens.

令牌服务器454被要求对每个新请求发布一个独有的令牌。 Token Server 454 is required to publish a unique token for each new request. 这个令牌托管在多个令牌服务器之间的一个通信链路以避免所发布的令牌值的冲突。 This token among the plurality of token server hosting a communication link to avoid conflict of the issued token value. 这种冲突是通过向各令牌服务器454分配范围来消除的。 This conflict is through the Token Server 454 assigned to each range cancellation.

令牌是一个16位的字符数字,由集合[0-9、AZ、az]中的62个可能字符组成。 Token is a 16-bit character number, the set [0-9, AZ, az] in 62 possible characters. 令牌服务器发布的每个令牌的位置0、1和2是固定的。 The position of each token in the token server publishing 0,1, and 2 are fixed. 这些字符值是在配置时分配给各令牌服务器的。 These character values ​​are assigned to each Token Server at configuration time. 位置0的字符被用作物理位置标识符。 The position 0 is used as physical location identifier characters. 位置1的字符标识位于该位置的服务器,而位置2的字符固定为“0”。 Identify the location of a character in the server of the position, and the character position 2 is fixed to "0." 这个字符可用于为令牌服务器标识版本号。 This character can be used to identify the version number of the token server.

令牌的其余13个字符是用上述的62个字符的集合顺序生成的。 The remaining 13 characters with the set of tokens is the order of the above 62 characters generated. 启动时,令牌服务器将当前的系统时间分配给字符位置15-10,并将位置9-3设置为“0”。 At startup, the current token server system time to the character positions 15-10 dispensing, positions 9-3 and set to "0." 令牌值然后在位置15-3上顺序递增,其中位置3是最低有效位。 Token value is then incremented sequentially on positions 15-3, 3 wherein the least significant bit position. 字符编码假定由高到低的数字值为以下次序:'z'-'a'、'Z'-'A'、'9'-'0'。 The character encoding assumes the following order from high to low value numbers: 'z' - 'a', 'Z' - 'A', '9' - '0'.

如果系统时间是以4字节的值计算的,以上方案能生成独特的令牌。 If the system time is a value calculated by 4 bytes, the above program can generate the unique token. 它在位置15-10计算达626(6 base-62)个字符。 Up to 626 (6 base-62) which calculates the position of the characters 15-10. 另一个假设是该方案在任何实施例中任何给定令牌服务器上不能在一秒内生成627(35×1012)以上个令牌。 Another assumption is that the scheme does not generate a 627 (35 × 1012) or more tokens in one second on any given Token Server in any embodiment.

令牌范围的使用允许在域中使用多个令牌服务器而无需明确的同步。 Token allowable range without explicit synchronization token server using a plurality of domains. 该方法适应最多62个站点,每个站点有不超过62个令牌服务器。 This method is suitable up to 62 sites each have no more than 62 token server. 另一种实施方案将适应更多的站点。 Another embodiment would accommodate more sites.

DMZ中的所有令牌服务器都映射到token.galileo.mci.com。 All token server in the DMZ are mapped to token.galileo.mci.com. 初始实施例含有两个令牌服务器454。 The initial embodiment contains two Token servers 454. 这些令牌服务器454物理上等同于欢迎服务器450,即令牌服务守护程序将在也为欢迎服务运行HTTP守护程序的相同机器上运行。 These tokens 454 on the physical equivalent to the Welcome server 450 server, i.e., the Token Service daemon will run on the same machine as the Welcome service runs HTTP daemon. 在另一个实施例中,这两种服务在不同的系统上运行。 In another embodiment, the two services are running on different systems.

欢迎服务器450用令牌服务器454来在连接的验证阶段取得一个单用令牌。 Welcome server 450 with server 454 to obtain a token alone token validation phase of the connection. 一旦验证后,欢迎服务器450就将该令牌标记为有效并将其标记为多用的。 Once verified, the server 450 would welcome the token is marked as valid and marks it as a multi-use. 这个多用的令牌伴随着欢迎服务器向用户发送的业务选择屏。 This multi-use token along with the service selection server sends the welcome screen to the user.

下面详细讨论令牌数据库记录的设计。 Design database records discussed in detail below the token.

3. 3. 应用服务器应用服务器是做用户事务的商业端工作的Web服务器。 The application server application server is to do business end user transactions working Web server. 欢迎服务器在成功验证后的最后任务是向用户发送一个业务选择屏。 Welcome to the server by sending a service selection screen to the user in the last task after successful authentication. 业务选择屏含有新的多用令牌。 The service selection screen containing the new multi-use tokens.

当用户选择一个业务后,选择请求连同内置的令牌被发送到适当的应用服务器。 When the user selects a service, select the appropriate request is sent to the application server along with the built-in token. 应用服务器用令牌服务器454来确认令牌,如果有效,就服务该请求。 The application server 454 with the token to verify the token server, and if valid, the service request. 令牌服务器验证由位于相同物理站点的任何一个令牌服务器发出的令牌。 Token server authentication token issued by any of a token servers located at the same physical site. 这之所以可能是因为令牌服务器454是管理在公司防火墙背后的单一数据库存储器上保持的数据的数据库客户机。 This is possible because the token management server 454 is held in the memory on a single database behind the corporate firewall database client data.

无效的令牌(或丢失的令牌)总是导致出现“访问被拒绝”页面。 Invalid token (or lost token) always result in an "access denied" page. 这个页面是由欢迎服务器450提供的。 This page is welcomed by the server 450 provides. 所有访问试图的拒绝都被登录。 All access attempts to log on were rejected.

应用服务器的实际操作取决于应用本身。 The actual operation of the application server depends on the application itself. DMZ中的应用服务器被映射到<appName><num>.galileo.mci.com。 The application server in the DMZ are mapped to & lt; appName & gt; & lt; num & gt; .galileo.mci.com. 所以在一个有多应用(例如轮廓管理、消息中心、启动卡轮廓、个人Web空间等)的实施例中,使用相同的欢迎和令牌服务器450和454并按需增加更多的应用服务器。 Therefore, in one embodiment multiple applications (e.g., profile management, message center, start card profile, Personal Web Space etc.), the same Welcome and Token servers using 450 and 454 as needed and add more application servers.

另一个实施例为同一个应用增加更多的服务器。 Another embodiment is to add more servers in the same application. 如果某个应用服务器上的工作负荷的增加超过其容量,就添加另一个应用服务器,但不对现有系统作任何改变。 If the workload increases on an application server exceeds its capacity, another Application Server is added, but not to any changes in the existing system. SERVERS和TOKEN_HOSTS数据库(下文说明)被更新,为新的服务器增加一个记录。 And TOKEN_HOSTS SERVERS database (described later) is updated, adding a record for the new server. 主名的<num>部分用于区别应用服务器。 Name of the Lord & lt; num & gt; section for distinguishing the application server.

没有必要在这些名称上使用DNS循环。 No need to use DNS round-robin on these names. 欢迎服务器450用一个配置表(在启动时加载的SERVERS数据库)来在发送服务选择屏之前确定应用服务器的名称。 Welcome server 450 with a configuration table (loaded at startup SERVERS database) to determine the name of the application server before sending the service selection screen.

B. B. Web服务器系统环境所有Web服务器都运行Netscape Commerce Server HTTP守护程序。 Web server system environment for all Web servers are running Netscape Commerce Server HTTP daemon. 欢迎服务器450在一般和安全模式运行守护程序,而应用服务器只运行安全模式的守护程序。 Welcome to 450 servers running daemon in general and in safe mode, and run the application server daemon only safe mode.

令牌服务器运行一个在一个用于方便从DMZ内部的连接的已知端口上运行的TCP服务。 A server running on a token for convenience TCP service running on a known port inside the DMZ. 令牌服务守护程序用tcp_wrapper来拒绝对欢迎和应用服务器以外的所有系统的访问。 Token Service daemon with tcp_wrapper to deny access to the outside and welcome the application server for all systems. 为了加速这个验证过程,在配置时要由这些服务器加载地址清单,而不是在每个请求采用反向名称映射。 To speed up the verification process, when configuring a list of addresses to be loaded by the servers, rather than the reverse name mapping at every request. tcp_wrapper的使用也为登录令牌服务活动提供了额外的工具。 tcp_wrapper use also provides additional tools for logon token service activities.

应用服务器大多作为防火墙后数据服务的前端来工作。 Most front-end application server as a firewall after data service to work. 它们的主要任务是用令牌来验证访问,然后验证数据库请求。 Their main task is to validate the access token, and then validate the database request. 数据库请求是代表用户来创建、读取、更新或删除现存的记录或数据域。 Database request is on behalf of the user to create, read, update, or delete existing records or data fields. 在服务请求之前,应用服务器要进行必要的验证和授权检查。 Before the service request, the application server to perform the necessary authentication and authorization checks.

1. 1. 欢迎服务器欢迎服务器在适当时间向用户提供下文描述的HTML页面。 Welcome Welcome to server server provides HTML pages described below to the user at the right time. 这些页面是用基于Perl的公共网关接口(CGI)脚本(scripts)生成的。 These pages are based on the use of Perl Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script (scripts) generated. 脚本存驻在一个目录中,这个目录并不位于标准的HTTP守护程序文件根目录中。 Deposit in the script in a directory, the directory is not in the standard HTTP daemon files in the root directory. 采取标准的防备措施-关闭目录清单和除去所有备份文件等-以保证CGI脚本不能被用户读取。 Take precautions standard - close directory list and remove all backup files, etc. - in order to ensure that CGI scripts can not be read by the user. 图41表示欢迎服务器450上的目录结构455。 FIG 41 welcomed directory structure 455 on the server 450.

图41显示,<document_root>(文件_根)456是与<server_root>(服务器_根)458分离的。 41 shows, & lt; document_root & gt; (_ root document) 456 is & lt; server_root & gt; (_ root server) 458 isolated. 该图还显示,<document_root>目录仅保存欢迎和访问故障HTML页面。 The figure also shows, & lt; document_root & gt; Welcome directory and access only to save the HTML page fault.

HTTP服务器根据所请求的URL将所有请求映射到“cgi”目录460。 HTTP server based on the requested URL to map all requests to the "cgi" directory 460. CGI脚本用“template”(模板)目录462中的HTML模板来及时创建和向用户发送HTML输出。 CGI scripts "template" (template) directory 462 HTML templates to create and send a timely HTML output to the user.

用URL来由<document_root>456映射到CGI脚本,阻止了恶意用户使用<document_root>目录456。 URL with reason & lt; document_root & gt; 456 mapped to the CGI script, prevents a malicious user to use & lt; document_root & gt; 456 directory. 因为对欢迎服务器450的每个访问都映射到欢迎服务器450的cgi目录460中的一个CGI脚本,通过在启动每个脚本时调用验证功能,使安全得到保证。 Because each access server welcome 450 are mapped to a CGI script cgi directory server welcome 450 460, by calling the authentication at startup each script, so that security is guaranteed.

用户验证库是用Perl开发的,用于验证用户身份。 User authentication library is written in Perl, used to verify the user's identity. NSAPI的验证阶段例程也为在服务器本身的令牌查验和访问模式检测增加了特征。 NSAPI authentication phase routines also check to detect a server token and access features of the pattern itself is increased.

欢迎服务器450在启动时将它们的操作参数从数据库456读入它们的环境。 Welcome server 450 when starting their operational parameters into their environment read from the database 456. 有必要将该信息保存在公用数据库中以在多个欢迎服务器450上保持相同环境。 The necessary information is stored in a common database in order to maintain the same environment on multiple Welcome server 450.

a)欢迎页面欢迎页面是在欢迎服务器450第一次被访问时作为缺省页面发送的。 a) Welcome page Welcome page is the first time in 450 server welcome page as the default sent when accessed. 这是唯一不用cgi脚本生成的页面,它被保存在<document_root>目录456中。 This is not the only cgi script generated pages, it is saved in the & lt; document_root & gt; 456 directory. 该页面的作用是:·确定浏览器能显示多帧。 Role of the page is: Determine the browser can display multiple frames. 如果浏览器不能正确地显示帧,该页面就显示适当的错误消息并指引用户下载Microsoft InternetExplorer V3.0或更高版本。 If your browser can not display frames correctly, the page will display an appropriate error message and directs the user to download Microsoft InternetExplorer version V3.0 or higher.

·确定浏览器能运行Java。 Determine the browser can run Java. 如果不能,用户就被导引到Microsoft Internet Explorer V3.0或更高版本。 If not, the user is directed to the Microsoft Internet Explorer V3.0 or later.

·如果浏览器成功地显示帧并运行Java,则该页面就自动地请求欢迎服务器450发送一个登录页面。 · If the browser display frame successfully and run Java, the welcome page will automatically request the server 450 sends a login page.

欢迎页面的最后行动是用该页面内置的Java小应用程序完成的。 Welcome to the last page of this action is to use the built-page Java applets completed. 这也将用户的浏览器从标准模式转换到安全模式。 It will also convert the user's browser from the standard mode to the safe mode.

b)登录页面登录页面是一个cgi生成的页面,含有内置的单用令牌、Java小应用程序和用于用户输入用户ID和口令的格式域。 b) the login page is a login page cgi-generated page, containing a built-in single-use tokens, Java applets and a user inputs a user ID and password format field. 该页面可以显示图形来强调服务。 The page can be displayed graphically emphasize service. 这个页面的处理被填充以引入一个人工延迟。 Processing the page is filled to introduce an artificial delay. 在初始实施中,这个填充被设置为0。 In the initial embodiment, this padding is set to zero.

来自这个页面的应答含有令牌、由小应用程序生成的扰乱的令牌值、用户ID和口令。 Response from this page contains the token generated by the token applet disturbance value, the user ID and password. 该信息被Java小应用程序用一个POST HTTP请求发送到欢迎服务器。 This information is a Java applet using a POST HTTP request to the server welcome. 该POST请求还含有小应用程序签名。 The POST request also contains a small application signature.

如果登录过程成功,则对这个请求的应答是服务器选择页面。 If the login process is successful, the response to this request is the server selection page. 这个阶段的失败则产生一个访问失败页面。 At this stage it fails to produce an access failure page.

c)服务器选择页面服务器选择页面是一个cgi生成的页面,含有内置的多用令牌。 c) Server Selection Page Server Selection Page is a cgi-generated page, containing built-in multi with the token. 该页面还显示一个或多个图像来表示用户可用的业务的类型。 The page also displays one or more images to indicate the type of service available to the user. 有些业务是我们的用户不能获得的。 Some services are not available to our users. 在其它实施例中,当存在多于一个业务时,就用一个以用户ID为关键字的用户业务数据库来生成这个页面。 In other embodiments, when more than one service, to a user with the user ID as a key service database to generate this page.

欢迎服务器用其配置信息来嵌入适当的应用服务器的名称,目的是在所有可用的应用服务器之间分担负荷。 Welcome server configuration information with which to embed the appropriate name of the application server, object load sharing among all the available application servers. 是通过使用由欢迎服务器在启动期间读取的配置数据来完成这个负荷分担的。 By using the configuration data read by the Welcome server during startup to complete this load sharing.

欢迎服务器根据其配置文件中的条目为每个服务选择一个应用服务器。 Welcome to select a server application server for each service according to its configuration file entries. 这些条目列举了各应用的应用服务器的名称以及它们的选择可能性。 These entries list the name of the application server for each application, and their selection possibilities. 这个配置表是由欢迎服务器在启动时加载的。 This configuration tables are loaded at startup by the server welcome.

d)访问失败页面访问失败页面是一个静态页面。 d) Access failure page access failure page is a static page. 它显示一条消息,表示登录由于用户ID、口令或二者都有错而失败。 It displays a message indicating log on because the user ID, password, or both are wrong and fail. 这个页面在15秒的延迟之后自动加载登录页面。 This page automatically loads the login page after 15 seconds delay.

e)访问被拒绝页面访问被拒绝页面是一个静态页面,它显示一条消息,表示访问由于验证错误而失败。 e) Access Denied Access Denied Page is a static page page, it displays a message indicating failed authentication error due to the access. 这个页面在15秒的延迟之后自动加载登录页面。 This page automatically loads the login page after 15 seconds delay. 该访问被拒绝页面是由应用服务器在它们的验证服务不能识别令牌时调用的。 The Access Denied page is invoked by the application server authentication service when they can not recognize the token. 这个页面的所有加载都将被登录和监控。 All load the pages will be registered and monitored.

2. 2. 令牌服务器454Web站点上的令牌服务是令牌生成和验证的唯一的源。 Token Service on the token server 454Web site is the only source of token generation and verification. 令牌本身存储在共享的数据库456中。 The token itself is stored in a shared database 456. 这个数据库可在所有令牌服务器之间共享。 This database can be shared between all the token server. 该令牌数据库位于DMZ外的防火墙背后。 The token database is located outside the firewall behind the DMZ.

令牌服务在已知的(>1024)TCP端口上提供服务。 Token Service to provide services in the known (> 1024) TCP port. 这些服务仅向可信宿主提供。 These services are provided only to trusted hosts. 在配置数据库中保持着可信宿主的列表。 Maintain a list of trusted hosts in the configuration database. 这个数据库也是保持在DMZ外部的防火墙背后。 This database is kept behind the DMZ outside the firewall. 令牌服务器仅在启动或接收要刷新的信号时才读取它们的配置数据库。 Token Server only during startup or when the received signal is to be refreshed is read their configuration database. 令牌服务是:·为登录企图授予一个单用令牌。 Token Service are: to grant a single login attempts with the token.

·确认一个单用令牌。 • Check with a single token.

·确认一个令牌。 · Confirm a token.

·再确认一个令牌。 · Reconfirm a token.

令牌老化由一个独立的服务来执行,这是为了减少令牌服务器上的工作负荷。 Token aging is performed by an independent service, which is to reduce the load on the token server.

所有对令牌服务器的访问都被记录和监控。 All access to the token server are recorded and monitored. 令牌服务器本身用可从MCI的内部安全组获得的tcp_wrapper代码写成。 Tcp_wrapper token server itself is written in the code available from MCI group of internal security.

3. 3. 轮廓管理应用服务器轮廓管理应用服务器是在第一种实施例中实现的唯一类型的应用服务器。 Profile management application server profile management application server is the only type of server application implemented in a first embodiment. 这些服务器与欢迎服务器有相同的目录布局。 These servers and welcomed the server has the same directory layout. 这就允许在需要时将同一系统用于两个服务。 This allows the same system when needed for the two services.

C. C. 安全用户委托给Web服务器的数据对于用户来说是敏感的。 Secure user data entrusted to the Web server for the user is sensitive. 用户希望尽可能地保护数据。 Users want to protect your data as much as possible. 用户能通过web服务器来使用这种敏感信息。 Web server user can use this sensitive information. 这种信息物理上可存驻在一个或多个数据库服务器上,但就用户来说,信息是在服务器上,应当得到保护。 Such information can be stored on a physically resident on one or more database servers, but for the user, information on a server, should be protected.

在一个实施例中,当前只有以下信息需要受到保护:在其它实施例中,直达线帐户额外信息的轮廓信息受到保护,包括电子邮件、话音邮件、传真邮件和个人主页信息。 In one embodiment, the present only the following information needs to be protected: In other embodiments, the profile information additional information direct line accounts are protected, including e-mail, voice mail, fax mail, and profile information.

提供的保护针对以下类型的攻击者:·能访问Web的人;·其他用户;·MCI人员;·能使用用户的网络的人;·能使用用户的系统的人;·窥视用户的人;·其它伪装成服务器的系统。 Protection provided for the following types of attacks are: · be able to access the Web people; · other users; · MCI personnel; · be able to use the network of people users; · be able to use human user systems; · spy on the user's person; · disguised as other system servers.

该项目通过以下方案来实现安全:·对登录企图要采用单用令牌;·确认了的令牌将伴随所有事务;·如果令牌在10分钟内没有使用,则用令牌老化的办法来无效令牌;·将令牌与呼叫机器的IP地址关联,这样,令牌偷窃就不是一种容易的选择了;·用SSL来防止没有对用户显示的物理访问的令牌或数据偷窃;·用类似于Netscape Cookies的方式来使用令牌,我们就能选择在较晚的日期转换到cookies。 The project security by the following scheme: · the logon attempt to use a single token; · Confirm the token will be accompanied by all the transaction; If the token is not used within 10 minutes, with the way the token to aging invalid token; - the token address associated with the call to the IP machine, so that the token is not an easy theft selected; - use SSL to prevent physical access to the token is not displayed to the user data or theft; - Netscape cookies manner similar to using a token, we can choose to convert cookies at a later date. Cookies提供条件让我们将令牌更进一步地隐藏在文档中,以获得额外一层的安全;·采用敌意IP表来堵塞多个侵犯者而不被他们察觉。 Cookies allow us to provide the conditions for further tokens hidden in the document, in order to obtain an extra layer of security; * Use animosity IP table to plug multiple offenders without being aware of them.

除了以上由令牌实现的安全外,将Web服务器放在数据管理区(DMZ)也能获得进一步的低层安全。 In addition to the above security token implemented by the Web server on the data management zone (DMZ) of the lower layer can be obtained for further security. DMZ安全在下文讨论。 DMZ Security discussed below.

D. D. 登录过程图42表示登录过程。 Figure 42 shows the login process login process. 导致登录成功的事件序列是:1. Leading to a successful login sequence of events is: 1. 用户请求连接到www.galileo.mci.com。 User requests a connection to www.galileo.mci.com.

2. 2. 用DNS循环方式从一个(服务器)集合中选择一个服务器。 Selecting one from a server (server) with a set of DNS round-robin fashion.

3. 3. 将一个HTML页面发往用户的浏览器。 An HTML page sent to the user's browser.

4. 4. 该页面检查浏览器的Java一致性并显示欢迎消息。 This page Check your browser's Java consistency and displays a welcome message.

5. 5. 如果浏览器不是Java一致的,用适当的消息停止过程。 If the Java browser is not consistent, the process stops with an appropriate message.

6. 6. 如果浏览器是Java一致的,它就自动向www.galileo.mci.com服务器发出“GET Login Screen”(读取登录屏)请求。 If the browser is Java the same, it will automatically send "GET Login Screen" (read login screen) www.galileo.mci.com request to the server. 该请求也将浏览器转换到SSL V2。 The request will also convert the browser to SSL V2. 如果浏览器不是SSL一致的,则转换失败。 If the browser is not consistent with SSL, the conversion failed.

7. 7. Web服务器做以下工作:A. Web server do the following: A. Web服务器从其内部令牌服务取得一个单用令牌。 Web server service made from within a single token with the token.

B. B. Web服务器从一个大集合中挑出一个小应用程序。 Web server pick a small application from a large collection.

C. C. Web服务器将小应用程序、令牌和客户机IP地址记录在数据库中。 The small Web server applications, tokens and client IP address records in the database.

D. D. Web服务器将登录屏连同小应用程序和令牌一起发送回去。 Web server along with the login screen applet and send the token back together.

8. 8. 用户填写登录屏域-用户ID和口令。 Users fill in the login screen domain - user ID and password.

A. A. 用户ID是用户的直达线路(Directline)号(印在用户的商业名片上的,属于公共域)。 The user ID is the user's direct line number (Directline) (printed on the business card of the user, the public domain).

B. B. 口令是一个只为用户所知的六位数字号码。 The password is only known to the users of a six-digit number.

9. 9. 当用户按下Enter键(或点击LOGIN钮)时,Java小应用程序就将用户ID、口令、令牌和加密令牌发送回去。 When the user presses the Enter key (or click the LOGIN button), Java applet will be user ID, password, and encrypted token is sent back the token. 加密(Scrambling)算法是特定于在步骤7D发送的小应用程序的。 Encryption (a Scrambling) algorithm is specific to the applet transmitted at step 7D.

10. 10. 如果浏览器的IP地址在敌意IP表中,则服务器返回到步骤7。 If the IP address in the browser's hostility IP table, the server returns to Step 7.

11. 11. Web服务器用步骤7C中所记录的内容来验证登录请求。 Web server in the step 7C contents recorded to verify the login request.

12. 12. 如果测试无效:如果这是来自同一个IP地址的连续第三次企图,服务器就将该地址记录到敌意IP表。 If the test is invalid: the third consecutive attempt If this is from the same IP address, the server IP address records hostility to the table.

13. 13. 服务器返回步骤7。 The server returns to step 7.

14. 14. 如果测试有效,服务器就将一个选择服务屏发往带有内置的令牌的浏览器。 If the test is valid, the server will be sent to a selected service screen browser with built-in token. 令牌仍然与浏览器的IP地址关联,但它现在有一个到期时间。 Token is still associated with the IP address of the browser, but it now has an expiration time.

E. E. 业务选择当用户选择服务选择屏中的一个选择项时,该请求附有令牌。 When the user selects a service selection service selection item in the selection screen, the request token attached. 在接入业务之前,令牌要被认证,如图43所示。 Before access service, the token to be authenticated, as shown in FIG 43.

F. F. 业务操作由应用服务器生成的屏都含有当登录过程启动时发给用户的令牌。 Business operations generated by the application server screen contains the login process starts when a token issued to the user. 这个令牌有一个内置的到期时间和一个有效的源IP地址。 This token has a built expiration time and a valid source IP address. 所有操作请求都包括这个令牌,作为该请求的一部分。 All operation requests include this token as a part of this request.

业务请求是由浏览器以HTML形式、基于小应用程序的形式或普通超链接来发送的。 Service request by the browser as HTML, based on the form of small applications or ordinary hyperlinks sent. 在前两个实例中,令牌被用HTTP-POST方法作为一个隐式域发送回去。 In the first two instances, as a token is sent back by implicit domain HTTP-POST method. 超链接或者用带有内置令牌的HTTP-GET方法或者用Cookie来替代令牌。 Hyperlinks or with HTTP-GET method with built-in token or tokens replaced with Cookie. 令牌的格式要用心选择,以与这种方法兼容。 Token format to carefully selected to be compatible with this method.

1. 1. NIDS服务器系统中的NIDS服务器是由一个基于路由器的防火墙与Web服务器隔离的。 NIDS server system NIDS server is separated by a router-based firewalls and Web servers. NIDS服务器运行允许TCP客户机接入NIDS服务器上的数据库的NIDSCOMM和ASCOMM业务。 NIDS server running TCP allows clients access the database NIDSCOMM and ASCOMM business on the NIDS server. NIDSCOMM和ASCOMM业务不允许连接到物理位置不在NIDS服务器上的数据库。 NIDSCOMM and ASCOMM service connections to a physical location of the database server is not on the NIDS.

NIDS服务器上的以下数据库(C-树业务)由欢迎服务器、令牌服务器和轮廓管理应用服务器使用:·800_PIN_1Call(这是一个分区了的数据库);·1CALL_TRANS;·COUNTRY;·COUNTRY_SET;·COUNTRY2(可能);·COUNTRY_CITY(可能);·NPA_CITY;·NPACITY_OA300(可能);·OP153TOO。 The following database (C- tree business) on the NIDS server welcomed by the server, the token server and application server using the profile management: · 800_PIN_1Call (This is a partition of the database); · 1CALL_TRANS; · COUNTRY; · COUNTRY_SET; · COUNTRY2 ( possible); · COUNTRY_CITY (possible); · NPA_CITY; · NPACITY_OA300 (possible); · OP153TOO.

除了上面列举的C树业务,以下新的C树业务也将在SERVDEF中定义并且仅在系统专用的NIDS服务器上使用:·TOKEN;·SERVERS;·HOSTILE_IP;·TOKEN_HOSTS;·SERVER_ENV。 In addition to the above-exemplified C tree services, the following new C tree services will be defined in SERVDEF and using only on the NIDS server dedicated system: · TOKEN; · SERVERS; · HOSTILE_IP; · TOKEN_HOSTS; · SERVER_ENV.

以下对这些数据库的描述,不表示各记录首字节处要求有的填充域(filler field),也不试图表示任何其它为了沿4字节边界的结构对齐而可能要求的填充域。 The following description of these databases, does not indicate the first byte of each record requires some filling domain (filler field), nor is it intended to represent any other structural fill-in fields 4 are aligned along byte boundaries may be required. 这种省略纯粹为了简明。 This omission is purely for brevity. 域定义后面相邻的括号中的数字是保存域值所要求的字节数。 Domain definition adjacent back number in parentheses is the number of bytes stored threshold required.

2. 2. TOKEN数据库业务令牌数据库业务是由令牌服务器访问的。 TOKEN database service token database business is accessed by the token server. 在这个服务器上的主要操作是创建新记录、读取给定令牌值的记录,更新给定令牌值的记录。 The main operation on this server is to create a new record, read to record given token value, updated to the record given token value.

在NIDS服务器自身上运行的时间作业也访问这个数据库并定期删除过时的记录。 Time job running on the NIDS server itself has access to this database and regularly delete obsolete records. 这个时间作业每小时运行一次。 This time the job runs every hour. 它顺序扫描数据库,删除令牌到期的记录。 It sequential scanning database, delete records token expired.

令牌数据库服务含有令牌记录。 Token database containing the token service record. 令牌记录使用单一关键字(令牌),有以下各域:关键字域是令牌值。 Token records using a single key (token), there are the following fields: a key field token value.

1. 1. 版本(1);2. Version (1); 2. 使用标志(单/多)(1);3. Use Flag (Single / Multi) (1); 3. 令牌值(16);4. Token value (16); 4. IP地址(16);5. IP address (16); 5. 用户ID(16);6. User ID (16); 6. 授予的时间(4);和7. Grant time (4); and 7. 时间终止(4)。 Termination time (4).

3. 3. SERVERS(服务器)数据库业务服务器数据库业务是在配置时由欢迎服务器访问的。 SERVERS (server) database server database business is business when you configure the server accessed by the welcome. 这个数据库中的记录含有以下域:1. The database record contains the following fields: 1. 应用名(16);2. Application Name (16); 2. 应用服务器宿主名(32);3. Application Server Host Name (32); 3. 应用服务器域名(32);4. Domain name server application (32); 4. 权重(1);5. Weight (1); 5. 应用图标文件URL(64);6. Application icon file URL (64); 6. 应用描述文件URL(64)。 Application Descriptor URL (64).

关键字域是应用名、服务器宿主名和服务器域名的组合。 Keyword domain name is a combination of application, server host name and domain name of the server. 数据库是由欢迎服务器顺序读取的。 Welcome to the database is read by the server order. 这个数据库也被Web管理者访问以创建、读取、更新和删除记录。 The database is also accessible Web administrators to create, read, update, and delete records. 这种访问要通过ASCOMM接口。 This access through ASCOMM interface. Web管理者将HTML格式和CGI脚本(script)用于他们的管理任务。 Web managers will HTML format and CGI script (script) for their management tasks.

4. 4. HOSTILE IP数据库业务这个数据库由欢迎服务器访问以创建新的记录或根据作为键的IP地址读取现有记录。 HOSTILE IP database business database accessible by the server welcome to create a new recording or reading existing records based on IP address as the key. 读访问非常频繁。 Read access very often. 这个数据库含有以下域:1. This database contains the following fields: 1. IP地址(16);2. IP address (16); 2. 进入时间(4);3. Entry time (4); 3. 终止时间(4)。 Termination time (4).

关键字域是IP地址。 Keyword Domain is the IP address. 三个值都是由欢迎服务器在创建记录时设置的。 Three values ​​are set when the record is created by the server welcome. 如果该条目要被取代,进行这种取代的业务将仅被允许将时间终止值改变为<epoch_start>,于是标志该条目为取代。 If the entry to be replaced, substituted for such traffic will only be allowed to change the value to terminate the time & lt; epoch_start & gt ;, the entry flag is then substituted.

这个数据库也被Web管理者访问以创建、读取、更新和删除记录。 The database is also accessible Web administrators to create, read, update, and delete records. 这种访问要通过ASCOMM接口。 This access through ASCOMM interface. Web管理者将HTML格式和CGI脚本用于他们的管理任务。 Web managers will HTML format and CGI scripts for their management tasks.

