CN114177760A - System and method for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas and integrally discharging hazardous waste incineration flue gas in ultralow emission mode - Google Patents

System and method for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas and integrally discharging hazardous waste incineration flue gas in ultralow emission mode Download PDF

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CN114177760A
CN114177760A CN202210140220.9A CN202210140220A CN114177760A CN 114177760 A CN114177760 A CN 114177760A CN 202210140220 A CN202210140220 A CN 202210140220A CN 114177760 A CN114177760 A CN 114177760A
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flue gas
tower
absorption tower
temperature
deacidification
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张相
刘晓燕
凌有基
常涛
李云
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Pyneo Co ltd
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Pyneo Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/54Nitrogen compounds
    • B01D53/56Nitrogen oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/77Liquid phase processes
    • B01D53/78Liquid phase processes with gas-liquid contact
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03CMAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03C3/00Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, by electrostatic effect
    • B03C3/017Combinations of electrostatic separation with other processes, not otherwise provided for
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02CCAPTURE, STORAGE, SEQUESTRATION OR DISPOSAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG]
    • Y02C20/00Capture or disposal of greenhouse gases
    • Y02C20/10Capture or disposal of greenhouse gases of nitrous oxide (N2O)

Abstract

The invention relates to a purification technology of flue gas generated after hazardous waste incineration, in particular to an active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of the flue gas generated after hazardous waste incineration. According to the method, denitration is realized by adopting sodium-alkali spraying absorption after NOx is oxidized by active oxygen, the defect that denitration can be realized only by steam heating of an SCR technology is overcome, and energy consumption is saved; an integrated ultra-low absorption tower is adopted, and the ultra-low treatment technology of desulfurization, denitration and dust removal can be realized at the same time; according to the method, the emission temperature of the flue gas is controlled to be 115 ℃ while the ultralow emission is met, the flue gas temperature is 135 ℃ when the steam heat exchanger SGH is selected and matched, and the emission of the flue gas is ensured to be whitened; this application thick liquid sprays layer below and establishes pipe bars increase ware, and under the same deacidification efficiency, reducible one deck sprays the layer, reduces circulating pump circulation flow, has practiced thrift the energy consumption.

Description

System and method for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas and integrally discharging hazardous waste incineration flue gas in ultralow emission mode
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of physical and chemical purification of flue gas generated after hazardous waste incineration, in particular to a system and a method for oxidizing active oxygen and integrally discharging ultralow emission of flue gas generated after hazardous waste incineration.
Background
With the rapid development of society, the amount of dangerous wastes in production and life is increasing. The newly implemented Standard for controlling pollution caused by incineration of hazardous wastes (GB 18484-2020) in China requires that the dust is less than or equal to 5mg/Nm3,SO2≤35mg/Nm3,NOx≤50 mg/Nm3Ultra-low emission implementation of (c). Compared with the waste pollution control Standard for hazardous waste incineration (GB 18484-2001) of the previous edition, the dust requirement is less than or equal to 65mg/Nm3,SO2≤200 mg/Nm3,HF≤5mg/Nm3,HCl≤60 mg/Nm3,NOx≤500 mg/Nm3The standard is further improved.
The dangerous waste incineration is a commonly used disposal technology at present, and the matched denitration, dust removal and deacidification technology flow comprises the following steps: after being compatible, hazardous waste enters an incinerator for incineration, flue gas generated by incineration enters a waste heat furnace to recover heat and generate byproduct steam, an SNCR denitration device is matched with the waste heat furnace in a proper temperature range, the flue gas enters a quench tower to cool the flue gas, the flue gas enters a dry tower, slaked lime powder is sprayed into the dry tower to deacidify, activated carbon is sprayed into the dry tower to adsorb heavy metal and dioxin in the flue gas, then the flue gas enters a cloth bag for dust removal, the flue gas after the heavy metal, the dioxin and dust removal enters a two-stage deacidification tower to deacidify, each acidic gas is completely absorbed, the flue gas enters a steam heater to heat, and finally the flue gas enters a chimney to be discharged.
The current technology is difficult to meet the emission requirements of new specifications and stricter ultra-low emission requirements, and is mainly reflected in that: at present, the denitration technology mainly adopts an SNCR method, the denitration efficiency of the SNCR technology in rotary kiln incineration is not high by 30-50% at most, and the ultra-low emission index is difficult to achieve; the deacidification technology is currently mainlyThe gas-liquid ratio of the absorption liquid is generally 2-3L/Nm by adopting a packed tower or a spray tower3The spraying coverage rate is low, and the deacidification efficiency is low and is difficult to reach the ultralow emission index; the flue gas after the deacidification tower is heated by a steam heater and then directly discharged from a chimney, and the flue gas after the deacidification tower is saturated and contains liquid fogdrops, so that the fogdrops content after the demister demisting is 50-100 mg/Nm3And the fog drops are dissolved with a large amount of salts generated by deacidification, and the salts can be counted as dust when the ultra-fine dust detector detects the salt, so that the dust in the flue gas discharged from the chimney cannot meet the ultra-low emission index.
