CN1179059C - Ni-base alloy, Ni-base alloy prepn. process and forging die thereof - Google Patents

Ni-base alloy, Ni-base alloy prepn. process and forging die thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1179059C
CN1179059C CNB021545103A CN02154510A CN1179059C CN 1179059 C CN1179059 C CN 1179059C CN B021545103 A CNB021545103 A CN B021545103A CN 02154510 A CN02154510 A CN 02154510A CN 1179059 C CN1179059 C CN 1179059C
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China
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weight ratio
throw
base alloy
forging die
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CNB021545103A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1415772A (en
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须藤公治
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本田技研工业株式会社
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Priority to JP2001284055 priority
Priority to JP2001284055A priority patent/JP2003089836A/en
Priority to JP2001284046A priority patent/JP4512299B2/en
Application filed by 本田技研工业株式会社 filed Critical 本田技研工业株式会社
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/056Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 10% but less than 20%
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/28Making machine elements wheels; discs
    • B21K1/30Making machine elements wheels; discs with gear-teeth
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K5/00Making tools or tool parts, e.g. pliers
    • B21K5/20Making working faces of dies, either recessed or outstanding
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/055Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 20% but less than 30%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/10Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of nickel or cobalt or alloys based thereon

Abstract

A solution treatment is firstly performed for a non-heat-treated Ni based alloy having a composition equivalent to that of Inconel 718 (registered trademark). Subsequently, a primary aging treatment is applied by holding the Ni based alloy at 610 to 660 DEG C for 5 to 10 hours. After that, a secondary aging treatment is performed by holding the Ni based alloy at 710 to 760 DEG C for 5 to 10 hours. There are 700 or more precipitates per mu m<2>, in which each precipitate has a longer diameter of not less than 0.5 nm, in a metal microstructure of the Ni based alloy. Some of the precipitates are large precipitates having average diameters of 25 nm to 1 mu m. There are 10 or more large precipitates per mu m<2>. A forging die (10) is produced with the Ni based alloy.

Description

Ni base alloy, Ni base alloy preparation method and forging die
Technical field
The present invention relates to have fabulous intensity, hardness and flexible Ni base alloy, the preparation method of Ni base alloy and Ni base alloy forging die.
Background technology
Fig. 5 illustrates and is used for as the gear on the automotive transmission 1.Gear 1 has large-diameter portion and divides 2 and small diameter portion 3, and the diameter of small diameter portion 3 is less than the diameter of major diameter part 2.On the side perisporium of small diameter portion 3, external tooth 4 is arranged.
For example, produce gear 1 with the forge hot method.At first will be heated to about 1100-1200 ℃ by the annular work piece (not diagram) that (according to JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)) such as SCR420H, SCM420H, HNCM make.Then annular work piece is placed mould.With this workpiece of extruding such as stamping machines, make this workpiece viscous deformation, then to have shape corresponding to gear 1.In this process, on the side perisporium of annular work piece, form external tooth 4 with the part that forms the gear teeth on the mould.When forge hot, workpiece is owing to recrystallize softens.Therefore, can not cause work hardening.Therefore the ductility of workpiece be improved, so this workpiece is easy to processing.
Comprising that rapid tool steel and martensitic aging type are stainless is used for the starting material that hot worked die steel is widely used as hot forged mould, and this is cheap and be easy to form different shape because be used for hot worked die steel.
When producing gear 1 with above-mentioned forge hot method, the temperature of mould rises, because conduct heat to mould from ring-type work.Die temperature is about 725 ℃, and moment just can reach about 1100 ℃.
Therefore, when the forge hot method repeats about 3000 times, mould will wear and tear and be cracked.If use such mould, the defective gear that size departs from preassigned will be formed.Therefore, swaging machine is quit work, replace old mould with new die then.
In this process, owing to the interruption of forging operation makes the production efficiency of gear 1 descend.In addition, make hot forging equipment expense costliness because often replace mould.