用户业务用一个专门开发的工具来访问这个数据库,只有来自公司防火墙内部的访问才被允许。 Business users with a specially developed tools to access the database, only accessible from within the corporate firewall are allowed.

一个在NIDS服务器上运行的时间作业也访问这个数据库并从这个数据库中删除过时记录。 Time job running on the NIDS also access the database server and delete obsolete records from the database. 这个作业记录所有其活动。 The job log of all its activities. 这个作业的记录一直受到Web管理者的频繁检查。 This job has been recorded frequently check the Web manager.

5. 5. TOKEN_HOSTS数据库服务这个数据库列举由令牌服务器信任的宿主的IP地址。 TOKEN_HOSTS database services database lists the IP address of the host trusted by the token server. 这个数据库是由令牌业务在配置时读取的。 This database is read by the token in the service configuration. 该数据库中的记录含有以下各域:1. Records in the database contains the following fields: 1. IP地址(16);2. IP address (16); 2. 权限(1);3. Rights (1); 3. 宿主名(32);4. Host Name (32); 4. 宿主域名(32);5. Host domain name (32); 5. 宿主描述(64)。 Host description (64).

关键字域是IP地址。 Keyword Domain is the IP address. 权限二进制标志确定访问级别。 Binary flag to determine the level of access privileges. 低访问级别只允许对现有令牌的认证/再认证命令;高访问级别还额外允许授权和认证单用令牌命令。 Low access level only allows existing token authentication / re-authentication command; high access level additionally allows authorization and authentication token alone command.

这个数据库也被Web管理者访问以创建、读取、更新和删除记录。 The database is also accessible Web administrators to create, read, update, and delete records. 这种访问要通过ASCOMM接口。 This access through ASCOMM interface. Web管理者将HTML格式和CGI脚本用于他们的管理任务。 Web managers will HTML format and CGI scripts for their management tasks.

6. 6. SERVER_ENV数据库服务这个数据库是由欢迎和应用服务器在起动时读取的。 SERVER_ENV database service database is read by the welcome and the application server at startup. 它定义这些服务器的启动环境。 It defines the startup environment for these servers. 在一个实施例中,只设计了一个能被使用(并且只供欢迎服务器使用)的域。 In one embodiment, only the design of a domain can be used (and are for Welcome server used). 这个设计在其它实施例中受到扩展。 This design by expansion in other embodiments.

该数据库中的记录含有以下各域:1. Records in the database contains the following fields: 1. 序列号(4);2. Sequence Number (4); 2. 应用名(16);3. Application name (16); 3. 环境名(32);4. Environment Name (32); 4. 环境值(64)。 Environmental values ​​(64).

关键字域是序列号。 Keyword domain is a sequence number. 环境值可以用名来引用其它环境变量。 Environmental values ​​can be used to refer to the name of other environmental variables. 该值由适当的CGI脚本在运行时计算。 This value is calculated by the appropriate CGI scripts at runtime. 欢迎服务器被分配给WELCOME(欢迎)这个伪应用名。 Welcome to the server is assigned to WELCOME (Welcome) This pseudo application name.

这个数据库也被Web管理者访问以创建、读取、更新和删除记录。 The database is also accessible Web administrators to create, read, update, and delete records. 这种访问要通过ASCOMM接口。 This access through ASCOMM interface. Web管理者将HTML格式和CGI脚本用于他们的管理任务。 Web managers will HTML format and CGI scripts for their management tasks.

7. 7. 时间作业NIDS服务器运行一个清理(cleanup)时间作业。 Time job NIDS server running a clean-up (cleanup) time jobs. 这个作业每小时被调度运行。 The job is scheduled to run every hour. 该作业的主要任务是:1. The main task of this work are: 1. 扫描敌意IP数据库,报告所有记录。 Scan hostile IP database, report all records. 该报告含有所有记录。 This report contains all records. 目的是根据该报告来跟踪反复光顾的侵犯者。 The purpose is to track offenders repeatedly patronize according to the report.

2. 2. 扫描敌意IP数据库,报告以<epoch_time>为它们的终止时间的记录。 Scan hostile IP database, report & lt; epoch_time & gt; is a termination time of their recording.

3. 3. 扫描敌意IP数据库,删除过时记录。 Scan hostile IP database, delete obsolete records.

4. 4. 扫描敌意IP数据库,报告所有记录。 Scan hostile IP database, report all records. 该报告的格式将被连到业务(traffic)报告而不是扫描每个条目。 The format of the report is to be connected to the service (the traffic) report instead of scanning each entry.

5. 5. 扫描令牌数据库以删除过时记录。 Scan token database to remove outdated records.

G. G. 标准已经开发了以下编码标准:1. The following standards have been developed coding standards: 1. HTML外观与感觉(Look and Feel)标准;2. HTML look and feel (Look and Feel) standard; 2. Java外观与感觉标准(由HTML外观与感觉标准导出,这些是为在该站点页面上实行共同的外观与感觉进行的开发所用的新类库);3. Java look and feel of the standard (derived from standard HTML look and feel, these new libraries were developed for the implementation of a common look and feel on the site page used); 3. HTML程序设计标准。 HTML programming standards.

H. H. 系统管理系统管理任务要求向系统管理者报告至少以下的系统操作参数:·带时间标记(time stamps)的系统统计(stats)和磁盘使用情况;·带时间标记的网络操作参数;·带时间标记的Web页面使用和访问统计;·令牌使用统计;·敌意IP警报和统计;以下工具和实用程序在DMZ中的服务器上:·时间同步;·域名服务器; System Management System management tasks require the system administrator to report at least the following system operating parameters: time-stamped (time stamps) of system statistics (stats) and disk usage; · time-stamped network operating parameters; * with a time stamp Web pages use and access statistics; · token usage statistics; · IP hostility alerts and statistics; the following tools and utilities on the DMZ server: · time synchronization; · domain name server;

·系统登录监控;·警报报告;·安全外壳程序(secure shell)。 · System Log monitoring; • Alarm reporting; · secure shell (secure shell).

系统为下列条件生成警报:·令牌的不正确使用;·敌意IP表改变;·令牌到期;·登录企图。 The system generates alerts for the following conditions: · incorrect use of tokens; · IP hostility table change; * token expires; · login attempts.

警报将在不同的层次生成。 An alarm will be generated in different levels. Web服务器采用以下的广泛原则:1. Web server uses the following broad principles: 1. 服务器在根环境中运行。 The server is running in the root environment.

2. 2. 管理者能够启动非标准端口上的分级(staging)服务器来测试新的(分级的)业务。 Managers can start grading (staging) on ​​a non-standard port server to test the new (hierarchical) business.

3. 3. 分级服务器能在分级运行期间从因特网访问。 Grade server can be accessed from the Internet during the grading operation.

4. 4. 管理者能用一条单一命令选择将分级软件从分级区转移到生产区。 Managers can use a single command to select the software transferred from grade to grade zone production area. 有适当的检查来保证这不是偶然完成的。 Appropriate checks to ensure that this is not done by accident.

I. I. 产品/增强较佳实施例通过提供图形用户界面和公用消息传递系统使直达线MCI用户能额外地控制他们的轮廓。 Product / enhanced by providing a preferred embodiment of a graphical user interface and a common messaging system allows users to additionally direct line MCI control over their profile. 获取较佳实施例的该机能的能力以直达线MCI轮廓和公用消息传递系统的形式存在着。 The ability to obtain the preferred embodiment of the machine can exist in the form of a direct line profile and MCI common messaging system. 用户能修改其帐户,通过功能部件/功能更新来定制其应用程序。 Users can edit their account, by feature / functionality update to customize their applications. 该应用便实现通过允许用户运行其应用程序而提供的较佳实施例集成的将来能力的功能。 The application will be implemented in the future and by the ability to allow users to run their applications to provide the preferred embodiment of the integrated embodiment.

用户通过只与一个位置连接就能访问其所有消息。 Is connected to a position by the user can access all of its messages only. 传真、电子邮件、寻呼和话音消息将通过一个中央消息传递接口来访问。 Fax, e-mail, paging and voice messages will be accessed through a central message passing interface. 用户能通过其消息中心接口访问到中央消息传递接口中去检索消息。 Through its user interface to access the message center to a central messaging interface to retrieve messages. 中央消息传递接口为用户提供了容易、有效地管理其通信的能力。 Central message passing interface provides users with an easy and effective management of their communications.

用户接口有两个部件,用户的应用轮廓和消息中心。 The user interface has two components, the user application profile and message center. 接口是可通过PC软件(即PC客户机消息传递接口)、ARU或VRU、万维网(WWW)浏览器访问的。 Interface is available (ie PC client message passing interface) through PC software, ARU or VRU, the World Wide Web (WWW) browser access. 接口支持应用程序的定制和消息的管理。 Interface supports management applications and customized messages.

下文将表示实施例的功能部件/功能要求。 Hereinafter, a functional component of an embodiment / functional requirements. 要描述的第一个部分是ARU界面及其对用户接口、消息管理和轮廓管理的要求。 The first part is to be described ARU interface and its requirements for the user interface, message management and profile management. 在ARU要求之后,还提供了对WWW浏览器和PC客户机接口的要求。 After ARU requirements, but also it provides the requirements for WWW browser and PC client interface.

J. J. 接口特征要求(概述)按照较佳实施例,一个前端起着在用户与屏幕显示服务器之间的接口的作用。 Requirements interface features (Summary) According to the preferred embodiment, a front end of the display screen plays a role in the user interface between the servers. 用户能访问系统并能直接访问其轮廓和消息。 Users can access the system and direct access to their profile and messages. 用户接口用于更新用户的轮廓,访问用户的消息。 The user interface for updating user profile, messages, access the user's. 用户的轮廓信息和用户的消息可以存驻在不同位置,所以接口能连接到两个地方。 User profile information and the user's message can be stored in different locations, so the interface can be connected to the two places. 轮廓和消息传递能力是接口的独立部件,有不同的要求。 Contour and messaging capability is independent of the interface member, they have different requirements.

用户通过其接口,能通过轮廓管理实时地更新其轮廓。 Through its user interface can manage profile updates its profile in real time. 应用轮廓是用户帐户目录的前端,用户帐户目录是所有的用户帐户信息在虚拟位置中存驻的地方。 Outline application front-end, user account directory user account directory is where all user account information stored in the virtual position. 用户也能通过其消息中心来管理其消息(话音邮件、传真邮件、电子邮件、寻呼机重叫)。 Users also through their Message Center to manage their messages (voice mail, fax mail, email, pager Recall). 消息中心是中央消息传递数据库的前端,中央消息传递数据库是所有的用户消息(无论消息内容如何)可以存驻的地方。 Message Center is a central messaging front-end database, the central database messaging is a message to all users (regardless of the message content) can be stored in a place.

有三个受支持的用户接口:·向ARU或VRU的DTMF接入;·向WWW站点的WWW浏览器接入;·向消息传递服务器的PC客户机接入。 There are three supported user interface: · DTMF access to the ARU or VRU; • access to the WWW browser WWW site; · PC Client Access server to deliver the message.

用户能从ARU更新他们的轮廓(仅是直达线MCI)、检索话音邮件消息和寻呼机再呼叫消息、检索传真邮件和电子邮件的消息标题(发送者、主体、日期/时间)信息。 ARU from users update their profile (only direct line MCI), retrieve voice mail messages and then call the pager messages, fax messages and retrieve e-mail message headers (the sender, subject, date / time) information. 通过PC客户机,用户限于能进行消息检索和消息处理。 By the client PC, the user could be limited to message retrieval and message processing. WWW浏览器提供用户一个用于轮廓管理和消息检索的综合接口。 WWW browser provides the user interface to outline a comprehensive management and information retrieval for. 通过WWW浏览器,用户能够更新他们的轮廓(直达线MCI、信息服务、列表管理、全局消息处理和个人主页面)和检索所有的消息类型。 By WWW browser, users can update their profile (Direct Line MCI, information services, list management, global messaging and personal home page) and retrieve all message types.

1. 1. 用户帐户轮廓用户能够通过应用轮廓来访问帐户信息。 User Account profile users to access account information through the application profile. 应用轮廓提供一个在用户与其存驻在用户帐户目录中的帐户信息之间的智能接口。 Application profiles provide an intelligent interface between users and their accounts exist in the user account directory information. 用户帐户目录访问用户的个别帐户信息。 Directory user account to access the user's individual account information. 用户能读写目录,对他们的帐户作更新。 Users can read and write directory on their account updated. 目录提供检索能力,使用户业务代表在帮助用户时能检索特定的帐户。 Directory provides search capabilities, allowing users to business representatives in helping users to retrieve specific account.

当用户得到一个电话号码时,用户帐户目录要反映这个电话注册,用户就能通过其用户帐户轮廓来访问和更新功能部件。 When you get a phone number, user account to reflect this telephone directory registration, users will be able to access and update features through their user account profile. 如果用户取消,用户目录就要反映这种撤销,业务将被从用户的应用轮廓中去除。 If the user cancels, the user directory will reflect this withdrawal, the business will be removed from the application's user profile.

总之,用户帐户目录提供每一项用户服务的帐户信息。 In short, the user account directory provides information about each user account services. 然而,用户帐户目录局限于:直达线MCI轮廓、信息业务轮廓、全局消息处理、列表管理和个人主页轮廓。 However, the user account directory limited to: Direct Line MCI outline, outline information services, global messaging, list management and profile contours. 这个信息确定了用户应用的特征/功能并为用户提供了定制其应用所需的灵活性,使MCI能满足用户不断变化的通信需要。 This information determines the characteristics of user applications / features and provides users with the flexibility needed to customize their application, so that MCI can meet the communication needs of users constantly changing.

2. 2. 消息的数据库所提供的一个重要特征是消息的集成。 An important feature of the message database is provided an integrated message. 类似的和不类似的消息被合并在一个虚拟位置。 Similar and dissimilar messages are combined in a virtual location. 通过一个呼叫,消息中心就向用户提供其所有消息一览,无论消息的内容或存取方式如何。 By a call, the message center provides the user a list of all messages, regardless of content or access the message. 通过接口消息传递能力,用户也能够保持一个地址簿和分配列表。 Message transfer capability via the interface, the user can maintain an address book and distribution lists.

这个消息数据库是一个中央信息仓库,为用户储备着消息。 This message database is a central repository of information for users stocked with information. 消息数据库提供公用对象存储能力,将数据文件作为对象来存储。 Message database provides a common object storage capabilities to store data files as objects. 通过访问消息数据库,用户从一个单一虚拟位置检索话音邮件、传真邮件、电子邮件和寻呼机再呼叫消息。 By accessing the message database, virtual users from a single location to retrieve voice mail, fax mail, email and pager then call message. 此外,通过使用公用对象存储能力,消息分配极其有效率。 Further, by using common object storage capabilities, message distribution is extremely efficient.

K. K. 自动应答设备(ARU)功能1. Automatic answering device (ARU) function 1. 用户接口ARU界面能够执行直达线MCI轮廓管理、信息业务轮廓管理、消息检索和消息分配。 The user interface can be executed directly ARU interface MCI contour line management, information service profile management, message retrieval and message distribution. 通过ARU提供的DTMF访问能在系统内不同部件上一致性地适用。 DTMF access provided through the ARU can be consistently applied in the various components within the system. 例如,通过DTMF键盘来输入字母符号,不管用户是在访问股票指数信息还是在向分配列表广播一个传真消息,都是以相同方式输入的。 For example, to enter the character through DTMF keypad, whether the user is accessing information or stock index at a broadcast fax message to a distribution list are entered in the same way.

话音邮件回叫自动重拨号(Voicmail callback Auto Redial)提供提醒和收集留下话音邮件的客人的回叫号码,并在检索消息时自动向该客人回叫号码发起一个返回呼叫的能力。 Guests voicemail Callback Automatic redial (Voicmail callback Auto Redial) providing reminders and collection to leave a voice mail callback number, called number and automatically to the guests the ability to initiate a return call back when retrieving messages. 一旦完成回叫,用户将能够返回到邮箱中他们原来离开的相同位置。 Once the callback, the user will be able to return to the same position they had to leave the mailbox.

音乐等待(Music On-Hold)在客人等待期间提供音乐。 Music on hold (Music On-Hold) to provide music during the waiting guests.

停留并寻呼(Park and Page)提供客人选择通过直达线MCI网关来寻呼直达线MCI用户,然后在用户被寻呼期间保持等待。 Stay and paging (Park and Page) provide guests choose to paging through Direct Line Direct Line MCI MCI gateway user, then the user is kept waiting during paging. 用户接收该寻呼,并呼叫他们的直达线MCI号码,在此他们能选择被与等待的客人连接。 The user receives the page and calls their MCI direct line number, here they are connected to the guest can choose to wait. 要是用户未能将呼叫与客人连接,客人将接收一个要被转发到话音邮件的选择。 If the user fails to connect a call with the guest, the guest receives a selection to be forwarded to voice mail. 如果用户没有话音邮件作为定义的选项,则将为客人播放客人的终结消息。 If the user does not have voice mail as an option defined, the end of the message will be played for the guests of the guests.

注:客人在等待时,任何时候都能按下一个要被转发到话音邮件的选项。 Note: While waiting for the guests, press any time to be forwarded to a voice mail option.

具有停留并寻呼的呼叫屏蔽(call screening),实施例向用户提供对停留并寻呼、呼叫方(即客人)的身份应答的功能。 And having a residence paging call screening (call screening), Example stay and provide paging function, the calling party (i.e., guest) in response to the identity of the user. 这在连接呼叫之前向用户提供了对是希望与客人说话还是将客人转送到话音邮件进行选择的能力。 This provides the ability to hope to speak with the guests or guests will be forwarded to a voice mail to the user selected before connecting the call. 具体来说,客人在选择停留并寻呼选项时就被ARU提示记录他们的名字。 Specifically, the guests when choosing to stay and paging option was ARU prompted to record their name. 当用户对停留并寻呼应答时,他们将听到ARU提示的“您有来自被记录名字的呼叫”,然后被提供以与呼叫方连接还是将呼叫方转送到话音邮件的选择。 When the user of the residence and page response, they will hear ARU prompts "You have a call from the recorded name", and then provided to connect the caller or the caller forwarded to the voice mail option. 如果用户没有话音邮件作为定义的选项,则客人将被存放到一个终结消息。 If the user does not have voice mail as an option defined, the guests will be stored in a final message. 客人在等待时,任何时候也都能按下一个要被转发到声音邮件的选项。 Guests while waiting at any time by pressing a can also be forwarded to the voice mail option.

二路寻呼机配置控制和对停留并且寻呼的应答系统也能使用户通过由二路寻呼机提交的命令,指令ARU将呼叫路由选择到话音邮件或终结消息或者继续等待,响应停留并且寻呼通知。 Two-way pagers and configuration control of the travel system and the paging response also enables the user to command submitted by the two-way pager, the ARU instruction to route calls to voicemail or final message or continue to wait, and in response to the paging notification residence.

文本寻呼机支持系统允许用户通过直达线MCI网关来寻呼直达线MCI用户并留下待由文本寻呼机检索的消息。 Text Pager Support The system allows the user to page through the user Direct Line Direct Line MCI MCI gateway and left to be retrieved by a text pager message. 具体来说,在选择适当的选项后,客人将被传送到网络MCI(networkMCI)寻呼或者Sky Tel消息中心,操作员在这里将接收并提交一个基于文本的消息,待由用户的文本寻呼机检索。 More specifically, after selecting the appropriate option, the guest network is transmitted to MCI (networkMCI) or Sky Tel paging message center where an operator will receive and submit a text-based message to be retrieved by a text pager user .

转发到下一个终端号(termination number)系统为直达线MCI呼叫被路由选择到的、回答电话的一方提供选择让该呼叫被路由选择到直达线MCI路由选择序列中下一个终端号的能力。 Forwarded to the next terminal number (termination number) tie-line system call is routed to MCI's, telephone answering party choose to provide the ability to call is routed to MCI direct line routing sequence number of the next terminal. 具体来说,被呼叫方将收到来自直达线MCI ARU网关的一个提示,该提示指出,呼叫已经被直达线MCI路由选择到这个号码,被呼叫方可以选择接收该输入呼叫,或者让该呼叫被路由选择到路由选择序列中下一个终端号或目的地。 Specifically, the caller will receive a prompt from the direct line of MCI ARU gateway, which prompted pointed out that the call has been selected Direct Line MCI routed to this number, the called party may choose to receive the incoming call, or let the call routing is routed to the next sequence number or the destination terminal. 向被呼叫方提供的选项包括:·按一个选项来接受呼叫 Options are provided to the caller, including: • Press an option to accept the call

·按一个选项来将呼叫发送到下一个终端·让呼叫超时(即不采取行动)然后继续到下一个终端。 • Press an option to send the call to the next terminal Jean call timeout (ie no action) and then proceed to the next terminal.

小于2秒的#键再生(reorigination)实施例也提供这样的能力,即通过按下#键不到2秒钟,从直达线MCI网关再生一个外向呼叫。 # Key reproduction less than 2 seconds (reorigination) embodiment also provides the capability, i.e., by pressing the # key less than 2 seconds, regenerated from a direct line MCI gateway outgoing calls. 当前的直达线MCI要求用户将#键按下2秒或更长时间后才能再生一个呼叫。 Direct current user requires line MCI # key is pressed for 2 seconds or more after a call to regeneration.

L. L. 消息管理1. Message Management 1. 多个媒体消息通知用户能接收关于当前许多媒体上的消息-包括话音邮件、传真邮件、电子邮件、寻呼-的报表。 More media messages to inform users to receive messages about the current lot of media - including voice mail, fax mail, email, paging - reports. 具体来说,用户将听到ARU脚本陈述的例如“您有3个新的话音邮件消息,2个新的传真邮件消息,10个新的电子邮件消息。”2. Specifically, the user will hear ARU script statements such as "You have three new voice mail message, two new fax mail message, 10 new e-mail messages." 2. 多个媒体消息处置用户能访问通用收件箱来执行基本的消息处置,处置通过直达线MCI网关接收的多个媒体(话音邮件、传真邮件、电子邮件、寻呼)形式的消息。 A plurality of media access message handling users universal inbox to perform basic message handling, disposal of the plurality of received media gateway via a direct line MCI (voice mail, fax mail, email, paging) message form. 用户能检索话音邮件消息和寻呼机消息,检索传真邮件和电子邮件消息的消息标题(优先级、发送者、日期/时间、大小)。 Users can retrieve voice mail messages and pager messages, fax messages and e-mail messages to retrieve the message header (priority, sender, date / time, size). 此外,用户还能存储、转发或删除从ARU界面察看到的消息。 In addition, users can store, forward or delete from the ARU interface to view the messages. 转发特征限于以话音邮件或传真邮件的形式来分配消息。 Forward feature is limited to the form of voice mail or fax message to message distribution. 只有话音邮件消息能以话音邮件转发。 Only the voice mail message can be forwarded to voice mail. 电子邮件传真邮件和寻呼机消息能以传真邮件转发,然而可能需要将电子邮件和寻呼机消息转换到G3格式。 E-mail fax mail and pager messages can be forwarded to a fax message, however, you may need to convert e-mail and pager messages to G3 format. 在以传真邮件转换消息时,用户能将消息发送到分配列表和传真广播列表。 When the message is converted to facsimile message, the user sends the fax to the distribution list and the list can broadcast message.

3. 3. 文本到语音系统将以电子邮件、传真邮件或寻呼机消息的形式接收的文本消息转换为能通过直达线MCI网关回放的音频。 In the form of text message text to speech system will e-mail, fax mail, pager message received through a direct line into audio playback MCI gateway. 这种文本-语音转换能力起初将限于消息标题(优先级、发送者、主题、日期/时间、大小)信息。 This text - Speech conversion capability will initially be limited to the message header (priority, sender, subject, date / time, size) information.

用户被提供选项来选择他们是否愿意先听消息标题,然后再选择他们想要播放哪个完整消息。 The user is provided the option to choose whether they are willing to listen to the message header, and then choose whether they want to play the complete message. 唯一不支持对完整消息进行文本-语音转换的能力的消息类型将是传真邮件消息。 The only does not support the complete message text - message type speech conversion capabilities will be fax mail message. 只能播放传真邮件标题。 Fax message can only be played title. 传真邮件标题信息包括发送者的ANI、传真邮件的接收日期/时间以及传真邮件的大小。 ANI fax message header information including the sender, fax messages received date / time and the size of the fax message.

4. 4. 电子邮件转发到传真机用户能将通过直达线MCI ARU网关检索或察看的电子邮件转发到用户定义的终端号。 Email forwarded to a fax machine user can be forwarded to the user terminal number defined by retrieving e-mail or direct viewing line MCI ARU gateway. 具体来说,用户能通过直达线MCI ARU察看电子邮件消息。 Specifically, the user can direct line MCI ARU view e-mail messages. 察看消息之后,用户从各标准提示中接收一个提示,该提示询问他是想把该电子邮件消息转发到特定终端号,还是选择输入一个临时号码。 After viewing the message, the user receives a prompt from each standard prompt, which is trying to prompt him to ask the e-mail message to a particular terminal number, or choose to enter a temporary number. 在选择这个选项并指出终端号后,电子邮件消息就被转换到G3格式并传送到该指定终端号。 After selecting this option and indicate terminal number, e-mail message is converted to G3 format and sent to the designated terminal number. 支持电子邮件的二进制文件附件。 Email support binary file attachments. 如果附件不能被投递到该终端传真机,就必须向接收者提供一个表示未能转换二进制附件的文本消息。 If the attachment can not be delivered to the terminal fax machine, you must provide the recipient with a text message to indicate failed to convert a binary attachment. 电子邮件向传真机的转发不会导致消息从“通用收件箱”中的删除。 E-mail forwarded to a fax machine does not result in the message is deleted from the "universal inbox" in.

5. 5. 收到信息的寻呼机通知用户能通过消息媒体按用户定义的时间间隔接收寻呼机一个通知,指出当前在用户的“通用收件箱”中存驻的消息的数目。 Pager notification information received by the user a user-defined message media pager receives a notification time interval, indicates the number of current messages stored in the user's "universal inbox" on. 具体来说,用户将能够通过直达线MCI ARU建立一个接收寻呼机消息的通知计划,该消息指示在用户的“通用收件箱”中存驻的话音邮件、传真邮件电子邮件和寻呼机消息的数目。 Specifically, users will be able to establish a direct line through MCI ARU plans to notify a pager message is received, the message indicates that a voice mail in the user's "universal inbox" in existence in the number of fax messages and e-mail pager messages.

6. 6. 话音邮件的投递确认系统向用户提供在用户启动的声音邮件未成功地投递到终端方时接收一个确认话音邮件消息的能力。 The voice mail system to provide delivery confirmation when a user receives a voice mail initiated not successfully delivered to the terminal side a voice mail message to confirm the ability of the user.

7. 7. 消息优先化系统向客人提供赋予消息正常或紧急的优先权的能力。 Message prioritization system provides the ability to confer normal or urgent priority message to the guests. 当用户收到关于消息的说明时,优先情况将被指示,所有紧急消息都将被索引在正常消息之前。 When a user receives instructions on message priority cases will be instructed, all emergency messages will be indexed before normal messages. 这个要求仅适用于话音邮件,不适用于传真邮件。 This requirement only applies to voice mail, does not apply to fax messages. 这将要求“通用收件箱”要表示出直达线MCI话音邮件的适当的消息优先权。 This will require "universal inbox" is shown to be an appropriate message priority Direct Line MCI voice mail.

M. M. 信息业务通过ARU界面,用户将能从可通过WWW浏览器界面配置的信息服务中接收内容。 Information services through the ARU interface, users will be from the service configuration information through the WWW browser interface to receive content. 信息内容将以入站业务和外出业务来提供。 Information content will be inbound and outbound business to business offer. 将通过WWW浏览器(即轮廓管理)定义的信息内容定义为入站信息内容并将限于:·股票指数和金融消息·标题新闻用户也能通过ARU界面访问额外的信息内容,然而这种信息是不能通过WWW浏览器(即轮廓管理)配置的。 Through WWW browser (ie, profile management) information content Definitions for inbound information content and limited to: · · stock index and financial news headlines users can ARU interface to access extra content, but this information is It can not be configured WWW browser (ie, profile management). 这种额外信息内容将被称作外出信息内容并将包括:·股票指数和金融消息;·标题新闻;·天气;·体育新闻和比分;·肥皂剧最新消息;·天宫图(Horoscopes);·抽奖结果;·娱乐新闻;·旅行者帮助。 This additional content will be referred to the outgoing message content and include: stock index and financial news; · Headline News; · weather; · sports news and scores; · soap opera updates; · horoscope (Horoscopes); · Draw results; · entertainment news; · help travelers.

下面定义入站信息内容的可配置参数。 The following define the inbound information content configurable parameters. 外出信息内容的检索将由通过DTMF键盘输入字母字符来支持。 Retrieving outgoing message content will be supported by DTMF keypad to enter alphabetic characters. 字母字符的输入必须与通过DTMF为列表管理输入字母字符的方式相一致。 Enter alphabetic characters must list management to enter alphabetic characters manner consistent with via DTMF is.

旅行者帮助的访问将是与其它外出信息业务捆绑一起的,这样,用户要做的只是拨打一个800/8XX号码。 Help travelers visit will be bundled together with other information to go out of business, so that users have to do is dial a 800 / 8XX numbers. 根据所选择的信息内容,800/8XX电话可能伸展到不同的终端。 The information of the selected content, 800 / 8XX telephone may extend to different terminals.

N. N. 消息存储要求消息存储要求与下面定义的消息存储要求一致。 Message storage requirements consistent with the message storage requirements defined below with the message storage requirements.

O. O. 轮廓管理直达线MCI轮廓管理用户也能察看、更新和调用他们的直达线MCI帐户轮廓。 Direct Line MCI profile management profile management users can view, update, and call their direct line MCI account profile. 通过ARU界面的directMCI轮廓管理管理能力是与通过WWW浏览器提供的表示一致的,并支持下列要求:·创建新的直达线MCI轮廓并向该轮廓赋名;·调用直达线MCI轮廓;·声音注解直达线MCI轮廓名;·更新现存的直达线MCI轮廓;·支持基于规则的创建和更新直达线MCI轮廓的逻辑(例如,如果只选择一个呼叫路由选择选项如话音邮件,则将调用最优路由选择到话音邮件;在一个参数中的更新必须波及所有受影响的参数如寻呼通知); By directMCI management profile management capabilities ARU interface is consistent with the representation provided by the WWW browser, and supports the following requirements: • Create a new direct line to the contour outline MCI Fu name; · calls Direct Line MCI profile; · Sound Notes direct line MCI profile name; · update the existing MCI direct line profile; support for creation and update rules-based MCI direct line contour logic (for example, if you select only one call routing options such as voice mail, call will be best routed to voice mail; update in a parameter must affect all the affected parameters such as the paging notification);

·选通直达线MCI号;·选通和定义取代路由选择号;·选通和定义跟随我(FollowMe)路由选择。 · Direct Line MCI gate number; · gating and replace defined routing number; · the definition of strobe and follow me (FollowMe) routing.

·选通和定义最后路由选择(以前称为备用路由选择)至:-话音邮件和寻呼机;-只有话音邮件;-只有寻呼机。 · Strobe and define final routing (formerly called alternate routing) to: - voice mail and pagers; - only voice mail; - only pager.

-最终消息;·如果有两个或更多的呼叫路由选择选项(跟随我FollowMe)、话音邮件、传真邮件或寻呼机)选通,则调用菜单路由选择;·定义传真邮件投递的缺省号;·为话音邮件激活寻呼通知;·为传真邮件激活寻呼通知;·提供客人为紧急投递分类话音邮件的选择;·为下列定义呼叫屏蔽参数:-名称和ANI;-仅ANI;-仅名称。 - final message; If there are two or more call routing options (follow me FollowMe), voice mail, fax mail, or pager) gating, the call routing menu; Define default fax number of mail delivery; · activated as voice mail paging notification; • to activate the fax message paging notification; · provide guests choose to classify the emergency delivery of voice messages; · call Screening is defined as the following parameters: - name and ANI; - only ANI; - name only .