In the current hazardous waste incineration device, the flue gas treatment technology in each stage mainly has the following points that the latest emission index or ultralow emission index is difficult to achieve. 1. The denitration technology, the efficiency of the SNCR technology commonly used at present on a hazardous waste incineration device is usually 30-50%, and after the SNCR technology, the NOx can not reach less than or equal to 50 mg/Nm3Ultra-low emission requirements. 2. Deacidifying technology, in which the acidic gas in the hazardous waste incineration flue gas is mainly HCl, HF and SO2The prior deacidification technology mainly adopts a two-stage deacidification tower, the tower type adopts a packed tower or a spray tower mostly, and the deacidification agent adopts a sodium hydroxide solution as a main material. The primary deacidification tower realizes the cooling and primary deacidification of the flue gas, and the secondary deacidification tower realizes the final deacidification, but the total absorption liquid-gas ratio of the two-stage deacidification tower is low, generally 2-3L/Nm3The efficiency improvement of the removal of HCl and HF strong acid is more convenient, the liquid-gas ratio can be improved, but the removal of the HCl and HF strong acid can be realized by weak acid SO2≤35 mg/Nm3The ultra-low emission requirement is difficult to realize according to the prior two-stage deacidification technology. 3. The dust removing technology is characterized in that after flue gas enters a deacidification tower for washing after a dust remover at present, the flue gas is saturated and contains liquid fog drops, and the fog drop content after demisting of a demister of the deacidification tower is 50-100 mg/Nm3And a large amount of salts generated by deacidification are dissolved in the fog drops, and the salts can be counted as dust when the ultrafine dust detector detects the salts, so that the dust in the deacidified flue gas can hardly meet the requirement of being less than or equal to 5mg/Nm3Ultra-low emission requirements.
Disclosure of Invention
The hazardous waste treatment system in the prior art cannot meet the requirement of new treatmentIn the implemented Standard for pollution control on incineration of hazardous waste (GB 18484-2020), dust is less than or equal to 5mg/Nm3,SO2≤35mg/Nm3,NOx≤50 mg/Nm3The system and the method have the advantages that the ultralow emission requirement is met, and energy consumption is reduced while standard emission is achieved.
On one hand, the applicant provides an active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system for hazardous waste incineration flue gas, which comprises a rotary kiln, a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat boiler, a quench tower, a dry tower and a bag-type dust remover which are sequentially connected, wherein the waste heat boiler is simultaneously matched with an SNCR system, and the bag-type dust remover is sequentially connected with a first MGGH, a deacidification tower, an integrated ultralow absorption tower, an induced draft fan and a chimney; the bottom of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the side wall of the bottom of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is provided with a flue gas inlet, an absorption tower pipe grid booster, an absorption tower slurry spraying layer, an absorption tower demister, a second MGGH and a wet electric dust collector are sequentially arranged on the integrated ultra-low absorption tower, an active oxygen molecular oxidation reactor is arranged on the tower wall between the absorption tower slurry pool area and the pipe grid booster, and the top of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is a flue gas outlet; first MGGH directly links the heat transfer through heat transfer pipeline with second MGGH, and first MGGH is intake and is gone out water with second MGGH and pass through the pipeline and link to each other, and first MGGH goes out water and second MGGH and intake and pass through the pipeline and link to each other.
Furthermore, a water pump is arranged in a heat exchange pipeline directly connected with the first MGGH and the second MGGH, the pressure in the heat exchange pipeline is 0.45MPa, the water temperature in the heat exchange pipeline is 116 ℃ when the first MGGH water inlet and the second MGGH water outlet are connected, and the water temperature in the pipeline connecting the first MGGH water outlet and the second MGGH water inlet is 139 ℃.
Further, the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is externally provided with an absorption tower circulating pump which is connected with an absorption tower slurry pool area, the absorption tower circulating pump and an absorption tower slurry spraying layer through pipelines, the absorption tower slurry spraying layer is provided with 3 layers or 4 layers for spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 9L/Nm3-12 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%.
Further, a steam heat exchanger SGH is additionally arranged between the flue gas outlet of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower and the induced draft fan, and the steam heat exchanger SGH adopts saturated steam with the pressure of 2.8MPa and the temperature of 230 ℃.
Further, the bottom in the deacidification tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the side wall of the bottom is provided with a flue gas inlet, a deacidification tower pipe grid multiplier, a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer and a deacidification tower demister are sequentially arranged on the flue gas inlet, and the top of the deacidification tower is a flue gas outlet.
