CN114279109A - High-efficient gas waste heat utilization system - Google Patents

High-efficient gas waste heat utilization system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114279109A
CN114279109A CN202111637709.9A CN202111637709A CN114279109A CN 114279109 A CN114279109 A CN 114279109A CN 202111637709 A CN202111637709 A CN 202111637709A CN 114279109 A CN114279109 A CN 114279109A
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China
Prior art keywords
medium
heat
effect absorption
temperature
heat pump
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CN202111637709.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
戴涛
范瑞波
林富春
陈炯炯
葛峰
吴亚飞
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Beijing Huayuantaimeng Energy Saving Equipment Co Ltd
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Beijing Huayuantaimeng Energy Saving Equipment Co Ltd
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Priority to CN202111637709.9A priority Critical patent/CN114279109A/en
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Abstract

The invention provides a high-efficiency gas waste heat utilization system, which comprises: the system comprises a gas steam generator, an ejector, a heat exchanger, a double-effect absorption heat pump and a single-effect absorption heat pump, wherein high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by combustion of gas in the gas steam generator enters the ejector, partial residual heat source is ejected at high speed to obtain medium-low pressure steam, and the medium-low pressure steam is introduced into the heat exchanger and can heat the medium-temperature heat source to realize waste heat recovery and utilization; the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump take fuel gas or high-pressure high-temperature steam as a driving heat source, recycle the other part of residual heat source, and heat the medium-temperature heat source; the medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in at least one of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump, and then the medium-temperature heat source is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating. The system heats the medium-temperature heat source water step by step through the cascade utilization of energy, so that the energy efficiency ratio of the whole system is obviously improved and promoted, and the system is more energy-saving and efficient.