·选通或关闭停留并且寻呼。 · Strobe or stay close and paging.

P. P. 呼叫路由选择菜单改变选通也为用户提供修改他们的呼叫路由选择终端号、同时不必重新输入他们不希望改变的终端号的能力。 Call routing menu to change the strobe also provides users modify their call routing terminal number, without having to re-enter the number of terminal capabilities they do not want to change. 具体来说,直达线MCI路由选择修改功能要求,如果用户希望改变任何路由选择号,则用户就要重新输入路由选择序列中的所有终端号。 In particular, MCI direct routing line editing requirements, if the user wishes to change any of the routing number, the user must re-enter all terminals in the routing number in the sequence. 这个能力允许用户只改变他们希望改变的终端号,当他们不希望改变路由选择序列中的某个号时,通过按下“#”键就能表明。 This capability allows the user to change the terminal number they want to change only when they do not want to change the routing sequence number in a certain time, by pressing the "#" key to be able to show.

Q. Q. 二路寻呼机配置控制和对停留并且寻呼的应答系统也能通过由二路寻呼机提交的命令,选通或关闭预先定义的直达线MCI轮廓。 Two-way pagers and configuration control of the travel system and the paging response but also through a command submitted by a two-way pager, a gate line or off direct MCI predefined profile.

R. R. 个性化的问候系统向用户提供察看和更新将从ARU播放或从他们的个人主页显示的个性化问候的能力。 Personalized greeting system provides users with the ability to view and update the display of personalized greeting from their personal homepage or play from the ARU. 每个问候都是单独保存的并且是按可通过各界面(ARU或个人主页)得到的特征定制的。 Each greeting is stored separately and is based on the features available through the interface (ARU or personal home page) customizable.

S. S. 列表管理系统也向用户提供创建和更新列表、为列表创建声音注解名的能力。 List management system is also provided to create and update a list of users, the ability to create voice annotations name for the list. 传真广播列表管理能力与直达线MCI列表管理能力的集成提供了一个单一的列表数据库。 Fax broadcast list management and list management capabilities MCI direct line of integration provides a single list of databases. 用户能从ARU界面察看、更新、增加和删除列表上的成员。 ARU from the user interface to view, update, add and delete members on the list. 此外,用户还能删除或创建列表。 In addition, users can create or delete the list. ARU界面能用列表来分配话音邮件和传真邮件消息。 ARU interface can be used to assign a list of voice mail and fax mail messages.

分配列表的使用,支持了字母列表名称,使得列表不是局限于列表代码名称。 Distribution and use of the list, a list of names to support the letter that list is not limited to a list of code names. 通过DTMF向ARU输入用于列表名称的字母字符,方式与通过DTMF输入用于信息业务的字母字符是一致的。 Alphabetic characters for a list of names by the ARU DTMF input mode and alphabetic characters for information services via DTMF input is the same. 下文将更详细地讨论列表管理的要求。 List management requirements discussed in more detail below.

除了提供消息处置能力之外,PC客户机也提供一个地址簿和对列表的利用。 In addition to providing message handling capability beyond, PC client also offers an address book and use of the list. 用户能修改地址簿,管理话音、传真、电子邮件和寻呼消息的分配列表。 Users can modify the distribution list address book, manage voice, fax, e-mail and paging messages. 在一个实施例中,通过PC客户机接口创建或保持的列表不与通过WWW浏览器或ARU界面创建或保持的列表集成,而在另一个实施例中则能实施这种集成。 In one embodiment, created or maintained by the PC client interface list is not created or maintained by the WWW browser or a list ARU interface integration, and this case is able to implement integrated in another embodiment. 用户能从PC客户机向分配列表发送消息。 Users send a message to a distribution list from the PC client. 这要求在PC客户机与列表管理数据库之间有一个二路接口,PC客户机通过这个接口就能将逗号作分隔符的或DBF格式的文件输送到列表数据库。 This requires that between the PC client and list management database file has a two-way interfaces, PC client through this interface will be able to make a comma-delimited or DBF format list delivered to the database.

用户能够通过其接口PC软件来建立和修改接收者地址信息。 The user can create and modify the recipient address information through its interface PC software. 用户能够在其地址簿中记录多个类型的地址,包括10数字的ANI、话音邮箱标识符、传真邮箱标识符、寻呼号码和电子邮件地址(MCIMail或因特网)。 The user can address a plurality of types of records in their address book, including 10 digit ANI, - identifier voice mailbox, fax mailbox identifier, paging numbers and email addresses (MCIMail or the Internet). 这种信息应当在PC上保存。 This information should be stored on the PC. 在PC客户机上保留的地址信息是按接收者名字来分类和排序的。 Address information is retained on a PC client is classified by recipient name and sorting.

T. T. 全局消息处理用户能从ARU界面来定义能从“通用收件箱”得到哪些消息。 ARU global message from the user interface process is defined from the "universal inbox" which messages obtained. 全局消息处理的要求与下面要定义的要求一致。 The global message handling requirements consistent with the requirements to be defined below.

X. X. 因特网电话技术和相关服务本文的讨论至此介绍了因特网因而也介绍了因特网电话技术,但是因特网电话技术包含相当一些发展领域。 Discussion of Internet telephony and related services to this article introduces the Internet and thus introduced Internet phone technology, but Internet telephony technology includes quite a few areas of development. 下面分六个主要领域对因特网电话技术作个总结。 The following six main areas points to Internet telephony as a summary. 第一个领域由因特网电话服务的接入组成。 The first area of ​​access to the Internet phone service components. 该领域涉及采用诸如卫星、拨号服务、T1、T3、DS3、OC3和OC12专用线路、SMDS网络、ISDN B信道、ISDN D信道、多速率ISDN、多个B信道捆绑的ISDN系统、以太网、令牌环、FDDI GSM、LMDS、PCS、蜂窝网络、帧中继和X.25的机制来访问和使用因特网。 The fields of use such as a satellite, dial-up service, T1, T3, DS3, OC3, and OC12 private line, the SMDS networks, ISDN B channels, ISDN D channel, multirate ISDN, multiple B channels bundled ISDN systems, Ethernet, so Token ring, FDDI GSM, LMDS, PCS, cellular networks, frame relay and X.25 mechanism to access and use the Internet.

第二个领域涉及共享因特网电话技术。 The second area relates to the sharing of Internet telephony. 多媒体数据能相当容易地采用线路交换网络,因为后者可靠性高、吞吐量潜力大。 Multimedia data can be relatively easily using circuit switched network, the latter because of the high reliability, high throughput potential. 问题包括共享数据、各方之间的URL数据推进、数据会议、共享的白板技术(whiteboarding)、资源合作和ISDN用户-用户信令。 Issues include sharing data, URL data between the parties forward, data conferencing, shared whiteboard technology (whiteboarding), resources cooperation and ISDN user - user signaling.

第三个领域涉及路由选择因特网电话技术。 The third area involves routing Internet phone technology. 问题包括时刻、星期、月内日期、年内日期,此外还有起源地理点、起源网络点和起源时区。 Problems include time, day of week, day of month, date, year, in addition to the geographical origin point, the origin point and network time zone origin. 路由选择的分析也包括用户数据、接收方、电话号码、起源线路、承载业务的类型、预约的特征的路由选择、ANI和IP地址。 Analysis of routing also includes user data, the recipient, the telephone number, the origin of the line, the type of bearer service, reservation routing features, the ANI, and IP addresses. VNET计划、范围特权、目录服务以及业务控制点(SCP)也属于路由选择因特网电话技术。 VNET plan, the scope of the privilege, directory services and a service control point (SCP) also belong to the routing Internet phone technology.

第四个领域涉及业务质量。 The fourth area relates to quality of service. 分析必须包括交换网络、ISDN、动态修改、因特网电话技术、RSVP和冗余的网络业务。 The analysis must include a switched network, ISDN, dynamic modification, Internet telephony, RSVP and redundant network traffic. 此外,该领域还包括混合因特网/电话交换、以太网功能部件、ISDN功能部件、模拟本地回路和公共电话、以及保留和/或使用的业务的记帐。 In addition, the art also includes a hybrid Internet / telephony switching, Ethernet features, ISDN features, analog local loops and public phones, and the retention and / or billing services.

第五个领域由目录服务、轮廓和通知组成。 The fifth area by the directory service, profile and notification components. 例子有分布式目录、寻我和随我服务、电话的目录管理和用户接口。 Examples are distributed directory, and find me follow me services, telephone directory management and user interfaces. 也包括呼叫方验证安全措施。 Also includes the calling party authentication security. 与目录服务器用户轮廓、网络轮廓数据结构、服务轮廓和订单输入轮廓并存的还有分层的和面向对象的轮廓。 With the directory server user profile, network profile data structures, service contour and contour order entry as well as the coexistence of hierarchical and object-oriented profile.

第六个领域由混合因特网电话技术业务组成。 The sixth field of hybrid Internet telephony technology business components. 范围包括以对象为目标的消息传递、因特网电话消息传递、因特网会议、因特网传真、信息路由选择(IMMR)、话音通讯和(诸如在公司内部存在的)内部网。 Range including the target object messaging, Internet telephony messaging, Internet conferencing, Internet faxing, information routing (IMMR), voice communications, and intranets (such as the presence within the company). 其它业务包括操作员业务、管理业务、寻呼业务、记帐业务、无线集成、消息广播、监控与报告服务、卡服务、视频邮件服务、压缩、授权、验证、加密、电话应用编码器、记帐和数据收集业务。 Other services include operator services, management services, paging services, accounting services, wireless integration, message broadcasting, monitoring and reporting services, card services, video mail service, compression, authorization, authentication, encryption, telephony applications encoders, remember business accounts and data collection.

第七个领域由混合因特网媒体服务组成,范围包括涉及多个用户的合作工作。 The seventh field of mixed media Internet service composition, scope of work includes collaboration involving multiple users. 用户能在音频、数据和视频上合作。 Users can collaborate on audio, data and video. 该领域包括混合网络内部的媒体会议。 The areas include online media mix of internal meetings. 还有一个涉及面宽的领域是预约机制、操作员辅助会议和向会议的内容介绍。 There is a wide field involving appointment mechanism, operator assisted conference and briefed content of the meeting. 这些会议的虚拟位置将来很重要。 Virtual location of these meetings is very important in the future. 下一代的交谈室的特征是具有模拟办公室环境的虚拟会议空间。 Features of the next generation of chat rooms is a simulated office environment of the virtual meeting space.

A. A. 因特网媒体的系统环境1. Internet media system environment 1. 硬件根据本发明的系统的较佳实施例的实施环境最好是一台诸如IBMPS/2、Apple Macintosh计算机或基于工作站的UNIX的个人计算机。 Environmental embodiment according to the preferred hardware embodiment of the system of the present invention is preferably such a IBMPS / 2, Apple Macintosh computer or UNIX based personal computer workstation. 图1A表示一个代表性的硬件环境,该图表示的典型硬件配置有按照较佳实施例具有诸如微处理机中央处理单元10的工作站99以及许多其它通过系统总线12互连的单元。 1A shows a representative hardware environment, which shows a typical hardware configuration according to the preferred embodiment has a microprocessor unit, such as a central processing unit 99, and many other workstation via a system bus 12 interconnects 10. 图1A所示的工作站包括随机存取存储器(RAM)14,只读存储器(ROM)16,用于将诸如通信网络(例如数据处理网络)81、打印机30、磁盘存储器20的外围设备连接到总线12的I/O适配器18,用于将键盘24、鼠标26、音箱28、话筒32和/或诸如触摸屏(未予示出)的其它用户接口连接到总线12的用户接口适配器22,以及将总线12与显示器38连接的显示适配器36。 Workstation shown in Figure 1A includes a Random Access Memory (RAM) 14, a read only memory (ROM) 16, for 81, printer 30, disk storage 20 is connected to a peripheral device such as a communication network (e.g., a data processing network) to the bus I / O adapter 18 for connecting a keyboard 12, interface 24, mouse 26, speaker 28, microphone 32, and / or such as a touch screen (not shown) to the bus 12 to other users of the user interface adapter 22, and the bus 12 and the display adapter 36 connected to display 38. 工作站上一般驻留一个操作系统,诸如微软视窗NT或视窗95操作系统(OS)、IBM OS/2操作系统、MAC System/7 OS或UNIX操作系统。 Typically resides on a workstation operating system such as Microsoft Windows NT or Windows 95 operating system (OS), IBM OS / 2 operating systems, MAC System / 7 OS, or UNIX operating system. 本领域的熟练人员知道本发明也能在上述以外的其它平台或操作系统上实现。 Those skilled in the art that the present invention can also be other platform or operating system implementations other than the above.

2. 2. 面向对象的软件工具较佳实施例用JAVA、C和C++语言编写,采用面向对象的程序设计方法。 Object-oriented software tools written in the preferred embodiment JAVA, C, and C ++ language, object-oriented programming methods. 面向对象的程序设计(OOP)越来越多地用于开发复杂的应用程序。 Object-oriented programming (OOP) is increasingly used to develop complex applications. 随着OOP逐渐变成软件设计和开发的主流,要求各种软件解决方案都能适于利用OOP的好处。 With OOP gradually become the mainstream of software design and development, requiring a variety of suitable software solutions can take advantage of the benefits of OOP. 存在这样一个需要,即将OOP的这些原理应用到电子消息传递系统的消息传递接口,使得能向消息传递接口提供OOP类和对象的集合。 There is a need, these principles of OOP is about to be applied to an electronic messaging system message transfer interfaces, such interfaces can be transmitted to provide a set of OOP classes and objects of the message.

OOP是一个用对象来开发计算机软件的过程,包括分析问题、设计系统、构造程序诸步骤。 OOP is a computer with a software object to develop a process, including analyzing the problem, designing the system, all steps of the program configuration. 对象是一种既含有数据又含有一系列相关结构和过程的软件包。 An object is a both a data package also contains a series of related structures and processes. 由于它既含有数据又含有一系列相关结构和过程,所以可将其视为是一种不要求其它结构、过程或数据来执行特定任务的自足部件。 Because they contain both data containing a series of related structures and procedures, it can be seen as a structure does not require additional, or processes data to perform a particular task self member. 因此OOP视计算机程序为一系列有很大自治性的-称为对象的-部件,每个对象负责特定的任务。 Therefore, as the OOP computer program as a series of great autonomy - components, each object is responsible for a specific task - called objects. 这种将数据、结构和过程一起包装成一个部件或模块的概念称为封装。 Such packaging data, structures, and processes together into one component or module is called encapsulation concept.

一般来说,OOP部件是可再使用的、表现出是符合对象模型的软件模块,它们是在运行时通过部件集成体系结构被访问的。 In general, the use of OOP components are reusable, showing software modules according to the object model, which is the runtime component integration architecture is accessed through. 部件集成体系结构是一个允许不同过程空间中的软件模块互相使用彼此能力和功能的结构机制的集合。 Structural mechanism set member allows integration architecture is a different process spaces each other software modules and the ability to function. 这一般是通过假定一个在其上建立该体系结构的公用部件对象模型而实现的。 This is typically established by assuming a common component object model on the architecture and its implementation.

现在最好来区分一下对象和对象的类。 Now the best classes to distinguish between objects and objects. 一个对象是对象的类(经常就称作类)的单一实例。 An object is a single instance of the class (the class is often referred to) objects. 对象的类可看成是一个能从中形成许多对象的蓝图。 The class object can be seen as a blueprint for forming many objects from it.

OOP允许程序员创建是另一个对象的一部分的一个对象。 OOP allows the programmer to create an object that is part of another object. 例如,代表一个活塞发动机的对象被说成是与代表活塞的对象有复合关系。 For example, the object representing a piston engine is said to have a complex relationship with the object representing a piston. 实际上,活塞发动机包含活塞、阀门和许多其它部件,事实是活塞是活塞发动机的一个单元,在OOP中能用两个对象进行逻辑上和语义上的表示。 Indeed, the piston engine comprises a piston, valves and many other components, it is the fact that the piston is a piston engine unit, and for logically represents semantic two objects can be used in OOP.

OOP也允许创建从另一个对象“导出的”一个对象。 OOP also allows you to create an object from another object "exported." 如果有两个对象,一个代表活塞发动机,另一个代表其活塞是由陶瓷制成的活塞发动机,则这两个对象之间的关系就不是复合关系。 If there are two objects, representing the piston engine and the other represents a piston which is made of ceramic piston engine, the relationship between these two objects is not a composite relationship. 陶瓷活塞发动机不形成活塞发动机。 Ceramic piston engine does not form a piston engine. 它只是活塞发动机的一种,比活塞发动机多了一个限制;其活塞是陶瓷的。 It is only a piston engine, a more restricted than the piston engine; a piston which is ceramic. 在这种情况下,代表陶瓷活塞发动机的对象称为导出对象,它继承了代表活塞发动机的对象的所有特性并增加了进一步的限制或细节。 In this case, the object representing the ceramic piston engine is called export target, it inherits all the characteristics of the object representing the piston engine and adds further limitation or detail. 代表陶瓷活塞发动机的对象是从代表活塞发动机的对象“导出的”。 Object represents the ceramic piston engine is from the object that represents the piston engine "export." 这两个对象之间的关系称为继承。 The relationship between these two objects is called inheritance.

当代表陶瓷活塞发动机的对象或类继承了代表活塞发动机的对象的所有特性时,它继承的是活塞发动机类中所定义的标准活塞的热力特性。 When a representative or ceramic piston engine object class inherits all the characteristics of the object representing the piston engine, it inherits the thermal characteristics of a standard piston in the piston engine class defined. 然而,陶瓷活塞发动机对象超出了这些通常与金属活塞关联的热力特性不同的陶瓷特定的热力特性。 However, the ceramic piston engine object goes those typically associated with thermal behavior of the piston of a metal different ceramic specific thermal characteristics. 它忽略原始的功能而使用新的陶瓷活塞相关功能。 It ignores the original functions and use the new functions related to ceramic pistons. 不同种活塞发动机有不同的特性,但是有相同的与它们关联的内在功能(例如发动机内的活塞数、点火顺序、润滑、等等)。 Different kinds of piston engines have different characteristics, but have the same internal functions associated with them (e.g., number of pistons in the engine firing order, lubrication, etc.). 为了访问任何活塞发动机对象中的这些功能,程序员用相同的名称来标识相同的功能,但是每一种活塞发动机在相同的名称背后会有不同的/替代的功能实现。 To access these functions in any piston engine object, a programmer to identify the same functions with the same names, but each of piston engine may have different / alternative function behind the same name implemented. 这种将功能的不同实现隐藏在相同名称之后的能力被称为多态性(polymorphism),它极大地简化了在对象之间的通信。 This will implement the functions of the different hidden behind the same name is called polymorphism capacity (polymorphism), it greatly simplifies communication among objects.

有了复合关系、封装、继承和多态性的概念后,对象就能代表现实世界中的任何事物。 With the complex relationship between the packaging concept of inheritance, and polymorphism of the object can represent anything in the real world. 实际上,我们对现实的逻辑感知是决定能变成面向对象的软件中的对象的事物种类的唯一限制。 In fact, our logical perception of reality is to determine the kinds of things can become the only restriction of object-oriented software objects. 下面是一些典型的种类:对象能代表物理对象,诸如交通流模拟中的汽车、电路设计程序中的电子器件、经济学模型中的国家或空中交通控制系统中的飞机。 Here are some typical categories: Objects can represent physical objects, electronic devices, such as traffic flow simulation in the car, the circuit design process, the economic model of the country or air traffic control system aircraft.

对象能代表计算机用户环境的元素,诸如窗口、菜单或图形对象。 Objects can represent elements of the computer-user environment such as windows, menus or graphics objects.

对象能代表报表。 Objects can represent statements. 诸如个人文件或城市经度纬度表。 Such as personal files or city latitude and longitude table.

对象能代表用户定义的数据类型,诸如时间、角度、复数或平面上的点。 Objects can represent user-defined data types such as time, angles, or a plurality of points in a plane.

由于对象能代表任何能逻辑分割的事物的这种巨大能力,OOP允许软件开发者设计和实现一个表现现实某些方面的模型的计算机程序,无论该现实是个物理实体、过程、系统还是综合事物。 Since the object can represent such a huge capacity can be any logical division of things, OOP allows software developers to design and implement a computer program that models the performance of certain aspects of reality, whether that reality is a physical entity, process, system or integrated thing. 由于对象能代表任何事物,软件开发者就能创建一个能在将来更大的软件项目中充当一个部件的对象。 Since the object can represent anything, the software developer will be able to create a product that acts as a part of a larger software project in the future objects.

如果一个新的OOP软件的90%都是由从业已存在的可再使用对象中得来的检验过的现成部件组成的,则该新软件项目的其余10%就必须全新地编写和测试。 The remaining 10% must be new to write and test if 90% of a new OOP software is a reusable object that already exists in practitioners come Verified ready-made components, then the new software project. 由于90%已经从频繁测试过的可再使用对象中得来,可能产生错误的潜在域就是程序的10%。 Since 10% to 90% have from frequently tested reusable objects come, potential errors may occur that the program domain. 结果,OOP使得软件开发者能用其它以前建立的对象来建立对象。 Result, OOP enables software developers can use other objects previously established to create objects.

这个过程非常相似于用配件和子配件来建造复杂的机器。 This process is very similar to using parts and sub-assemblies to build complex machines. 因此,OOP技术使软件工程更像是硬件工程,因为软件是用开发者能以对象形式得到的现成部件建立的。 Therefore, OOP technology to make software engineering more like hardware engineering, because the software is readily available components that developers can use to get established as an object. 所有这些都有助于软件质量的改善和开发速度的提高。 All of which contribute to improve and speed up development of software quality.

程序设计语言开始全面支持OOP原理,诸如封装、继承、多态和复合关系。 Programming language has begun to support OOP principles, such as encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and complex relationships. 随着C++语言的出现,商业软件开发商已经采用了OOP。 With the advent of the C ++ language, commercial software vendors have adopted the OOP. C++是一种能提供快速的机器可执行码的OOP语言。 C ++ is an OOP language can provide a fast machine executable code. 此外C++既适合商业应用又适合系统程序设计项目。 Furthermore C ++ suitable for both commercial applications and for system programming project. 目前,C++似乎是许多OOP程序设计者中最受欢迎的选择,但是有其它一批OOP语言,诸如Smalltalk、普通lisp对象系统(CLOS)和Eiffel。 Currently, C ++ seems to be many OOP programmers the most popular choice, but there are a number of other OOP languages, such as Smalltalk, common lisp object system (CLOS) and Eiffel. 此外,更多诸如Pascal的传统上流行的计算机程序设计语言中也正在添加OOP能力。 In addition, more traditional, such as the popular computer programming language Pascal also OOP capabilities are being added.

对象分类的好处可总结如下:对象和它们对应的类将复杂的程序设计问题分解为许多更小、更简单的问题。 The benefits of object classification can be summarized as follows: Objects and their corresponding classes break down complex programming problems into many smaller, simpler problems.

封装通过将数据组织成小型、独立、能互相通信的对象而实施数据抽象。 By encapsulating the data organized into small, independent objects can communicate with each other embodiments and data abstraction. 封装也保护某对象中的数据不受偶然损害,但是允许其它对象通过调用该对象的成员功能和结构而与该数据交互作用。 Encapsulation also protects the data in an object from accidental damage, but allows other objects and interaction with the data structures and calling the member function of the object. 子类和继承使得通过从系统的可用标准类导出新的各种对象来扩展和修改对象成为可能。 Subclasses inherit and extend such that various objects through deriving new classes from the available standard system and modify the object becomes possible. 因此,新的能力的创建不必完全全新地开始。 Therefore, the new does not have the ability to create completely new start.

多态性和多继承,使得不同程序员将许多不同的类的特性混合、匹配以创建仍然能以可预测的方式与有关对象一起工作的专用对象成为可能。 Polymorphism and multiple inheritance, so that different programmers to mix many different characteristics of class match to create special objects still in a predictable way to work with related objects is possible.

类层次结构和包含层次结构为建立现实世界对象以及它们之间关系的模型提供了一种灵活的机制。 Class hierarchy and contains a hierarchy provides a flexible mechanism for the establishment of real-world objects and model of the relationship between them.

可再使用类的库在许多情况下都有用,但是它们也有一些局限,例如:复杂性:在复杂系统中,相关类的类层次结构会变得极端复杂,有几十甚至几百个类。 Reusable class libraries in many cases are useful, but they also have some limitations, such as: complexity: in a complex system, the class hierarchy of related classes can become extremely complex, there are dozens or even hundreds of classes.

控制流:以类库为辅助编制的程序仍然负责控制流(即它必须控制从特定库创建的所有对象之间的交互作用)。 Control flow: library to assist with the preparation of the program are still responsible for controlling the flow (ie, it must control the interactions among all the objects created from a particular library). 程序员必须决定哪些时候为那些种类的对象调用哪些功能。 The programmer must decide which features what is called when those kind of object.

双倍的努力:尽管类库允许程序员使用和再次使用许多小代码段,每个程序员是以不同方法合并这些代码段的。 Twice as hard: Although library allows programmers to use and the use of many small snippet again, each programmer is to merge these different methods of code segments. 两个不同程序员可能会用相同的类库集来编写两个功能完全相同、但内部结构(即设计)相当不同的程序,内部结构取决于各程序员在程序流程中作出的数以百计的小决定。 Two different programmers can use the same set of class libraries to write two functions are identical, but the internal structure (i.e., design) program quite different, depending on hundreds of internal structure of each programmer made in program flow small decision. 不可避免地,类似的代码段以稍微不同的方式完成类似的工作,但是将各代码段组合起来则不像它们应当的那样工作。 Inevitably, similar to the code segment in a slightly different way to complete similar work, but the combination of each of the code segments are not work as it should.

类库非常灵活。 Library is very flexible. 随着程序变得越来越复杂,越来越多的程序员被迫再三地为基本的问题重复设计基本的解决方案。 As the program becomes more complex, more and more programmers are forced again and again to repeat the basic question the basic design solutions. 对类库概念的相对新的扩展是有关类库的框架。 A relatively new extension of the class library concept is related to the framework class library. 这个框架更复杂,由各组重要的协作类组成,这些协作类既记录了小规模模式又记录了实现特定应用域中共同要求和设计的主要机制。 This framework is more complex and important collaboration by groups of classes, these classes collaborate both documented and recorded a small-scale model to achieve a specific application domain, common requirements and key mechanism design. 起初开发它们的目的是为了将应用程序员从琐碎功能的设计中解放出来。 Their purpose was originally developed for the application programmer freed from trivial design function. 这些琐碎功能涉及显示菜单、窗口、对话框和个人电脑的其它标准用户界面单元。 These trivial function involves other standard user interface unit displaying menus, windows, dialog boxes, and personal computers.

框架也代表程序员对它们编写的代码与他人编写的代码之间的交互作用的考虑方式的变化。 Changes in the interaction between the way of thinking of the code source framework also represents their programmers to write with other people write. 在过程化程序设计的早期,程序员调用由操作系统提供的库来执行一定的任务,但是从根本上来说,程序从头执行到尾,程序员只负责控制流。 In the early procedural programming, the programmer calls the library provided by the operating system to perform certain tasks, but fundamentally, program execution from the beginning to the end, the programmer is responsible for controlling the flow. 这对用只以一种方式执行的程序来打印工资单、计算数学报表或解决其它问题来说是合适的。 This print payroll program execution with only one way to calculate mathematical statements or other problems to solve is appropriate.

图形用户界面的开发开始将这种过程化程序设计安排彻底扭转。 Development of graphical user interface that will begin the process of programming arrangements completely reversed. 这些界面允许用户而不是程序逻辑来驱动程序并决定应当在何时执行一定的行动。 The interface allows the user to program logic instead of the driver and the decision should perform certain actions and when. 如今,大多数个人电脑是用一种事件循环来完成这个工作的。 Today, most PC is an event-loop to complete the job. 事件循环监控鼠标、键盘和其它外部事件源,根据用户执行的动作来调用程序员代码的适当部分。 Mouse event loop monitor, keyboard, and other sources of external events, the code to call the appropriate portion of the programmer according to the operation performed by the user. 程序员不再决定事件发生的顺序。 Programmer no longer determines the order of events. 相反,程序被划分成在不可预测的时间以不可预测的顺序调用的独立片断。 Instead, the program is independent fragments in order unpredictable times unpredictable call into. 通过以这种方式把控制交给用户,开发者创建了更容易使用的程序。 By this way transfers control to users, developers created the program easier to use. 不过,开发者编写的各个程序片段仍然调用由操作系统提供的库来完成一定的任务,程序员仍然必须决定在每个程序片断被事件循环调用后其内部的控制流。 However, each program segment developers to write still call libraries provided by the operating system to accomplish certain tasks, the programmer must still determine its internal control flow of the program after each piece is circulating calling the event. 应用代码仍然位于系统的顶上。 Application code in the system is still on top.

就是事件循环程序也要求程序员编写许多不需要为每个应用单独编写的代码。 Is the event loop programs also require programmers to write a lot of code does not require written separately for each application. 应用框架的概念拓宽了事件循环的概念。 The concept of the application framework broadens the concept of the event loop. 使用应用框架的程序员不必处理构建基本菜单、窗口和对话框这些组装件,然后把这些组装件组合起来工作,而是一开始就有就位的工作应用程序和基本用户界面。 The programmer does not use an application framework to build basic menu processing, windows and dialog boxes of these assemblies, then the combination of these assemblies work, but work in place outset basic user interface and applications. 随后,程序员由此通过用预想应用的特定能力来替代框架的一些类属(generic)能力而构建程序。 Subsequently, the programmer thereby replace some generic (generic) capability by frame with specific capabilities built envisioned application program.

应用框架减少了程序员必须从头开始的代码总量。 Application framework reduces the amount of code programmers need to start from scratch. 然而,由于框架实际上是一种显示窗口、支持剪贴等等的类属应用程序,程序员也能以事件循环程序所允许的更大程度地放弃控制。 However, since the frame is actually a display window, support for cut and paste, and so on generic applications, programmers can also program the event loop to a greater extent allowed to give up control. 框架代码照看几乎所有的事件处理和控制流,程序员的代码仅当在框架需要它的时候(例如为了创建和处置某数据结构时)才被调用。 Framework code look after almost all event handling and flow of control, programmer's code only if the frame when it is needed (for example, to create and dispose of certain data structures when) and are called.

编写框架程序的程序员不仅将控制交给用户(事件循环程序也是如此),而且将程序内部详细的控制流也交给框架。 Programmers write framework program will not only control to the user (event loop, too), and the internal control procedures detailed flow also to the frame. 这种方法使得能以有趣的方式创建协作的复杂系统,这不同于那些为解决类似问题而再三创建惯用代码(custom code)的孤立程序的创建方法。 This method makes it possible to create complex systems of collaboration in interesting ways, which is different from the method of creating those orphaned programs to solve similar problems repeatedly Creating Custom Code (custom code) of.

因此如上所述,框架从根本上说是一组为给定问题域构造可再用设计的类。 Thus as described above, the frame is fundamentally a set of given problem domain configuration designed reusable classes. 它通常(例如为菜单和窗口)提供定义缺省特性的对象,程序员使用它的方法是继承某些缺省特性并取代(override)其它特性,以便框架在适当时间调用应用代码。 It is usually (e.g., for menus and windows) providing a definition of a default characteristic of the object, its programmers use the default method is inherited certain characteristics and substituted (the override) other characteristics to the framework calls application code at the appropriate time.

框架与类库之间有三个主要区别:行为与协议。 There are three main differences between frameworks and class libraries: Behavior and protocol. 类库实际上是那种当需要在程序中有哪些个别行为时就调用的行为的集合。 Library is actually a collection when you need the kind of individual behavior which is called in the program of action. 而框架则不仅提供行为,还提供管理行为可以组合的方式的协议或规则集,包括关于程序员应提供什么及框架提供什么的规则。 The framework provides not only behavior, but also provides protocol or set of rules can be combined with the way management behavior, including on programmers and what framework should provide what the rules provide.