Because the work-ing life of ordinary hot forging mould is short, so be difficult to improve the production efficiency of forging product.Therefore, its tooling cost is very high.
Summary of the invention
Main purpose of the present invention provides a kind of Ni base alloy because of existing throw out that its hardness, intensity and toughness are improved, and this alloy is preferably used as the starting material of forging die; A kind of preparation method and Ni base alloy forging die of Ni base alloy are provided.
It is plain that Ni base alloy provided by the invention contains following nothing: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-33% weight ratio, total amount is the Ta and the Nb of 4.75-5.5% weight ratio, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of resistates.
When the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprise every μ m in this Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, first kind of sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm; With
Comprise that in first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2.
The composition of this Ni base alloy equates with the composition of the main ingredient of Inconel 718 (registered trademark).Should be noted in the discussion above that in forming the metal microstructure structure that be purchased Ni basic alloy identical and do not have above-mentioned big throw out with Inconel 718.
In this Ni base alloy, contain throw out and big throw out in the metal microstructure structure, when producing thermal stresses in the Ni base alloy, or when mechanical stress put on Ni base alloy, throw out and big sedimentary existence had significantly suppressed the transmission of thermal stresses or mechanical stress.Therefore, Ni base alloy of the present invention has fabulous intensity, hardness and toughness.In other words, Ni base alloy of the present invention is a precipitation hardening alloy.
Ni base alloy of the present invention can also contain following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
Preferred every μ m in the metal microstructure structure 210 or more a plurality of big throw out are arranged.If every μ m 2Have to be less than 10 big throw out, then big throw out is difficult for suppressing the stress transmission.Therefore, the various performances of Ni base alloy can not be satisfactory.
Throw out and big sedimentary composition mainly are Ni 3Nb, i.e. γ " phase.γ " can improve mutually the various performances of the Ni base alloy that is equal to Inconel 718.Can comprise Ni in throw out or the big throw out 3(Al, Ti), i.e. γ ' phase.
The grain-size of underlying metal preferably is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM (U.S. experiment material association) in the metal microstructure structure.
In ASTM, the rank of grain-size is big more, and the average cross-section of crystal grain is long-pending more little.In Ni base alloy of the present invention, the crystal grain average cross-section of underlying metal is long-pending preferably very little in the metal microstructure structure.Under this condition, stress more is difficult to by the transmission of metal microstructure structure.Therefore, various performances can access further improvement.Specifically, in many cases, Rockwell C scale hardness is all greater than 40 in the Ni base alloy.
Another aspect of the present invention provides a kind of preparation method of Ni base alloy, wherein, when the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprises every μ m in the Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, first kind of sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm, and, wherein, comprise that in first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2, and the preparation method of Ni base alloy comprises:
The nonheat-treated Ni base alloy that contains following element is carried out solution treatment: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-3.3% weight ratio, total amount is the Ta and the Nb of 4.75-5.5% weight ratio, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of resistates;
Under first temperature, carry out one time ageing treatment after the solution treatment; With
Carrying out secondary ageing under second temperature higher than first temperature handles.
In this preparation method, use the composition nonheat-treated Ni base alloy identical as starting material with the composition of the main ingredient of Inconel 718 (registered trademark).After the solution treatment, carry out ageing treatment at low temperatures one time, at high temperature carry out secondary ageing and handle.Usually be at high temperature to carry out ageing treatment one time to the ageing treatment of forming after the nonheat-treated Ni base alloy solid solution identical with Inconel 718 handled, carry out the secondary ageing processing at low temperatures.But, in production method of the present invention, carry out ageing treatment at low temperatures one time, at high temperature carry out secondary ageing and handle.
When carrying out ageing treatment, can obtain every μ m in the metal microstructure structure with said sequence 2Have 700 or more a plurality of long diameter be not less than the sedimentary Ni base alloy of 0.5nm, some throw outs wherein are that mean diameter is the big throw out of 25nm-1 μ m.In forming the metal microstructure structure that be purchased Ni basic alloy identical, there is not above-mentioned big throw out with Inconel 718.