Description

High-efficient gas waste heat utilization system
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of heat supply by utilizing waste heat, in particular to a high-efficiency gas waste heat utilization system.
Background
In the industries of cogeneration, central heating, thermal power plants, heating power companies, steel plants, coking plants, petrochemical plants, oil fields and the like, waste heat is often recovered by using fuel gas, a direct-combustion/afterburning absorption heat pump is generally adopted for recovering the waste heat by using the fuel gas as a driving force, low-temperature waste heat is recovered and utilized to generate heat for supplying heating, hot water or process, and the energy efficiency ratio is usually 1.5-2.3.
The operation process comprises the following steps: the fuel gas is burnt in the hearth of the burner, the heat generated during the combustion of the fuel gas is directly utilized to heat the lithium bromide solution, and the equipment and the process flow which are specifically adopted are as follows:
(1) a generator: heating and concentrating the lithium bromide dilute solution in a generator by a high-temperature heat source to generate refrigerant steam and a lithium bromide concentrated solution, wherein the refrigerant steam enters a condenser, and the lithium bromide concentrated solution enters an absorber;
(2) a condenser: after the refrigerant steam generated by the generator enters the condenser, the refrigerant steam is condensed into refrigerant water due to the lower temperature of the medium-temperature heat source, heat is released to the medium-temperature heat source, the temperature of the medium-temperature heat source is increased, and the refrigerant water enters the evaporator;
(3) an evaporator: after the refrigerant water enters the evaporator, the boiling point of the refrigerant water is reduced to be lower than the temperature of the waste heat source due to the reduction of pressure, the refrigerant water is evaporated to absorb heat, and the generated water vapor enters the absorber; meanwhile, the waste heat source releases heat, the temperature is reduced, a refrigeration effect is generated, and waste heat is recovered;
(4) an absorber: in the absorber, the lithium bromide concentrated solution absorbs water vapor to dilute the lithium bromide dilute solution, the process is a heat release process, the medium-temperature heat source is heated, and the generated lithium bromide dilute solution enters the generator again to carry out the next cycle.
In the prior art, fuel gas is combusted in a hearth of a combustor, and heat generated during combustion of the fuel gas is directly utilized to heat a lithium bromide solution to generate refrigerant steam. However, in order to prevent the lithium bromide solution from crystallizing, the lithium bromide solution is usually heated to about 160 ℃, and the fuel gas is used as a high-grade energy source, the combustion temperature can reach 2000 ℃, even higher, the temperature difference is not well utilized, and the waste of heat energy is caused to a certain extent. Therefore, the energy efficiency ratio is usually about 1.7, and can only reach about 2.3 at the highest, and the energy efficiency ratio is not high enough.
In view of the above reasons, the invention provides an efficient gas waste heat utilization system, which is capable of heating medium-temperature heat source water step by energy gradient utilization, so that the energy efficiency ratio of the whole system is obviously improved and promoted, and the system is more energy-saving and efficient.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a high-efficiency fuel gas waste heat utilization system, which optimally combines an ejector and an absorption heat pump, and heats medium-temperature heat source water step by step through the cascade utilization of energy sources, so that the energy efficiency ratio of the whole system is obviously improved and promoted, the system is more energy-saving and efficient, and the range of adjustment and adaptation to working conditions is wider.
The invention provides a high-efficiency gas waste heat utilization system, which comprises: the system comprises a gas steam generator, an ejector, a heat exchanger, a double-effect absorption heat pump and a single-effect absorption heat pump, wherein a steam outlet of the gas steam generator is communicated with the ejector, high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by combustion of fuel gas in the gas steam generator enters the ejector, part of waste heat sources are ejected at high speed to obtain medium-low pressure steam, and the medium-low pressure steam is introduced into the heat exchanger and can heat the medium-high pressure heat sources to realize waste heat recycling; the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump take fuel gas or high-pressure high-temperature steam as a driving heat source, recycle the other part of residual heat source, and heat the medium-temperature heat source; the medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in at least one of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump, and the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating.
Preferably, the medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in the heat exchanger or the double-effect absorption heat pump, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump or the heat exchanger for the third heating.
Preferably, the medium-temperature heat source is heated in the heat exchanger for the first time, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump for the third heating.
Preferably, the medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in the double-effect absorption heat pump, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the heat exchanger for the third heating.
Preferably, the medium-temperature heat source enters the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump at the same time for first heating, and the medium-temperature heat source flowing out of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump after the first heating is combined is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for second heating.
Preferably, the waste heat source is water or dead steam.
Preferably, the heat exchanger is a steam-water heat exchanger.
Preferably, the medium temperature heat source is water.
Preferably, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are direct-combustion absorption heat pumps, fuel gas is used as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the fuel gas introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
Preferably, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are steam-type absorption heat pumps, high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by combustion of fuel gas in the fuel gas steam generator is used as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the high-pressure high-temperature steam introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
According to the technical scheme, on the basis of keeping the advantages of the absorption heat pump, the ejector and the absorption heat pump are optimally combined, the ejector adopts high-speed high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by fuel gas in a fuel gas steam generator to eject part of waste heat sources to obtain medium-low pressure steam, the medium-low pressure steam is introduced into the heat exchanger to heat the medium-temperature heat sources, the waste heat sources are recycled by matching with a double-effect absorption heat pump and a single-effect absorption heat pump, and the medium-temperature heat sources are heated step by step at least twice through the cascade utilization of energy sources, so that the energy efficiency ratio of the whole system is obviously improved and promoted, the energy is more energy-saving and efficient, the energy utilization rate of the fuel gas is improved, more waste heat can be recovered by the fuel gas with the same amount, or the recovered waste heat is more and the consumed fuel gas amount is less under the condition of a certain heating amount. In addition, the system is more flexible in process, different medium-temperature heat source water heating processes can be selected according to actual conditions, steam pressure and flow are adjusted according to working conditions, efficiency of relevant equipment in the whole system is optimal, and the adjusting and working condition adapting range is wider.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic flow diagram of a medium temperature heat source of a system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic flow diagram of a medium temperature heat source in a second system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic flow diagram of a medium temperature heat source of a third system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention will be described clearly and completely with reference to the following embodiments, and it should be understood that the described embodiments are some, but not all, embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "center", "longitudinal", "lateral", "length", "width", "thickness", "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", "clockwise", "counterclockwise", and the like, indicate orientations and positional relationships based on those shown in the drawings, and are used only for convenience of description and simplicity of description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus, should not be considered as limiting the present invention.
Furthermore, the terms "first", "second" and "first" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance or implicitly indicating the number of technical features indicated. Thus, features defined as "first", "second", may explicitly or implicitly include one or more of the described features. In the description of the present invention, "a plurality" means two or more unless specifically defined otherwise. Furthermore, the terms "mounted," "connected," and "connected" are to be construed broadly and may, for example, be fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally connected; can be mechanically or electrically connected; they may be connected directly or indirectly through intervening media, or they may be interconnected between two elements. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
Example one
As shown in fig. 1, the invention provides a high-efficiency gas waste heat utilization system, which comprises a gas steam generator, an ejector, a heat exchanger, a double-effect absorption heat pump and a single-effect absorption heat pump, wherein the gas steam generator, the ejector and the heat exchanger are sequentially communicated, gas introduced from the outside is combusted in the gas steam generator to generate high-pressure high-temperature steam, a steam outlet of the gas steam generator is communicated with an inlet of the ejector, the generated high-pressure high-temperature steam enters the ejector at a high speed and ejects part of waste heat sources to obtain medium-low pressure steam, and the medium-low pressure steam is introduced into the heat exchanger to heat the medium-temperature heat sources, so that waste heat recovery and utilization are realized.