调用与取代。 Call and replace. 程序员用类库编写的代码实例化对象并调用它们的成员功能。 Programmers write code library to instantiate objects and call their member functions. 有可能以与框架同样的方式(即按类库来对待框架)实例化和调用对象,但是为了充分利用框架的可再用设计的优点,程序员通常编写取代并被框架调用的代码。 Possible to the frame in the same manner (i.e., treated by framework library) and call object instance, but to take full advantage of the advantages of reusable frame design, substituted programmers write code that is typically invoked by the frames. 框架管理其对象间的控制流。 Management framework which controls the flow between objects. 编写程序涉及的是在由框架调用的不同软件片断间划分责任而不是规定不同的片断应如何协作。 Programming deals with division of responsibilities between different pieces of software called by the framework rather than specify how the different pieces should work.

实现与设计。 Implementation and design. 采用类库程序员只再使用实现,而采用框架程序员再使用设计。 Programmers using libraries that implement only then, and programmers using the framework of re-use design. 框架体现了一族相关程序或软件片断的工作方式。 Framework embodies the way a family of related work program or piece of software. 它代表一种能为适应给定域中各种特定问题而进行改编的类属设计解决方案。 It represents a able to adapt to a variety of specific problems in a given domain to perform generic design solutions adapted. 例如,某单一框架能体现某用户界面的工作方式,尽管两个在相同框架内创建的不同用户界面可能会解决相当不同的界面问题。 For example, a single framework to reflect the work for the user interface, although created in two different user interfaces within the same framework might solve quite different interface problems.

B. B. 因特网上电话因特网上打电话已经变成一种价格不贵的爱好者团体性活动。 Internet phone Internet phone calls have become fans of the activity of one group inexpensive. 几家公司正在发展这种技术以添加与PSTN的互连。 Several companies are developing the technology to add an interconnection with the PSTN. 这对像特别是在IDDD领域的MCI和BT这样的已建立的通信公司挑出了机会和挑战。 It singled out the opportunities and challenges to the established communications companies like IDDD especially in areas such as MCI and BT. 这个讨论探讨了如何在这种发展中技术的基础上提供载体类业务。 This discussion explores how to provide carrier class services on the basis of this development in technology. 特别受关注的是允许在PSTN与因特网之间利用1+(1 plus)拨号互连的方式。 Of particular interest it is to allow the use of 1+ (1 plus) mode dial interconnection between the PSTN and the Internet.

该介绍性讨论除考虑到对PSTN到因特网语音网关的技术要求外,还考虑了支持比当前更增强的方式的PC到PC连接的技术要求。 The introductory discussion in addition to taking into account the technical requirements of the PSTN voice gateway to the Internet, but also takes into account the technical requirements to support PC to PC connection more than a way of enhancing the current. 考虑了如何能接入从PC到PSTN目的地或相反方向的呼叫。 Consider how access can call from PC to PSTN destination or in the opposite direction. 也探讨了用因特网作为长途网进行PSTN到PSTN通信的案例。 Cases were also discussed as a long-distance PSTN to PSTN network using the Internet to communicate.

讨论显示了这种服务如何提供,才能补充现有PSTN服务,对于较低的业务质量提供较低价格。 Discussion shows how this service is provided to supplement the existing PSTN services, lower quality of service provided for a lower price. 长期性的问题是稳步改善因特网技术的质量,以及这是否将最终证明能与传统语音业务竞争。 Long-term problem is the steady improvement in the quality of Internet technology, and whether it would eventually prove able to compete with traditional voice business.

1. 1. 介绍七十年代中晚期,进行了在因特网上传输话音的试验,这是当时正在进行的由美国国防高级研究项目署资助的研究计划的一部分。 Introduced in the late seventies, it was tested transmission of voice over the Internet, which is part of an ongoing research project at the time by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded. 八十年代中期,采用了基于UNIX的工作站在因特网上举行数量适度的常规音频/视频会议。 The mid-eighties, uses / video conferencing held a modest number of conventional audio on the Internet UNIX-based workstations. 这些试验性的应用在八十年代晚期用更大规模的一路语音和视频多信道传播(multicasting)而得到扩展。 These pilot applications in the late 1980s with a larger spread all the way voice and video multi-channel (multicasting) and expanded. 1995年,一家小公司VocalTec(www.vocaltec.com)介绍了一种价格不贵、能够提供在与因特网相连的多媒体PC之间的二路话音通信的软件包。 In 1995, a small company VocalTec (www.vocaltec.com) describes an inexpensive, capable of providing two-way voice communication packages between multimedia PC connected to the Internet is. 这样就诞生了新一代的因特网上的电话。 Thus was born a new generation of phones on the Internet.

最初以及紧接其后的后继软件包提供了一种爱好者工具。 Initially enthusiasts and provides a tool package successor immediately thereafter. 一种基于因特网中继谈话“室”(IRC)的会议室被用来在终端站之间为话音传输建立点对点连接。 Based on Internet Relay talk "room" (the IRC) is used to establish a conference room voice transmission point to point connection between the terminal stations. 这导致了用电子邮件或其它手段进行的如公共交谈室中常见的偶然会见或者预定会议(如果各方提前协调过的话)。 This has led to public chat rooms as carried out by e-mail or other means common in accidental meeting or a scheduled meeting (if the parties had been coordinated in advance of words).

a)如何工作有多媒体PC和因特网连接的用户通过加载一个小软件包就能增加因特网电话的能力。 a) How have the ability to work multimedia PC and Internet users will be able to increase Internet phone connection by loading a small package. 在VocalTec的案例中,软件包在修改过的交谈服务器基础上与会议室(IRC服务器)进行连接。 In the case of VocalTec's software package to connect with meeting rooms (IRC server) in the revised conversation server basis. 用户在IRC看到所有连接到IPC的其它用户的一览表。 All the user sees a list of other users connected to the IPC in the IRC.

用户通过单击名字就能呼叫另一个用户。 Users will be able to call by clicking on the name of another user. IRC的响应是发送被呼叫方的IP地址。 IRC is transmitted in response to the IP address of the caller. IP地址是在拨入时为因特网的拨入用户分配的,因此将在拨入会话期间变化。 IP address is assigned at dial-in Internet dial-in user will therefore vary during the dial-in session. 如果目的地尚未进行话音连接,其PC就会蜂鸣一个振铃信号。 If the destination has not been a voice connection, its PC beeps a ring signal. 被呼叫的用户能用鼠标点击来回答电话,然后呼叫方就开始直接向被呼叫方的IP地址发送通信。 The called user can use the mouse to click to answer the phone, the caller then began to be sent directly communicate to the IP address of the caller. PC内置或附接的多媒体麦克风和扬声器被用作话筒。 PC multimedia built-in or attached microphone and speaker are used as the microphone. 通话人的话音经数字化、压缩并进行分组,在因特网上传输,在另一端被解压并转换成声音从PC扬声器中发出。 Human voice calls via digitized, and compressed packets, transmitted over the Internet, is decompressed and converted to sound emitted from the PC speaker on the other end.

b)意义因特网电话为用户提供了一种低成本的业务,这种业务是距离和疆界不敏感的。 b) significance of Internet telephony offers users a low-cost operations, which are not sensitive to distance and borders. 就当前的因特网接入费用(小时费率低,有时付一笔费后不限使用)来说,用户能与另一个连接到因特网的PC用户进行谈话。 On the current Internet access charges (lower hourly rate, sometimes after the payment of a fee not use), a user can connect to the Internet and other PC users to talk. 被呼叫方对谈话费用的贡献是支付其因特网接入费。 The contribution of the called party to the conversation is to pay the cost of its Internet access fee. 如果一端或两端是通过专用线路连接到因特网的LAN,则该电话就免收其它费用。 If one or both ends are connected to the Internet via a dedicated line LAN, a phone free of the other charges. 所有这些都与传统长途电话-可能是国际电话-形成对照。 All of the traditional long-distance calls - International calls may be - in contrast.

c)业务质量因特网上的话音质量是好的,但没有一般长途电话的音质好。 c) voice quality on Internet service quality is good, but did not sound good general long-distance calls. 此外,通话期间的延迟很显著。 In addition, the delay during a call is significant. 在这种环境中试图中断通话者是有问题的。 In this environment, trying to interrupt the talker is problematic. 延迟和质量的差异,与其说是距离和可用容量的原因,不如说是压缩、缓存和进行分组时间的结果。 Differences in delay and quality, so much the cause of distance and available capacity, as it is compressed, and the result packet cache time.

话音传输的延迟归咎于若干因素。 Voice transmission delay attributed to several factors. 导致延迟的最重要原因之一是所使用的声卡。 One of the most important causes of the delay sound card is used. 最早的声卡是半双工的,设计用于回放录制的音频。 The first half-duplex sound card is designed to play back the recorded audio. 长的音频数据缓冲器适于保证不间断的音频回放,但却导致实时延迟。 Long audio data buffer adapted to ensure uninterrupted audio playback, but it leads to real-time latency. 随着为“扬声器电话”应用设计的全双工卡的问世,基于延迟的声卡逐渐减少了。 As for the advent of "speaker phone" full-duplex card application design based on the delay sound gradually reduced.

其它延迟是访问线路速度(对拨号因特网接入来说一般是14.4-28.8kbps)和因特网中分组转发延迟所固有的。 Other delay line access speed (for dial-up access to the Internet is typically 14.4-28.8kbps) inherent in packet transfer delay and the Internet. 用数字化编码的音频填充分组时也有固有的延迟。 Digitally encoded audio has inherent delay padding packet. 例如,为了用90ms的数字音频填充分组,应用必须等待至少90ms的时间才能接收音频进行数字化。 For example, in order to fill a packet with 90ms of digital audio, the application must wait at least 90ms in time to receive the audio to digitize. 更短的分组减少了分组填充的延迟,但由于增加了分组首部对分组有效负载的比率而增加了开销。 Shorter packets reduce packet fill delay, due to increased ratio of the packet payload packet header overhead increases. 增加的开销也提高了对该应用的带宽要求,以致采用短分组的应用可能不能在14.4kbps拨号连接上操作。 Increased overhead also increases the bandwidth requirements of the application, the application that uses short packets may not operate on 14.4kbps dial-up connection. 基于局域网的PC遭受较少的延迟,但是人人都要受到可变延迟的影响,这种可变延迟可能是令人烦恼的。 LAN-based PC suffer fewer delays, but everyone should be affected by a variable delay, such a variable delay may be annoying.

最后,音频编码解码器中也有固有的延迟。 Finally, the audio codec also has inherent delay. 编码解码器编码和解码时延迟的变化范围是5ms到30ms。 When encoding and decoding delay codecs varies in the range 5ms to 30ms. 尽管因特网电话有更长的延迟,但价格适当,这种形式的话音通信看来正在受到欢迎。 Although Internet telephony has a longer delay, but the price is appropriate, this form of voice communication appears to be welcomed.

2. 2. 作为商业服务的IP电话不管已建立的通信公司喜欢与否,IP电话技术已经到来。 As IP telephony business services regardless of the established communications companies like it or not, IP telephony technology has come. 很清楚,用因特网来提供国际话音呼叫对于传统国际直接长途电话(IDDD)收入流是个潜在威胁。 It is clear that with the Internet, to provide international voice calls to traditional international direct dial telephone (IDDD) revenue streams is a potential threat. 尽管产生可观的收入影响可能还有几年,但这是不可阻挡的,除非可能在国家疆界内根据法令来阻止。 Although generate significant revenue impact there may be a few years, but it is unstoppable, except perhaps to stop within national boundaries under the Act. 这些通信公司最好的防卫是以产业力量的方式来提供业务本身。 The communications company is the best way to defend the power industry to provide business itself. 要做到这一点,需要有改善的呼叫建立装置和到PSTN的接口。 To do this, the need for improved call setup devices and interfaces to the PSTN.

方便PC到PC的连接对于在因特网数据分组通信期间同时需要进行话音交谈的情况是有用的,各方不能访问独立的电话装置。 Facilitate PC to PC connections is useful for a case where simultaneous voice conversations require during Internet data packet communication, the parties can not access a separate telephone device. 只有一个访问电路的拨号因特网用户会发现他们自己的就身临这种处境。 Only a dial-up Internet users access circuit will find themselves on the proximity of this situation. 费用的考虑也会在促使使用PC到PC电话中起着作用。 Cost considerations will also promote the use of PC-to-PC phone plays a role. 当因特网能被用于代替长途网络来互连普通电话机时,这种技术更大规模的应用就会发生。 When the Internet can be used in place of the long-distance network to interconnect ordinary telephone, large-scale application of this technology is more occurs. 世界上连接因特网的多媒体PC的数量(约1千万)与全世界用户线路的数量(约6亿6千万)相比是极少的,这种业务正处于几家公司的计划阶段。 The number (about 10 million) and the number (about 660 million) compared to worldwide subscriber line is minimal, this business is in the planning stages of several companies connected to the Internet in the world of multimedia PC.

以下各节中我们来考察在完全的因特网电话业务中可能的各个端点组合。 The following section, we examine possible in a fully Internet telephone service endpoints in each combination. 最重要的方面涉及PSTN到因特网网关能力。 The most important aspect relates to the PSTN to Internet gateway capability. 特别值得注意的是向PSTN呼叫方提供一步拨叫到其被呼叫方的可能性。 Of particular note is to provide the possibility that the called party to step dialing to the PSTN caller. 以下讨论的一步拨叫解决方案所在的上下文是北美数字计划(North Americanumbering plan)。 Context-step dialing solutions are discussed below where the North American digital program (North Americanumbering plan). 它们实际上有4种情况:1. They actually have four cases: 1. PC到PC;2. PC-to-PC; 2. PC到PSTN;3. PC-to-PSTN; 3. PSTN到PC;4. PSTN to PC; 4. PSTN到PSTN。 PSTN to PSTN.

第一种情况是由现今的IP电话软件来解决的。 The first case is today's IP telephony software to solve. 第二、第三种情况类似但不等同,它们各自需要一个在PSTN与因特网之间的网关。 Second and third case are similar but not identical, each of which requires a gateway between the PSTN and the Internet. 最后一种情况用因特网来作为两个PSTN电话的长途网络。 The last case with the Internet as the two long-distance network PSTN calls.

a)PC到PC(1)目录服务为了方便PC到PC的因特网电话,需要一种目录服务来根据呼叫方提供的名字查找被呼叫方的IP地址。 a) PC to PC (1) directory service for the convenience of PC-to-PC Internet phone, you need a directory service to find the IP address of the called party based on the name of the caller provided. 早期的因特网电话软件用修改的因特网交谈服务器作为会议室。 The early Internet telephony software with a modified Internet chat server as a conference room. 最近,因特网电话软件正在用能唯一地标识因特网电话用户(可能是通过电子邮件地址)的目录服务来代替交谈服务器。 Recently, the Internet phone software is used to uniquely identify Internet telephone users (possibly via e-mail address) directory service instead of talking to the server. 为了接收呼叫,客户要向目录服务器登记(要付费,带循环收费的),每当要连接到因特网时或者想要对呼叫开放时,就要让目录系统知道它们的位置(IP地址)。 To receive a call, the customer would like to register a directory server (to be paid, with circulation fees), whenever you want to connect to the internet or to call when you want to open, we should let them know the system directory location (IP address). 完成自动通知的最佳途径是获得IP电话软件销售商之间关于每当启动软件时就通知目录服务(自动表示通知)的协议的一致意见。 The best way to complete the automatic notification is to obtain consensus between IP telephony software vendor agreements on whenever you start the software notifies the directory service (automatic notification indicating) a. 也希望作为一种选择,能找到一种每当IP堆栈启动时就自动调用IP电话软件的方法。 I hope, as an option, can find a way to start every time the IP stack will automatically call IP telephony software.

考虑到可扩展性,目录服务器被设想为一种分布式系统-有点像因特网域名系统。 Taking into account scalability, Directory Server was conceived as a distributed system - a bit like the Internet Domain Name System. 这并不意味着用户标识必定要用“user@foo.com”的格式。 This does not mean the user ID must use "user@foo.com" format. 理论上讲,只有被呼叫方才需要登记。 In theory, only the call just need to register. 如果呼叫方没有登记,则对呼叫的收费(若有的话)可向被呼叫方收取(受方付费电话)。 If the caller is not registered, then the call charge (if any) may be (the recipient pay phone) is charged to the called party. 另外,我们也可以坚持呼叫方也要在目录中登记,通过该机制被收取费用(这是我们希望的,因为我们按登记来收费,避免受方付费要求的那种复杂性)。 In addition, we can also insist on calling party also registered in the directory, be charged a fee by the mechanism (which is our hope that as we press registration fees to avoid the kind of complexity required by the party pays). 对呼叫建立-而不是对持续时间-收取的费用高于通常的因特网收费。 For call set-up - rather than duration - usually higher than fees charged Internet charges. 持续时间费用已经应用于拨号因特网用户,因特网使用费-拨号和专用使用二者-可能不是太远。 Duration costs have been applied to dial-up Internet users, Internet usage fee - both dial-up and dedicated use - may not be too far away.

可以要求有来自登记用户的收方付费电话来满足市场需求。 It may require user registration recipient from payphones to meet market demand. 必须设计一种标识这种向被呼叫方呼叫的方案,同时要有一种被呼叫方接受或拒绝收方付费电话的机制。 Must design a logo to this scheme called the called party, at the same time there must be an accepted or rejected debit payment mechanisms telephone caller. 目录服务将通过版本号来跟踪被呼叫软件支持这种特征的能力(或者,这是一个在IP电话软件包之间联机协商的事情)。 The directory service will be tracked by the version number of the called software capability to support this feature (or, this is what an online consultation between the IP phone software package). 如果是收方付费电话(假定呼叫方没有登记),则呼叫方可随意声称是任何人。 If the recipient is a pay phone (assuming that the caller is not registered), the caller can claim to be free to anyone. 目录服务将强制主叫者(在呼叫延续期间)采用一个临时(分配的)身份,以便让被叫方知道这是一个未经查验的主叫者。 The directory service will force the caller (during a call continuation) using a temporary (assigned) identity, in order to let the called party know that this is not a check of the caller. 由于IP地址不必是固定的,所以不能依靠它们来标识通话方。 Because IP addresses need not be fixed, it can not rely on them to identify the calling party.

(2)互操作性现今市场上几乎所有IP电话软件包都用不同的话音编码和协议来交换话音信息。 (2) Interoperability on the market today almost all IP telephony software packages to exchange voice messages with a different voice coding and protocols. 为了方便有用的连接,目录将存储正使用的因特网电话软件的类型和版本(可能还有选项)。 In order to facilitate a useful connection, the Internet telephone directory software being used to store the type and version (and possibly options). 为使其有效地工作,软件销售商将自动地向目录服务报告这个信息。 To make it work effectively, the software vendor will automatically report this information to the directory service. 在接入呼叫时将这个信息用于确定互操作性。 When this incoming call information used to determine interoperability. 如果各方不能互操作,就必须向呼叫方发送适当消息,作为一种替代方法,或者除了登记软件类型外,还可以设计一种协商协议来及时确定互操作性,但是所有软件包都要“表达”它。 If the parties can not interoperate, it must send the appropriate message to the calling party, as an alternative, or in addition to registration of software type, also possible to design a protocol to negotiate timely determine interoperability, but all packages have " The expression "it.

有这样一个问题,即IP电话编码之间转换的执行质量能否为最终用户接受。 There is such a problem that the conversion between IP phones can accept encoded execution quality for end users. 这种服务可能有个持续时间,或者有与其关联的容量费(Volume fee).还有,在筛选阶段之后,我们期望只有一些不同的方案存在。 This service may have a duration, or has a capacity fee associated with it (Volume fee). Also, after the screening phase, we expect only a few different options exist. 它们也许通过产业同意的最小公分母压缩和信令协议而具有互操作性。 Perhaps the lowest common denominator by which the industry agreed to compression and signaling protocols and interoperability. 至今为止,我们接触过的所有IP电话软件销售商都赞成允许互操作性的“世界语言”(Esperanto)。 So far, we have approached all IP telephony software vendors have agreed to allow interoperability "world language" (Esperanto). 如果这能实现,则转换业务的生命期将会短暂,可能会使它们没有经济吸引力了。 Lifetime if this can be achieved, then the conversion business will be short-lived, they may make no economic attractive.

我们能帮助主要软件销售商在将提供所需互操作性的“公用”压缩方案与信息协议上寻求共识。 We can help the major software vendors to seek consensus on interoperability will provide the necessary "public" information compression scheme and protocol. 一旦主要销售商支持这种方法,其他销售商就会仿效,这种情况已经在发生着-Intel、Microsoft、Netscape和VocalTec最近宣布它们在今后几个月内将支持H.323标准。 Once the major vendors support this approach, other vendors will follow suit, this is already happening with -Intel, Microsoft, Netscape, and VocalTec recently announced that they will support the H.323 standard in the coming months. 这能在呼叫建立时被自动检测。 This can be automatically detected at call setup. 目录服务将记录哪个软件的哪些版本能互用。 Directory service records which version of the software which can be interoperable. 为了方便这个功能,自动存在通知应当包括当前软件版本,这样,升级就能动态地在目录服务中记录,还必须定义某个方案来使登记信息能在软件包之间传递,这样,如果某用户交换软件包,她就能将登记信息转移到新的应用程序,没有理由反对用户有两个各带相同登记信息的应用程序,目录服务将知道用户正在作为自动存在通知的一部分运行的是什么,这只有在用户能同时运行一个以上的IP电话软件包时才会产生问题。 In order to facilitate this function, there is an automatic notification should include the current software version, this upgrade will be able to dynamically record in the directory service, you must also define a program to enable registration information can be passed between packages, so that if a user exchange package, she will be able to register information transferred to the new application, users have no reason to oppose the application, each with two identical registration information, the directory service will know what a user is present as part of the notification of the automatic operation, this will only cause problems when users can run more than one IP phone package simultaneously. 如果市场要求这个能力,就可将目录服务改编得能处理这个问题,这个问题也能通过在交互作用的IP电话软件包之间的协商方法的使用而得到克服。 If the market requires this capability, you can adapt the directory service must be able to deal with this problem, this problem is by using the method of negotiation between the interaction of IP telephony package be overcome.

(3)呼叫进度信令如果用户通过目录系统是可达的,但是当前正忙于话音连接,于是就将一个呼叫等待消息(连同呼叫方IP-这在PSTN呼叫等待服务中是没有的)发送到被呼叫方,并将相应的消息发回呼叫方。 (3) Call Progress Signaling If the user is reachable through the directory system, but is currently busy voice connection, so will a call waiting message (with caller IP- This is not a PSTN call waiting service) is sent to the the called party, and a corresponding message back to the caller.

如果用户通过目录系统是可达到的,但是当前不在运行其话音软件(IP地址响应,但应用程序不响应-参看下文验证这就是问题的一方),那么就将适当的消息返回给呼叫方。 If the user is achieved by a directory system, but is currently not running his voice software (IP address response, but does not respond to the application - see below verify that this problem is one), then it will return an appropriate message to the caller. (作为一种选择,可向被呼叫方发送电子邮件来提醒他有呼叫尝试。另一个选择是,让主叫方输入一个话音消息并将该“话音邮件”附加在该电子邮件上。业务也可以用信号向主叫方指示:忙,不可达,活动但不理睬呼叫等待,等等。也能向被叫方提供其它通知方法,诸如传真或寻呼。在各种情况中,通知都能包括主叫方的身份-如果已知的话)。 (As an option, it can be sent to alert the caller to mail him a call attempt. Another option is to allow the caller to enter a voice message and the "voice mail" attached to the e-mail. Business also signal may indicate to the calling party: busy, unreachable, active but ignored call waiting, etc. can also provide other notification methods to the called party, such as a fax or paging in each case, the notification can. including the identity of the caller - if known). 一旦目录系统被分布,就将有必要查询其他副本,如果根据本地信息建立起联系的话。 Once the system directory is distributed, it will be necessary to consult other copies, according to local information to establish if the link words. 这个系统提供了具有各种通知形式并能控制这些形式的参数的能力。 This system provides the ability to have various forms of notification, and can control the parameters of these forms.

(4)用户标识一个关键的问题是目录服务将如何知道被叫方不再位于她最后一次报告的地方(即已经“离开”)。 (4) user identification key question is how a directory service will know where the called party is no longer in her last report (ie already "left"). 被叫方可能以各种方式脱离网络(被叫线路落线,PC挂机,终端服务器崩溃)而不能明确向目录服务通知其状态变化。 The called party may be out in various ways network (called line drop lines, PC hook, terminal server crash) but not clearly inform its status changes to the directory service. 更糟的是,该用户可能已经离开网络,另一个具有话音应用程序的用户可能被分配以同一个IP地址。 Worse, the user might have left the network, another user with a voice application might be assigned the same IP address. (如果新的主叫方是用自动存在通知登记的用户,则没有问题;目录服务然后能检测到该相同的IP地址。在目录服务被分布的各部分之间可能会有一些定时问题)因此,对于目录服务必须有某种方案来确定用户仍然位于上一次宣布的位置。 (If the new caller is automatically registered notice the presence of the user, there is no problem; The directory service can then detect the same IP address may be some timing problems between the parts being distributed directory service) thus for a directory service must have some programs to determine whether the user is still located on the first announced locations.

对此的一种办法是实现一个与应用程序共享的,在登记时创建的秘密,每当目录系统被软件(诸如自动存在通知或呼叫初始化)接触时或者试图接触上一次已知地点的被叫方时,它能发送一个询问(像CHAP)给应用程序并查验响应。 One way this is achieved with the application a shared secret created when you registered, whenever the directory system is software (such as the presence notification or automatic call initialization) called upon contact or attempt to contact with the last known location on when the party, it can send a query (like CHAP) in response to the application and check. 这种方案不需要宣布“我已不在此处”或浪费的保持活动消息。 This program does not need to declare "I'm not here" or waste of keep-alive messages. 客户能随时拆开或关掉其IP电话应用程序而不必考虑通知目录系统。 Customers can open at any time or turned off their IP telephony applications without regard to the notification system directory. 如果多个IP电话应用都受目录服务的支持,则各IP电话应用程序可以不同方式对之解决。 If multiple IP telephony applications are supported directory services, then each IP telephony applications can be different ways of solving.

(5)其它业务加密的因特网电话通话将要求软件销售商对最小化加密建立机构数量达成共识。 (5) Other business encrypted Internet phone calls will require software vendors to establish a consensus on the number of agencies to minimize the encryption. 这对目录服务将是另一个互操作性解决功能。 This will be another directory service to resolve interoperability features. 目录服务能提供对公共钥应用的支持,并能提供由适当证书机关发布的公共密钥证书。 Directory services can provide support for public key applications, and can provide public key certificate issued by the appropriate certificate authority.

用户也能在目录服务上规定,如果她当前不是联机的,则他的PC要被呼叫(拨出)。 Users can also be specified on the directory service, if she is not currently online, the PC should be his call (outgoing). 拨出的费用可向被叫方收取,正如POTS中呼叫转发会发生的那样,拨出的呼叫详细记录(CDR)需要与IP电话系统中某实体(被叫方)的呼叫细节相关联,注意,这与PC到PSIN情况的不同之处在于不要求将IP编码的话音转换到PCM,拨出确实将在PPP上使用TCP/IP。 Allocated costs may be charged to the called party, as in POTS call forwarding that would happen, outgoing call detail records (CDR) and call detail required IP telephone system of an entity (the called party) is associated note this PSIN to the PC except that the case is not required to convert IP encoded voice to PCM, indeed allocated using TCP / IP over PPP. 如果拨出失败,则发回适应的消息。 If the dial-out fails, the message is sent back to adapt.

拨出可能是国内的或者国际的,由于费用原因,国际拨出的存在实际上是不可能的。 Set aside may be domestic or international, for cost reasons, outgoing international presence is virtually impossible. 但是也不能绝对排除这种情况,它不需要额外的功能就能执行。 But we can not absolutely rule out such a case, it does not require additional functions can be executed.

b)PC到PSTNPC到因特网网关必须支持将PCM转换到多个编码方案,以便与各种销售商提供的软件交互作用。 b) PC to the Internet to PSTNPC gateway must support the conversion to multiple PCM coding scheme to provide software vendors with a variety of interactions. 替代方法是,一旦实现时就使用公共压缩方案。 Alternative is to use a common compression scheme implemented once. 从质量的观点来说,应当尽可能地选择最好的方案。 From the quality point of view, we should choose the best solution possible. 在许多情况中,最好方案将是软件销售商的专有版本。 In many cases, the best plan would be proprietary version of the software vendors. 为了完成这种选择,电信公司将需要从选定的销售商获得技术许可。 To accomplish this selection, telcos will need to obtain permission from the selected technology vendor. 有些销售商将要做为使他们的方案能在电信公司平台上工作而需要的工作。 Some vendors will need to do to make their programs work on the platform and telecommunications companies need to work.

(1)国内PSTN目的地PC主叫者需要登记才能将呼叫接到PSTN。 (1) Domestic destinations PC PSTN callers will need to register in order to call to the PSTN. 唯一的例外情况是如果允许来自因特网的受方付费电话。 The only exception is allowed if the recipient from the Internet pay phone. 这将增加计费方面的复杂性。 This will increase the complexity of billing terms. 要呼叫PSTN目的地,PC主叫者要规定一个国内E.164地址。 To call a PSTN destination, PC caller to the provisions of a domestic E.164 address. 目录系统将该地址转换成一个基于NPA-NXX的因特网拨出单元。 The directory system converted into an Internet-based address NPA-NXX outgoing unit. 期望该拨出单元离目的地很近,因此将是一个本地呼叫。 Aside from the desired destination close unit, and therefore it will be a local call. 问题是如何处置当没有“本地”拨出单元时的情况。 The problem is how to dispose of when there is no "local" outgoing unit case. 另一个问题是如果“本地”拨出单元已满或者不可用时怎么办。 Another problem is how to do if the "local" dial-out unit is full or unavailable.

有三种可能方法。 There are three possible methods. 一种方法是,只有当本地呼叫可能时才提供拨出服务。 One method is, only when calls may only provide local dial-out service. 第二种方法是向主叫者发回一个消息,告知他必须以他的名义接入长途电话并请求同意支付由此引起的这些费用。 The second method is to send a message back to the caller, he must inform his behalf and request access to long-distance telephone agrees to pay these costs arising therefrom. 第三种方法是只管接入呼叫而不作通知。 A third method is to simply call access without notice. 这些情况的每一种都要求有方法来将拨出呼叫(PSTN CDR)的费用(通过目录服务)与呼叫起源者的帐单记录联系起来。 Each of these situations requires a method to allocate the cost of calls (PSTN CDR) records linked (via directory services) bill with the call's origin.

第三种方法将可能增加客户支持费用,引起客户不愉快。 The third method will probably increase the cost of customer support, customer caused unpleasant. 第一种方法简单,但是有限制性。 The first approach is simple but restrictive. 预计大多数用户的费用意识都很强,因此可能对方法一满意。 Estimated cost consciousness of most users are strong, it may be a satisfactory method. 方法二提供了灵活性-客户有的时候无论如何都要继续,但是增加了操作的复杂性。 Method II provides flexibility - customers sometimes continue anyway, but it increases the complexity of the operation. 一种可能的折衷方案是采用方法一,该方法将因为没有本地拨出可用而拒绝呼叫。 One possible compromise is to use a method, because the method does not locally available outgoing reject the call. 我们也可以在呼叫请求中增加一个属性,意思是“我也不在乎是否结果是长途电话。”在这个情况中,遭到过拒绝但无论如何也要接入呼叫的用户设置这个属性后作了第二次呼叫企图。 We can also add an attribute in the call request, meaning "I do not care whether the result is a long-distance call." In this case, the refusal had been made but the first user set this property in any case you have incoming calls recall attempts. 对于有多余的钱可用的客户来说,所有PSTN呼叫都能在设置了这个属性后进行。 For customers with extra money available for all PSTN calls can be set up after the property.