Nonheat-treated Ni base alloy can also contain following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
In order in the metal microstructure structure, to obtain being no less than 10/μ m 2Big throw out, preferably under 610-660 ℃, carry out one time ageing treatment, under 710-760 ℃, carry out secondary ageing and handle.
When carrying out ageing treatment respectively in the said temperature scope, throw out and big sedimentary composition mainly are Ni 3Nb, i.e. γ " phase.γ " can improve mutually the various performances of the Ni base alloy that is equal to Inconel 718.Certainly, can comprise Ni in throw out or the big throw out 3(Al, Ti), i.e. γ ' phase.
Make Ni base alloy obtain the throw out and the big throw out of required mean diameter of various performances and the density of requiring in order to be settled out to have, the soaking time in ageing treatment and the secondary ageing processing preferably all is 5-10 hour.
The grain-size of underlying metal preferably is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM in nonheat-treated Ni base alloy.
Another aspect of the present invention provides a kind of forging die of being made by Ni base alloy, this Ni base alloy contains following element: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-3.3% weight ratio, the Ta of 4.75-5.5% weight ratio and Nb, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of resistates
Wherein, when the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprise every μ m in the Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, first kind of sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm, comprises that in first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, and mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2.
Forging die of the present invention is made by above-mentioned Ni base alloy.In other words, this forging die has fabulous intensity, hardness and toughness.Therefore, even repeat to forge, this mould also can wear and tear hardly and be cracked.So will significantly reduce the frequency of replacing mould.Therefore the cost that mould needs reduces.Carry out forged equipment cost so can reduce.In addition, the number of times that interrupts the forging operation also reduces.Therefore, the production efficiency of forging product also can improve.
The Ni base alloy of forging die of the present invention can also contain following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
As mentioned above, consider and to suppress the stress transmission reliably, preferred every μ m 2In 10 or more a plurality of big throw out are arranged.
The reason that mould has various excellent properties be throw out with big throw out in contain γ " mutually, certainly contain γ ' phase.
In the Ni of forging die base alloy, the grain-size of underlying metal preferably is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM in the metal microstructure structure.Under this condition, the various performances of forging die are more excellent.For example, the Rockwell C scale hardness of forging die is greater than 40.
This mould can be used for forge hot.In this case, because the throw out that precipitation makes new advances in the metal microstructure structure of Ni base alloy, so mould can keep various superperformances.Therefore, prolonged the work-ing life of forging die.
By reading following specification sheets and with reference to accompanying drawing, above and other objects of the present invention, feature and advantage will be more obvious, in the described accompanying drawing, show the preferred embodiments of the invention with illustrative embodiment.
The accompanying drawing summary
Fig. 1 is the perspective schematic view according to the vertical cross-section of the forging die of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the orthographic plan of forging die shown in Figure 1;
Fig. 3 illustrates the long diameter of throw out (big throw out) and the definition of short diameter;
Fig. 4 illustrates the schema of the production method of the Ni base alloy in one embodiment of the invention; With
Fig. 5 is the perspective schematic view that the complete gear wheel of external tooth is arranged on small diameter portion.
Preferred embodiment is described
At first explanation according to an embodiment of the invention Ni base alloy and with the forging die of the basic alloy production of this Ni.
Fig. 1 is the perspective schematic view of the vertical cross-section of forging die 10; Fig. 2 is the orthographic plan of forging die 10 shown in Figure 1.Basically be that columniform forging die 10 is the moulds that are used to form gear 1 shown in Figure 5.Forging die 10 is preferred for forge hot.
As illustrated in fig. 1 and 2, forging die 10 has a diameter through hole 12 and one and diameter through hole 12 to be in a ratio of the through hole 14 of minor diameter, diameter through hole 12 is in the perforate of the lower surface of forging die 10, diameter through hole 12 and minor diameter through hole 14 vertical communicating are formed for connecting the cylinder shape groove 16 of forging die 10 and swaging machine (not shown) on the upper surface of forging die 10.