Further, the deacidification tower is externally provided with a deacidification tower circulating pump which is connected with a deacidification tower slurry pool area and a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer through a pipeline, the deacidification tower slurry spraying layer is provided with 2 layers or 3 layers of spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 5L/Nm3-7 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is controlled to be 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%.
Further, the device also comprises a sodium alkali solution storage and conveying device which respectively supplements sodium alkali solution to the absorption tower pulp pool area and the absorption tower pulp pool area.
Further, the pulp tank area of the absorption tower is connected with the pulp tank area of the deacidification tower.
On the other hand, the application also provides a method for oxidizing the active oxygen in the hazardous waste incineration smoke and integrally discharging the hazardous waste incineration smoke in an ultralow emission manner, wherein the method comprises the steps of mixing the waste, then burning the waste in a rotary kiln and a secondary combustion chamber, wherein the temperature of the incineration smoke is not less than 1100 ℃, and the retention time is not less than 2 s; the NOx in the flue gas is reduced to 150 mg/Nm through a waste heat boiler provided with an SNCR system3The smoke temperature of the smoke is not less than 500 ℃; cooling the flue gas by a quenching tower within 1s until the temperature of the flue gas is not more than 200 ℃; spraying slaked lime and activated carbon powder into the dry tower through the dry tower to adsorb and remove heavy metals, dioxin and the like in the flue gas, and then adsorbing and removing dust through a bag-type dust remover, wherein the dust is not higher than 20 mg/Nm3The smoke temperature is 190 ℃, the smoke after dust removal enters a first MGGH for heat exchange, the heat exchange temperature is reduced by 50 ℃, the water inlet temperature of the first MGGH hydrophily is 116 ℃, the water outlet temperature is 139 ℃, and the pressure is 0.45 MPa; the flue gas with the flue gas temperature of 140 ℃ enters a deacidification tower and sequentially passes through a deacidification tower pipe grid synergist, a deacidification tower spraying layer and a deacidification tower demister; removing acidic substances and fog drops, and carrying out active oxygen molecule oxidation reaction on saturated wet smoke at 70 DEG CThe device enters an integrated ultra-low absorption tower, and sequentially passes through a pipe grid booster, an absorption tower slurry spraying layer, an absorption tower demister, a second MGGH and a wet electric dust collector, wherein the first MGGH and the second MGGH are directly connected with a water pump arranged in a heat exchange pipeline to drive heat exchange water medium to circularly exchange heat, and the flue gas is discharged through a flue gas outlet at the top of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower to complete SO2NOx and dust are removed to achieve the smoke with ultra-low emission index, the smoke temperature of the smoke is 115 ℃, and the smoke is ensured to be free of white fog.
Further, the bottom of the deacidification tower is a deacidification tower slurry pool area, the pH value of the solution in the slurry pool area is controlled to be 7-7.5, the density is 1.05 kg/L-1.1 kg/L, the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by a circulating pump of the deacidification tower and sprayed into a slurry spraying layer of the deacidification tower, the slurry spraying layer of the deacidification tower is provided with 2 layers or 3 layers of spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 5L/Nm3-7 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is controlled to be 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%; the bottom of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the pH value of a solution in the slurry pool area is controlled to be 7.5-8, the density is 1.05 kg/L-1.1 kg/L, the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by an absorption tower circulating pump to enter an absorption tower slurry spraying layer, the absorption tower slurry spraying layer is provided with 3 layers or 4 layers for spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 9L/Nm3-12 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%; the discharged solution of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower slurry pool area is led to the deacidification tower slurry pool area to further fully absorb sodium alkali; the flue gas with the temperature of 115 ℃ discharged by the integrated ultra-low absorption tower enters a steam heat exchanger SGH, the temperature of the flue gas is raised by 20 ℃ through steam heat exchange, the temperature of the flue gas after heat exchange is 135 ℃ and the temperature of the flue gas is higher than 70 ℃ saturation temperature 65 ℃ by adopting saturated steam with the pressure of 2.8MPa and the temperature of 230 ℃ in the steam heat exchanger SGH, and the smoke discharging site without white fog is further ensured.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following effects: (1) this application adopts active oxygen molecule oxidation NOx after, and the cooperation sodium alkali sprays the absorption to realize the technique of denitration, overcome the dilemma that the denitration need adopt the SCR technique, need not the steam heating gas temperature and just can realize the technological effect of denitration, practiced thrift the energy consumption. (2) "Integrated ultra-low suction that this application adoptedThe technology of desulfurization, denitration and dust removal is integrated in the tower collection process, and the ultralow treatment technology of desulfurization, denitration and dust removal can be realized simultaneously, SO that SO in the hazardous waste incineration flue gas is obtained2NOx and dust simultaneously meet the technical effect of ultra-low emission index. (3) The application obtains SO in hazardous waste incineration flue gas2And NOx and dust simultaneously meet the technical effect of ultra-low emission indexes, the emission temperature of the flue gas is controlled to be 115 ℃, and the flue gas temperature is 135 ℃ when the steam heat exchanger SGH is selected, so that the white elimination of the discharged flue gas is ensured. (4) The matched pipe grid effect enhancer is designed below the slurry spraying layer, the efficiency of the pipe grid effect enhancer is superior to that of a single-layer spraying layer, the configuration of the spraying layer can be reduced and the circulating flow of the circulating pump can be reduced under the same deacidification and desulfurization efficiency, so that the technical effect of saving the power consumption of the circulating pump is achieved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an integrated ultra-low emission system for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of another hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultra-low emission system of the present application.