接入国内PSTN呼叫支持对起源于美国外的因特网位置的因特网发起的呼叫的国际呼叫要求。 International call access requirements call for support of domestic PSTN calls originating from an Internet location outside of the United States launched the Internet.

(2)国际PSTN目的地对国际PSTN站的呼叫可按两种方式之一进行。 (2) International PSTN Destinations Calls to an international PSTN station can be in one of two ways. 第一,可以从国内拨出站接入国际呼叫。 First, it can access international call dialed from domestic station. 这并不是一种吸引人的服务,因为它并不能为亲自打国际长途电话的客户省钱。 This is not an attractive service because it does not make international long distance telephone customers to personally save money. 第二,可以用因特网把呼叫传输到目的地国家,在那里进行“本地”拨出。 Second, you can use the Internet to transfer the call to the destination country, the "local" dial out there.

这个情况是有问题的,因为它必须得到位于国家目的地的通信公司的同意。 This situation is problematic, because it must be approved communications company located in the country of destination. 这种情况可能在两种方式之一中可以通过。 This may be in one of two ways through. 两种方式都要求在国际目的地有一个伙伴。 Both methods require a partner at international destinations. 一种选择是用目的地国家中一个本地通信公司作为伙伴。 One option is to use the country of destination in a local communications company as a partner. 第二种选择是用因特网服务供应商或者目的地国家中与因特网连接的其它服务供应商。 The second option is to use an Internet service provider or other service providers in destination countries connected to the Internet.

c)PSTN到PC这种情况看起来最不重要,但它也有某种应用,为了叙述的完整性,在此加以讨论。 c) PSTN to PC case looks the least, but it also has a certain application, described the sake of completeness, here it is discussed.

如在PC到PSTN案例中所述,PSTN到因特网网关将需要支持转换PCM到多个编码方案以与各种销售商销售的软件协作。 As to the PSTN in case the PC, PSTN gateway to the Internet will need to convert PCM to support multiple encoding schemes with various vendors to sell software collaboration. 要求目录服务能标识被呼叫的PC。 PC requires a directory service can identify the call. 自动存在通知对于保持被叫方的可达性是重要的。 Automatic presence notification is important for maintaining accessibility of the called party. PSTN主叫者不必向目录服务登记,因为主叫者记帐将是基于PSTN信息的。 PSTN caller does not have to register with the directory service, because the caller will be based on PSTN billing information. 主叫者有一个“不变的”E.164地址,能用于返回呼叫以及进行记帐。 Caller a "constant" the E.164 address can be used to return calls and for billing. 假定我们能将呼叫号码传递到被叫方来指示谁在呼叫。 Suppose we can transfer the call to the called party number to indicate who is calling. 由于技术或私密的原因,呼叫号码并不是总能得到。 Due to technical reasons or private, the calling number is not always available. 必须能向PC软件发出表示这是PSTN呼叫的信号,提供E.164号码或者指出该号码不能得到。 PC software must be able to send out a signal that this is a PSTN call, providing E.164 number or indicate that the number can not be obtained.

业务可以是基于向呼叫电话收费的。 Fee-based business can be a call to the phone. 把因特网当作是呼叫的长途部分,就能完成这件事。 The Internet as a long-distance part of the call, will be able to get this done. 这在有第二个拨号音时是可能的。 This is when there is a second dial tone is possible. 如果使用800或本地拨号业务,则主叫者必须输入记帐信息。 If you use 800 or local dial-up service, the caller must enter billing information. 另一种可选方案是,900业务将允许基于PSTN主叫者的记帐。 Another alternative is that 900 service will allow PSTN caller-based billing. 无论哪一种情况,主叫者都需要在记帐信息之后或者在拨900号码之后规定目的地的“电话号码”。 In either case, the caller needs to in the billing information or after the "telephone number" of destination specified after dialing 900 numbers.

一个主要的明显问题是主叫者如何在第二个拨号音时规定目的地。 A major question is how obvious the caller specified destination when a second dial tone. 最好只用一个按键音。 Preferably only one key tone. 为了简化输入,我们可以向每个目录项分配一个E.164地址。 To simplify the input, we can assign a E.164 address to each directory entry. 为了避免与实际电话号码混淆(PSTN到PSTN情况),该号码需要受目录的控制。 In order to avoid confusion with the actual phone number (PSTN to PSTN case), the number required by the control directory. 如果有足够的可用,也许能使用700号码。 If there are enough available, you may be able to use 700 numbers. 另一种方案是,可以使用一种特殊的地区代码。 Another solution is, you can use a special code. 用按键来拼写是一种不太“用户友好的”方法。 Button is used to spell a less "user friendly" approach.

3. 3. 因特网中的电话号码最好的方法是分配一个地区代码。 The best way to phone number in the Internet is assigned an area code. 这不仅将保持对未来选择的开放,也从一开始就便于更简单的拨号。 This will not only remain open for future selection, but also from the outset to facilitate easier dialing. 给定一个合法的地区代码后,主叫者能直接拨因特网上的PC的E.164地址。 After given to a legitimate area code, the caller can directly dial E.164 address of the PC on the Internet. 电话系统会把呼叫路由选择到MCI POP,由此进一步路由选择到PSTN-因特网话音网关。 Selecting the telephone system will route the call to MCI POP, thereby further routed to Internet voice gateway PSTN-. 被呼叫的号码将用于将呼叫接入PC-假定PC是联机的并且是可达的。 The called number for a call access PC- assumed PC is online and reachable. 这就使主叫者把因特网当作是PSTN一部分那样来拨号因特网。 This allows the caller to the Internet as part of the PSTN as to dial the Internet. 不需要有第二个拨号音,不需要输入记帐信息。 Requiring a second dial tone, you do not need to enter billing information. 该呼叫将被向呼叫PSTN站记帐,只有当目的地PC回答时收费才增加。 The call is billed to the calling PSTN station, only when the destination PC answer before a fee increase. 其它通信公司要被分配以独有的地区代码,目录应当保持兼容。 Other communications companies to be assigned to a unique area code directory should remain compatible.

对于国内起源的呼叫来说,对主叫者记帐所需的所有记帐信息都是可用的,第三方智能网络服务功能或其它记帐方法都能通过第二个拨号音得到。 For calls of domestic origin, all accounting information required for billing the caller is available, third-party intelligent network services or other billing method can be obtained by a second dial tone.

4. 4. 其它因特网电话通信公司当号码可一致性变得需要时,要求所有这些将更加复杂化。 Other Internet telephony company when numbers can be consistent when it becomes necessary to require all of these will be more complicated. 可能希望向因特网分配一个国家代码。 You may wish to assign a country code to the Internet. 尽管这会使国内拨号更加复杂(拨1之外的任何号加上一个十位数号码看起来显著地减少该业务的使用),但可能会有所希望的益处。 Although this will make the country more complicated dialing (dial any number other than 1 plus a ten-digit number appears to significantly reduce the use of the service), but the benefits may be desired. 不管怎样,分配一个(或几个)地区代码和分配一个国家代码是不互相排斥的。 In any case, assign one (or several) area code and assigned a country code is not mutually exclusive. 国家代码的使用会使拨号在地理上更加统一。 Dial the country code makes use of a more unified geographically.

5. 5. 国际接入将一个国际呼叫从美国进入美国内的因特网是不可能的。 International access to an international call from the United States access to the Internet in the United States is impossible. 然而如果发生了这种情况,系统将有足够的信息来为这种情况做基于主叫者的记帐工作而不需要任何额外的功能。 However, if this happens, the system will have enough information to do accounting work based on the caller to this case without the need for any additional functionality.

另一个可能是,我们将(可能是合伙地)安排处理美国外部的输入呼叫,在该国家进入因特网以返回到美国,或者去因特网上的任何地方。 Another possibility is that we will (likely to be a partnership) arrangements for dealing with the United States outside of an incoming call, access to the Internet in this country to return to the United States, or to go anywhere on the Internet. 如果合伙人是本地通信公司,则该合伙人将有为该PSTN主叫者记帐所需要的信息。 If the partner is a local communications company, the partners will have for the PSTN caller billing information needed.

a)收方付费呼叫PSTN到PC的收方付费呼叫要求几个步骤。 a) paid debit call PSTN call to the recipient pay for PC requires several steps. 首先,向PSTN到因特网网关的呼叫必须是收方付费的,收方付费呼叫然后能按与PC到PC呼叫相同的方式被发信号通知。 First, the gateway to the Internet to PSTN calls must be paid debit, debit and collect calls can press and PC-to-PC calls in the same way is signaled. 必须要指出主叫者是基于PSTN的,如果有的话还要包括呼叫E.164地址。 It must be noted that based on the PSTN caller, if any, should include a call E.164 address.

b)PSTN到PSTN在PSTN到因特网网关间传送话音的话音压缩和协议方案的选择,完全处于通信公司的控制之下。 B) in the PSTN to the PSTN between the PSTN to Internet gateway voice compression and voice transmission protocol scheme, completely under the control of the communication company. 通过改变所提供的压缩等级就能提供不同的业务等级。 By changing the level of compression provided you can provide different levels of service. 各等级可以有不同的收费。 Each level can have different charges. 主叫者将选择一个质量等级,也许是通过首先拨打不同的800号码业务。 The caller will select a quality level, perhaps by first dialing a different 800 number service.

(1)国内目的地无论主叫方还是被叫方都不需要向目录服务登记就能在因特网上接通呼叫,主叫者拨打一个PSTN到因特网的网关,接收一个第二拨号音,并用按键音来规定记帐信息和目的地国内E.164地址。 (1) Domestic destination or called party whether the calling party does not need to register the directory service on the Internet can be switched call, the caller dials a PSTN gateway to the Internet, receives a second dial tone, and with key tone to set the billing information and destination country E.164 address. 也可以用900业务。 You can also use the 900 service. 目录服务(可以是单独的系统,但目录服务已经具有处置PC到PSTN拨出情形的转换功能)将被用来将呼叫转换到一个拨出器以接入一个本地呼叫-如果可能的话。 Directory service (which may be a separate system, but the directory service already has the disposal of the PC to PSTN dial out case of conversion) will be used to convert a call is dialed to access a local call - if possible. 记帐是针对主叫者的,需要将拨出呼叫的呼叫细节与入站主叫者的呼叫细节相关联。 Call detail inbound call detail billing a caller for the caller needs to be associated with outgoing calls.

随即而来的问题是如何处理这样的情况-最近的拨出单元到被叫的号码结果是一个长途电话,如PC至PSTN案例中所述。 Then comes the problem is how to deal with this situation - the results of latest dialed number to the called unit is a long distance call, as the PC to PSTN case. 这里的情形所不同的程度是,必须用话音来进行通知,对长途电话拨出的授权必须通过按键来作出。 Except the case where the extent necessary to notify with voice of outgoing long distance calls must be made by authorized keys. 如果是长途拨出,则完全可以越过因特网,呼叫完全都在PSTN上传送,在这个情况下通过使用因特网是否能节省费用并不明确。 If long-distance dial-out, you can cross the Internet, calls are transferred entirely on the PSTN, in this case if you can save money by using the Internet is not clear.

(2)一步拨号问题是需要输入目的地PSTN号码,并需要以某种方式指出要通过因特网而不是传统的长途网络到达目的地。 (2) dial-step problem is the need to enter the destination PSTN number, and pointed to the need to somehow reach the destination via the Internet instead of the traditional long-distance network.

可以按以下选择方案来传达这个选择准则:1. You can convey the selection criteria in the following options: 1. 分配一个是通信公司的因特网的新10xxx号码。 Assign a new 10xxx number of Internet communications company.

2. 2. 通过预订第一种方法允许主叫者逐个呼叫地选择因特网作为长途载体。 It allows the caller by the first method calls the reservation individually select the Internet as the long distance carrier. 第二种方法把因特网作为缺省长途网络,在第二种情况中,客户通过拨通信公司的10xxx代码就能返回到通信公司的传统长途网。 The second method of using the Internet as the default long distance network, in the second case, the client will be able to return to traditional long-distance network to the communications company by dialing the carrier's 10xxx code.

第一种方法的缺点是主叫者必须拨额外的五位数。 Disadvantage of the first approach is that the caller must dial an extra five digits. 尽管许多人为了省钱愿意这样做,但要求额外拨号将会使业务的用户总数减少。 Although many people willing to do so to save money, but the total number of additional user requirements will make dial-up business decreased. 第二种方法避免了拨额外数字的需要,但要求客户保证主要用因特网作为其长途网。 The second approach avoids the need to dial extra digits, but require customers to use the Internet as a major guarantee of its long-distance network. 这种选择的价格较低,业务质量也较低。 This choice of lower prices and lower quality of service.

在PSTN到PSTN情况下,有可能考虑提供几个价格不同的业务等级。 In the PSTN to PSTN case, it is possible to consider providing several different price levels of service. 这些等级将基于编码方案与所实行压缩(带宽)量的组合,使用较低带宽则费用也较低。 These grades will be based on the implementation of the compression and coding scheme (the bandwidth) amount of a composition, using the lower bandwidth and lower cost.

要通知所希望服务等级,可以用三个10xxx代码。 To notify the desired level of service, you can use three 10xxx code. 通过预约,某特定等级就是缺省等级,其它服务等级则要通过10xxx代码来选择。 By appointment, a particular level is the default level, other service level will have to be selected by the code 10xxx.

(3)业务质量业务质量的衡量有两个主要因素。 (3) to measure the quality of service quality of service there are two main factors. 第一个是音质,即识别主叫者话音的能力;第二个是在PSTN中没有的延迟。 The first is the quality, i.e., the ability to identify the caller's voice; the second is no delay in the PSTN.

关于第一点,可以说现今可用的大多数产品都能提供可以接受的主叫者识别的水平。 On the first point, we can say most of the products available today can provide caller identification acceptable level. 然而,延迟是另一个问题。 However, the delay is another question. PC到PC用户经受了半秒到2秒的延迟。 PC to PC users subjected to the delay of half a second to two seconds. 如在引言中所指出的,可将许多延迟归因于语音卡和低速拨号接入。 As indicated in the introduction, the delay may be due to a number of speech cards and the low speed dial access. 在PSTN到PSTN服务的情况,两个因素都可排除。 In the case of PSTN to PSTN services, two factors can be ruled out.

在PSTN到因特网话音网关中使用DSP将保持压缩和协议处理时间很低。 To the Internet using the DSP in the PSTN voice gateway will keep compression and protocol processing times very low. 在PSTN侧接入网关的速度将是足足的64KPS,在因特网侧的以太网大约也是这个速度,网关通常都离主干很近,所以以太网上的路由器就可能通过T3线路连接到主干。 The access gateway in the PSTN-side velocity will be full of 64KPS, Ethernet Internet side of roughly the same speed, typically from the gateway trunk close, so the router connected to the backbone may Ethernet via T3 lines. 这个组合应当提供具有很低延迟的业务等级。 This combination should provide business grade has a very low latency. 需要进行某种缓冲来屏蔽主干中的可变延迟,但在国内通信公司主干中,有可能被控制在四分之一秒之内。 Require some buffering in the trunk to shield variable delay, but in the domestic communication company branch, it is possible to be controlled within a quarter seconds.

业务质量的主要差异将是与带宽使用有关的话音识别。 The main difference will be the quality of service associated with the use of the bandwidth of speech recognition. 需要的话,可以使用建议的IETF资源保留建立协议(RSVP-Resource reSerVation setup Protocol)来保证较低的延迟变化,但是对增加RSVP的复杂性的需要还有待确定。 If desired, can be used to establish the proposed IETF resource reservation protocol (RSVP-Resource reSerVation setup Protocol) to ensure low latency variation, but RSVP to increase the complexity of the needs still to be determined. RSVP对于大规模因特网电话的可扩展性也仍然是个问题。 RSVP for large-scale Internet telephony scalability is still a problem.

(4)费用用因特网代替交换电话网进行长途通话,实际上是否更价廉是个显然的问题。 (4) instead of the cost of long distance calls were switched telephone network with the Internet, it is actually more affordable is obviously a problem. 当然现在是这样定价的,但当前的价格反映了真实成本吗?路由器肯定比电话交换机便宜,IP话音软件使用的(实际上是半双工的)10Kbps当然比全双工64Kbps DSO的专用128Kbps便宜。 Of course, now is the pricing, but the current price reflects the true cost of it? Router is certainly cheaper than telephone switches, IP voice software used (actually half-duplex) 10Kbps 128Kbps certainly cheaper than a dedicated full-duplex 64Kbps DSO's . 尽管有这些对照,问题仍然存在着。 Despite these controls, the problem still exists.

尽管路由器比电话交换机便宜很多,路由器的容量却很低。 Although a lot cheaper than telephone switches router, the router capacity is very low. 用小构块建造大网络不仅花费高,而且迅速达到收益减少点。 Small structure built of large blocks of the network not only costly, but also quickly reach a point of diminishing returns. 我们已经看到因特网主干由于当前这么多的高端路由器而负担过重,它们还要经历成功的因特网电话服务要带来的通信量的显著增加。 We have seen so much because of the current Internet backbone routers and high-end overburdened, they also experienced a significant increase in traffic to the success of the Internet phone service brings. 我们这里要谈两件事。 We are here to talk about two things.

1. 1. 当前的因特网主干不可能支持伴随成功的因特网电话业务而来的通信量的显著增加,我们需要等待路由器技术的提高。 The current Internet backbone can not support a significant increase in traffic associated with the success of Internet telephone service comes, we need to wait to improve the router technology.

2. 2. 上面提出的第二个问题是带宽使用的问题。 The second question raised above is the issue of bandwidth usage. 10Kbps半双工(当双方偶而同时说话时还有点多,但在沉默的延续期间就更少了)确实比64Kbps全双工专用容量低得多。 10Kbps half-duplex (both sides when Shihai occasionally speak at the same time a little more, but during the continued silence even less) is indeed much lower than 64Kbps dedicated full-duplex capacity. 关于这个论点有两点应当注意。 There are two points on this issue it should be noted.

首先,带宽至少在当地下还有多余可用的光纤时是便宜的,一旦最后一根光纤都用上时,下一个每秒比特的价格就非常昂贵。 First of all, at least at the local as well as the bandwidth when extra available Fiber is cheap, once the fibers have to spend the last one, the next bits per second, a very expensive price. 其次,越洋路由器的带宽更加昂贵,为此我们已经在把话音带宽压缩到9.6kbps,这实际上相当于因特网电话的10kbps。 Second, overseas router bandwidth is more expensive, and we have been in the voice bandwidth compression to 9.6kbps, which in fact is equivalent to 10kbps Internet telephony.

为什么IP容量的价格定得比POTS那么低? Why is the price of a given IP capacity than POTS so low? 回答是定价差异部分与因特网的补贴历史相关。 The answer is subsidized pricing differences related historic part of the Internet. 现在,因特网主干供应商开始采取步骤来解决因特网的费用问题。 Now, the Internet backbone suppliers are beginning to take steps to address the costs of the Internet. 这个步骤的实质是认识到因特网需要收使用费。 The essence of this step is to recognize that the Internet needs to collect royalties. 这种收费已经适用于拨号用户,但一般不适用于有专用连接的用户。 Such charges already apply to the dial-up users, but typically do not apply to users with a dedicated connection.

如果PC到PC因特网电话变得流行,用户会倾向于较长时间地保持他们PC的连接状态。 If the PC-to-PC Internet phone has become popular, users will tend to stay connected longer their PC's. 这将使他们处于能接收呼叫的状态。 This will enable them in a state able to receive calls. 这也将提高端口中拨号上的保持时间。 This will also increase the holding time on the dial-up port. 这将对因特网的资本和重复费用有重大的影响。 This will have a significant impact on the cost of capital and repeating the Internet.

(5)收费目录服务必须提供上述功能,为对服务的记帐收集足够的信息。 (5) charges directory service must provide the above features for billing for services collected enough information. 能对目录服务进行收费,也能对登记(一次性费加上月费)、呼叫建立收费,但也许不能对持续时间收费。 You can charge for directory services, but also for registration (one-time fee plus monthly fee), call set-up fee, but may not charge for the duration. 持续时间费已经向因特网拨入用户收取了,它是以某种方式为连接LAN的用户捆绑的。 Duration fee charged to Internet users have dial-up, it is in some way tied to the user's connection to the LAN. 对因特网业务的使用收费很快就会到来(如以上讨论的那样)。 Charge for the use of Internet traffic will come very soon (as discussed above). 对输入和输出PSTN段收取延续时间费是可能的。 Charge fees duration of the input and output PSTN segment is possible.

通过采用特殊的地区代码,可以将PSTN呼叫按长途段来收费。 By using a special area code, PSTN call may be charged by long segments. 其它直接记帐选择是900呼叫和呼叫卡(信用卡)记帐选择(二者都需要第二个拨号音)。 Other direct billing option is to call 900 and calling card (credit card) billing selection (both require a second dial tone).

要求所有主叫者(输入PSTN呼叫除外)都登记目录服务,将消除对大多数收方付费呼叫的立即需求,这也许将不是一个大障碍,因为IP电话业务的大多数用户会既想要接收呼叫也想要发出呼叫,而接受呼叫是要求登记的。 It requires that all caller (except input PSTN calls) are registered directory service, would eliminate the most immediate needs of the recipient pay for the call, which will probably not be a big obstacle, because most users IP telephony service will not only want to receive call also want to place a call, but the call is accepting registration requirements. 主叫者可能有未入册的登记项,但没有名字,这些登记项将是带E.164地址的登记项。 The caller may have entries unlisted, but no names, these entries will be entry with E.164 addresses. 给出这个E.164地址的人可以(从PSTN或从PC)呼叫该方,如当前电话系统中的情况一样。 This gives the person can E.164 address (from the PSTN or from a PC) of the calling party, as the current telephone system as in the case.

可以用不同的压缩等级来提供不同的话音再生质量,与此同时或多或少地使用因特网的中转资源。 Different compression levels can be used to provide different quality of voice reproduction, at the same time use more or less Internet transit resources. 对于PC到PC连接来说,两端的软件包能协商要使用的带宽量。 For PC-to-PC connection, the ends of the package can negotiate the amount of bandwidth to be used. 这种协商可通过目录服务而得到方便。 Such consultations can be obtained easily through the directory service.

(6)技术问题实行登记、自动存在通知和确认能力,与IP电话销售商进行协调将是有必要的。 (6) technical issues concerning the registration, automatic notification and confirm the presence of the ability to coordinate with the IP telephony vendors will be necessary. 我们将还需要增加对业务请求进行通信的能力。 We will also need to increase the capacity of the service request communication. 这些将包括对规定了诸如“即使是长途也将拨出呼叫接入PSTN”的属性和其它有待确定的属性的收方付费呼叫的授权。 These would include the authorization predetermined recipient, such as "too long even if the outgoing call access PSTN" properties and other properties to be determined of collect calls.

用目录登记是一个必备的特征,下面将解释这种特征。 Registration with a directory is an essential feature, this feature will be explained below. 将DNS模型用于分布式目录服务将可能会便于这个未来的要求。 The DNS model for distributed directory service may facilitate the future requirements. 如果用的是真实的地区代码,则向目录登记项分配一个伪E.164号码的效果将最佳,如果每个通信公司都有地区代码,那将会使目录系统之间的协作容易许多。 If you are using real area code, then the effect of a pseudo E.164 number allocated to the directory entry will be best if each communication companies have the area code, it will make the collaboration between the catalog system much easier. 如果对号码开始有可移植性要求,问题就会明显复杂起来。 If you start to have a number portability requirements, the problem will be significantly complicated.

按照较佳实施例的IP电话已经到来并至少在不远的将来会存在一段时间。 IP telephone according to the preferred embodiment has come and will at least for some time in the near future. 通信公司等级业务在这个技术基础上的组合,以及路由器容量的增长,会导致因特网将来在长途通信量的传输中占据非常重要的份额。 Communications grade portfolio based on this technology, and the growth capacity of the router, will lead to the Internet in the future occupy a very important share of the long-distance transport in traffic.

如果从家庭诸如电缆调制解调器接入因特网能获得更高的速度,就会使优质的消费IP电话服务更容易得到。 If you can get cable modem Internet access from home, such as higher speed, it will make high-quality consumer IP telephony services more readily available. 增加视频则会进一步提高对业务的需求。 Video will further increase the demand for improving the business.

更普通但却有趣的是因特网上的传真业务,这与以上讨论的话音服务非常相似,与传真协议相关的定时问题在有些地方使这种业务更加困难。 But more interesting is common on the Internet fax service, voice service which is discussed above is very similar to timing issues related to the fax protocol in some places to make this business more difficult.

采用因特网中的数字桥来举行会议使话音和视频服务更加吸引人。 Digital bridge the Internet to meet the voice and video services more attractive. 这可通过利用在因特网世界中开发的多信道传播(multi-casting)技术来做到。 This can be done by using the Internet in the development of world multi-channel propagation (multi-casting) technology. 用多信道传播来提供这类业务,费用将会降低。 With multi-channel propagation to provide such services, the cost will be reduced.

C. C. 因特网电话业务图1C是按照较佳实施例的一个因特网电话系统的框图。 Internet telephone service according to FIG. 1C is a block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the Internet telephone system of the embodiment. 当一方拨打一个电话号码时,电话200通过摘机(going off hook)而用于启动一个呼叫,这时处理开始。 When one dial a phone number, a telephone 200 for initiating a call by off-hook (going off hook), the processing start time. 电话200一般是通过常规的双线用户回路连接的,模拟的话音信号能在该回路中双向导通。 Telephone 200 is typically connected via a conventional two-wire subscriber loop analog voice signal can bidirectionally pass in the circuit. 本领域的一般熟练人员知道,电话可以通过光纤、ISDN或其它装置连接,这些都不偏离本发明的思想。 General skilled in the art know, the telephone may be connected by an optical fiber, ISDN or other means, all without departing from the spirit of the invention. 另一种可选方案是人们也可以从计算机210、寻呼系统、电视会议系统或其它能打电话的系统来拨打电话号码。 Another alternative is that people can also dial phone numbers from the computer 210, paging systems, video conferencing systems or other phone-enabled system. 呼叫进入本地交换通信公司(LEC)220,后者是地区贝尔运营公司(RBOC)中央交换局的另一个名称。 Call into the local exchange carrier (LEC) 220, which is another name for the regional Bell operating companies (RBOC) central switching office. 呼叫被位于诸如MCI的交换通信公司的租赁公用商业线路(CBL)230的LEC端接。 The call is terminated, such as LEC located MCI Communications exchange public leasing business line (CBL) 230 of. 端接到CBL的结果是,MCI交换机221接收一个摘机(off hook)指示。 End to the CBL result, MCI Switch 221 receives an off-hook (off hook) indication.

交换机221响应该摘机,启动一个DAL热线过程请求到网络控制系统(NCS),后者也称作数据接入点(DAP)240。 In response to the off-hook switch 221, a start DAL Hotline procedure request to the network control system (the NCS), which is also referred to as data access point (DAP) 240. 交换机221在图中作了简化,只显示它在一个单一DS1线路上运行,但是应当明白,可以将数千个个别用户线路上的呼叫路由选择通过该交换机抵达最终目的地。 Switch 221 has been simplified in the figure, only it runs on a single DS1 line, but it should be appreciated that the call routing thousands of individual subscriber lines can be selected by the switch to reach their final destination. DAP240向始发交换机221返回一个路由选择应答,指示交换机221将呼叫路由选择到交换机230或231。 DAP240 221 is returned to the originating switch routing a reply indicating that the switch 221 will route the call to switch 230 or 231. 呼叫的路由选择是由DAP240执行的,后者将事务信息转换成特定的交换机ID(SWID)和一个特定的终结中继组(TTG),TTG对应于到达适当目的地-本例中是交换机230或231-所需的离开MCI网络的路由。 Routing of calls is performed by the DAP240, which converts the transaction information into a specific Switch ID (SWID) and a specific termination relay group (TTG), TTG corresponding to the appropriate destination - in this case switch 230 231- or required to leave the route MCI network. 另一个混合网络接入的实施例将因特网接入设施融合到交换机232中。 Another embodiment of a hybrid network to access the Internet access facility integrated into the switch 232. 这种集成解决方案使交换机232能直接附接到因特网295,减少了网络与因特网295连接所需的网络端口数量。 This integrated solution allows the switch 232 to be attached directly to the Internet 295, reduces the number of network ports 295 connecting to the Internet network required. DAP将这个应答信息发送给始发交换机221,将原始呼叫路由选择到正确的终结交换机230或231。 DAP sends this response information to the originating switch 221, the original call routing to the correct end of the switch 230 or 231. 终结交换机230或231然后按原始DAP应答的指示寻找正确的终结中继组(TTG),并根据DAP240的路由选择信息将呼叫路由选择到ISN250或直接到调制解调器池270。 End switch 230 or 231 and then press the original DAP response indicating correct termination to find relay group (TTG), and the route selection information DAP240 will route the call directly to the modem pool or ISN250 270. 如果呼叫的目的地是智能服务网络(ISN)250,则DAP240就会指示交换机在交换机230终结。 If the destination of a call is intelligent services network (ISN) 250, the DAP240 switch will indicate the end of the switch 230.

根据对拨叫号数字的分析,ISN将呼叫路由选择到音频应答单元(ARU)252。 The analysis of the number dialed numbers, ISN routes the call to the selected audio response unit (ARU) 252. ARU252区分话音、传真和调制解调器呼叫,如果呼叫来自调制解调器,则呼叫被路由选择到调制解调器池271,连接系验证服务器291来验证用户。 ARU252 distinguish between voice, fax and modem calls, if a call from the modem, the call is routed to modem pool 271, connected to line 291 to authenticate the user authentication server. 如果呼叫被验证,则呼叫被通过UDP/IP或TCP/IP LAN 281成其它媒体通信网络转发到基本因特网协议平台(BIPP)295作进一步处理并最终投递到计算机或其它能处理媒体的设备。 If the call is verified, 295 for further processing and eventually delivered to a computer or other device is capable of processing calls through media UDP / IP or TCP / IP LAN 281 to other media communication network to the Basic Internet Protocol Platform forwards (BIPP).

如果呼叫是话音,ARU就提示主叫者提供卡号和终端号。 If a voice call, ARU prompts the caller to provide the card number and the terminal number. 卡号是由卡确认数据库确认的。 Card number is confirmed by the card database validation. 假定卡号有效,则如果终端号是在美国(国内的),则呼叫就被路由选择当前的MCI话音线路。 Assumed valid card number, if the terminal number is in the US (domestic), then the call is routed to the current MCI voice lines. 如果终端号是国际的,则呼叫被路由选择到编码解码器260,后者将话音转换成TCP/IP或UDP/IP并将其通过LAN 280发送到因特网295。 If the terminal number is international, the call is routed to codec 260, which converts the voice to TCP / IP or UDP / IP and sends it to the Internet 295 via LAN 280. 呼叫被路由选择通过位于终结端的网关,最终到达某个电话或其它能处理电话的设备。 The call is routed through the gateway located at the terminating end, ultimately to a phone or other device capable of processing calls.

图1D是按照较佳实施例的一种混合交换机的框图。 FIG 1D is a block diagram of a hybrid switch in accordance with the preferred embodiment. 图中保留了图1C中标注号,增加了一个额外的方框233。 FIG retained in FIG. 1C marked number, it adds an additional block 233. 框233含有用于将交换机直接连接到因特网或其它通信装置的连接装置。 Block 233 contains a switch for connecting the connecting means directly to the Internet or other communication devices. 该连接装置的详细内容在图1E中展示。 The details of the connecting device is shown in FIG. 1E. 图1D的混合交换机与图1C中的交换机的主要区别是,交换机221能直接附接到因特网295。 The main difference with the hybrid exchange of the switch in FIG. 1C of FIG. 1D, the switch 221 can be attached directly to the Internet 295.