Special feature is, the groove 18 of a plurality of formation gear teeth that separate with uniform distances is each other arranged in the lower end of the internal perisporium of small through hole 14.During the external tooth 4 of formative gear 1 (referring to Fig. 5), the annular work piece material flows into the groove 18 (referring to Fig. 1 and 2) that forms the gear teeth.
Forging die 10 is to make with forming the Ni base alloy that is equal to Inconel 718, this Ni base alloy contains following element: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-33% weight ratio, the Ta of 4.75-5.5% weight ratio and Nb, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio, be no more than the Co of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio, with the S that is no more than 0.015% weight ratio with as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of resistates.According to the observations of electron microscope etc., there is the throw out that is dispersed in the underlying metal in the metal microstructure structure of Ni base alloy.
Special feature is that the grain-size of underlying metal is 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM.In other words, the long-pending 0.00049mm that is about of the average cross-section of crystal grain 2
On the other hand, as for the throw out in the embodiment of the present invention, every μ m in the metal microstructure structure 2(square micron) has 1100 long diameters to be not less than the throw out of 0.5nm approximately.This value is purchased Ni base alloy a little less than what be equal to Inconel718, in being purchased Ni base alloy, and every μ m 22100 throw outs are arranged approximately.
Observations with transmission electron microscope determines sedimentary ratio.When with transmission electron microscope observation Ni base alloy sample, calculate this ratio with the precipitate density in the metal microstructure structure that occurs in the two dimensional surface visual field.
Sedimentary density changes with thickness of sample.Reason is: all throw outs that are in different mutually height on sample thickness direction (transmission direction of electron beam) all can appear in the visual field.For example, when thickness of sample doubled, sedimentary density also doubled.
Therefore, in embodiments of the invention,, thickness of sample (electron beam transmission thickness) comes bulk density by being standardized as 10nm.For example, when thickness of sample was 15nm, sedimentary ratio is to calculate like this: the precipitate density in the metal microstructure structure that occurs in the transmission electron microscope visual field was divided by 1.5.Equally, when electron beam transmission thickness was 20nm, the precipitate density in the metal microstructure structure was divided by 2.
As shown in Figure 3, the long diameter that relates among the application is defined as spacing x divided by measuring the resulting value of magnification, wherein, when sedimentary vertical two ends that the apparent mirror (TEM) of transmitted electron is taken were inserted between two parallel lines L1, the L2, ultimate range was exactly spacing x.On the other hand, the ultimate range that obtains when time between throw out insertion and the vertical parallel lines M1 of parallel lines L1, L2, the M2 is exactly the y among Fig. 3, and y is exactly short diameter divided by measuring the resulting value of magnification.
Some throw outs are that mean diameter is the big throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, and mean diameter defines with following formula (1):
Mean diameter=(long diameter+weak point diameter)/2 (1)
In this case, every μ m in the metal microstructure structure 215 big throw outs are arranged approximately.Mean diameter can not make the various performances of forging die that big improvement is arranged greater than the huge throw out of 1 μ m.
Big sedimentary narrower particle size distribution.In other words, these big sedimentary mean diameters are substantially the same.
There is big throw out in the product being purchased made from the Ni base alloy that is equal to Inconel 718 with described big mean diameter.Non-existent throw out but is included in the metal microstructure structure of Ni base alloy of the forging die 10 that forms embodiment of the present invention in the metal microstructure structure of common Ni base alloy.
Nearly all throw out and big sedimentary composition all are Ni 3Nb (γ " phase).Can comprise in throw out or the big throw out and consist of Ni 3(Al, γ ' phase Ti).