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of another hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultra-low emission system of the present application.
The system comprises a rotary kiln 1, a secondary combustion chamber 2, a waste heat boiler 3, a quench tower 4, a dry tower 5, a bag-type dust remover 6, a first MGGH7, a deacidification tower 8, a deacidification tower tube grid synergist 8.1, a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer 8.2, a deacidification tower demister 8.3 and a first discharge chamber 8.4; the system comprises a deacidification tower circulating pump 9, an integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10, an active molecule oxidation reactor 10.1, an absorption tower tube grid synergist 10.2, an absorption tower slurry spraying layer 10.3, an absorption tower demister 10.4, a second MGGH10.5, a wet electric dust collector 10.6, a second outer discharge chamber 10.7, an absorption tower circulating pump 11, a steam heat exchanger SGH12, a water pump 13, a draught fan 14, a chimney 15, a sodium-alkali solution storage device 16 and an ozone generator 17.
Detailed Description
The embodiments are described in detail below, and the embodiments described with reference to the drawings are exemplary and are intended to be used for explaining the inventive concept.
The terms "upper," "lower," "front," "rear," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "top," "bottom," "inner," "outer," and the like as used in the description are used in the orientation or positional relationship indicated in the figures, merely to simplify the description, and do not indicate or imply that the referenced devices or elements must have a particular orientation, configuration, and operation.
The terms "first", "second", etc. used in the description are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance or implicitly indicating the number of technical features indicated. Thus, a feature defined as "first" or "second" may explicitly or implicitly include one or more of that feature. The term "plurality" means two or more unless specifically limited otherwise.
Unless expressly stated or limited otherwise, the terms "connected," "communicating," "connected," and the like as used in the description are intended to be broadly construed, and can, for example, be fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally formed; can be mechanical connection and electrical connection; may be directly connected, or indirectly connected through an intermediate; either as communication within the two elements or as an interactive relationship of the two elements. Specific meanings of the above terms in the examples can be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art according to specific situations.
Unless otherwise expressly stated or limited, a first feature "above," "below," or "above" a second feature may be directly contacting the first or second feature, or the first and second features may be indirectly contacting each other through intervening media. Also, a first feature "on," "over," or "above" a second feature may be directly on or obliquely above the second feature, or simply indicate that the first feature is at a higher level than the second feature. A first feature may be "under," "beneath," or "beneath" a second feature, and the first and second features may be in direct contact, or the first and second features may be in indirect contact via an intermediate. Also, a first feature "under," "beneath," or "beneath" a second feature may be directly under or obliquely below the second feature, or simply mean that the first feature is at a lesser level than the second feature.
Reference throughout this specification to "one particular embodiment" or "an example" means that a particular feature, structure, material, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment or example is included in at least one embodiment or example of the application. In this specification, the schematic representations of the terms used above are not necessarily intended to refer to the same embodiment or example. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics described may be combined in any suitable manner in any one or more embodiments or examples. Furthermore, various embodiments or examples and features of different embodiments or examples described in this specification can be combined and combined by one skilled in the art without contradiction.
As shown in fig. 1, the system for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas and integrally discharging ultralow waste comprises a rotary kiln 1, a secondary combustion chamber 2, a waste heat boiler 3, a quench tower 4, a dry tower 5, a bag-type dust remover 6, a first MGGH7, a deacidification tower 8, an integrally ultralow absorption tower 10, a draught fan 14 and a chimney 15 in sequence.
The dangerous waste enters the rotary kiln 1 and the secondary combustion chamber 2 for complete incineration, the dangerous waste is incinerated in the secondary combustion chamber 2, the incineration smoke temperature is not less than 1100 ℃, and the retention time is not less than 2 s. The heat of the incinerated high-temperature flue gas is recovered by the waste heat boiler 3, the SNCR system is simultaneously matched and sleeved in the waste heat boiler 3, and the NOx in the flue gas is reduced to 150 mg/Nm3And the smoke temperature of the smoke after heat recovery is not less than 500 ℃. The flue gas is cooled by a quench tower 4, and the flue gas is controlled to be cooled within 1s until the flue gas temperature is not more than 200 ℃. The flue gas passes through a dry tower 5, slaked lime and activated carbon powder are sprayed into the dry tower, and heavy metals, dioxin and the like in the flue gas are adsorbed and removed. The powder for adsorption is adsorbed and removed with the flue gas by the bag-type dust collector 6, and the concentration of the dust in the flue gas is controlled to be not higher than 20 mg/Nm3And the temperature of the smoke is controlled to be about 190 ℃ after the smoke passes through the bag-type dust collector.