图1E是按照较佳实施例在图1D中表示的连接装置233的框图。 FIG 1E is a block diagram showing the connection apparatus 233 in FIG. 1D according to the preferred embodiment. 消息总线234将交换机结构连接到内部网络236和237。 The message bus 234 is connected to the switch fabric 236 and the internal network 237. 内部网络又接收来自动态电话连接(DTC)238和239的输入,DTC又为始发自多个DSI线路242、243、244和245的信号提供多路分离(demuxing)。 Dynamic internal network and receive from the telephone connection (DTC) input 238 and 239, DTC also provides demultiplexing (demuxing) of DSI signals originating from a plurality of lines 242,243,244 and 245. 前文说明过,DS1线路指的是T1线路上的常规位格式。 Hereinbefore described, DS1 line refers to conventional bit format on a T1 line.

为了适应快速多变的电话/媒体环境,较佳实施例为另一个内部网络237使用了单独的交换机连接。 In order to adapt to rapidly changing phone / media environment, another preferred embodiment of the internal network 237 is connected using a separate switch. 采用一个谱外围模块(SpectrumPeripheral Module-SPM)247来处理从共用的交换机阵列248、249、251、254、261-268接收的电话/媒体信号。 Spectrum using a peripheral module (SpectrumPeripheral Module-SPM) 247 to switch from the common array processing received telephone 248,249,251,254,261-268 / media signal. 共用的交换机阵列是由SPM247通过控制线路用交换机命令来管理的。 An array of switches by the common control line by using SPM247 managed switch command. SPM 247与服务供应商的呼叫处理系统通讯,呼叫处理系统能确定哪一个线路要求哪一种类型的混合交换处理。 SPM 247 and the service provider's communication call processing system, the call processing system to determine which type of hybrid switching process which requires a line. 例如,传真传输生成的音调标识该传输为数字数据而不是数字化的话音。 For example, fax transmissions generate a tone which identifies the transmission as digital data rather than digitized speech. 当检测到数字数据传输时,呼叫处理系统就指示呼叫电路让该特定输入线路通过共用的交换机阵列连接到一条具有适当的处理特性的对应线路。 When detecting digital data transmission, the call processing system directs the call circuitry to allow the particular input line is connected to a suitable processing line having a corresponding characteristic by a common switch fabric. 因此例如,一个因特网连接要连接到TCP/IP调制解调器线路268以保证信号先得到适当处理,再经内部网络237通过消息总线234被传送到图1D的始发交换机221。 Thus, for example, a connector to be connected to the Internet TCP / IP Modem line 268 to assure proper signal obtained before treatment, and then transmitted to the internal network of FIG. 1D 237,234 originating switch 221 via message bus.

共用的交换机矩阵除了方便交换机到因特网的直接连接外,还为交换机提供了适应当前通信协议和将来通信协议的灵活性。 In addition to facilitating sharing switch matrix switch to a direct connection to the Internet, but also provides flexibility to adapt the switch for the current communication protocols and future communication protocols. 回波抵消装置261以允许按需的回波抵消的方式有效地安装在交换机中。 Echo canceling means 261 to allow on-demand manner effective echo cancellation is mounted in the switch. 数量相对较少的回波抵消器能服务数量相对较大的个别传输线路。 Relatively small number of echo canceler can serve a relatively large number of individual transmission lines. 共用的交换机阵列能配置成动态地将接入侧传输或网络侧传输路由选择到OC3 demux、DSP处理或源自交换机任一方向的其它专业处理。 A common switch fabric can be configured to dynamically access-side transmissions or network-side transmissions routed to OC3 demux, DSP processing or other specialized processing switch from either direction.

此外,如图1E中所示的较佳实施例提供额外的系统效率,诸如在一个话音或数据电路交换机一侧的端口设备内组合多路转换器级,以便能将光纤电缆直接连接到端口设备的多路转接的输出。 Further, the preferred embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1E provides additional system efficiencies, such as a combination multiplexer stages in a port device voice or data circuit switch side, so that the device can directly connect to the fiber optic cable the multiplexer output. 此外,通过CEM248/249和RM251/254上可用的备用路由将冗余建造到交换机中以为附接各种通信端口替换通路。 Further, the available on CEM248 / 249 and RM251 / 254 alternate route redundancy built into the switch attaching various communication ports that alternative path.

当图1D的交换机221连接到因特网295时,处理按如下方式提供。 When the switch 221 of FIG. 1D 295 is connected to the Internet, providing the processing as follows. 来自因特网295的线路通过调制解调器端口268进入交换机,并进入共用的交换机阵列,在其中执行了多路分解和其它必要操作后,将信息通过内部网络237和消息总线234传送到交换机221,模块261-268为连接满足各种通信规定的外围设备提供即插即用功能。 After the transmission line 234 from the internet 295 enters the switch through a modem port 268 and enters the switch array common, in which the demultiplexing is performed, and other necessary operations, internal network information and message bus 237 to the switch 221, the module 261- 268 satisfies various predetermined peripheral communication connection to plug and play functionality.

图1F是按照较佳实施例的混合(因特网-电话)交换机的框图。 FIG. 1F is a mixture according to (Internet - phone) a block diagram of the preferred embodiment of the switch. 混合交换机221与因特网295上的TCP/IP或UDP/IP端口转换公共交换电话网(PSTN)256上的电路。 TCP hybrid exchange 221 on the Internet 295 / IP or UDP / IP port translation public switched telephone network (PSTN) circuit 256. 混合交换机221的组成是PSTN网络接口(247、260),高速因特网网络接口(271、272、274)、一组数字信号处理机(DSP)(259、263)、时分复用总线262和高速数据总线275。 Hybrid exchange 221 is composed of PSTN network interfaces (247,260), high-speed Internet network interfaces (271,272,274), a set of digital signal processor (DSP) (259,263), time division multiplexing and high-speed data bus 262 bus 275.

混合因特网电话交换机221是路由器结构与电路交换结构相结合的产物。 Mixing Internet telephone switch 221 is a circuit switched router architecture and structure of the combination product. 到达PSTN接口257的呼叫是用ISDN用户部分(ISUP)的信令来启动的,带有一个初始地址消息(IAM),内含被叫方号码和可选的主叫方号码。 PSTN interface 257 reaches the call is initiated using ISDN User Part (ISUP) signaling, with an Initial Address Message (the IAM), containing the called party number and optional calling party number. PSTN接口257将IAM传输到宿主处理机270。 PSTN interface 257 is transmitted to the host processor 270 IAM. 宿主处理机270检查发起端的PSTN网络接口、被叫方号码和其它IAM参数,并为呼叫选择一个外出的网络接口。 The host processor 270 checks the initiator PSTN network interfaces, the called party number and other parameters IAM and select an outgoing network interface for the call. 外出网络接口的选择是根据路由选择表作出的,交换机221也可以查询因特网上的一个外部业务控制点(SCP)276来请求路由选择指令。 Selected outgoing network interface is made according to the routing table, the switch 221 may also query an external Service Control Point (SCP) 276 on the internet to request routing instructions. 路由选择指令-无论是在交换机221上本地导出或是从SCP276导出的,都可以用来到达特定目的地的一个子网来定义。 Routing instructions - whether derived locally on the switch 221 or derived from SCP276, can be used to reach a particular destination subnet is defined.

同路由器一样,交换机221中的每个网络接口都用一个子网地址来标记。 As with routers, switches, network interface 221 each can be labeled with a subnet address. 因特网协议(IP)地址含有计算机位于的子网的地址。 Internet Protocol (IP) address of the computer containing the address located subnet. PSTN地址不含IP子网地址,所以子网被转换到PSTN地区代码和交换局。 PSTN IP address without a subnet address, subnet are converted to PSTN area code and exchange. 交换机221选择到IP地址和PSTN地址的路由的方法是,选择一个能将分组带到更近的目的地子网或本地交换机的子网的接口。 Switch 221 selects routes to IP addresses and PSTN addresses method is capable of selecting a packet to the subnet interfaces closer destination subnet or local switch.

呼叫能通过另一个PSTN接口258从交换机出去,或者能通过高速因特网接口273外出该交换机。 Another call via PSTN interface 258 away from the switch, or high-speed Internet access 273 via egress the switch. 如果呼叫是通过PSTN接口258外出交换机的,则呼叫可作为标准PCM音频呼叫外出,或可作为携带压缩数字音频的调制解调器呼叫而外出该交换机。 If the call is a PSTN interface 258 via the egress switch, the call can egress as a standard PCM audio call, or as a carry compressed digital audio modem calls while out of the switch.

如果呼叫是作为标准PCM音频呼叫外出交换机221的,该PCM音频就被用TDM总线260从PSTN接口257转换到PSTN接口258。 If the call is outgoing switch 221 as a standard PCM audio call, the PCM audio is converted from a TDM bus 260. PSTN 257 interfaces to the PSTN interface 258. 类似地,用TDM总线260将PCM音频从PSTN接口258转换到PSTN接口257。 Similarly, TDM bus 260 by converting the PCM audio interface 258 from PSTN to PSTN interface 257.

如果呼叫作为携带压缩数字音频的调制解调器呼叫离开交换机221,交换机221可启动一个通过PSTN接口258到一个PSTN号码的外向呼叫,并在TDM总线260上附接一个起调制解调器作用的DSP资源259。 If the call as a modem call carrying compressed digital audio leaving the switch 221, the switch 221 may initiate a number 258-1 outbound PSTN call through PSTN interface, and attached from a modem DSP resource 259 acting on TDM bus 260. 一旦建立起与目的地的调制解调器的会话,就能将PSTN257上的输入PCM音频附接到作为音频编解码器的DSP资源263,对音频进行压缩。 Once a modem session is established with the destination, the input PCM audio can be attached to the DSP resources on PSTN257 as the audio codec 263, the audio compression. 音频格式的例子有ITU.729和G.723。 Examples of audio formats are ITU.729 and G.723. 压缩的音频被分组到DSP263上的点到点协议(PPP)分组中,并传输到DSP259用于PSTN接口258上的调制解调器传递。 Compressed audio packets to be PPP in DSP263 (PPP) packet, and transmitted to the modem DSP259 for transmitting PSTN interface 258.

如果呼叫是在高速因特网接口272上离开交换机272的,交换机272就连接PSTN接口257与作为音频编解码器的DSP资源263,以压缩PCM音频,并将音频分组成供在因特网网络上传输的UDP/IP分组。 If the call is leaving the switch 272 in the high speed Internet interface 272, the switch 272 is connected to PSTN 257 interfaces with a DSP resource 263 as an audio codec to compress the PCM audio, and the audio grouped UDP for transmission on the Internet network / IP packets. 该UDP/IP分组被从DSP资源263经高速数据总线275传输到高速因特网网络接口272。 The UDP / IP packets from the DSP resource 263 is transmitted via the high-speed data bus 275 to the high speed Internet network interface 272.

图1G是表示混合因特网电话交换机221中涉及的软件过程的框图。 FIG 1G is a block diagram of hybrid Internet telephony software process 221 switches involved. 在因特网网络接口296上接收的分组被传输到分组分类器293。 Receiving the network interface 296 over the Internet packet is transmitted to the packet classifier 293. 分组分类器293判断该分组是标准IP分组还是路由选择协议(ARP、RARP、RIP、OSPF、BGP、CIDR)或管理协议(ICMP)的一部分。 Packet classifier 293 determines whether the packet is an IP packet or a part of the standard routing protocol (ARP, RARP, RIP, OSPF, BGP, CIDR) or management protocol (ICMP) is. 路由选择和管理协议分组被交给路由选择守护程序294。 Routing protocol packets and management was handed over to the routing daemon 294. 路由选择守护程序294保持路由选择表供分组分类器293和分组调度器298使用。 Routing daemon 294 maintained a routing table for the packet classifier 293 and packet scheduler 298 to use. 被分类为标准IP分组的分组要么被传输到分组器/解分组器292,要么被传输到分组调度器298。 Standard IP packets are classified as either packet is transmitted to the packetizer / depacketizer 292 or is transmitted to the packet scheduler 298. 要转换成PCM音频的分组被传输到分组器/解分组器292。 To be converted to PCM audio packet is transmitted to the packetizer / depacketizer 292. 分组器/解分组器提取分组内容并交给编解码器291,后者将压缩音频转换成PCM音频,然后将PCM音频传输到PSTN接口290。 Packetizer / depacketizer and extracts the packet contents to a codec 291 which converts compressed audio into PCM audio and the PCM audio to the PSTN interface 290.

要发往其它因特网设备的标准IP分组被分组分类器293交给分组调度器298,后者根据路由选择表为分组选择外出网络接口。 We are to be sent to other devices standard Internet IP packets by the packet classifier 293 to the packet scheduler 298, which according to the routing table for the selected outgoing network interface packets. 分组被置于所选定外出网络接口的向外分组队列,然后分组被传输到高速网络接口296用于在因特网295上投递。 Packet is placed in the selected outgoing network interface outwardly packet queue, then the packet is transmitted to the high speed network interface 296 for delivery over the Internet 295.

D. D. 呼叫处理本节描述呼叫在上述网络上下文中是如何处理的。 Call Processing This section describes call in said network context is how to handle.

1. 1. VNET呼叫处理图10A表示一个公共交换网(PSTN)1000,它包含一个本地交换局(LEC)1020,主叫方是通过LEC用电话1021或计算机1030接入包括有多个MCI交换机1011、1010的交换网络的。 VNET Call Processing Figure 10A represents a public switched network (PSTN) 1000, which comprises a local exchange carrier (LEC) 1020, the caller via the telephone 1021 or LEC access computer 1030 comprises a plurality of MCI switches 1011,1010 switched network. 路由选择电话呼叫和其它信息的目录服务是由公共交换分机1041、1040与PSTN之间共享的目录服务1031提供的。 Routing phone calls and other directory service information is provided by public branch exchange 1041,1040 shared between the PSTN and the 1031 directory service.

这个情景集允许用户用PC、电话或二者来发出或接收VNET呼叫,在这个业务中,用户可以有下列设备:·使用VNET路由选择的电话现今能在MCI网络中得到。 This scenario sets allow the user to place or receive calls with VNET PC, phone, or both, in this business, you can have the following equipment: Use VNET routing phone today to get the MCI network. 在这种情况下,利用用户的VNET号码到达MCI PSTN网络的VNET呼叫是在DAP的辅助下路由选择的,正如它们现今路由选择的方式一样。 In this case, the user reaches the VNET VNET number MCI PSTN network call routing is assisted in the DAP, as the way they are the same as the current routing.

·具有因特网电话功能的PC。 · PC has an Internet phone function. 出入该PC的呼叫,是在跟踪VNET用户的登录状态和当前IP地址的因特网或内部网目录服务的辅助下路由选择的。 PC access to the call is in the tracking VNET user's login status and current auxiliary Internet or intranet directory service IP address routing.

·用一个PC和一个电话来接收和发出呼叫。 · To receive and place calls with a phone and a PC. 在这种情况下,一个用户轮廓中将含有能让DAP和目录服务决定是向PC还是向电话发送输入呼叫的信息。 In this case, a user profile will contain a directory service allows DAP and decide whether to call or send a message to the phone to enter the PC. 例如,用户可能总想在他们登录后让呼叫到达他们的PC,在所有其它时间到达他们的电话。 For example, you might always want to after they log in to make a call to reach their PC, to reach their phone at all other times. 或者,他们会希望他们的呼叫在正常工作时间内总是到达他们的PC,在其它时间到达他们的电话。 Or, they may want their calls always reach their PC during normal business hours, at other times to reach their phone. 这类对向电话还是向PC发送输入呼叫的决定的控制,可以由用户来控制。 Such control of the decision or send an incoming call to the PC to the phone, can be controlled by the user.

下列情况适用这个业务类型。 The following applies to this type of business.

1. 1. PC到PC呼叫,其中要向目录服务查询终端PC的位置。 PC-to-PC calls, which would like to directory inquiry services PC terminal position.

·用内部网作为传输机构连接到内部网的PC。 · PC connected to the internal network as a transport mechanism for the internal network.

·两个通过拨号接入与公司内部网相连的PC。 • Two PC via dial-up access to the corporate Intranet connected.

·独立的内部网上通过因特网连接的两个PC。 • Two independent internal PC network via an Internet connection.

·因特网上通过拨号连接的两个PC。 Two PC dial-up connection through the Internet *.

·一个PC直接连接到公司内部网,另一个PC用拨号连接到因特网。 · A PC directly connected to the corporate intranet, another PC with a dial-up connection to the Internet.

·一个PC用拨号连接到公司内部网,另一个PC用拨号连接到因特网。 · PC with a dial-up connection to a corporate intranet, another PC with a dial-up connection to the Internet.

·两个在独立的内部网上通过PSTN连接的PC。 · In two separate intranet PC PSTN connection through.

·一个或两个用拨号接入连接到公司内部网的PC。 • One or two with a dial-up connection to access the company intranet PC.

·一个或两个连接到因特网服务供应商的PC。 • One or two connections to the Internet service provider PC.

·一个或两个作为网内单元的ITG。 Or as a two-unit network ITG.

2. 2. PC到电话呼叫,其中要查寻目录服务来确定终端VNET是个电话。 PC-to-phone calls, in which to search the directory service to determine the terminal VNET is a phone call. PC然后与因特网电话网关联系向终端电话接入一个呼叫。 PC and Internet telephony gateways and then contact a telephone call to the access terminal.

·内部网上使用一个与PSTN连接的专用ITG的PC,其中ITG作为网络单元的外出单元。 · Intranet using a private ITG connected to the PSTN in the PC, which ITG as a network unit out unit. 目的地电话与PBX相连。 Destination telephone connected to the PBX.

·PC也可以用一个必须通过因特网接入的公共ITG。 · PC can also be used to access the Internet must be a public ITG.

·PC可以用拨号接入与公司内部网相连。 · PC can be connected by dial-up access to the corporate Intranet.

·内部网上使用一个与PSTN连接的专用ITG的PC,其中ITG作用网络内单元。 · Using a dedicated intranet ITG connected to the PSTN PC, wherein the network element ITG effect. 目的地电话与PSTN相连。 Destination telephone connected to the PSTN.

·PC也可以使用一个必须通过因特网接入的公共ITG。 · PC may also have to use a public access via the Internet ITG.

·PC可以用拨号接入与公司内部网相连。 · PC can be connected by dial-up access to the corporate Intranet.

·使用专用ITG连接到PSTN的内部网上的PC,以ITG作为网络内单元。 Use ITG connected to a dedicated intranet PC PSTN to the network element as ITG. 将目的地电话连接到该PSTN。 Connect the destination telephone to the PSTN.

·该PC也可采用必须通过因特网接入的公共ITG。 · The PC must also be used to access the Internet through public ITG.

·PC可以用拨号接入与公司内部网连接。 · PC can be connected by dial-up access to the corporate Intranet.

·ITG可以是一个网内单元。 · ITG may be within a network unit.

·内部网上使用一个与PBX连接的专用ITG的PC,其中通信是在内部网上传输的。 · Dedicated intranet ITG connected to a PBX of a PC, where the communication is transmitted on the Intranet.

·PC位于与目的地电话不同的站点,业务是在因特网或内部网上传输的。 · PC located at a different site and the destination telephone, the business is transferred over the Internet or intranet.

·PC可以采用到公司内部网的拨号连接。 · PC can be used to dial-up connection company intranet.

3. 3. 电话到PC呼叫,其中DAP或PBX促使因特网目录服务为呼叫的路由选择而标识终端IP地址和ITG。 PC to phone calls, which prompted DAP or PBX Internet directory services for the routing of calls and identifies the IP address of the terminal and ITG. 呼叫然后被通过PSTN路由选择到ITG,建立一个从ITG到目的地PC的连接。 Then the call is routed through the PSTN ITG selected to establish a connection from the ITG to the destination PC.

可能的变化:与PC到电话的变化相同。 Possible changes: to change the phone is the same as with a PC.

4. 4. 电话到电话呼叫,其中DAP或PBX必须查询目录服务来确定该呼叫应当终结于用户的电话还是PC。 Phone to phone calls, which the DAP or PBX must query the directory service to determine if the call should be terminated at the user's phone or PC. 可能的变化:·两个电话都在PBX上;·一个电话在PBX上,另一个电话在PSTN上;·两个电话都在PSTN上。 Possible changes: · two phones on the PBX; · a telephone on the PBX, the other phones on the PSTN; · two phones on the PSTN.

对于这些变化的每一种,DAP和目录服务可以是一个单一实体,或者可以是单独的实体。 For each of these variations, the DAP and Directory Service may be a single entity, or may be a separate entity. 目录服务可以是专用服务,或者可以是共享服务。 A directory service is a dedicated service, or may be a shared service. 下面将结合一个按照较佳实施例的呼叫流描述来讨论每一种情况。 Below in conjunction with a call flow description in accordance with preferred embodiments discussed in each case. 为了帮助对实施例的理解,下面列出了与每一个呼叫流图关联的块单元(block element)的描述。 To aid understanding of the embodiments described below are listed in FIG associated with each call flow block unit (block element) of.

2. 2. 块单元描述 Block units described

E. E. 可再用的呼叫流框 You can then call flow block of

1. 1. VNET PC连接到公司内部网并登录到目录服务 VNET PC connected to the corporate intranet and log into Directory Services 1. 1. PC的用户将他们的计算机连接到IP网络,打开计算机并启动IP电话软件包。 PC users to connect their computers to the IP network, turn on the computer and start the IP phone package. 软件包发送一个消息给目录服务,以便将计算机登记为“联机的”,可用于接收呼叫。 Software package sends a message to a directory service to register the computer as "online" and available to receive calls. 为了安全,这个联机登记消息极可能以加密的格式被发送给目录服务。 For safety, the online registration message is likely to be sent to the directory service in an encrypted format. 加密要基于一个在PC与目录服务之间共享的公用钥。 To encryption between the PC and based on a shared, common directory service key. 该消息含有下列信息:·可用来寻址这个计算机的某种计算机标识或者虚拟专用网络号。 The message contains the following information: * can be used to address some computer identifies the computer or virtual private network numbers. 在这个VNET情况中,这是为使用该PC的个人分配的VNET号。 VNET In this case, it is for the VNET number assigned personal use of the PC. 这个信息将用于标识与该用户关联的用户轮廓。 This information will be used for identifying a user profile associated with the user. 它也可以是目录服务能将其与VNET用户轮廓关联的某种标识,诸如名字、雇员ID或任何独有ID。 It can also be a directory service that can VNET user profile associated with some kind of identification, such as name, employee ID, or any unique ID.

·用于对VNET所标识的用户进行验证的口令或其它某种机制。 · VNET user for verifying the identified password or some other mechanism.

·标识正被用于将计算机与网络连接的端口的IP地址。 • Identify the IP address is being used to port the computer connected to the network. 该地址将被其它IP电话软件包用于建立与该计算机的连接。 The address will be other IP telephony software packages to establish a connection to the computer.

·该消息可含有关于正为IP电话使用的软件包的详细说明书和软件或PC的配置/功能的额外信息。 • This message may contain detailed instructions and software packages being used on IP phones or additional information about PC configuration / functions. 例如,对于主叫PC来说,了解正在使用的压缩算法的类型、或者软件或硬件可能影响其它用户与他们连接或在连接期间使用特殊功能部件的能力的其它能力,可能是重要的。 For example, for PC calling, the type of compression algorithm being used to understand, or other software or hardware that may affect the ability of other users to connect with them or use special features during connection capability, may be important.

由这个用户的数据分配实施(data distributionimplementation)来确定接收该“联机”消息的目录服务的位置。 In this embodiment the user data allocation (data distributionimplementation) receiving the determined "on-line" messages and services directory location. 在有些情况下,这可能是预订VNET业务的公司或组织的专用数据库,在其它情况下,这可能某服务供应商(MCI)的所有用户的国家或世界数据库。 In some cases, this may be a dedicated booking VNET business database company or organization, in other cases, this may be a service provider (MCI) of all the user's country or the world database. 这个位置是在PC上运行的电话软件包中配置的。 This location is phone packages that run on your PC configuration.

2. 2. 当目录服务从PC接收这个消息时,它要确认用户,方法是用该VNET号查阅用户轮廓,将用户轮廓中的口令与所接收的口令加以比较。 When the directory service receives this message from the PC, it is to confirm that the user, is to use the VNET number to view user profile, the user profile password to be compared with the password received. 用户一旦被确认,目录服务就对该VNET号(或其它独有ID)所关联的轮廓条目进行更新,以表示用户是“联机的”,位于该指定IP地址。 Once the user is confirmed, the directory service entries on the contour of the associated VNET number (or other unique ID) updated to indicate that the user is "online", located at the specified IP address. 目录服务也将用在登录请求期间发送的配置数据来更新轮廓。 The directory service will also be available during the configuration data sent login request to update the profile. 成功地更新轮廓后,目录服务向该指定IP地址发回一个表示消息被接收并得到处理的应答。 After successfully updated profile, a directory service to specify the IP address sends back a message indicating that the response is received and has been processed. 这个应答消息也可能含有某种密钥以保证在发出其它命令时与目录服务通信的安全。 This response message may also contain some kind of key to ensure security when issuing other commands to communicate with the directory service. 当PC接收了这个应答消息时,就选择通过可视或音响指示器来通知用户。 When the PC receives this response message, to notify the user selects by a visual or audible indicator.

联机登记的变化本节早些时候显示的呼叫流段显示的PC联机登记过程中,PC只是向目录服务发送一个口令就能登录。 PC online registration process call flow section of the online registration earlier changes shown in this section appears, PC just send a password to the directory service will be able to login. 下面的呼叫流段是这种登录过程的一种变异,其中目录服务提出一个难题,PC用户必须回答这个难题才能完成登录程序。 The following call flow segment is a variation of this login process, which presented a problem directory service, PC users must answer this challenge to complete the login procedure. 登录程序的这种变异,在本文件中任何呼叫流中都没有出现,但在它们任何一个中都能使用。 This variation login procedure, any call stream did not appear in this document, but can be used in any one of them. 1. 1. PC的用户将他们的计算机连接到IP网络,打开计算机并启动IP电话软件包。 PC users to connect their computers to the IP network, turn on the computer and start the IP phone package. 软件包发送一个消息给目录服务,以便将计算机登记为“联机的”,可用于接收呼叫。 Software package sends a message to a directory service to register the computer as "online" and available to receive calls. 为了安全,这个联机登记消息极可能以加密的格式被发送给目录服务器。 For safety, the online registration message is likely to be transmitted to the directory server in an encrypted format. 加密要基于一个在PC与目录服务器之间共享的公用钥。 To encrypt based on a directory server between the PC and shared a common key. 该消息含有下列信息:·可用来寻址这个计算机的某种计算机标识或者虚拟专用网络号。 The message contains the following information: * can be used to address some computer identifies the computer or virtual private network numbers. 在这个VNET情况中,这是为使用该PC的个人分配的VNET号。 VNET In this case, it is for the VNET number assigned personal use of the PC. 这个信息将用于标识与该用户关联的客户轮廓。 This information will be used to identify the user associated with the client profile. 它也可以是目录服务能将其与VNET用户轮廓关联的某种标识,诸如名字、雇员ID或任何独有ID。 It can also be a directory service that can VNET user profile associated with some kind of identification, such as name, employee ID, or any unique ID.

·标识正被用于将计算机与网络连接的端口的IP地址。 • Identify the IP address is being used to port the computer connected to the network. 该地址将被其它IP电话软件包用于建立与该计算机的连接。 The address will be other IP telephony software packages to establish a connection to the computer.

·该消息可含有关于正为IP电话使用的软件包的详细说明书和软件或PC的配置/能力的额外信息。 • This message may contain additional information about the software package being used for IP telephony detailed description and the PC software or configuration / capability. 例如,对于主叫PC来说,了解正在使用的压缩算法的类型、或者软件或硬件可能影响其它用户与他们连接或在连接期间使用特殊特征的能力的其它能力,可能是重要的。 For example, for PC calling, the type of compression algorithm being used to understand, or other software or hardware that may affect the ability of other users to connect with them or use special features during connection capability, may be important.

由这个用户的数据分配实施来确定接收该“联机”消息的目录服务的位置。 The user data allocated by the embodiment of the directory service to determine whether the received "on-line" position messages. 在有些情况下,这可能是预订VNET服务的公司或组织的专用数据库,其它情况下,这可能是某服务供应商(MCI)的所有客户的国家或世界数据库。 In some cases, this may be the book VNET services dedicated database company or organization, under other circumstances, this may be a service provider (MCI) of all customer's country or the world database. 这个位置是在PC上运行的电话软件包中配置的。 This location is phone packages that run on your PC configuration.

2. 2. 在这个情况下,PC不在初始登记消息中提供口令。 In this case, PC does not provide a password in the initial registration message. 这是因为,目录服务采用的是难题/应答登记过程。 This is because the directory service uses a problem / answer registration process. 在这种情况下,目录服务将采用一个共享钥来设计要向PC提出的难题。 In this case, the directory service will use a shared key design challenge would like to propose the PC.

3. 3. PC接收这个难题并将其表示给PC用户。 PC receives this puzzle and representation to the PC user. PC用户用该共享钥推算对难题的应答,然后将应答发送回目录服务。 PC users projections response to problems with the shared key, and then sends a response back to the directory service.

4. 4. 当目录服务从PC接收这个应答时,它就确认用户。 When the directory service receives this response from the PC, it will confirm the user. 用户一旦被确认,目录服务就对该VNET号(或其它独有ID)所关联的轮廓条目进行更新,以表示用户是“联机的”,并位于该指定IP地址。 Once the user is confirmed, the directory service entries on the contour of the associated VNET number (or other unique ID) updated to indicate that the user is "on-line" and is located in the designated IP address. 目录服务也将用在登录请求期间发送的配置数据来更新轮廓。 The directory service will also be available during the configuration data sent login request to update the profile. 成功地更新轮廓后,目录服务向该指定IP地址发回一个表示消息被接收并得到处理的应答。 After successfully updated profile, a directory service to specify the IP address sends back a message indicating that the response is received and has been processed. 这个应答消息也可能含有某种密钥以保证在发出其它命令时与目录服务通信的安全。 This response message may also contain some kind of key to ensure security when issuing other commands to communicate with the directory service. 当PC接收了这个应答消息时,就选择通过可视或音响指示器来通知用户。 When the PC receives this response message, to notify the user selects by a visual or audible indicator.

2. 2. VNET PC向目录服务询问VNET转换 VNET VNET PC asked to convert a directory service 1. 1. PC用因特网电话软件包来试图连接到一个VNET号。 PC with Internet telephony software packages to try to connect to a VNET number. 为了建立这个连接,PC用户拨该VNET号(或者诸如名字、雇员ID等的其它独有ID)。 In order to establish this connection, PC user dials the VNET number (or such as name, employee ID, etc. Other unique ID). 电话软件包确定这个呼叫是个VNET类型的呼叫后,就向目录服务发送一个转换请求。 Phone packages to determine the call after a VNET type of call, it sends a conversion request to the directory service. 该转换请求至少要包含以下信息:·发送该请求的计算机的IP地址。 The conversion request must contain at least the following information: - the computer sends the IP address of the request.

·发送该请求的PC的VNET号。 • Send a PC VNET number of the request.

·要拨叫的计算机的VNET号(或其它ID)。 · The computer you want to call VNET number (or other ID).

·为连接而请求的配置。 · Configured for connection requests. 例如,主叫PC可能想要用电话软件包内的白板(white-board)功能,并可能希望在建立连接之前确认目的地PC上的这个功能。 For example, the caller might want PC functionality with white (white-board) in the phone package, and may want to confirm this function on the destination PC before the connection is established. 如果VNET号不转换到PC,这个配置信息可能不会提供任何好处,但是用户不能在发送该请求的同时就知道该VNET号将转换到PC还是电话。 If the VNET number does not convert to a PC, this configuration may not provide any benefit, but at the same time the user can not send the request to know the VNET number to convert to a PC or phone.

2. 2. 当目录服务接收这个信息时,它用VNET号(或其它ID)来确定VNET号(或其它ID)关联的用户是否是“联机的”,并标识可以与计算机联系的位置的IP地址。 When the directory service receives this message, it uses VNET number (or other ID) to determine the VNET number (or other ID) is associated with the user whether or not "online", the IP address and location identification may be associated with the computer. 这个目录服务也可含有并利用时间路由选择、星期路由选择、ANSI屏蔽等特征。 This directory service may also contain and use time routing, week routing, ANSI shielding characteristics.