As mentioned above, the forging die 10 of embodiment of the present invention is made by Ni base alloy, contain in the metal microstructure structure of this Ni base alloy be purchased product in throw out compare more greatly and mainly be γ " mutually throw out.In other words, this Ni base alloy is a precipitation hardening alloy, and this alloy has fabulous hardness, intensity and toughness.As mentioned above, in the metal microstructure structure of this Ni base alloy sedimentary ratio a little less than being purchased product.
With wherein the underlying metal particulate grain-size forging die less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM, the forging die that promptly has macrobead size density is compared, Rockwell C scale hardness (HRC) height of forging die 10.Specifically, the HRC maximum of the forging die of volume particle size density is 40.On the contrary, the HRC of the forging die 10 of embodiment of the present invention is greater than 40.This forging die with described high rigidity has good wear resistance.Therefore, this forging die has long work-ing life.
Next the production method of the Ni base alloy of embodiment of the present invention is described.Shown in Figure 4 as flow process, this production method comprises carries out first step S1 of solution treatment, the 3rd the step S3 that carries out second step S2 of an ageing treatment and carry out the secondary ageing processing to nonheat-treated Ni base alloy.
As for the nonheat-treated Ni base alloy of embodiment of the present invention, the grain-size in the nonheat-treated Ni base alloy of selection is that among the ASTM 8 grades and its composition are equal to Inconel 718.In first step S1, nonheat-treated Ni base alloy is carried out solution treatment, in the underlying metal of alloy, to form the sosoloid of solute atoms.The treatment condition of this step can be: temperature is about 980-1000 ℃, and soaking time is about 1.5-2 hour.
In second step S2, be settled out throw out then by an ageing treatment.The temperature range that the nonheat-treated Ni base alloy that composition is equal to Inconel 718 carries out an ageing treatment is preferably 610-660 ℃.When setting the said temperature scope, will be settled out little throw out (mainly be γ " mutually) densely at underlying metal crystal grain and place, grain boundary.If temperature is lower than 610 ℃, seldom be settled out throw out, because the nucleus number that produces is few.Therefore, in the metal microstructure structure of finished product Ni base alloy big sedimentary density refractory to reach 10/μ m 2, and, be difficult to improve Ni base alloy and with the various performances of its forging die of making 10.On the other hand, if temperature is higher than 660 ℃, then form big nucleus.The result causes mean diameter to increase greater than the huge sedimentary ratio of 1 μ m.As mentioned above, huge throw out can not make the various performances of Ni base alloy (forging die 10) that big improvement is arranged.In addition in this case, be not easy to improve the various performances of Ni base alloy (forging die 10).Preferred temperature is 630 ℃.
The soaking time of an ageing treatment is preferably 5-10 hour.If soaking time is less than 5 hours, then the nucleus number of Xing Chenging is few.On the other hand, even the treatment time surpasses 10 hours, the various performances of Ni base alloy do not have big improvement yet.Therefore, such processing is uneconomic.In addition, the production efficiency of finished product forging die 10 descends.Preferred soaking time is 8 hours.
Carrying out secondary ageing then in the 3rd step S3 handles.Secondary ageing is handled sedimentary throw out is grown up, and becomes big throw out.In addition, also can form new nucleus and growing up.Therefore, can obtain in the metal microstructure structure, being dispersed with previously defined throw out and big sedimentary Ni base alloy.
In secondary ageing was handled, preferred temperature range was 710-760 ℃, and preferred soaking time is 5-10 hour.If temperature is lower than 710 ℃ and/or soaking time and is less than 5 hours, then be difficult to obtain big throw out, because the throw out growth is insufficient.If temperature is higher than 760 ℃ and/or soaking time and surpasses 10 hours, then mean diameter is very big greater than the huge sedimentary ratio of 1 μ m, because nucleus growth is very big.Both of these case all is difficult to improve the various performances of Ni base alloy (forging die 10).Preferred temperature is 740 ℃, and preferred soaking time is 8 hours.
The above-mentioned Ni base alloy that obtains is carried out various manufacturing procedures can produce forging die 10.