The flue gas temperature of the dedusted flue gas is about 190 ℃, the flue gas enters a first MGGH7 for heat exchange treatment, and the MGGH is short for an intermediate heat medium flue gas heat exchanger system adopting heat medium water as a medium. The system is designed according to the heat exchange temperature reduction of 50 ℃, and after the heat exchange temperature reduction of the raw flue gas, the flue gas temperature is reduced to 140 ℃ which is higher than the acid dew point temperature of the raw flue gas of 125-130 ℃. The first MGGH7 water medium design temperature is designed according to the water inlet temperature of 116 ℃ and the water outlet temperature of 139 ℃, the pressure is 0.45MPa, and the saturated vapor pressure is 0.35MPa when the pressure is higher than 139 ℃, so that the water medium is prevented from vaporizing. A water pump 13 is arranged in a water inlet and outlet pipeline of the first MGGH7, and the water medium is powered to circulate through the water pump 13.
The flue gas after heat exchange enters a deacidification tower 8 for deacidification treatment, a large amount of HCl and HF can be removed in the deacidification tower 8, the removing efficiency is generally 98%, and the flue gas can reach the standard when the original concentration is not high. Most of SO can be removed in the deacidification tower 82The desulfurization efficiency is generally 95 percent, and the desulfurization efficiency is difficult to reach 35 mg/Nm when the inlet concentration is high3The following ultra-low emission requirements. The following compartments or components are arranged in the deacidification tower 8 from bottom to top in sequence: the device comprises a deacidification tower slurry pool area, a deacidification tower pipe grid multiplier 8.1, a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer 8.2 and a deacidification tower demister 8.3, wherein a flue gas inlet is formed in the tower wall between the deacidification tower slurry pool area and the deacidification tower pipe grid multiplier 8.1, and a flue gas outlet is formed in the top of the deacidification tower 8.
And in the slurry pool area of the deacidification tower, a sodium hydroxide solution with the mass concentration of 20% is added into the slurry pool area of the deacidification tower, and the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by a circulating pump 9 of the deacidification tower and sprayed into a slurry spraying layer 8.2 of the deacidification tower. The amount of the sodium alkali solution added is controlled according to the pH value of the solution in the slurry pool area of the deacidification tower, the pH value of the slurry pool area of the deacidification tower is controlled to be between 7 and 7.5, and the neutral operation of the circulating slurry can ensure that sodium alkali fully reacts and absorbs acidic substances. The density of the sodium hydroxide solution in the deacidification tower pulp pool area is controlled to be 1.05 kg/L-1.1 kg/L, and when the density exceeds the upper limit, the sodium hydroxide solution is discharged to a first discharge chamber 8.4 outside the system for subsequent treatment.
The deacidification tower tube grid synergist 8.1 can uniformly distribute the flue gas, increase the contact time of the flue gas and the sodium hydroxide solution, enable the sodium hydroxide solution sprayed from the upper part to form a liquid film on the deacidification tower tube grid synergist 8.1, realize gas-liquid contact reaction, and further remove the acid gas in the flue gas.
The slurry spraying layer 8.2 of the deacidification tower is connected with the slurry pool area of the deacidification tower through a pipeline, a circulating pump 9 of the deacidification tower is arranged in the pipeline, and the slurry spraying layer 8.2 of the deacidification tower is provided with 2 layers or3 layers of spraying are carried out, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 5L/Nm3-7 L/Nm3The design is that the spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is controlled to be 1 m, and the spray head positioning of each layer of spray is designed according to the spray coverage rate of 200%.
The demister 8.3 of the deacidification tower adopts a layer of baffle plate type demister to remove saturated wet flue gas of fog drops in the flue gas, the flue gas temperature is about 70 ℃, and then the flue gas enters the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10.
The integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 is a desulfurization, denitrification and dedusting integrated absorption tower, can realize desulfurization, denitrification and dedusting integrated removal and realize SO2≤35mg/Nm3,NOx≤50 mg/Nm3Dust is less than or equal to 5mg/Nm3Ultra-low emission requirements. The following compartments or components are arranged in the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 from bottom to top in sequence: the absorption tower comprises an absorption tower slurry pool area, an absorption tower pipe grid booster 10.2, an absorption tower slurry spraying layer 10.3, an absorption tower demister 10.4, a second MGGH10.5 and a wet electric dust collector 10.6, wherein an active oxygen molecular oxidation reactor 10.1 is arranged on the tower wall between the absorption tower slurry pool area and the pipe grid booster 10.2 for flue gas to enter, and the top of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 is a flue gas outlet.