如果VNET号转换到一个“联机的”PC,目录服务就将这个请求中的配置信息与目的地PC的轮廓中可用的配置信息进行比较。 If the VNET number converted into a "online" PC, directory service configuration information will be available this request configuration information and the destination PC contours are compared. 当目录服务从始发PC向转换请求返回应答时,该应答将包括:·目的地PC登记的“联机”IP地址。 When the directory service requests originating from the PC to the converter returns a response, the response will include: - the destination PC registration "on-line" IP address. 这是始发PC可用于联系目的地PC的IP地址。 This is the originating PC can be used to link the IP address of the destination PC.

·表示目的地PC的能力的配置信息,可能还有关于始发与目的地PC之间哪些能力是兼容的某种信息。 · Indicate the ability of the destination PC configuration information, there may be between the originating and destination PC on which capabilities are compatible with certain information.

如果VNET号转换到一个必须通过PSTN拨叫的号,则发给PC的应答消息将含有以下内容:-可用于在MCI的PSTN上得到这一呼叫的因特网电话网关的IP地址。 If the VNET number to convert a number to be dialed by PSTN, the PC issued a response message will contain the following: - can be used to obtain the IP address of the Internet telephony gateway calls on MCI's PSTN. 可以根据许多选择算法来选择这个网关。 The gateway can be selected based on a number of selection algorithm. 主叫者与所要使用的ITG之间的关联,是根据目录服务内所含的轮廓中的信息来决定的。 The association between the caller and the ITG to be used, the profile is based on the information contained within the directory service to decide.

-要由ITG拨打以连接目的地电话的VNET号。 - To dial the destination telephone number to connect VNET by ITG. 就这个呼叫流而言,这是目的地电话的VNET号。 In terms of the call flow, which is the destination phone number VNET. 这允许呼叫使用由DAP提供的现有的VNET转换和路由选择机制。 This allows the use of existing VNET call switching and routing mechanism provided by DAP.

如果VNET号转换到一个可以通过与用户PBX连接的专用ITG到达的电话,则目录服务将返回以下内容:-与服务该目的地电话的PBX连接的ITG网关的VNET号。 If you convert to a VNET number can be reached through a private ITG connected to the user's PBX phone, the directory service returns the following: - VNET number ITG gateway to the destination telephone connection to the service of the PBX. 目的地电话与连接到其服务PBX的ITG之间的关联是由目录服务决定的。 The association between the destination telephone connected to the PBX ITG their services is determined by the directory service.

-向PBX提供呼叫时ITG要拨打的VNET号。 - VNET number when providing call to PBX ITG want to call. 大多数情况下,这只是一个分机号码。 In most cases, this is just an extension number.

3. 3. PC连接到ITG PC connection to ITG 1. 1. PC用其因特网电话软件包向ITG发送一个“连接”消息。 ITG PC to send a "connect" message with its Internet telephone software package. 这个IP地址一般是为响应VNET转换而从目录服务返回的。 The IP address is usually in response to VNET conversion returned from the directory service. 这个消息的特定格式和内容取决于发送消息的软件或接收该消息的ITG软件。 A specific format and content of the message depends on the software sending the message or receives the message ITG software. 这个消息可含有表示PC的用户的信息,或者可含有规定与所请求连接关联的参数的信息。 This message may contain information indicating the user's PC, or may contain information of a predetermined connection parameters associated with the request.

2. 2. ITG通过用一个表示已经接收到呼叫的应答来响应该消息响应该连接消息。 ITG represented by using a response has been received in response to the call message in response to the connection message. 对于PC呼叫ITG来说,可能并不需要这个呼叫建立的步骤,但是本文在这里表示出来,目的是保持一个一致的、取决于PC与ITG还是另一个PC相连的呼叫建立过程。 ITG for PC calling, it may not require this step for call establishment, but represented here in this article, the purpose is to maintain a consistent, depending on the PC or with another call ITG connected PC setup process. 当与PC相连时,这个过程的步骤允许主叫PC知道目的地PC正在振铃。 When connected to a PC, the steps of this process allows the caller to know the destination PC PC is ringing.

3. 3. ITG接受该呼叫。 ITG accept the call.

4. 4. ITG与PC之间建立一个话音通路。 Establishing a voice path between the ITG and the PC.

4. 4. ITG连接到PC ITG is connected to the PC 1. 1. ITG用其电话软件向PC发送一个“连接”消息。 ITG send a "connect" message to their phone with a PC software. ITG必须知道它正在连接的PC的IP地址。 ITG must know the IP address of the PC it is connected. 这个消息的特定格式和内容取决于发送消息的ITG软件或接收该消息的PC软件。 A specific format and content of the message depends on the ITG software sending the message or the PC software to receive the message. 这个消息可含有标识这个呼叫是从ITG提供的信息,或者可含有规定为该呼叫所请求的配置(即仅话音呼叫)的信息。 This message may contain the call identifying information provided from ITG, or may contain information that the requested call a predetermined configuration (i.e. voice only call).

2. 2. 步骤1的消息被PC接收,通过向ITG发回一个表示PC正在向PC用户提供呼叫的消息来确认该消息的接收。 Step message is received PC 1, to confirm receipt of the message by sending back to the ITG PC represents a message call is being provided to the PC user.

3. 3. PC用户回答呼叫,向始发PC发回一个表示呼叫已经被接受的消息。 PC user answers the call to the originating PC sends back a call has been accepted message indicates.

4. 4. ITG与PC之间建立一个话音通路。 Establishing a voice path between the ITG and the PC.

5. 5. VNET PC到PC呼叫流描述PC12 1051的用户将计算机连接到互连网协议(IP)网络1071,打开计算机并启动IP电话软件协议系统。 VNET PC to PC Call Flow Description PC12 1051 connects the computer to the user's Internet Protocol (IP) network 1071, and the computer starts to open the IP telephony software protocol system. 系统软件发送一个消息给目录服务1031,以便将计算机登记为“联机的”,可用于接收呼叫。 The system software transmits a message to the directory service 1031 to register the computer as "online" and available to receive calls. 该消息含有标识正用来将该计算机连接到网络的连接IP地址。 The message contains the identifier being used to connect a computer to the IP address of the network connection. 该地址可被其它IP电话软件包用于建立与该计算机的连接。 This address can be another IP phone software packages to establish a connection to the computer. 这个地址包含可用来寻址该计算机1051的计算机标识或虚拟专用网络号。 This address can be used to contain the address of the computer 1051 is a computer or virtual private network identification number. 在这个VNET情况下,地址是为使用PC的个人分配的VNET号。 VNET In this case, the address is for the personal use of the PC VNET number assigned. VNET指的是一种虚拟网络,其中支持特定电话号码集作为能交换呼叫的号码的专用网络。 VNET refers to a virtual network, which supports a particular phone number set as the calling number to exchange private network. 许多公司当前为接入和接收公司问呼叫而购买用作专用通信信道的干线上的通信时问。 Many companies currently asked to call and receive access communication company to ask to buy the trunk used as a dedicated communication channel. 地址也可以是诸如名字、雇员ID或任何其它独有ID的某种标识。 Address can also be such as name, employee ID, or any other unique ID of some kind of identity.

该消息可含有其它有关用于IP电话使用的PC11 1051的系统软件的详细说明书或硬件配置的信息。 The message may contain additional information on the software for PC11 1051 IP phones or the detailed description of the hardware configuration. 例如,对于主叫PC来说,知道正受支持并在当前通信中活动的的压缩算法的类型、或者软件或硬件可能影响其它用户连接或在连接期间使用特殊功能部件的能力的其它能力,可能是重要的。 For example, for a calling PC to know n and activities supported by the current communication of the type of compression algorithm, or other software or hardware may affect the ability of other users to connect or use special features during a connection capability, may is important.

6. 6. 为因特网上的因特网电话网关服务器的因特网客户机选择来确定最佳选择图10B表示按照较佳实施例的一个因特网路由选择网络。 Internet clients choose Internet telephone gateway server on the Internet to determine the best choice FIG. 10B shows a selecting Internet routing network according to preferred embodiments. 如果因特网上的客户计算机1080需要连接到因特网电话网关1084,根据客户机的需要,对网关的理想选择不外乎有两类:如果客户计算机1080需要将电话呼叫接到正规PSTN电话,并确定使用PSTN网络比使用因特网网络更便宜或质量更高,则最佳选择是选择一个允许客户机从与因特网接入点“最近的”一个点接入PSTN网络。 If the client computer on the Internet needs to be connected to the 1080 Internet Telephony Gateway 1084, according to the client's needs, nothing more than an ideal choice for Gateway There are two types: If the client computer 1080 requires a phone call to a regular PSTN phone, and determine PSTN network is cheaper than using an Internet network or higher quality, the best choice is a choice to allow clients from the Internet access point "nearest" point of access to a PSTN network. 这通常称作为首端起飞(HEHO-Head-End Hop-Off),其中客户机在因特网的“首端”或“近端”飞离(hop off)因特网。 This is often referred to as end led off (HEHO-Head-End Hop-Off), where the client in the "head end" or "proximal" Internet-fly (hop off) the Internet.

如果客户计算机1080需要将电话呼叫接到正规PSTN电话,并确定使用PSTN网络比使用因特网网络更贵,则最佳选择是选择一个允许客户机从因特网与目的地电话最近的一个点接入PSTN网络。 If the client computer 1080 requires a phone call to a regular PSTN phone, and determine the use of the PSTN network is more expensive than using the Internet network, the best option is to allow clients to select a destination from the Internet and telephone the nearest point of access to a PSTN network . 这通常称作为尾端起飞(TEHO-Tail-End Hop-Off),其中客户机在因特网的“尾端”或“远端”飞离(hop off)因特网。 This is often referred to as the end of the take-off (TEHO-Tail-End Hop-Off), where the client in the "tail end" or "distal" Internet-fly (hop off) the Internet.

a)首端起飞方法(1)客户机乒(ping)方法该方法通过获得候选因特网电话网关地址的列表,通过乒每个地址,为首端起飞因特网电话网关选择最佳选择方案,根据路由器跳跃段的等待时间和数量,确定最佳选择方案。 a) the head-end take-off method (1) Client Ping (ping) by a method which obtained the list of candidate internet telephony gateway addresses, each address by a ping, off the headend to select the best Internet Telephony Gateway options, according to the router hops the waiting time and number, determine the best options.

□客户计算机1080查询目录服务1082来获得因特网电话网关的列表。 □ client computer directory inquiries service 1080 1082 to obtain a list of Internet telephony gateways.

□目录服务1082查找网关数据库,选择作为候选向客户机提供的网关列表。 □ 1082 directory service lookup database gateway, the gateway as a candidate selection list provided to the client. 选择候选网关的标准可能包括:□上一次选择的网关。 Selecting a candidate gateway criteria might include: □ on a selected gateway.

□在IPv4地址匹配1、2或3个八位组。 □ the IPv4 address matching, two or three octets.

□上一个客户机接入点(如果已知的话)。 □ on a client access point (if known).

□从所有主要网关站点选择至少一个网关(如果可行的话)。 □ select at least one gateway gateways from all major sites (if applicable).

□目录服务1082在TCP/IP消息中向客户计算机1080返回一列“n”个候选IP地址。 □ 1082 directory service returns an "n" candidate IP addresses to client computers in 1080 TCP / IP messages.

□客户计算机1080同时地用IP乒向各候选因特网电话网关1084、1081、1086发送一个回声类型的消息。 □ client computer 1080 simultaneously with each candidate IP ping an Internet telephone gateway sends a message type echo 1084,1081,1086. 乒命令将用“-r”选择项去获得跟踪路由。 Ping command will use the "-r" option to get trace route.

□根据对各因特网电话网关的乒结果,客户机1080将按下列方法排定乒结果的次序:□如果乒跟踪路由表明,有任何因特网电话网关能被客户机1080不经过中间路由器就能访问,则这些因特网电话网关被列在前面。 □ According to the order of ping results for each Internet telephony gateway, client 1080 according to the following method scheduled ping results: □ If the ping trace route shows that there can be any Internet Telephony Gateway 1080 client can access without going through an intermediate router, these Internet telephony gateway is listed first.

□其余因特网电话网关按照往返乒结果的最低等待时间的次序排队。 □ The remaining Internet Telephony Gateway line up in order of lowest latency round trip ping results.

采用结合上述采样网络拓扑的客户机乒方法,客户计算机1080向目录服务1082查询要乒的因特网电话网关列表。 Using a combination of the above sampling network topology client ping method, the client computer 1080 to 1082 Directory Inquiries service to ping the Internet gateway list. 目录服务1082返回列表:166.37.61.117166.25.27.101166.37.27.205客户计算机1080同时发出下列三个命令:ping 166.37.61.117-r1ping 166.25.27.101-r1ping 166.37.27.205-r1乒命令的结果如下: 1082 directory service returns a list: 166.37.61.117166.25.27.101166.37.27.205 client computer 1080 also issued the following three commands: the results of ping 166.37.61.117-r1ping 166.25.27.101-r1ping 166.37.27.205-r1 ping command is as follows:

用32字节的数据乒166.37.61.117:从166.37.61.117的回答:字节=32时间=3ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101从166.37.61.117的回答:字节=32时间=2ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101从166.37.61.117的回答:字节=32时间=2ms TTL=31路由:166.37.61.101从166.37.61.117的回答:字节=32时间=2ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101用32字节的数据乒166.25.27.101:从166.25.27.101的回答:字节=32时间=14ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101从166.25.27.101的回答:字节=32时间=2ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101从166.25.27.101的回答:字节=32时间=3ms TTL=31路由:166.37.61.101从166.25.27.101的回答:字节=32时间=4ms TTL=30路由:166.37.61.101用32字节的数据乒166.37.27.205:从166.37.27.205的回答:字节=32时间=1ms TTL=126路由:166.37.27.205从166.37.27.205的回答:字节=32时间=1ms TTL=126路由:166.37.27.205从166.37.27.205的回答:字节=32时间=1ms TTL=126路由:166.37.27.205从166.37.27.205的回答:字节=32时间 With 32 bytes of data ping 166.37.61.117: From the answer 166.37.61.117: bytes = 32 time = 3ms TTL = 30 Route: 166.37.61.101 166.37.61.117 from the Answer: bytes = 32 time = 2ms TTL = 30 route: 166.37.61.101 166.37.61.117 from the answer: bytes = 32 time = 2ms TTL = 31 route: 166.37.61.101 166.37.61.117 from the answer: bytes = 32 time = 2ms TTL = 30 route: 166.37.61.101 with ping 166.25.27.101 32 bytes of data: the answer from 166.25.27.101: bytes = 32 time = 14ms TTL = 30 route: 166.37.61.101 166.25.27.101 answer from: bytes = 32 time = 2ms TTL = 30 route : 166.37.61.101 166.25.27.101 answer from: bytes = 32 time = 3ms TTL = 31 route: 166.37.61.101 166.25.27.101 answer from: bytes = 32 time = 4ms TTL = 30 route: 166.37.61.101 with 32 ping 166.37.27.205 bytes of data: the answer from 166.37.27.205: bytes = 32 time = 1ms TTL = 126 route: 166.37.27.205 166.37.27.205 answer from: bytes = 32 time = 1ms TTL = 126 route: answer from 166.37.27.205 166.37.27.205: bytes = 32 time = 1ms TTL = 126 route: 166.37.27.205 166.37.27.205 answer from: bytes = 32 time =1ms TTL=126路由:166.37.27.205由于被带到166.37.27.205路由不经历路由器(路由和乒地址相同),所以将这个地址列为首位。 = 1ms TTL = 126 Route: 166.37.27.205 166.37.27.205 route is due to being subjected to the routers (route and ping the same address), so that this address is ranked the highest. 其余的因特网电话网关地址按平均等待时间排位。 The rest of the Internet telephony gateway address in the average waiting time qualifying. 结果的因特网电话网关地址最佳排位是:166.37.27.205166.37.61.117 Internet telephony gateway address is the best qualifying result: 166.37.27.205166.37.61.117

166.25.27.101首选网关是最可能提供高质量服务的网关,因为它位于相同的局域网上。 166.25.27.101 preferred gateway is most likely to provide high quality services gateway, because it is located on the same local area network. 这个网关将是用户第一个试图使用的网关。 The gateway will be the user first attempts to use the gateway.

(2)接入设备位置方法该为因特网电话网关确定最适当选择的方法,采用的是上述客户机乒方法和了解客户机1080从何处接入因特网的组合方法。 (2) The method of determining the position of the access device most appropriate for the selected Internet Telephony Gateway, the client machine uses a ping method and understanding the client 1080 from a combination of the method where the access to the Internet. 这种方法适合通过拨号接入设备接入因特网的客户机。 This method is suitable access device to access the Internet via dial-up clients.

客户计算机1080拨叫因特网接入设备。 1080 client computer dials an Internet access device. 接入设备回答该呼叫并播放调制解调器音。 Access device answers the call and plays modem tone. 然后,客户计算机与接入设备建立一个PPP话路。 Then, the client computer and the access device to establish a PPP session. 客户机上的用户被验证(用户名/口令提示,由验证服务器确认)。 The user is validated on the client (user name / password prompt, confirmed by the authentication server). 用户通过验证后,接入设备就能自动地为验证过的用户更新目录服务中的用户轮廓,存储下列信息:“用户名”“帐户代码”“联机记时标记”“接入设备站点代码”以后,当客户机要求通过因特网电话网关接入时,它就查询目录服务1082来确定对因特网电话网关的最佳选择。 After the user is authenticated, the access device can be automatically authenticated for the user profile of the user to update the directory service, store the following message: "User Name", "Account Code" "mark online mind," "Access Device Site Code" later, when the client requires access to the Internet telephony gateway, it will query the directory service 1082 to determine the best choice for Internet telephony gateway. 如果在目录服务上的用户轮廓中发现有接入设备站点代码,目录服务1082就选择位于相同站点代码的因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086,将IP地址返回给客户机1080。 If the user profile on the directory service access devices were found in the site code, then select the directory service 1082 Internet Telephony Gateway located at the same site code of 1084,1081 and 1086, the IP address is returned to the client 1080. 如果在与接入设备站点代码相同的站点没有可用的因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086,则要根据目录服务上保留的网络拓扑图来选择下一个最佳选择方案。 If the access device with the site code of the site is not available for the same Internet telephone gateway 1084,1081 and 1086, according to the network topology will have retained from the directory service to select the next best options.

如果在目录服务1082没有发现接入设备站点代码,说明客户机1080曾通过某个不能更新目录服务1082的设备接入过网络。 If no site code access devices in the directory service 1082, 1080 was explained by a client can not update the directory access device 1082 through network services. 在这种情况下,就用上述的客户机乒方法来定位最佳替用的因特网电话网关1084。 In this case, the client pings using the above method to locate the best alternative internet telephony gateway by 1084.

(3)用户轮廓方法另一个选择因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086的方法是将选择网关所需的信息嵌入目录服务器上存储的用户轮廓中。 (3) User Profile Method Another method for selecting an Internet telephone gateway 1084,1081 and 1086 is to embed the desired message gateway user profile stored on the directory server. 要采用这个方法,用户必须在客户机上执行一个因特网电话软件包。 To adopt this method, the user must perform an Internet phone software package on the client. 软件包第一次执行时,要从用户收集登记信息,包括名字、电子邮件地址、IP地址(对于固定计算机)、站点代码、帐户代码、通常的因特网接入点,以及其它相关信息。 When the package first run, collect registration information from the user, including name, email address, IP address (for stationary machines), site code, account code, the usual Internet access points, and other relevant information. 用户输入这些信息后,软件包就将信息存储到目录服务器上的用户轮廓内。 After the user enters the information, the package will be stored in the user profile information on the directory server.

每当用户启动因特网电话软件包时,用户的IP地址就在目录服务自动更新。 Whenever a user starts Internet phone software package, the user's IP address is automatically updated in the directory service. 这叫自动存在通知。 This is called automatic presence notification. 以后,当用户需要因特网电话网关服务时,用户就查询目录服务,寻找要使用的因特网电话网关。 Later, when the user needs an Internet telephony gateway service, users will query the directory service to find an Internet telephony gateway to use. 目录服务知道用户的IP地址以及用户的通常站点和网络接入点。 Directory service knows the user's IP address and the user is typically the site and network access point. 目录服务可用这个信息加上所有因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086的网络图,来选择最佳的因特网电话网关供客户机使用。 Directory Services can use this information plus all Internet telephony gateway network diagram 1084,1081 and 1086, to select the best Internet telephony gateway for clients to use.

(4)网关乒方法为首端起飞因特网电话网关选择最佳选择方案的最后方法是,获得候选因特网电话网关地址的列表,通过乒每个地址,就路由器跳跃段的等待时间和数量,确定最佳选择方案。 (4) Gateway Ping Method headend off the Internet telephone gateway selection last option is the best method to obtain a list of candidate internet telephony gateway addresses, each address by a ping, and on the number of router hops the latency period, to determine the best Options. 过程如下:□客户计算机查询目录服务,以获得最佳选择的因特网电话网关。 As follows: □ client computers query the directory service to get the best choice of Internet telephony gateway.

□目录服务查找网关数据库,选择作为候选向客户机提供的网关列表。 □ directory service lookup database gateway, the gateway as a candidate selection list provided to the client. 选择候选网关的标准可能包括:□上一次选择的网关。 Selecting a candidate gateway criteria might include: □ on a selected gateway.

□在IPv4地址匹配1、2或3个八位组。 □ the IPv4 address matching, two or three octets.

□上一个客户机接入点(如果已知的话)。 □ on a client access point (if known).

□从所有主要网关站点选择至少一个网关(如果可行的话)。 □ select at least one gateway gateways from all major sites (if applicable).

□目录向各候选网关发送消息,指示各网关去乒客户机的IP地址。 □ directory sends a message to each candidate gateway, the gateway to ping each indicating the IP address of the client.

□各候选因特网电话网关同时用IP乒命令向客户机发送一个回声类型的消息。 □ Each candidate gateway simultaneously transmit Internet telephone of a type echo message to the client with IP ping command. 乒命令将用“-r”选择项去获得跟踪路由。 Ping command will use the "-r" option to get trace route. 乒结果从各候选网关返回到目录服务。 Table tennis results returned from each candidate gateway to the directory service.

□根据对各因特网电话网关的乒结果,目录服务将按下列方法排定乒结果的次序:□如果乒跟踪路由表明,有任何因特网电话网关能被客户机不经过中间路由器就能访问,则这些因特网电话网关被列在前面。 □ According to the results of ping each Internet telephony gateways, directory services will be the order of the following methods scheduled ping results: □ If the ping trace route shows that there can be any Internet Telephony Gateway clients can access without going through an intermediate router, these Internet telephony gateway is listed first.

□其余因特网电话网关按照往返乒结果的最低等待时间的次序排队。 □ The remaining Internet Telephony Gateway line up in order of lowest latency round trip ping results.

客户机乒方法和网关乒方法可以用跟踪路由程序来代替乒程序,为首端跳离网关确定最佳选择方案。 Client Ping Method and Gateway Ping Method may be used instead of ping traceroute program, the headend jumped off the gateway determining the best options.

b)尾端起飞方法尾端起飞要选择因特网的一个网关作为一个外出点,外出点要尽可能地离终结PSTN位置最近。 b) the end of the end of the takeoff takeoff method to select a gateway to the Internet as a point to go out, go out as much as possible from the end point to the nearest PSTN position. 一般希望避免较高的PSTN呼叫费率。 It is generally desirable to avoid higher PSTN calling rates. 可用因特网将分组化话音传输到目的地电话号码的本地呼叫地区,在这里进行PSTN上的通话可付较低的本地费率。 The Internet can be used to packetized voice transmission local calling area of ​​the destination telephone number, where a call on the PSTN local rates can be paid lower.

(1)网关登记尾端起飞服务的一个方法是让因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086向目录服务登记。 A method (1) gateway services off the end of the registration is to make Internet telephony gateway 1084,1081 and 1086 directory service to register. 各因特网电话网关将在目录服务中有一个轮廓,列举其服务的呼叫地区。 Each Internet telephony gateway will have a profile in the directory service, call list their areas of service. 这些地区可以以国家代码、地区代码、交换局、城市代码、无线小区、LATA或其它能用来限制编号方案范围的方法来列举。 These areas may be country code, area code, exchange, city code, wireless cell, LATA, or other numbering schemes can be used to limit the scope of the recited method. 网关在启动后向目录服务器1082发送一个登记消息以列举其服务的地区。 After starting the gateway sends a registration message to the directory server 1082 to list their areas of service.

当客户计算机希望使用TEHO服务时,就查询目录服务,查找为所需目的地电话号码服务的因特网电话网关1084。 When customers wish to use a computer TEHO service, it queries the directory service to find an Internet Telephony Gateway 1084 as a desired destination telephone number service. 目录服务1082寻找合格的因特网电话网关,如果找到一个,就返回要使用的网关的IP地址。 1082 directory service to find qualified Internet telephony gateway, if one is found, it returns the gateway to use the IP address. 可以用负载平衡算法来平衡在为同一个目的地电话号码服务的因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086上的通信量。 Load balancing algorithms can be used to balance the traffic over the Internet telephony gateways for the same destination telephone number service 1084,1081 and 1086.

如果没有因特网电话网关1084、1081和1086专门为给定目的地电话号码的呼叫地区服务,目录服务1082就向客户计算机1080返回一个出错TCP/IP消息。 If there is no Internet telephony gateway 1084,1081 and 1086 specifically for a given destination telephone number of call regional service, directory service 1082 returns an error to the client computer 1080 TCP / IP messages. 客户计算机1080然后可以选择查询目录服务,查找任何因特网电话网关-不只是服务特定目的地电话号码的网关。 1080 client computer can then select the directory inquiry service, look for any Internet telephony gateway - not just serving gateway specific destination telephone number.

作为对这种网关登记方案的改进,网关可以登记为所有呼叫地区提供的呼叫费率。 As an improvement to this scheme the gateway register, the gateway may be registered as a calling rates provided for all calling areas. 例如,如果在西雅图(Seatle)没有网关可用,那么从洛杉矶(Los Angeles)中的网关呼叫西雅图可能会比从波特兰(Portland)中的网关呼叫西雅图更加便宜。 For example, if (Seatle) there is no gateway is available in Seattle, then Seattle may call cheaper than calling from Seattle (Portland) gateway from Portland (Los Angeles) in Los Angeles gateway. 目录服务中登记的费率能让目录服务为任何特定呼叫采用最低费用的网关。 Registered in the directory service directory service rates make the use of gateways lowest rates for any particular call.

7. 7. Vnet呼叫处理图11是按照较佳实施例的一个呼叫流图。 Vnet Call Processing Figure 11 is a call flow diagram according to the preferred embodiment. 处理在1101开始,接收“联机”消息的目录服务的位置将由这个用户的数据分布工具来确定。 The process starts at 1101, receiving the "on-line" position of service directory message by the user's data distribution tools to identify. 在有些情况下,这可能是预订VNET服务的公司或组织的专用数据库,在其它情况下,可能是某服务供应商(MCI)的所有用户的国家或世界数据库。 In some cases, this may be the book VNET services dedicated database company or organization, in other cases, it may be a service provider (MCI) of all the user's country or the world database. 当目录服务从PC12 1051接收这个消息时,它要对该独有ID所关联的轮廓条目进行更新,以表示用户是“联机的”,位于指定IP地址。 When the directory service receives this message from the PC12 1051, it should be the entry outline the associated unique ID updated to indicate that the user is "online", at the specified IP address. 然后在1102,在成功地更新该ID关联的轮廓后,目录服务向该指定IP地址发回一个表示消息被接收并得到处理的应答(ACK)。 Then in 1102, after the profile of the associated ID is successfully updated, the directory service sends back to the specified IP address is received and a message indicating to give acknowledgment (ACK) processing. 当计算机(PC12)接收了这个应答消息时,就选择通过可视或音响指示器来通知用户。 When the computer (in PC12) receives this response message, to notify the user selects by a visual or audible indicator.

在1103,PC11 1052的用户连接计算机到IP网络,打开计算机并启动电话系统软件。 In 1103, PC11 1052 users to connect a computer to the IP network, turn on the computer and start the telephone system software. 这个计算机的登记过程与PC12 1051的登记过程相同。 This registration process computer PC12 1051 and the registration process is the same. 在这个情况下,假定接收这个消息的目录服务要么在逻辑上要么在物理上与从PC12 1051接收消息的目录服务相同。 In this case, assume that the directory service receiving this message is either physically or in the directory service receiving a message from the same PC12 1051 logically.

在1104,当目录服务1031从PC11 1052接收一个消息时,它启动一个与从PC12 1051接收消息后所遵循的过程类似的过程。 In 1104, when the directory service 1031 receives a message from PC11 1052, it starts a procedure similar to PC12 1051 receives the message from the process that is followed. 然而,在这种情况下,它将更新与从PC11 1052接收的标识符关联的轮廓。 However, in this case, it will update identifier associated with the profile received from PC11 1052. 由于被更新的轮廓信息,当从目录服务发出应答消息时,应答消息被发往与PC11 1052关联的IP地址。 Since the updated profile information when issuing a reply message from the directory service, the reply message is sent to the IP address associated with the 1052 PC11. 这时,两个计算机(PC12 1051和PC11 1052)都是“联机的”,可用来接收呼叫。 In this case, two computers (PC12 1051 and PC11 1052) are "online", is available to receive calls.

在1105,PC12 1051用它的电话系统软件来连接计算机PC111052。 In 1105, PC12 1051 with its phone system software to connect your computer PC111052. 为了建立这个连接,PC12 1051的用户拨VNET号(或者其它独有ID诸如名字、雇员ID等等)。 In order to establish this connection, PC12 1051 users to dial VNET number (or other unique ID, such as name, employee ID, etc.). 根据客户网络的实现情况以及软件包,可能必须在这个拨号串中加入一个独有的网络标识符。 According to the achievement of a customer's network and software package, you may have to join a unique network identifier in the dial string. 例如,在一个VNET电话实现中,可能会要求用户在拨VNET号之前输入数字8,以向PBX发出信号,表示在用VNET网络来传递呼叫。 For example, in a telephone VNET implementation that may require the user to enter the number 8 prior to dialing VNET number to signal to the PBX, represented by the VNET network to route the call. 一旦电话软件包确定这个呼叫是个VNET类型的呼叫,它就向目录服务发送一个转换请求。 Once the phone call is a software package to determine the VNET type of call, it sends a conversion request to the directory service. 该转换请求至少要包含以下信息:-发送该请求的计算机(PC12 1051)的IP地址。 The conversion request must contain at least the following information: - the computer transmits the request (PC12 1051) IP address.

□要拨叫的计算机的VNET号(或其它ID)。 □ computer to dial VNET number (or other ID).

在1106,当目录服务接到这个消息时,就用VNET号(或其它ID)来确定与该VNET号关联的用户是否是“联机的”,并标识能联系计算机的位置的IP地址。 In 1106, when the directory service receives this message, use VNET number (or other ID) to determine whether a user associated with the VNET number is "online", and identifies the location of the computer can contact the IP address. 任何其它能得到的关于正在联系的计算机(PC11 1052)的信息,诸如压缩算法或特殊的硬件或软件能力,也可能被目录服务1031检索到。 Any other information can be obtained about the computer being contacted (PC11 1052), such as compression algorithms or special hardware or software capabilities, it may also be retrieved to the 1031 directory service. 目录服务1031然后向PC12 1051返回一个消息,消息带有PC11 1052的状态信息,诸如该计算机是否是“联机的”,其IP地址(如果可用的话)以及任何其它可得到的关于PC11 1052的能力的信息。 Directory service 1031 then returns a message to PC12 1051, PC11 1052 message with status information, such as a computer is "online", the IP address (if available) and any other available concerning the ability of PC11 1052 information. 当PC12 1051接收该应答时,就决定是否可以联系PC11 1052。 When PC12 1051 receives the response, it can decide whether to contact PC11 1052. 作出这种决定的根据是PC11 1052的“联机”状态,以及其它关于PC11 1052的能力的信息。 According to such a decision it is PC11 1052's "online" status, as well as other information about the capabilities of the PC11 1052. 如果PC12 1052接收的状态信息表明PC11 1052不可联系,则呼叫流在此停止,否则就继续。 If PC12 1052 received state information indicates that PC11 1052 non-contact, the call flow at this stop, otherwise continue.