Carry out forge hot with the swaging machine that is equipped with forging die 10, method is as follows: at first will be heated to about 1100-1200 ℃ by the annular work piece (not diagram) that SCR420H, SCM420H, HNCM etc. make.Then annular work piece is placed the large through-hole 12 of forging die 10.In this operation, annular work piece places the bottom of large through-hole 12.
Use jumper bar (not diagram) extruding annular work piece then.Extruding makes the material of annular work piece flow into small through hole 14.In addition, enter the groove 18 of the part material inflow formation gear teeth of small through hole 14.The pin (not diagram) that inserts small through hole 14 stops the mobile of this material.
In this operation, heat is delivered to forging die 10 from annular work piece.Forging die 10 is difficult to expand, because swaging machine is fastened with a plurality of strut members around forging die 10.Therefore in forging die 10, produce thermal stresses.But, as mentioned above, in the metal microstructure structure of the Ni of forging die 10 base alloy, be dispersed with the essentially identical big throw out of mean diameter.In addition, the throw out that contains proper density in the metal microstructure structure.Therefore, throw out and big throw out (mainly be γ " mutually) have suppressed the transmission of thermal stresses in the Ni base alloy (forging die 10) greatly.
In brief, forging die 10 is by with big throw out all improved Ni base of its hardness, intensity and toughness alloy being made because contain throw out in the metal microstructure structure.Therefore, very high to the resistibility of thermal stresses, this mould is not easy to wear and cracked.Specifically, can repeat forge hot about 14700 times.Be about five times of common forging die the work-ing life of the forging die 10 that the Ni base alloy of using the production method by embodiment of the present invention to obtain is made.
In hot forging process, the heat that transmits from annular work piece raises the temperature of forging die 10.As mentioned above, the Ni of forging die 10 base alloy be 610-660 ℃ ageing treatment 5-10 hour next time, handle the alloy that obtained in 5-10 hour 710-760 ℃ of following secondary ageing then.Therefore, throw out does not precipitate fully.Therefore in hot forging process, newly be settled out additional throw out in the metal microstructure structure of Ni base alloy.New sedimentary throw out is further improved Ni base hardness of alloy, intensity and toughness.The significant prolongation in work-ing life of forging die 10.
Forging die 10 has high wear resistance, and reason is that its HRC is greater than 40.Therefore, be able to further prolongation work-ing life.
Forging die 10 little wear that the Ni base alloy of using the production method by embodiment of the present invention to obtain is made and cracked.Therefore, the frequency of replacement forging die 10 is extremely low.Therefore, there is no need to prepare a large amount of standby forging dies.Therefore, can reduce the expense that operation needs of forging.
The frequency of interrupting the forging operation is also very little, because the frequency of replacement forging die 10 is little.Therefore, the production efficiency height of gear 1.
In above-mentioned forging process, the material that flows into small through hole 14 forms small diameter portion 3, and the material that flows into the groove 18 that forms the gear teeth forms external tooth 4.Forming diameter in large through-hole 12 widens to the major diameter part 2 of the diameter of through hole 12.So just obtain finished product gear 1.
In the above-described embodiment, forging die 10 is used for forge hot.Forging die 10 also can be used for cold forging.
In the above-described embodiment, Ni base alloy is applied to forging die 10.This Ni base alloy also can be used for production structure parts such as turbine vane or other structure unit.
Though the present invention has been carried out particular presentation and explanation with reference to preferred embodiment; but should be understood that; under the situation of spirit that does not deviate from appended claims and limited and protection domain, those of ordinary skills can carry out some changes and improvements to it.

Claims (18)

1, a kind of Ni base alloy, it contains following element: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-33% weight ratio, the Ta of total amount 4.75-5.5% weight ratio and Nb, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of surplus
Wherein, when the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprise every μ m in the described Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, described first kind of sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm; With
Wherein, comprise that in described first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, described mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2.