And in the slurry pool area of the absorption tower, a sodium hydroxide solution with the mass concentration of 20% is added into the slurry pool area of the absorption tower, and the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by an absorption tower circulating pump 11 and enters an absorption tower slurry spraying layer 10.3. The amount of the sodium-alkali solution added is controlled according to the pH value of the solution in the slurry pool area, the pH value of the slurry pool area is controlled to operate according to 7.5-8, the weak alkali operation of the slurry is circulated, and the absorption of acid gas in the flue gas is effectively guaranteed. The density of the solution in the pulp pond area is 1.05-1.1kg/L, and the solution is discharged to a second discharge chamber 10.7 outside the system for subsequent treatment when the density exceeds the upper density limit.
The active oxygen molecule oxidation reactor 10.1 adopts ozone with strong oxidation performance as an active oxygen molecule oxidant, active oxygen molecules are prepared by an active oxygen generator 17 and then are introduced into the active oxygen molecule oxidation reactor 10.1 to be mixed with flue gas, and 2 layers or 3 layers of active oxygen molecule injection pipe networks are arranged in the active oxygen molecule oxidation reactor 10.1, so that the active oxygen molecules and the flue gas can be fully and uniformly mixed, and NOx in the flue gas can be thoroughly oxidized.
The absorption tower pipe grid booster 10.2 enables flue gas to be uniformly distributed, increases the contact time of the flue gas and slurry, enables the slurry sprayed from the upper part to form a liquid film on the pipe grid, realizes gas-liquid contact reaction, and further removes acid gas in the flue gas.
The absorption tower slurry spraying layer 10.3 is sprayed by slurry in a slurry pool area extracted by an absorption tower circulating pump 11, 3 layers or 4 layers of spraying are arranged on the absorption tower slurry spraying layer 10.3, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 9L/Nm3-12 L/Nm3The design is that the spray layer nozzles adopt solid cones or hollow cones, the effective atomization radius is 1 m, the spray layer nozzles on each layer are positioned according to the design of spraying coverage rate of 200 percent, and SO is thoroughly removed2Achieving the ultra-low index. The flue gas is washed by a slurry spraying layer 10.3 of the absorption tower and is cooled to about 5 ℃.
The flue gas after passing through the active oxygen molecular oxidation reactor 10.1 enters the pipe grid booster and the slurry spraying layer area, and sodium hydroxide and N in the slurry2O5Sodium nitrate is generated by reaction, and N in the flue gas is removed2O5And removing, thereby realizing the removal of NOx.
An absorption tower demister 10.4 adopts a two-layer baffle plate type demister to reduce fog drops in the flue gas to 75 mg/Nm3The following.
And the second MGGH10.5 is used for carrying out heat exchange and temperature rise on the purified flue gas with the saturated flue gas temperature of about 65 ℃. The design is that the temperature is raised according to the heat exchange temperature of 50 ℃, the temperature of the clean flue gas is raised to 115 ℃ after heat exchange, the design temperature of the second MGGH10.4 water medium is designed according to the water inlet temperature of 139 ℃ and the water outlet temperature of 116 ℃, the pressure is 0.45MPa, and the saturated vapor pressure is 0.35MPa when the temperature is higher than 139 ℃, so that vaporization is prevented.
Wet electric dust collector 10.6 for removing SO2And the flue gas after NOx is removed from the flue gas by a wet electric dust remover 10.6, so that the dust reaches the ultralow index.
SO is completed through an integrated ultra-low absorption tower 102NOx and dust are removed to reach the flue gas with ultra-low emission index. The temperature of the treated clean flue gas is about 115 ℃, and SO in the flue gas3The concentration is controlled at 1 mg/Nm3Within the range of 90-100 ℃ of acid dew point, the smoke can be directly discharged, the smoke temperature is higher than 70 ℃ of saturation temperature and is about 45 ℃, and the smoke discharge site without white fog can be ensured.
As shown in fig. 2In a specific embodiment, flue gas with the temperature of 115 ℃ discharged from the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 enters a steam heat exchanger SGH12, steam heat exchange and temperature rise are carried out on the flue gas, the flue gas temperature is raised to 135 ℃ according to the design of the heat exchange temperature rise of 20 ℃, and saturated steam with the temperature of 230 ℃ under the pressure of 2.8MPa is adopted as the steam. The smoke temperature after heat exchange is 135 ℃, and the smoke temperature is higher than 70 ℃ and the saturation temperature is about 65 ℃, so that the smoke discharge without a white mist field can be further ensured. The flue gas heated by the SGH12 of the steam heat exchanger reaches SO2NOx and dust with ultra-low emission indexes, and the smoke enters a chimney 15 through a draught fan 14 and is discharged into the atmosphere after being whitened.