以下步骤1107至1111是“正常的”IP电话呼叫建立和拆除步骤。 The following steps 1107-1111 are "normal" IP telephony call setup and teardown steps. 在1107,PC12 1051向PC11 1052传输一个“振铃”消息。 In 1107, PC12 1051 a "ring" message to PC11 1052 transmission. 这个消息被定向到在步骤1106从目录服务1031接收的IP地址。 This message is directed to the IP address received in step 1106 from the directory service 1031. 这个消息可含有标识PC12 1051的用户的信息,或者可含有规定所请求连接的关联参数的信息。 This message may contain information identifying the user of PC12 1051, or may contain information specifying the parameters associated with the requested connection.

在1108,步骤1107的消息被PC11 1052接收,该消息的接收是通过向PC12 1051发回一个表示PC11 1052的用户正被通知有输入呼叫的消息来确认的。 In 1108, in step 1107 the message is received PC11 1052, receives the message is sent back to PC12 1051 by a user is represented by PC11 1052 is notified of the incoming call message to confirm. 这个通知可以是可见的,也可以是可听的,具体视软件包及其在PC11 1052上的配置而定。 This notification may be visible, it can be audible, depending on its configuration package on PC11 1052 may be.

在1109,如果PC11 1052的用户接受该呼叫,就向PC12 1051发回一个消息,确认“回答”该呼叫。 In 1109, PC11 1052 if the user accepts the call, you send a message back to the PC12 1051, confirmed that the "answer" the call. 如果PC11 1052的用户不回答该呼叫或者选择拒绝该呼叫,就向PC12 1051发回一个指示出错情况的消息。 If PC11 1052 user does not answer the call or choose to reject the call, to send a message back to PC12 1051 indicating error conditions. 如果呼叫没有得到回答,则呼叫流在此停止,否则就继续。 If the call is not answered, the call flow at this stop, otherwise continue.

在1110,PC11 1052和PC12 1051的用户可以用他们的电话软件通讯。 In 1110, PC11 1052 and PC12 1051 users can use their telephone communications software. 通讯进行到1111,此时任一个PC的用户可能通过向另外的通话者发送一个拆线消息来中断连接。 Communication proceeds to 1111, when any one of a PC user may disconnect message by sending another caller to interrupt the connection. 这个消息的格式和内容视PC111052和PC11 1052的用户所使用的电话软件包而定。 Depending on the format and content of this message and phone PC111052 packages PC11 1052 used by the user may be. 在这种情况下,PC11 1052向PC12 1051发送一个拆线消息,两个计算机上的电话软件系统中断话音的传输。 In this case, PC11 1052 transmits a disconnect message to PC12 1051, telephony software systems on both computers interrupt voice transmission.

图12表示按照较佳实施例的一个VNET个人电脑(PC)到网络外PC信息呼叫流。 Figure 12 shows VNET according to a personal computer (PC) to a preferred embodiment of an outer network PC Information call flow. 在这个流中,因特网电话网关是一个网外单元。 In this flow, the Internet telephony gateway is a network outside the cell. 这意味着因特网电话网关不能使用SS7信令来与交换机通信,它必须只能脉冲发出待拨叫的VNET号。 This means you can not use Internet telephony gateway SS7 signaling to communicate with the switch, it must only emit a pulse VNET number to be dialed. 一个替换实施例提供目录服务将该VNET号直接转换到一个交换机/中继线并脉冲发出适当的数字。 Alternative embodiment provides a directory service to convert the VNET number directly to a Switch / Trunk and send the appropriate digital pulse. 这种处理简化了交换网络中的转换,但是需要在因特网网关与交换机之间有更复杂的信号传输结构。 This simplifies the process of conversion switching networks, but requires a more complicated structure of the signal transmission between the Internet and the gateway switch. 这种“网内”因特网网关的情况将在另一个呼叫流中描述。 "Intranet" This Internet Gateway will be described in another call flow.

这种情况假设在因特网与用户处公用交换分机(PBX)之间没有集成。 This assumes that there is no integration between the Internet and the public switched at a user station (PBX). 假若有集成,PC就有可能经过因特网(或内部网)连接到客户PBX上的ITG,而避免使用PSTN。 If there is an integrated, PC connection is possible via the Internet (or intranet) to ITG on customer PBX, while avoiding the use of PSTN. 图12是按照较佳实施例的一个呼叫流图。 FIG 12 is a call flow diagram according to the preferred embodiment. 处理始于1201,此时接收“联机”消息的目录服务的位置将由这个客户的数据分布工具来确定。 Process began in 1201, this time to receive "on-line" position directory service messages by this customer data distribution tools to identify. 在有些情况下,这可能是预订VNET业务的公司或组织的专用数据库,在其它情况下,可能是某服务供应商(MCI)的所有客户的国家或世界数据库。 In some cases, this may be a dedicated booking VNET business database company or organization, in other cases, it may be a service provider (MCI) of all customer's country or the world database.

当目录服务从PC12 1051接收这个消息时,它要对该唯一ID所关联的轮廓条目进行更新,以表示用户是“联机的”,位于指定IP地址。 When the directory service receives this message from PC12 1051, it is to be associated with the profile entry update unique ID to indicate that the user is "online", at the specified IP address. 然后在1202,在成功地更新该ID关联的轮廓后,目录服务向该指定IP地址发回一个表示消息被接收并得到处理的应答(ACK)。 Then in 1202, after the profile of the associated ID is successfully updated, the directory service sends back to the specified IP address is received and a message indicating to give acknowledgment (ACK) processing. 当计算机(PC12)接收了这个应答消息时,可选择通过可视或音响指示器来通知用户。 When the computer (in PC12) receives this response message, the user can choose to notify by a visual or audible indicator.

于是在1203,向目录服务发送一个VNET转换请求,要求确定拨号路径到网络外互连网电话网关的转换。 Thus in 1203, the directory service sends a VNET conversion request to determine the path to the outer dial switched telephone network Internet gateway. 在1204,返回一个包括IP地址和DNIS的应答。 In 1204, return an IP address and DNIS response. 该应答为传递呼叫完全解析了电话寻址信息。 The answer is delivered fully resolve the phone call addressing information. 然后在1205,发生一个利用DNIS信息的IP电话拨号。 Then in 1205, IP telephone dial-up DNIS information on the occurrence of a use. DNIS指所拨叫的号码信息服务(Dialed Number Information Services),它是关于在呼叫路由选择中使用的呼叫的定义性信息。 DNIS refers to the dialed number information service (Dialed Number Information Services), which is defined using the information regarding the call in the call routing. 在1206,从IP电话返回一个应答(ACK),在1207,IP电话回答,在1208,呼叫通路建立。 At 1206, a response returned from the IP phone (the ACK), in 1207, the IP telephone answers, in 1208, established call path.

1209a表示VNET PC摘机,1209b表示VNET PC发送拨号音,1210表示VNET PC脉冲发出数字。 VNET PC hook 1209a indicates, 1209b denotes VNET PC transmits a dial tone, VNET PC 1210 denotes a digital pulses emitted. 然后在1211,DNIS信息的路由选择转换被路由选择数据库用于确定如何将呼叫路由选择到目的地电话。 Then in 1211, the routing selection DNIS information is routed conversion database used to determine how to route the call to the destination telephone. 转换应答在1212被接受,在1213,发生一个交换机到交换机的脉冲发出。 Conversion response is accepted 1212, in 1213, the occurrence of a switch to switch the emitted pulse. 然后在1215,向目的地电话传输一个振铃,向PC发生一个回铃。 Then in 1215, a ringing telephone transmission to the destination, the occurrence of a ringback to the PC. 呼叫通过因特网网关连接被传输出网络后在1216得到回答。 After the call connection is transmitted via the Internet gateway network output answered in 1216. 在1217进行通话,直到通话的一方在1218挂机。 In 1217 a call, hang up the call until one in 1218.

图13表示按照较佳实施例的VNET个人电脑(PC)到网外的电话信息呼叫流。 13 shows a personal computer according to VNET (PC) of the preferred embodiment of the telephone message call flow to the external network. 在这个呼叫流中,通过将呼叫传递到因特网/内部网、再到直接与PBX连接的因特网网关,避免了使用PSTN。 In this call flow, it is transmitted to the Internet / Intranet through the call, and then connected directly to the Internet gateway PBX, avoiding the use of PSTN.

图14表示按照较佳实施例的VNET个人电脑(PC)到网内的电话信息呼叫流。 Figure 14 shows a personal computer according to VNET (PC) of the preferred embodiment of the telephone message call flow into the network. 在这个呼叫流中,互连网电话网关是一个网内单元。 In this call flow, the Internet telephony gateway is a network unit. 这就要求互连网网关能像交换机一样工作,并能用SS7信令来将呼叫转交给交换机。 This requires Internet gateway can work like a switch, and can use SS7 signaling the call to the switch. 这使得目录服务能在首次VNET查找时就返回交换机/中继线和脉冲发出数字。 This makes the directory service can return switch / trunk and digital pulse issued during the first VNET lookup. 该步骤避免了由交换机执行的额外查找。 This avoids the extra step to find performed by the switch. 在这种情况下,目录服务必须能访问VNET路由选择信息。 In this case, the directory service must be able to access VNET routing information.

a)PC到PC图15表示按照较佳实施例的个人电脑到个人电脑的互连网电话呼叫。 A) PC to PC Figure 15 illustrates a personal computer according to the preferred embodiment of the personal computer Internet telephone calls. 在步骤1501,网络电话用户用IP连接通过互连网连接到步骤1502 MCI目录服务,在此进行一次查找,确定如何传递该呼叫。 In step 1501, Internet phone users to use IP connection to step 1502 MCI directory service through the Internet, look at this once, to determine how to transfer the call. 在步骤1503,呼叫在智能系统平台(ISP)终结,以确定向哪里发送呼叫。 In step 1503, the call intelligent system platform (ISP) end, in order to determine where to send the call. IP路由器是个网关,它进入MCI ISP以通过智能业务网络(ISN)特征引擎来确定如何让呼叫通过网络。 IP router is a gateway, it goes to MCI ISP business through intelligent network (ISN) feature engine to determine how to make calls through the network. 在步骤1504,呼叫通过因特网被连接到网络电话用户。 In step 1504, the call is connected to the Internet through the telephone network users. 在另一种情况的步骤1504中,电话没有人接,所以主叫方希望与MCI操作员通话,IP路由器穿过网络交换机(连接话音世界的接口)。 In another case the step 1504, telephone no answer, it is desirable to talk to the caller MCI operator, through the IP router network switches (voice interface world). 在步骤1505,网络交换机(Net-Switch)询问呼叫处理引擎去执行DSP引擎功能。 In step 1505, the network switch (Net-Switch) query engine to perform call processing functions of the DSP engine. 在步骤1506,呼叫被路由选择通过广域网中枢(WAN HUB),在步骤1507被传递到MCI交换机,再到MCI操作员或话音邮件。 In step 1506, the call is routed through the WAN Hub (WAN HUB), is passed to step 1507 MCI switch, then the operator or MCI voice mail. 这个较佳实施例利用了现有基础设施来辅助呼叫。 The preferred embodiment utilizes the existing infrastructure to assist in the call.

b)PC到电话图16表示一个从PC经因特网路由选择到电话的电话呼叫。 B) PC to the phone 16 shows an alternative route from the PC to the Internet via a phone call the phone. 在步骤1602,询问MCI目录以获得路由选择呼叫所需的ISN信息。 In step 1602, MCI directory inquiries to get ISN routing information needed for the call. 然后在步骤1603,呼叫被重定向到ISP网关,并在步骤1604和1605用IP路由器路由选择到呼叫处理引擎。 Then, in step 1603, the call is redirected to the ISP gateway, and in step 1604 and 1605 to select the router with IP routing call processing engine. 然后在步骤1606,呼叫被路由选择到WAN,最后到达RBOC,在此为该呼叫记录主机记帐。 Then, in step 1606, the call is routed to a WAN, and finally reaches the RBOCs, this host billing record for the call.

c)电话到PC图17表示按照较佳实施例的电话到PC呼叫。 c) represents a phone to PC 17 according to the preferred embodiment of the phone call to the PC. 在步骤1701,电话被路由选择到一个特殊的网络交换机中,在步骤1702,呼叫处理引擎用一系列数字信号处理器来确定DTMF音调。 In step 1701, the call is routed to a particular network switch, in a step 1702, the call processing engine with a digital signal processor to determine a series of DTMF tones. 然后在步骤1703,系统查找目录信息并连接呼叫。 Then find the directory information in step 1703, the system and connect calls. 如果主叫者不在,或者电话占线,则在步骤1704,呼叫通过IP路由器,在步骤1705用呼叫处理引擎路由选择到交换机上。 If the caller is not, or the line is busy, then in step 1704, the call through the IP router, the switch 1705 to select the call processing step of the routing engine.

d)电话到电话图18表示按照较佳实施例的因特网上的电话到电话呼叫。 d) Phone to Phone Figure 18 shows on the Internet phone according to the preferred embodiment of a phone call. 在步骤1801,呼叫进入交换机,在步骤1802,呼叫被呼叫处理引擎中运行的呼叫逻辑程序处理。 In step 1801, the call enters the switch, the call logic program running in step 1802, the call is processed in the call processing engine. 在步骤1803,在目录信息数据库中进行一次查找,以确定如上所述的对呼叫的路由选择。 In step 1803, the information in the directory database for a lookup to determine the routing of the call as described above. 路由选择包括在主机记帐应用1808中存储一个帐单记录。 Routing includes a billing record billing applications stored in the host 1808. 即使呼叫是通过互连网选择路由的,所有的ISN特征都向该呼叫开放。 Even if the call is routed through the Internet, the ISN features are all open to the call. 在互连网的每一端要用IP路由器来方便将呼叫路由选择通过互连网1804进入网络交换机。 In each end of the Internet to facilitate the use IP router into the network switch the call routing through the Internet 1804. 呼叫从网络交换机路由选择到呼叫处理引擎,通过广域网中枢1806,再通过RBOC1807,到达目标电话。 Selecting a call from the network switch to route the call processing engine through a WAN hub 1806 through the RBOC1807, reach the target telephone. 采用各种引擎1803来执行数字代码转换、DTMF检测、话音识别、呼叫进展、VRU功能和调制解调器功能。 Engine 1803 to perform various digital transcoding, the DTMF detection, voice recognition, call progress, The VRU functions and Modem functions.

Ⅺ.电信网络管理较佳实施例利用电信网络的网络管理系统来分析、关联和提交网络事件。 XI. Telecommunication network management preferred embodiment be analyzed using a telecommunications network network management system, and associated network event submission. 现代电信网络利用不同于呼叫承载(call-bearing)网络的数据信令网络来传输为进行呼叫建立、处理和清除而要求的信令数据。 Modern telecommunication network to transmit signaling data call set up, handle and clear the call bearer is different from the requirements of use (call-bearing) signaling network data network. 这些信号传输网络采用工业标准的体系结构和协议-合起来称为第7公用信道信令系统或简称第7信令系统(SS7)。 These signaling networks use an industry-standard architecture and protocols - collectively referred to as the common channel signaling system 7, or simply Signaling System 7 (SS7). SS7是对以前的信号传输方法的一个重大进步,以前的信号传输方法中,呼叫信令数据与呼叫是在同一个电路上传输的。 SS7 is a significant advance on the previous signal transmission method, a signal transmission method previously, call signaling and call data are transmitted on a same circuit. SS7提供不同的专用电路网络来传输呼叫信令数据。 SS7 circuit network provide different dedicated to transmit the call signaling data. SS7的采用减少了呼叫建立时间(主叫者觉察到的拨号后的延迟)并增加呼叫承载网络上的容量。 SS7 employs reduce call setup time (perceived delay after the caller to dial) and increases capacity on the call bearer network. 关于SS7信令的详细说明可参见《Signalling System #7》(Travis Russell著,Mcgraw Hill出版,1995)。 For details on SS7 signaling can be found in "Signalling System # 7" (Travis Russell with, Mcgraw Hill Publishing, 1995).

SS7网络的标准,国内(美国)网络部分由ANSI设立,国际连接部分由ITU设立,分别称为ANSI SS7和ITU C7。 Standard SS7 network, domestic (USA) established by the network part ANSI, part of an international connection established by the ITU, are called ANSI SS7 and ITU C7. 图1B中表示了一个典型的SS7网络。 FIG. 1B shows a typical SS7 network. 呼叫承载电信网络利用阵列交换机102A/102B来转换客户的通信。 Call bearer telecommunications network switches use arrays 102A / 102B to convert the client communications. 这些交换机102A/102B是常规的交换机,诸如北方电信公司(Northern Telecom)制造的DMS-250或数字交换公司(Digital Switch Corporation)制造的DEX-600。 These switches 102A / 102B is a conventional switch, such as Northern Telecom (Northern Telecom) or DMS-250 manufactured by Digital Switch Corporation DEX-600 (Digital Switch Corporation) manufacture. 这些交换机102A/102B用话音级和数据级呼叫承载中继线互连。 These switches 102A / 102B with a voice call bearer level and data-level interconnection trunks. 这种互连在图1B中没有表示,可以采取许多种配置。 This interconnection is not shown in FIG. 1B, it may take many configurations.

电信网络中的交换机执行多种功能。 Telecommunications switches in the network to perform a variety of functions. 除了为话音呼叫转接电路外,交换机还必须将信令消息转发到作为呼叫控制一部分的其它交换机。 In addition to voice call switching circuit, the switch must also be a signaling message to other switches as part of call control. 这些信令消息是通过计算机网络传递的,其中每个计算机称为信令点(SP)102A/102B。 These signaling messages are transmitted over a computer network, wherein each computer called the signaling point (SP) 102A / 102B. SS7网络中有三种信令点:-业务交换点(SSP)-信号传输点(STP)-业务控制点(SCP)SSP是到SS7信令网络的交换机接口。 SS7 signaling network has three points: - service switching point (the SSP) - Signal transmission point (the STP) - Service Control Point (SCP) SSP is a switch interface to the SS7 signaling network.

信号传输点(STP)104a…104f(合起来记为104)是用来交换和路由选择SS7信号的分组交换通信设备。 Signal transfer point (STP) 104a ... 104f (collectively referred to as 104) is used for packet switching and routing SS7 signal switching communication device. 为了冗余和恢复,它们是成对地部署的,称为群集。 For redundancy and recovery, they are deployed in pairs, called a cluster. 例如在图1B中,在区域群集1中STP 104A与STP 104B配对,在区域群集2中STP 104C与STP 104D配对,在区域群集3中STP 104E与STP 104F配对。 For example, in FIG. 1B, in the region of 1 cluster in the STP 104A mating with STP 104B, in the region of cluster 2 and STP 104D mating STP 104C, in the region of the cluster 3 STP 104E paired with STP 104F. 典型的SS7网络中含有多个STP群集,图1中示意性地显示了三个。 A typical SS7 network contains a plurality of STP clusters, FIG. 1 schematically shows the three. 每个STP群集104服务特定的SSP 102的地理区域。 Each STP cluster 104 serving a particular geographic area of ​​the SSP 102. 多个SSP102都有一级SS7链路连接群集内两个SSP 104中每一个。 SSP102 has a plurality of SS7 links two SSP 104 connected to the cluster each. 它起着一级复位(homing)装置的作用。 It plays a reset (Homing) action means. 图1B中示意性地只显示了两个复位到区域群集2的SSP102,实际上,有若干SSP 102将在特定STP群集104上复位(home)。 FIG. 1B schematically shows only two clusters is reset to SSP102 region 2, in fact, a number of SSP 102 is reset (Home) in a particular cluster 104 STP. SSP102一般也将有一个二级SS7链路连接另一个群集中的一个或两个STP 104。 SSP102 will generally have a two SS7 links are connected to one another in a cluster or two STP 104. 这起着二级复位装置的作用。 It plays the role of two resetting means.

连接各种单元的SS7链路标识如下:A链路将SSP连接到它的各个一级STP(一级复位)。 SS7 links connecting the various units identified as follows: A link connected to the SSP of its respective one the STP (a reset).

B链路将一个群集中的STP连接到另一个群集中的STP。 B a cluster link connected to the other STP STP cluster.

C链路将一个群集中的STP连接到同一群集中的另一个STP。 C link is STP connecting a cluster to the other STP in the same cluster.

D链路连接不同通信公司网络(未予示出)的STP。 D links connect different communications carrier network (not shown) of the STP.

E链路将SSP连接到不在其群集中的STP(二级复位)。 E link connected to the SSP of the STP is not in its cluster (two reset).

F链路将两个SSP互相连接。 F link interconnecting two SSP.

为了连系两个不同通信公司的网络,诸如本地交换通信公司(LEC)网络与交换通信公司(IXC)网络,可以用D链路或A链路将各通信公司网络的STP群集104连接起来。 For companies associated with two different communication networks, such as a local exchange carrier (LEC) network Exchange Carrier (the IXC) network, the link may be D or A connecting link STP cluster 104 each communications carrier network. SS7为这种接口提供标准协议,以便使在LEC和IXC之间传送的呼叫的信号也能被传输。 This provides an interface for the SS7 protocol standard, so that a call signal is transmitted between the IXC and the LEC can also be transferred.

当交换机接受并传递客户呼叫时,该呼叫的信令由附接的SSP102接收(或生成)。 When the switch receiving and transmitting a customer call, the call signaling received by the attached SSP102 (or generated). 在连接交换机的机器间中继线传输客户的呼叫期间,该呼叫的信令被发往STP104。 During the call between the client machine trunks connected to the switch, the signaling of the call is sent to STP104. STP 104将信号要么传递到呼叫终结的交换机的SSP 102,要么传递到另一个STP 104,后者然后再将信号传递到呼叫终结的交换机的SSP 102。 STP 104 is transmitted to the either the call termination signal of the switch SSP 102, or transferred to another STP 104, which then transmits a signal to the call terminating switch SSP 102. SS7网络的另一个单元是协议监控单元(PMU)106,如图2中所示。 Another protocol is the SS7 network unit monitoring unit (PMU) 106, as shown in FIG. PMU 106部署在交换机站点,为SS7网络提供了一种独立的监控工具。 PMU 106 switches deployed at the site to provide an independent monitoring tool for the SS7 network. 如图2所示,这些设备-诸如INET公司(位于美国德克萨斯州Richardson)制造的那些设备-监视SS7网络的A、E和F链路。 Such INET Inc. (Texas Richardson) manufactured those devices - - monitoring SS7 network A, E, and F links, these devices 2 shown in FIG. 它们生成关于SS7链路的故障和性能信息。 They generate fault and performance information on the SS7 links.

与任何典型网络一样,SS7网络也容易受到光纤切断、其它传输中断以及设备故障的侵害。 As with any typical network, SS7 networks is also susceptible to optical fiber cutting, and other transmission interruption against equipment failure. 由于SS7携带着投递用户通信所需的所有信令,所以迅速检测问题并立即加以更正是极其重要的。 Since SS7 signaling delivered user carries all the required communication, so quickly detect problems and correct them immediately is extremely important. 因此,非常需要有一种能监控SS7网络、分析故障和性能信息、管理更正行动的系统。 Therefore, there is a great need to monitor SS7 network fault and performance information analysis, management system to correct action.

现有技术水平的SS7网络管理系统,尽管执行这些基本功能,却存在若干缺点。 State of the art SS7 network management systems, although performing these basic functions, but there are several drawbacks. 许多系统要求人工配置网络拓扑,这种要求易受人类错误的影响,延迟拓扑更新。 Many systems require manual configuration of network topology, this requirement affect vulnerability to human error, delay topology update. 这些系统的配置一般要求系统停止一段时间。 These systems generally require the configuration of the system is stopped for some time. 业内可用的许多系统都是为特定销售商的PMU 106配备的,实际上要从它们的PMU 106获得拓扑数据,由此会忽视不与PMU 106连接的网络单元以及其它销售商的设备。 Many systems are available in the industry for a particular vendor with the PMU 106, the PMU 106 are actually obtained from the topology data, whereby the network element ignores other vendors and devices not connected to a PMU 106.

由于现有技术水平的系统只用从专有PMU 106接收的数据操作,它们不提供PMU事件与其它类型的网络单元所生成的事件之间的关联。 Since the state of the art systems use only the data from the received operation-specific PMU 106, they do not provide correlation between PMU events and events other type of network element generated. 它们为事件关联提供的专有分析规则也不灵活。 They provide proprietary analysis rules for event correlation is not flexible.

通过能接收和处理由不同SS7网络单元生成的事件的分布式客户机/服务器平台,提供一种用于提供增强的SS7网络管理功能的系统和方法。 By capable of receiving and processing the generated events by different SS7 network elements distributed client / server platform to provide a system and method for providing enhanced SS7 network management functions for. 每个网络事件都被分析并标准化,以便于对任何类型的单元所生成的事件进行处理。 Each network events are analyzed and normalized, so that any type of event generated by the processing unit. 事件也可以被网络拓扑数据库、传输网络管理系统、网络维护调度和系统用户接收。 Events can also be a network topology database, transmission network management system, network maintenance scheduling and system users receive. 参见图3,该图表示了一个按照本发明较佳实施例的系统体系结构-称为SS7网络管理系统(SNMS)。 Referring to Figure 3, which shows the system architecture according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention - referred to as SS7 Network Management System (SNMS). SNMS的组成是4个逻辑服务器302/304/306/308和多个通过网络管理广域网(WAN)310连接的客户机工作站312a/212b/312c/312d。 Is composed of four logical SNMS servers 302/304/306/308 and a plurality of connections through the network management wide area network (WAN) 310 as client workstations 312a / 212b / 312c / 312d. 这4个逻辑SNMS服务器302/304/306/308可以都驻留在单一的或者多个物理单元上。 The four logical SNMS servers 302/304/306/308 may all reside on a single or a plurality of physical units. 在较佳实施例中,为增强性能起见,每个逻辑服务器存驻在不同的物理设备上。 In the preferred embodiment, for the sake of enhanced performance, stored in each logical server on a different physical devices. 这些物理设备可以是任何常规类型,诸如运行AIX操作系统的IBM RS6000设备。 These physical devices can be of any conventional type, such as running the AIX operating system, IBM RS6000 apparatus.

客户机工作站312可以是运行MS WINDOWS或IBM OS/2操作系统的任何常规PC、哑终端或VAX VMS工作站。 The client workstation 312 may be MS WINDOWS running or IBM OS / 2 operating system, any conventional PC, dumb terminals or VAX VMS workstation. 实际上,客户机工作站可以是任何有因特网协议(IP)地址、运行X-Windows软件、与WAN310相连的PC或终端。 In fact, client workstations can be any address, run X-Windows software Internet Protocol (IP), PC or terminal WAN310 connected. 客户机工作站312上不运行SNMS专用软件。 SNMS does not run dedicated software 312 on the client workstation.

SNMS从各种SS7网络单元和其它网络管理系统(NMS)338接收事件。 SNMS from the various SS7 network elements and other network management systems (NMS) 338 receives the event. 它也从各种外部系统接收网络拓扑、配置和维护数据-下文将要说明。 It also receives network topology from a variety of external systems, configuration and maintenance data - to be described later. 生成事件的各种网络单元包括网络控制器314、国际和国内SP 316/102、STP 104和PMU 106。 Various network elements that generated the event includes a network controller 314, international and domestic SP 316/102, STP 104 and PMU 106. 网络控制器314是根据外部命令来交换电路的设备。 Network controller 314 is an external command to the circuit switching device. 它们以与SSP 102相同的方式来使用SS7信令,但是却不与任何STP 104连接。 They SSP with the same way to use SS7 signaling 102, but not connected to any STP 104. 国际SP 316支持作为国内和国际电信网络之间的网关的交换机。 International support SP 316 as a gateway between the domestic and international telecommunications network switches. STP 104可以是国内的或者国际的。 STP 104 can be domestic or international.

PMU 106扫描所有经过SS7电路传送的SS7分组,分析故障条件,生成然后要传送到SNMS上的网络事件。 SS7 PMU 106 scans all packets transmitted through the SS7 circuits, analyze the fault conditions, and generate network events to be transmitted to the SNMS. PMU 106也定期生成关于被监控SS7电路的性能的统计。 PMU 106 is also monitored regularly generates statistics on the performance of the SS7 circuits.

SP 102/316、STP 104和PMU 106 SS7和网络控制器314都是通过通信网络来传输网络事件的。 SP 102/316, STP 104 and PMU 106 SS7 network controller 314 and network event is transmitted over the communications network. 这就不需要SNMS与每个设备都维持一个会话。 This eliminates the need SNMS with each device to maintain a conversation. 在图3所示的典型实施例中,用一个异步数据通信网络320来传输来自网络控制器314和国际SP 316的事件。 In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 3 embodiment, controller 320 is transmitted from the network 314 and international events SP 316 by an asynchronous data communication network. 用一个IBM主机前端处理器(FEP)324-诸如IBM的3708来将该异步协议转换到SNA,这样,它就能被基于IBM主机的交换宿主接口设备传输(SWIFT)系统326接收。 324- 3708, such as IBM's conversion to a IBM mainframe front-end processor (FEP) the asynchronous protocol to the SNA, so, it can be based on a transmission switching IBM mainframe host interface device (SWIFT) system 326 receives. SWIFT 326是一个与每个网络单元都维持一个逻辑通信会话的通信接口和数据分布应用。 SWIFT 326 is a maintained a logical communications session with each network unit communication interface and data distribution application.

在同一个实施例中,用一个X.25操作系统支持(OSS)网络328来传输来自STP 104、SP 102和PMU 106的事件。 In the same embodiment, an X.25 operating system with support (OSS) Network 328 is transmitted from the STP 104, the event of PMU 106 and SP 102. 这些事件由一个本地支持单元(LSE)系统330接收。 These events are received by a local support unit (LSE) system 330. LSE 330可以是一个VAX/VMS系统,实际上是一个分组装拆器(PAD)和协议转换器,用于将事件数据从X.25 OSS网络328转换到SNMS服务器302/304。 LSE 330 may be a VAX / VMS system, it is actually a packet assembly and disassembly (PAD) and protocol converter used to convert event data from the X.25 OSS Network 328 to the SNMS servers 302/304. 它也与SWIFT326一样,与每个网络单元都维持一个通信会话,这样就不需要SNMS来维持会话。 It also SWIFT326 same with each network element a communication session is maintained, thereby eliminating the need for SNMS to maintain a session. 对SWIFT 326和LSE 330二者的需要,说明在典型电信网络的一个实施例中,安装不同类型的单元要求有不同的传输机构。 The need for both SWIFT 326 and LSE 330, in one embodiment described exemplary embodiment of a telecommunications network, the mounting different types of units require different transmission mechanism. SNMS支持所有这些类型的单元。 SNMS supports all of these types of units.

所有网络事件都输入到SNMS报警服务器302去作分析和关联。 All events are entered into SNMS network alarm server 302 to make analysis and correlation. 也有一些事件被输入到SNMS报告服务器304,存储起来作历史数据。 There are also some events are input to the report SNMS server 304, stored for historical data. 控制系统332可以是一个VAX/VMS系统,用于通过X.25 OSS网络328从各网络单元收集拓扑和配置数据。 The control system 332 may be a VAX / VMS system 328 for collecting from each network element topology and configuration data through the X.25 OSS network. 有些单元-诸如STP 104和SP 102-可以直接在X.25上发送这个数据。 Some of the units - such as STP 104 and SP 102- may transmit the data directly on X.25.