2, according to the basic alloy of the Ni of claim 1, it also contains following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
3, according to the Ni base alloy of claim 1, wherein, comprise every μ m in described first kind of throw out 2Be no less than second kind of throw out of 10.
4,, wherein, contain a kind of γ at least in described first kind of throw out and the described second kind of throw out according to the Ni of claim 1 base alloy " mutually.
5, according to the Ni base alloy of claim 1, wherein, the grain-size of underlying metal is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM in described Ni base alloy.
6, according to the Ni base alloy of claim 5, wherein, its Rockwell C scale hardness is greater than 40.
7, a kind of production method of Ni base alloy wherein, when the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprises every μ m in the described Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, each first kind sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm, comprise that in described first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, described mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2, and described production method comprises:
The nonheat-treated Ni base alloy that contains following element is carried out solution treatment: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-33% weight ratio, the Ta of total amount 4.75-5.5% weight ratio and Nb, condition is that Ta is no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of surplus;
Under first temperature, carry out one time ageing treatment after the described solution treatment; With
Under second temperature higher, carry out secondary ageing and handle, wherein than first temperature
Described first temperature is 610-660 ℃, and described second temperature is 710-760 ℃; Soaking time during a described ageing treatment and described secondary ageing are handled all is 5-10 hour.
8, according to the method for claim 7, wherein, described nonheat-treated Ni base alloy also contains following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
9,, wherein, contain a kind of γ at least in described first kind of throw out and the described second kind of throw out according to the method for claim 7 " mutually.
10, according to the method for claim 7, wherein, the grain-size of underlying metal is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM in the described nonheat-treated Ni base alloy.
11, a kind of forging die of making by Ni base alloy (10), described Ni base alloy contains following element: the Ni of 50-55% weight ratio, the Cr of 17-21% weight ratio, the Mo of 2.8-33% weight ratio, the Ta of total amount 4.75-5.5% weight ratio and Nb, condition is to amount to Ta to be no more than 0.1% weight ratio, the Ti of 0.65-1.15% weight ratio, the Al of 0.2-0.8% weight ratio and as the Fe and the unavoidable impurities of surplus
Wherein, when the transmission electron microscope that has been standardized as 10nm with electron beam transmission thickness carries out the two dimension observation, comprise every μ m in the Ni base alloy 2Be no less than first kind of throw out of 700, described first kind of sedimentary long diameter all is not less than 0.5nm; With
Comprise that in described first kind of throw out mean diameter is second kind of throw out of 25nm-1 μ m, described mean diameter is defined as: (long diameter+weak point diameter)/2.
12, according to the forging die (10) of claim 11, wherein, described Ni base alloy also contains following element: the Co that is no more than 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the B of 0.01% weight ratio, be no more than the Cu of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the C of 0.08% weight ratio, be no more than the Si of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the Mn of 0.35% weight ratio, be no more than the P of 0.015% weight ratio and be no more than the S of 0.015% weight ratio.
13, according to the forging die (10) of claim 11, wherein, comprise every μ m in described first kind of throw out 2Be no less than second kind of throw out of 10, described second kind of sedimentary described mean diameter is 25nm-1 μ m.
14,, wherein, contain a kind of γ at least in described first kind of throw out and the described second kind of throw out according to the forging die (10) of claim 11 " mutually.
15, according to the forging die (10) of claim 11, wherein, the grain-size of underlying metal is not less than 8 grades that stipulate among the ASTM in described Ni base alloy.
16, according to the forging die (10) of claim 15, wherein, its Rockwell C scale hardness is greater than 40.
17, according to the forging die (10) of claim 11, wherein, described forging die (10) is used for forge hot.
18, according to the forging die (10) of claim 16, wherein, described forging die (10) is used for forge hot.
CNB021545103A 2001-09-18 2002-09-18 Ni-base alloy, Ni-base alloy prepn. process and forging die thereof CN1179059C (en)

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