In the embodiment, the ejector adopts a steam jet pump, and consists of a nozzle, a receiving chamber, a mixing chamber, a pressure expansion chamber and the like, and the working principle of the ejector is that high-pressure high-temperature steam generates high-speed airflow when passing through the nozzle, a low-pressure area is generated at the outlet of the nozzle, an excess heat source is sucked in the area, the high-pressure high-temperature steam compresses the excess heat source while expanding, the grade of the excess heat source is improved by using the excess pressure of the high-pressure high-temperature steam, then the high-pressure high-temperature steam is well mixed by the mixing chamber, partial pressure of the mixed steam is restored by the pressure expansion chamber, medium-low pressure steam is obtained, and the medium-low pressure steam heats the medium-temperature heat source in a heat exchanger.
In this embodiment, the waste heat source is water or exhaust steam, the medium temperature heat source is water, the heat exchanger is a steam-water heat exchanger, and the medium and low pressure steam exchanges heat with the medium temperature heat source water therein, so as to heat the medium temperature heat source water.
The double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump take fuel gas or high-pressure high-temperature steam as a driving heat source, recycle the other part of residual heat source, and heat medium-temperature heat source water. In this embodiment, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are direct-fired absorption heat pumps, which use fuel gas as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the fuel gas introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable. In another embodiment, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump can also adopt a steam-type absorption heat pump, which takes high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by burning fuel gas in a gas steam generator as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the high-pressure high-temperature steam introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump can be adjusted.
In the embodiment, the medium-temperature heat source water is heated for the first time in the heat exchanger by using medium-low pressure steam flowing out of the ejector as a heat source, the medium-temperature heat source water after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump, the single-effect absorption heat pump uses fuel gas as a driving heat source to recycle a part of waste heat sources, the medium-temperature heat source water after the second heating is heated for the second time by the recycled heat energy, the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump, the double-effect absorption heat pump uses the fuel gas as a driving heat source to recycle a part of waste heat sources, and the medium-temperature heat source water is heated for the third time by the recycled heat energy.
The efficient gas waste heat utilization system heats the medium-temperature heat source water step by step, so that the energy efficiency ratio of the whole system is obviously improved and promoted, the energy utilization rate of the gas is improved, more waste heat can be recovered from the gas with the same quantity, or more waste heat can be recovered and the consumed gas quantity is less under the condition of certain heating quantity. In addition, the system is more flexible in process, different medium-temperature heat source water heating processes can be selected according to actual conditions, steam pressure and flow are adjusted according to working conditions, efficiency of relevant equipment in the whole system is enabled to be optimal, the adjusting and working condition adapting range is wider, and the system can be popularized and applied in waste heat deep utilization projects of industries such as cogeneration, central heating, thermal power plants, heating power companies, steel plants, coking plants, petrochemical plants and oil fields.
Example two
In this embodiment, the system includes the same components as the first embodiment, and only the flow path of the medium temperature heat source water in the system is different. As shown in fig. 2, the double-effect absorption heat pump recovers and utilizes a part of waste heat sources, and heats the medium-temperature heat source water for the first time through the recovered heat energy, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump, the single-effect absorption heat pump recovers and utilizes a part of the waste heat sources, and heats the medium-temperature heat source water for the second time through the recovered heat energy, the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the heat exchanger, and heats the medium-temperature heat source water for the third time through the medium-low pressure steam flowing out of the ejector.
In this embodiment, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are steam-type absorption heat pumps, which use high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by burning fuel gas in a gas steam generator as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the high-pressure high-temperature steam introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
EXAMPLE III
In this embodiment, the system includes the same components as the first embodiment, and only the flow path of the medium temperature heat source water in the system is different. As shown in fig. 3, the medium temperature heat source water enters the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump from two parallel branches simultaneously for first heating, wherein the heat exchanger uses the medium and low pressure steam flowing out of the ejector as a heat source to heat the medium temperature heat source water, the double-effect absorption heat pump uses a direct-fired absorption heat pump, uses fuel gas as a driving heat source to recycle a part of waste heat sources, heats the medium temperature heat source water through the recycled heat energy, flows out of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump through the medium temperature heat source water subjected to the first heating, and is combined and introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump, the single-effect absorption heat pump uses a direct-fired absorption heat pump, uses the fuel gas as a driving heat source to recycle a part of waste heat sources, and uses the recycled heat energy to heat the medium temperature heat source water for the second heating.
In another embodiment, the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump may also be steam-type absorption heat pumps, which use high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by burning fuel gas in a gas steam generator as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the high-pressure high-temperature steam introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above embodiments are only used to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, and not to limit the same; while the invention has been described in detail and with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some or all of the technical features may be equivalently replaced; and the modifications or the substitutions do not make the essence of the corresponding technical solutions depart from the scope of the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a high-efficient gas waste heat utilization system which characterized in that includes: the system comprises a gas steam generator, an ejector, a heat exchanger, a double-effect absorption heat pump and a single-effect absorption heat pump, wherein a steam outlet of the gas steam generator is communicated with the ejector, high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by combustion of fuel gas in the gas steam generator enters the ejector, part of waste heat sources are ejected at high speed to obtain medium-low pressure steam, and the medium-low pressure steam is introduced into the heat exchanger and can heat the medium-high pressure heat sources to realize waste heat recycling; the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump take fuel gas or high-pressure high-temperature steam as a driving heat source, recycle the other part of residual heat source, and heat the medium-temperature heat source; the medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in at least one of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump, and the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating.
2. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to claim 1, wherein a medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in the heat exchanger or the double-effect absorption heat pump, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump or the heat exchanger for the third heating.
3. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to claim 2, wherein a medium-temperature heat source is heated in the heat exchanger for the first time, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump for the third heating.
4. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to claim 2, wherein a medium-temperature heat source is heated for the first time in the double-effect absorption heat pump, the medium-temperature heat source after the first heating is introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for the second heating, and the medium-temperature heat source after the second heating is introduced into the heat exchanger for the third heating.
5. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to claim 1, wherein a medium-temperature heat source enters the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump at the same time for first heating, and the medium-temperature heat source flowing out of the heat exchanger and the double-effect absorption heat pump is combined through the first heating and then introduced into the single-effect absorption heat pump for second heating.
6. The efficient gas waste heat utilization system according to any one of claims 1-5, wherein the waste heat source is water or exhaust steam.
7. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to any one of claims 1-5, wherein the heat exchanger is a steam-water heat exchanger.
8. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to any one of claims 1-5, wherein the medium-temperature heat source is water.
9. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are direct-combustion absorption heat pumps, fuel gas is used as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the fuel gas introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
10. The efficient fuel gas waste heat utilization system according to any one of claims 1-5, wherein the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump are steam-type absorption heat pumps, high-pressure high-temperature steam generated by combustion of fuel gas in the fuel gas steam generator is used as a driving heat source, and the flow ratio of the high-pressure high-temperature steam introduced into the double-effect absorption heat pump and the single-effect absorption heat pump is adjustable.
CN202111637709.9A 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 High-efficient gas waste heat utilization system Pending CN114279109A (en)