As shown in fig. 3, in a specific embodiment, the slurry tank area of the deacidification tower of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 is connected with the slurry tank area of the deacidification tower 8 through a pipeline, and when the solution in the slurry tank area of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower 10 exceeds the upper limit of the density, the discharged solution can be discharged to the deacidification tower 8 to completely absorb sodium alkali, so that excessive waste of sodium alkali is not caused.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following effects: (1) the technology that the denitration is realized by spraying and absorbing sodium and alkali after NOx is oxidized by active oxygen molecule ozone overcomes the dilemma that the SCR technology is needed for denitration, the technical effect of denitration can be realized without heating smoke temperature by steam, and the energy consumption is saved; (2) integration desulfurization, denitration, dust removal technique in "integration ultra-low absorption tower" that this application adopted can realize desulfurization, denitration, dust removal simultaneously and ultralow processing technique to SO in the dangerous useless flue gas that burns has been got2NOx and dust simultaneously meet the technical effect of ultra-low emission index; (3) the application obtains SO in hazardous waste incineration flue gas2NOx and dust simultaneously meet the technical effect of ultra-low emission indexes, the emission temperature of the flue gas is controlled to be 115 ℃, and the flue gas temperature is 135 ℃ when a steam heat exchanger SGH is selected, so that the white elimination of the discharged flue gas is ensured; (4) the matched pipe grid effect enhancer is designed below the slurry spraying layer, the efficiency of the pipe grid effect enhancer is superior to that of a single-layer spraying layer, and the matched spraying layer can be reduced and the circulating flow of the circulating pump is reduced under the same deacidification efficiency/desulfurization efficiency, so that the technical effect of saving the power consumption of the circulating pump is achieved.
While embodiments of the present application have been illustrated and described above, it should be understood that they have been presented by way of example only, and not limitation. Without departing from the spirit and scope of this application, there are also various changes and modifications that fall within the scope of the claimed application.

Claims (10)

1. Dangerous useless burning flue gas active oxygen oxidation and the ultralow discharge system of integration, including rotary kiln (1), two combustion chambers (2), exhaust-heat boiler (3), quench tower (4), dry process tower (5) and sack cleaner (6) that connect gradually, it has SNCR system, its characterized in that to join in marriage the cover simultaneously in the exhaust-heat boiler:
a first MGGH (7), a deacidification tower (8), an integrated ultra-low absorption tower (10), an induced draft fan (14) and a chimney (15) are sequentially connected behind the bag-type dust collector;
the bottom of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the side wall of the bottom is provided with a flue gas inlet, an absorption tower pipe grid booster (10.2), an absorption tower slurry spraying layer (10.3), an absorption tower demister (10.4), a second MGGH (10.5) and a wet electric dust collector (10.6) are sequentially arranged on the integrated ultra-low absorption tower, an active oxygen molecular oxidation reactor (10.1) is arranged on the tower wall between the absorption tower slurry pool area and the pipe grid booster, the top of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is a flue gas outlet,
first MGGH directly links the heat transfer through heat transfer pipeline with second MGGH, and first MGGH is intake and is gone out water with second MGGH and pass through the pipeline and link to each other, and first MGGH goes out water and second MGGH and intake and pass through the pipeline and link to each other.
2. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 1, characterized in that: and a water pump (13) is arranged in a heat exchange pipeline directly connected with the first MGGH and the second MGGH, the pressure in the heat exchange pipeline is 0.45MPa, the water temperature in the heat exchange pipeline is 116 ℃ when the first MGGH water inlet and the second MGGH water outlet are connected, and the water temperature in the pipeline when the first MGGH water outlet and the second MGGH water inlet are connected is 139 ℃.
3. According to claim 1The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system is characterized in that: absorption tower circulating pump (11) is established outward to integration ultralow absorption tower, through pipe connection absorption tower thick liquid pond district, absorption tower circulating pump and absorption tower thick liquid spray the layer, absorption tower thick liquid sprays the layer and establishes 3 layers or 4 layers and sprays, and total liquid-gas ratio 9L/Nm3-12 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%.
4. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 1, characterized in that: a steam heat exchanger SGH (12) is additionally arranged between the flue gas outlet of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower and the induced draft fan, and the steam heat exchanger SGH adopts saturated steam with the pressure of 2.8MPa and the temperature of 230 ℃.
5. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 1, characterized in that: the bottom in the deacidification tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the side wall of the bottom is provided with a flue gas inlet, a deacidification tower pipe grid multiplier (8.1), a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer (8.2) and a deacidification tower demister (8.3) are sequentially arranged on the deacidification tower, and the top of the deacidification tower is a flue gas outlet.
6. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 5, characterized in that: the deacidification tower is externally provided with a deacidification tower circulating pump (9) which is connected with a deacidification tower slurry pool area and a deacidification tower slurry spraying layer through pipelines, the deacidification tower slurry spraying layer is provided with 2 layers or 3 layers of spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 5L/Nm3-7 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is controlled to be 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%.
7. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 5, characterized in that: and the sodium alkali solution storage device (16) is respectively connected with the absorption tower slurry pool area and the absorption tower slurry pool area.
8. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integrated ultralow emission system of claim 5, characterized in that: the absorption tower pulp pool area is connected with the deacidification tower pulp pool area.
9. A method for oxidizing active oxygen and integrally discharging ultralow emission of hazardous waste incineration smoke comprises the steps of mixing waste, then burning in a rotary kiln and a secondary combustion chamber, wherein the temperature of the incineration smoke is not less than 1100 ℃, and the retention time is not less than 2 s; the NOx in the flue gas is reduced to 150 mg/Nm through a waste heat boiler provided with an SNCR system3The smoke temperature of the smoke is not less than 500 ℃; cooling the flue gas by a quenching tower within 1s until the temperature of the flue gas is not more than 200 ℃; spraying slaked lime and activated carbon powder into the dry tower after the flue gas passes through the dry tower, adsorbing and removing heavy metals and dioxin in the flue gas, and adsorbing and removing dust by a bag-type dust remover, wherein the dust is not higher than 20 mg/Nm3The smoke temperature is 190 ℃, and the method is characterized in that:
the flue gas after dust removal enters a first MGGH for heat exchange, the heat exchange temperature is reduced by 50 ℃, the water inlet temperature of a first MGGH hydrophily is 116 ℃, the water outlet temperature is 139 ℃, and the pressure is 0.45 MPa;
the flue gas with the flue gas temperature of 140 ℃ enters a deacidification tower and sequentially passes through a deacidification tower pipe grid synergist, a deacidification tower spraying layer and a deacidification tower demister;
the saturated wet flue gas with the temperature of 70 ℃ and without acid substances and fog drops enters an integrated ultra-low absorption tower, firstly passes through an active oxygen molecular oxidation reactor, sequentially passes through a grid synergist, an absorption tower slurry spraying layer, an absorption tower demister, a second MGGH and a wet electric dust collector, the first MGGH and the second MGGH are directly connected with a water pump arranged in a heat exchange pipeline to drive heat exchange water medium to circularly exchange heat, and the flue gas is discharged through a flue gas outlet at the top of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower to finish SO2NOx and dust are removed to achieve the smoke with ultra-low emission index, the smoke temperature of the smoke is 115 ℃, and the smoke is ensured to be free of white fog.
10. The hazardous waste incineration flue gas active oxygen oxidation and integration of claim 9The method for reducing the ultra-low emission is characterized in that: the bottom of the deacidification tower is a deacidification tower slurry pool area, the pH value of the solution in the slurry pool area is controlled to be 7-7.5, the density is 1.05 kg/L-1.1 kg/L, the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by a circulating pump of the deacidification tower and sprayed into a slurry spraying layer of the deacidification tower, the slurry spraying layer of the deacidification tower is provided with 2 layers or 3 layers for spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 5L/Nm3-7 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is controlled to be 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%; the bottom of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower is an absorption tower slurry pool area, the pH value of a solution in the slurry pool area is controlled to be 7.5-8, the density is 1.05 kg/L-1.1 kg/L, the solution in the slurry pool area is pumped by an absorption tower circulating pump to enter an absorption tower slurry spraying layer, the absorption tower slurry spraying layer is provided with 3 layers or 4 layers for spraying, and the total liquid-gas ratio is 9L/Nm3-12 L/Nm3The spray head adopts a solid cone or a hollow cone, the effective atomization radius is 1 m, and the spray coverage rate of each layer of spray head is 200%; the discharged solution of the integrated ultra-low absorption tower slurry pool area is led to the deacidification tower slurry pool area to further fully absorb sodium alkali; the flue gas with the temperature of 115 ℃ discharged by the integrated ultra-low absorption tower enters a steam heat exchanger SGH, the temperature of the flue gas is raised by 20 ℃ through steam heat exchange, the temperature of the flue gas after heat exchange is 135 ℃ and the temperature of the flue gas is higher than 70 ℃ saturation temperature 65 ℃ by adopting saturated steam with the pressure of 2.8MPa and the temperature of 230 ℃ in the steam heat exchanger SGH, and the smoke discharging site without white fog is further ensured.
CN202210140220.9A 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 System and method for oxidizing active oxygen in hazardous waste incineration flue gas and integrally discharging hazardous waste incineration flue gas in ultralow emission mode Pending CN114177760A (en)

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