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN200972286Y (en) * 2006-11-16 2007-11-07 沈阳国惠供热有限公司 Thermodynamic centrifugal water source heat pump set
US20140013783A1 (en) * 2012-03-09 2014-01-16 Bluelagoon Technologies Ltd. Apparatus and method for vapor driven absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformer with applications
CN103994486A (en) * 2014-05-26 2014-08-20 北京建筑大学 Large-temperature-difference efficient heat supply system of gas-fired boiler
CN105222399A (en) * 2015-09-30 2016-01-06 河南科技大学 The refrigerating and heating systems that a kind of solar energy is auxiliary
CN108050568A (en) * 2017-12-12 2018-05-18 大连葆光节能空调设备厂 Biomass boiler and industrial exhaust heat united heat technology
CN110894971A (en) * 2019-12-23 2020-03-20 西安交通大学 Gas boiler absorption heat pump integration heating device
CN110926049A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-03-27 陕西鼓风机(集团)有限公司 Cogeneration low-temperature heating process and system

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN200972286Y (en) * 2006-11-16 2007-11-07 沈阳国惠供热有限公司 Thermodynamic centrifugal water source heat pump set
US20140013783A1 (en) * 2012-03-09 2014-01-16 Bluelagoon Technologies Ltd. Apparatus and method for vapor driven absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformer with applications
CN103994486A (en) * 2014-05-26 2014-08-20 北京建筑大学 Large-temperature-difference efficient heat supply system of gas-fired boiler
CN105222399A (en) * 2015-09-30 2016-01-06 河南科技大学 The refrigerating and heating systems that a kind of solar energy is auxiliary
CN108050568A (en) * 2017-12-12 2018-05-18 大连葆光节能空调设备厂 Biomass boiler and industrial exhaust heat united heat technology
CN110926049A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-03-27 陕西鼓风机(集团)有限公司 Cogeneration low-temperature heating process and system
CN110894971A (en) * 2019-12-23 2020-03-20 西安交通大学 Gas boiler absorption heat pump integration heating device

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